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STATUS OF WOMEN ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN INDIA

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Women entrepreneurship is gaining importance in India in the wake of economic liberalization and globalization. The policy and institutional framework for developing entrepreneurial skills, providing vocation education and training has widened the horizon for economic empowerment of women. However, women constitute only one third of the economic enterprises. There exist a plethora of successful business women entrepreneurs both in social and economic fields in India. They are performing well. Government of India has also introduced National Skill Development Policy and National Skill Development Mission in 2009 in order to provide skill training, vocational education and entrepreneurship development to the emerging work force. However, entrepreneurship development and skill training is not the only responsibility of Government and therefore other stakeholders need to shoulder the responsibility. In Hindu scriptures, woman has been described as the embodiment of shakti. But in real life she is treated as Abla. Women are leaving the workforce in droves in favor of being at home. Not to be a homemaker, but as job-making entrepreneurs. The increasing presence of women in the business field as entrepreneurs has changed the demographic characteristics of business and economic growth of the country. Women-owned businesses enterprises are playing a more active role in society and the economy, inspiring academics to focus on this interesting phenomenon. This paper focuses on the problems, issues, challenges faced by women entrepreneurs, how to overcome them and to analyze policies of Indian
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STATUS OF WOMEN ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN INDIA
G S N G Rama Mohan Rao
Research Scholar & Guest Faculty
Department of Education
Andhra University
Visakhapatnam
Abstract
Women entrepreneurship is gaining importance in India in the wake of
economic liberalization and globalization. The policy and institutional
framework for developing entrepreneurial skills, providing vocation
education and training has widened the horizon for economic
empowerment of women. However, women constitute only one third of
the economic enterprises. There exist a plethora of successful business
women entrepreneurs both in social and economic fields in India. They
are performing well. Government of India has also introduced National
Skill Development Policy and National Skill Development Mission in 2009
in order to provide skill training, vocational education and
entrepreneurship development to the emerging work force.
However, entrepreneurship development and skill training is not the only
responsibility of Government and therefore other stakeholders need to
shoulder the responsibility. In Hindu scriptures, woman has been
described as the embodiment of shakti. But in real life she is treated as
Abla. Women are leaving the workforce in droves in favor of being at
home. Not to be a homemaker, but as job-making entrepreneurs. The
increasing presence of women in the business field as entrepreneurs has
changed the demographic characteristics of business and economic
growth of the country. Women-owned businesses enterprises are playing
a more active role in society and the economy, inspiring academics to
focus on this interesting phenomenon. This paper focuses on the
problems, issues, challenges faced by women entrepreneurs, how to
overcome them and to analyze policies of Indian
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government for and problems faced by them while pursuing their
business
Key Words:Women entrepreneurship, Status, Challenges, Role
of Govt. & Suggestions
1. Introduction
Entrepreneurship refers to the act of setting up a new business or reviving
an existing business so as to take advantages from new opportunities. An
entrepreneur is a person who starts an enterprise. He searches for
change and responds to it. A number of definitions have been given of an
entrepreneur- The economists view him as a fourth factor of production
along with land labor and capital. The sociologists feel that certain
communities and cultures promote entrepreneurship like for example in
India we say that Gujaratis and Sindhis are very enterprising. Still others
feel that entrepreneurs are innovators who come up with new ideas for
products, markets or techniques. Thus, entrepreneurs shape the
economy by creating new wealth and new jobs and by inventing new
products and services. However, an insight study reveals that it is not
about making money, having the greatest ideas, knowing the best sales
pitch, applying the best marketing strategy. It is in reality an attitude to
create something new and an activity which creates value in the entire
social eco-system. It isthe psyche makeup of a person. It is a state of
mind, which develops naturally, based on his/ her surrounding and
experiences, which makes him/ her think about life and career in a given
way. Entrepreneurship has been a male-dominated phenomenon from
the very early age, but time has changed the situation and brought
women as today's most memorable and inspirational entrepreneurs. It is
estimated that women entrepreneurs presently comprise about 10% of
the total number of entrepreneurs in India, with the percentage growing
every year. If the prevailing trends continue, it is likely that in another five
years, women will comprise
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20% of the entrepreneurial force (Saidapur et.al, 2012). The Tenth Five-
Year Plan (2002-07) aims at empowering women through translating the
recently adopted National Policy for Empowerment of Women (2001) into
action and ensuring Survival, Protection and Development of women and
children through rights based approach.
