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Effects of gardens on health outcomes: theory and research

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... In connection with this, the psychological, physiological and social adaptation of people has been obstructed (Sachs et al., 2020;Vujcic et al., 2017). However, it has been determined that natural areas have many restorative effects on human health, especially by reducing stress (Gidlöf-Gunnarsson and Ö hrström, 2007;Gidlow et al., 2016;Hartig and Staats, 2006;Roe and Aspinall, 2011;Sipahi and Tavsan, 2019;Ulrich, 1999;Van den Berg et al., 2014;Velarde et al., 2007). ...
... Two different theories were put forward as a result of these experimental studies (Gidlow et al., 2016). One of these theories is the Attention Restoration Theory (ART) by Kaplan (1995) which shows that environment increases cognitive performance and heals attention fatigue and the other is the Stress Reduction Theory (SRT) by Ulrich (1999) which proves that natural environments have curative effects in getting rid of negative thoughts, which originate in psycho-physiological reasons and reducing stress. ...
... The reason why these places are preferred is related to the determination of emotional, cognitive and behavioral responses of students in energizing environments, as theorized by Kaplan (1995) and Ulrich (1999). However, these responses were determined by the student's responses to a story instead of using the scales developed by the researchers. ...
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This paper examines the role of the classroom environment in promoting student well-being and, more specifically, a sense of responsibility towards nature in the city. The study analyzed how indoor vs outdoor educational environments affect students' perception of events and phenomena focusing on emotional, behavioral and cognitive processes. It was conducted in the Kayakyolu Secondary School, Erzurum, Turkey with 282 students ranging in age from 11 to 14 in grades 5–8. They participated in reading a story in two distinct environments: an enclosed indoor classroom and an outdoor botanical garden. Significant differences in the emotional, behavioral and cognitive approaches of the students in these two environments were obtained at p < .05. All three approaches (emotional behavioral and cognitive) in the botanical garden environment produced higher positive values than those of the classroom environment. The rate of negative emotions of the students in the botanical garden was 23.3% and increased to 40.1% in a closed classroom environment. It was clearly observed that the environmental awareness and sensitivity of the students educated in botanical garden was absolutely higher than those of an indoor environment. The responses indicating behaviors of not adversely interfering with natural processes and indicating the value of living in harmony with nature increased in the botanical garden. The findings of this research demonstrate that environmental education conducted in a natural environment is more effective as compared to the education given in the classroom setting. The study supports the proposition that future generations educated in natural surroundings will be better able to make more accurate, creative, and resilient decisions for the environment.
... Mimarlık ve tıp alanındaki literatür incelendiğinde, hasta merkezli iyileştiren hastane yaklaşımın kavramsal olarak gelişimi sürecinde etkin rol oynayan ve bu bakımdan ulusal ve uluslararası literatürde önemli bir yer tutan çok sayıda bilimsel araştırmanın bulunduğu görülmektedir. Bu alandaki uluslararası çalışmaların, 1984 yılında Ulrich'in yürüttüğü deneysel araştırma ile başladığı [12] ve iyileştirici çevreler, manzaraya yönelim, gün ışığı, sanatsal ögeler, müzik, malzeme, ışık, renk, sürdürülebilirlik ve tasarıma yönelik rehber önerileri konularında yoğunlaştığı görülmüştür [2], [13], [16], [17], [18], [19], [20], [21], [22], [23], [24], [25], [26], [27], [28], [29], [30], [31]. Ulusal çalışmalar ise Sungur Ergenoğlu'nun 2006 yılında tamamladığı iyileştiren hastaneler konulu doktora çalışması 3 ile başlamış [4] ve iyileşme kavramına genel hastane tasarımını etkileyen ilke ve ölçütleri bakımından açılım getiren araştırmalarla sürdürülmüştür. ...
... Giriş mekânlarında pozitif oyalayıcılar ve çocuk oyun alanları [84] Doğa ile temas, kolesterol, ağrı ve hastanede kalış süresini azaltmakta, kan basıncını düşürerek rahatlama sağlamaktadır [20], [28], [41], [55], [68]. Dolaşım ve bekleme alanlarının doğal ve yapay peyzaj ögelerinin kullanımı, havalandırma, doğal aydınlatma, rekreatif alan oluşturma, sosyal iletişime vb. ...