2. Status of women entrepreneurs in India
Entrepreneurship is considered as one of the most important factors
contributing to the development of society. India has been ranked among
the worst performing countries in the area of women entrepreneurship in
gender-focused global entrepreneurship survey, released in July 2013 by
PC maker Dell and Washington based consulting firm Global
Entrepreneurship and Development Institute (GEDI). Of the 17 countries
surveyed India ranks 16th, just above Uganda. Countries like Turkey,
Morocco and Egypt has outperformed India. Status of higher education in
women in India came out to be lower than most countries in the world. At
present, women’s entrepreneurial role is limited in the large scale
industries and technology based businesses. But even in small scale
industries, the women’s participation is very low. As per the third all-
Indiacensus of Small Scale Industries, only 10.11% of the micro and
small enterprises were owned by women, and only 9.46% of them were
managed by women. While the number of women operating their own
business is increasing globally, women continue to face huge obstacles
that stunt the growth of their businesses, such as lack of capital, strict
social constraints, and limited time and skill.
3. Reasons for Women Becoming Entrepreneurs
The glass ceilings are shattered and women are found indulged in every
line of business. The entry of women into business in India is traced out
as an extension of their kitchen activities, mainly 3P‘s, Pickle, Powder and
Pappad. But with the spread of education and passage of time
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women started shifting from 3P‘s to modern 3E‘s i.e., Energy, Electronics
and Engineering. Skill, knowledge and adaptability in business are the
main reasons for women to emerge into business ventures. ‗Women
Entrepreneur‘is a person who accepts challenging role to meet her
personal needs and become economically independent. A strong desire
to do something positive is an inbuilt quality of entrepreneurial women,
who is capable of contributing values in both family and social life. With
the advent of media, women are aware of their own traits, rights and also
the work situations. The challenges and opportunities provided to the
women of digital era are growing rapidly that the job seekers are turning
into job creators. Many women start abusiness due to some traumatic
event, such as divorce, discrimination due to pregnancy or the corporate
glass ceiling, the health of a family member, or economic reasons such
as a layoff. But a new talent pool of women entrepreneurs is forming
today, as more women opt to leave corporate world to chart their own
destinies. They are flourishing as designers, interior decorators,
exporters, publishers, garment manufacturers and still exploring new
avenues of economic participation. The following flow chart shows the
reasons for women becoming entrepreneurs Innovative
4.Challenges faced by women entrepreneurs
Conflicts between Work and Domestic Commitments-Women's
family obligations also bar them from becoming successful
entrepreneurs in both developed and developing nations. "Having
primary responsibility for children, home and older dependent family
members, few women can devote all their time and energies to their
business" (Starcher, 1996)
Gender gaps in education- While women are making major strides
in Educational attainment at primary and secondary levels, they often
lack the Combination of education, vocational and
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technical skills, and work experience Needed to support the
development of highly productive businesses.
Lack of finance - Access to finance is one of the most common
challenges that entrepreneurs face and this is especially true for
women who are further Women Entrepreneurship in India 1145
impeded by lack of personal identification, lack of property in their own
name and the need for their husband's countersignature on many
documents.
Legal constraints in family law- The institutional and legal
environment is critical to the growth of female-owned enterprises.
Laws regulating the private sphere specifically those regarding
marriage, inheritance and land can hinder women's access to assets
that can be used as collateral when securing a loan.