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Bu makale, İzmir Demokrasi Üniversitesi, Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, Mimarlık Anabilim Dalında danışmanlığını Prof. Dr. Gaye Birol'un yürüttüğü "21.yy hasta merkezli iyileştiren hastane ve sağlık kampüsleri tasarım ilkeleri" başlıklı yüksek lisans tezinden üretilmiştir.
... This situation confirms the need for more green open spaces in urban areas to promote the well-being and active aging of older people. Restorative gardens serve therapeutic purposes on three levels of physical interaction: active, less active, and passive (Ulrich, 1999). Physical rehabilitation and engaging in horticultural therapy are examples of "active" interaction with the garden. ...
... A review carried out by Ulrich et al. (2008) has collected a few studies showing how gardens can be an effective restorative setting for stressed patients, families, and staff, fostering an improvement in their emotional well-being. Healing gardens tend to alleviate stress effectively when there is the presence of flowers, water, grassy spaces with trees, spatial openness, and compatible pleasant nature sounds, such as birds and water (Cooper Barnes, 1995, 1999;Ulrich, 1999;Rodiek and Schwarz, 2006). The beneficial effects associated with healing gardens placed in healing places, such as hospitals and other therapeutic facilities, suggest considering the same design recommendations for public green Frontiers in Psychology 04 ...
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Natural environments have a restorative effect from mental/attentional fatigue, prevent stress, and help to revitalize psychological and physical resources. These benefits are crucial for promoting active aging, which is particularly relevant given the phenomenon of population aging in recent decades. To be considered restorative, green spaces have to meet specific requirements in ecological and psychological terms that can be assessed through Post-Occupancy Evaluation (POE), a multimethod approach commonly used by environmental psychologists and landscape architects after construction to evaluate the design outcomes from the users' perspective. Generally, POEs consist of surveys and/or interviews accompanied by more or less structured observations of onsite users' behavior. Despite this, various practical constraints can prevent physical access to the renovated area (e.g., weather conditions, time/resources limits, health issues, bureaucratic constraints). Exploiting digital tools for such an assessment can be a crucial support in such circumstances. The current study presents the visual POE of a restorative garden for older adults in Milan, Italy. We developed a web application, that includes the exp-EIA© patented method, which allows participants to virtually explore a visual simulation of the environment and provide their feedback. We identified 3 representative viewpoints in the redeveloped garden differing from each other for the functions and the design principles that inspired the transformation. For each point of view, we created 360° Virtual Reality photographs, that can be navigated by looking around, i.e., panning, from the standing point of each view. In connection to each virtual scene, a survey was conducted (N = 321). The focus was the psychological experience related to each viewpoint, assessed with two psychometric scales investigating the constructs of emotions (pleasure and arousal) and restoration (fascination, being away, coherence, scope, and environmental preference); such information is integrated with behavioral aspects, including the main activities prefigured by participants TYPE Original Research PUBLISHED Frontiers in Psychology 02 frontiersin.org and their visual exploration of the VR photography. The results of the virtual exploration show that the garden is perceived as restorative, with a more intense effect in a spot purposely designed. The emotions experienced in the garden are positive and a mild level of arousal is observed. The behavioral dimension is characterized by predominantly contemplative activities and contact with nature. A cartographic representation of the psychological and behavioral data is developed, to support the maintenance of the garden.
... Bahçelerde beton vb. yapılar aşırı kullanılmamalı, yeşilin ve doğanın hakim olduğu bahçeler tasarlanmaya çalışılmalıdır (Ulrich, 1999). ...
... Hastane bahçelerinde, hasta kullanımı için tasarlanmış mekanlar dışında sağlık personelinin dinlenebilecekleri, bir şeyler yiyip içebilecekleri, sadece onlara özgü mekanlar ile hastaları ziyarete gelen insanların oturup bekleyebilecekleri, stres atabilecekleri mekanlar da tasarlanmalıdır (Ulrich, 1999). ...
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Tarih boyunca insanların doğayı sağlık bulma yönünde çeşitli amaçlarla kullandığı bilinmektedir. Doğanın bir parçası olan bahçeyi; insanların dinlenmek, eğlenmek, kendilerini iyi hissetmek, aktif veya pasif aktivitelerde bulunmak için seçtikleri güvenilir alanlar olarak tanımlamak olasıdır. İlerleyen mühendislik ve teknoloji, artan nüfus yoğun bir şehircilik anlayışını da beraberinde getirmiştir. Tabiattan gittikçe uzaklaşan, daha çok betonun hakim olduğu bu şehirlerde insanlar çağın vebası olarak kabul edilen depresyon ve buna bağlı bir çok psikolojik rahatsızlıklara maruz kalmışlardır. Günümüzde birçok bilim adamı doğal veya düzenlenmiş çevrenin sağlıklı kalma ve iyileşme üzerine katkılarını araştırmakta olup bu konuda önemli sonuçlara ulaşılmıştır. Bu çalışmanın amacı rehabilitasyon merkezlerinde tedavi edilen zihinsel ve fiziksel özürlü çocukların, huzurevlerinde kalan yaşlıların ve hastanelerde tedavi gören hastaların psikolojik ve fiziksel sağlıkları ile sosyal yaşantıları üzerine sağlık bahçelerinin olumlu etkilerini ve bu etkilerin oluşmasındaki tasarım ilkelerinin belirlenmesini konu alan araştırmaları incelemek ve bu araştırmaların sonuçlarını ortaya koymaya çalışmaktır. Anahtar kelimeler: iyileştirme bahçeleri, bitkisel terapi, açık alan_______________________________________________________________________ It is known that throughout his history human being has used the nature for different aims to keep his fitness. It is possible to define gardens that are the part of the nature as the secure areas that people choose for recreation, entertainment, active or passive activities. Advanced engineering and technology and overpopulation have caused an understanding of dense urbanisation. In these cities very far from the nature and where mostly concrete is revalent, people are exposed to the psychological disorders such as depression which is said to be the plague of our age. Today many authors have researched the contributions of an environment that is natural or designed naturally on the health and found considerable important evidence. The aim of this study is to review the papers dealing with the favourable effects of the health gardens and their design factors on the children treated in the rehabilitation centres, the old in the charity houses and psychologically treated patients in hospitals and their social lives; and to interpret the outcomes of these studies. Keywords: Healing gardens, horticultural theraphy, outdoor space
... A working definition of 'positive distractions' is "environmental, social conditions marked by a capacity to improve mood and effectively promote restoration from stress" (p75-77). Ulrich makes a significant contribution to the views of nature, but associates' humor or happiness, love, or laughing human faces, music, and animals with him as others (Ulrich & Gilpin, 2003;Ulrich, 1999). He also noticed that viewing of nature would decrease discomfort and pain, and also having a rehabilitative impact. ...
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Thesis
The relationship between interior space qualities and well-being is being understood as consequential and reciprocal. On the one hand, the place has been demonstrated to have a strong psychological and physiological effect; on the other hand, feelings and human experience play a significant role in what individuals perceive to be efficient design. However, such research on well-being is predominately concerned with the health and work environments, and partial to more general features such as accessibility, comfort, or positive distraction. This thesis aims to bring well-being and spirituality to the foreground, including the spiritual relation with physical space into the discussion, and produce a framework for design thinking that includes a broad list of concerns, qualities, principles and approaches relevant to the construction of appropriate spatial identity and atmosphere. Hence, the focus is on the framework for meditation interiors, recreation, and spiritual experience where these qualities are desired. The main research questions of this study are; which features, elements, or qualities of interior space may be most effective in experience with respect to well-being and spirituality? What may be the physical features or qualities of interior architecture or space for healing and well-being? This study has a qualitative methodology. To extend understanding of the qualities that underlie the healing potential of interior architecture or space, it surveys relevant theoretical sources for clues on the concept of well-being and spirituality in correlation with the experience of space/place. Furthermore, in order to obtain the principal features of spatial identity and atmosphere for spirituality, along with design tools and principles contributing towards it, the study surveys architectural theoretical sources and conducts a brief overview of traditional meditation or religious interior spaces. Finally, it focuses on the spatial analysis of contemporary meditation interiors chosen from selected practice examples of the world. This thesis does not address the full scope and possibilities that architectural space may present for the experience of well-being or spirituality. However, it offers inception – an initial and broad list of concerns, qualities, principles, design approaches, and criteria that address the constitution of spatial identity and atmosphere for spirituality. In this respect, it is a pilot study for frameworks and is open to further refinement. Nevertheless, research on such potentials of space do have broader significance and implementation in places like spas, elderly homes, schools, and other public and private institutions. Keywords: Meditation Interiors, Spiritual Practices, Space Quality, Healing, Well-Being, Interior Space
... A baixa porcentagem evidencia o desejo da maioria destas pessoas em frequentar espaços da cidade, em especial, espaços ligados à natureza, água, vegetação, luz do Sol, espaços tipicamente utilizados para a contemplação, a interação social e a prática de atividades físicas. Esses elementos têm sido reportados como fatores ambientais de suporte ao enfrentamento do estresse e a restauração dos recursos psicofisiológicos afetados pela condição de estresse(Ulrich, 1999), o que explica a preferência e o desejo de maior aproximação desses contextos por parte dos participantes do estudo. habitar em tempos de pandemia, desde o ensinar Arquitetura nas escolas até a práxis da profissão. ...
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A pandemia de COVID-19 impôs à população novas condições de vida, isolamento social, medidas de higiene entre outras. Assim, questiona-se que novos olhares e direcionamentos nossas cidades e projetos terão no futuro. Desenvolveu-se uma pesquisa para análise da percepção dos usuários no Brasil quanto às suas rotinas e expectativas durante o período de enclausuramento entre maio e junho de 2020. A pesquisa consistiu na elaboração de um questionário online e as 1858 respostas coletadas trouxeram reflexões sobre as mudanças que ocorreram durante este período, sobre a satisfação das pessoas com suas próprias residências, com suas cidades e seus bairros.
... Doğadan kopmuş kentlerde yaşayan insanlar mutsuz, stresli, yorgun, umutsuz, sağlıksız, neşesiz, sevgisiz gibi negatif duygu sıfatları ile ifade edilen duygulara sahiptir. Ulrich (1999)'e göre endişe verici, karamsar vb. olumsuz düşünceleri azaltan ya da engelleyen pozitif dağıtıcıların başında doğal alanlar bulunmaktadır. ...
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Chapter
Şifalı Bahçeler İçin Peyzaj Tasarımının Temel İlkeleri Açıklanmıştır
... Urban natural elements have positive effects on human health and well-being (Coutts & Hahn, 2015). Evidence shows that being in contact with nature improves overall physical health (Astell-Burt & Feng, 2020;Becker et al., 2019;Hartig et al., 2014), reduces risks of mental morbidity (Cohen-Cline et al., 2015) and cardiovascular diseases (Mitchell & Popham, 2008) and promotes social engagements (Coley et al., 1997) and mental well-being (Ulrich, 1999). This may be explained by several theories. ...
Article
Landscape architects and planners have been assessing eye-level vegetation to develop evidence-based designs, including the relationships between urban nature and human health. Measuring eye-level vegetation was often subjective and time-consuming in the past. Recent advances in computer vision have made it feasible to automatically measure eye-level greenery at a large scale. However, researchers still know little about the agreements of recent machine-based methods with human perception. The research gap may lead to inaccurate or even misleading findings that may prevent effective design and planning. This study tested the agreements between eye-level greenery detected by two machine-based methods (Brown Dog Green Index Extractor (BDGI) and PSP-Net) and human perception (manual selection via Photoshop Histogram). These two machine-based tools were selected because of their distinctive mechanisms: color detection and semantic segmentation. Cronbach’s alpha, correlation test, and Bland-Altman’s Plots were used to test agreements. Then, logistic regressions were used to find relationships between shades and vegetation density and the disagreement odds. Both tools closely agreed with human assessment in predicting eye-level greenery, with BDGI slightly closer to human. Vegetation density, but not percentage of shade, predicted the higher disagreement odds between PSP-Net and others. This finding will help advancing computer-based assessment of urban nature and contribute to our knowledge in assessing and linking eye-level greenery with potential outcomes such as physical and mental health and other design assessments.
... There has been accumulated multidisciplinary research interest in the therapeutic effects of nature since the 1970s, including medical geography (Gesler, 1992), environmental psychology Kaplan, 1992;Ulrich, 1984;Ulrich, 1999), ecological psychology (Moore & Cosco, 2010;Wang & Li, 2012), and horticultural therapy (Detweiler et al., 2012). In the West, research from the mid-1980s has indicated that gardens, parks, and landscape areas have beneficial effects on human health and wellbeing (Annerstedt & Währborg, 2011;Ulrich et al., 1991;Wilson, 1984). ...
Thesis
In Aotearoa New Zealand, where biculturalism has emerged as a viable organising national ideology, the role of landscape is highly contested. The Indigenous Māori of Aotearoa New Zealand contend that their relationship with the land shapes how the cultural, spiritual, emotional, physical and social well-being of people and communities are expressed. Combining a dominant culture of New Zealanders of European descent with a highly urbanised society has resulted in the deterioration of the environment. With environmental pressures, a loss of the minority Māori cultural values concerning landscape has been noticed. However, there has been a growing demand towards a better understanding of culture and place-specific contexts affecting the health and well-being of populations in different environments. While current ecological, social, and health models are still dominated by a Westernised approach that prioritises a medicalisation of health, many other cultures, such as Māori culture, embrace a more holistic approach to resource management, health and illness of our natural and built environments. This holistic approach tends to focus on the interconnectedness with landscape through mind, body and spirit, which is strongly evident in Indigenous cultures worldwide. The longstanding connection with land through forests, wetlands, rivers, coastal areas and mountains provides the Indigenous cultures with a sense of identity, belonging and well-being. This is cultivated by all individuals engaging in keeping the human-nature relationship in balance as part of their daily life and wellness, experiencing the natural environment like home and forming their knowledge and worldviews. Research has shown that Indigenous people suffer significant health inequalities compared to dominant colonising cultures. Evidence indicates that these inequalities can be addressed by gaining a deeper understanding of the social and cultural determinants of health, applying Indigenous views of health and developing better definitions of the term well-being. This thesis draws on research exploring the relationship between Indigenous culture, the landscape and the connection with health and well-being. Using a case-study approach, it investigates the importance of the natural environment through the past, the present and the future; to better understand the importance of landscape and the therapeutic values imparted through different constructs pertaining to Māori models of health and well-being. This study delivered information on health practices and well-being constructs through interviews and focus groups with pāhake (older adults), kaumātua (elders) and rongoā (traditional healers) practitioners, exploring the relationship between people and the natural environment. The findings supported that Māori conceptions of health and well-being are deeply associated with land as the basis of Māori identity. The research emphasised how the health of Māori might be improved by including a stronger connection to values pertaining to whakapapa (genealogy), mātauranga (knowledge), tikanga (customs), whakaora (healing), hinengaro (mind), wairua (spirit), tinana (body), tāngata (people), whenua (land), rākau (plants), whānau (family) that acknowledge the land as more than just physical or symbolic spaces for healing. Cultural and therapeutic environments should be seen as an essential element of our living fabric rather than a feature that seamlessly develops with time. This research concluded that landscape is a foundational therapeutic aspect of well-being, expressing the forces that positively and negatively impact this relationship. Combining Indigenous knowledge with Western science and technology can make knowledge systems work for both Indigenous and Western people. A proposed framework is introduced about re-discovering Indigenous knowledge and its continued relevance to the way we live our lives. Through understanding Māori cultural and therapeutic values, key concepts can be integrated into and produce meaningful therapeutic environments. All three concepts, Indigenous culture, health and well-being, and landscape, must be interconnected and balanced to reduce Māori health inequalities and benefit the lands and all people of Aotearoa New Zealand.
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