Heavy household responsibilities leave a demand on women
especially those in rural areas who have more children. They are
required to perform their traditional role as housewives and therefore,
they have fewer hours of free time than men, both during the weekend
and on weekdays. An ILO report on women entrepreneurship
identifies the following problems faced by women entrepreneurs.
Lack of family support- Sometimes the family may make the women
feel guilty of neglecting household duties in her pursuit of business
obligations. Cultural traditions may hold back a woman from venturing
into her own business.
Lack of capital-traditional sources of finance like banks are reluctant
to lend to women entrepreneurs especially if they do not have any
male or family backing. This is especially true of lower income
females. Women do not have adequate finance or legal knowledge to
start an enterprise.
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Lack of confidence and faith-lack of role models undermines the
selfConfidence of women entrepreneurs. The activity of selling is
consideredabhorrent to the female gender.
Lack of right public/ private institutions- Most public and private
incentivesare misused and do not reach the woman unless she is
backed by a man. Alsomany trade associations like ministries,
chambers of commerce do not cater towomen expecting women’s
organizations to do the necessary thing.
5. Role of Government to Develop Women Entrepreneurs in
India
Development of women has been a policy objective of the government
since independence. Until the 70s the concept of women‘s development
was mainly welfare oriented. In 1970s, there was a shift from welfare
approach to development approach that recognized the mutually
reinforcing nature of the process of development. The 80s adopted a
multi-disciplinary approach with an emphasis on three core areas of
health, education and employment. Women were given priorities in all the
sectors including SSI sector. Government and non government bodies
have paid increasing attention to women‘s economic contribution through
self employment and industrial ventures.
The First Five-Year Plan (1951-56) envisaged a number of welfare
measures for women. Establishment of the Central Social Welfare Board,
organization of MahilaMandals and the Community Development
Programmes were a few steps in this direction.
In the second Five-Year Plan (1956-61), the empowerment of women
was closely linked with the overall approach of intensive agricultural
development programmes. The Third and Fourth Five-Year Plans (1961-
66 and 1969-74) supported female education as a major welfare
measure.
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The Fifth Five-Year Plan (1974-79) emphasized training of women, who
were in need of income and protection. This plan coincided with
International Women‘s Decade and the submission of Report of the
Committee on the Status of Women in India. In1976, Women‘s welfare
and Development Bureau was set up under the Ministry of Social
Welfare.
The Sixth Five-Year Plan (1980-85) saw a definite shift from welfare to
development. It recognized women‘s lack of access to resources as a
critical factor impending their growth.
The Seventh Five-Year Plan (1985-90) emphasized the need for gender
equality and empowerment. For the first time, emphasis was placed upon
qualitative aspects such as inculcation of confidence, generation of
awareness with regards to rights and training in skills for better
employment.
The Eighth Five-Year Plan (1992-97) focused on empowering women,
especially at the Gross Roots Level, through Panchayati Raj Institutions.
The Ninth Five-Year Plan (1997-2002) adopted a strategy of Women‘s
Component Plan, under which not less than 30 percent of funds/ benefits
were earmarked for women related sectors.
The Tenth Five-Year Plan (2002-07) aims at empowering women through
translating the recently adopted National Policy for Empowerment of
Women (2001) into action and ensuring Survival, Protection and
Development of women and children through rights based approach.
At present, the Government of India has over 27 schemes for women
operated by different departments and ministries. Some of these are:
Integrated Rural Development Programme (IRDP)
Khadi And Village Industries Commission (KVIC)
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Training of Rural Youth for Self-Employment (TRYSEM)
Prime Minister‘s RojgarYojana (PMRY)
Entrepreneurial Development programme (EDPs)
Management Development progammes
Women‘s Development Corporations (WDCs)
Marketing of Non-Farm Products of Rural Women (MAHIMA)
Assistance to Rural Women in Non-Farm Development
(ARWIND) schemes
Trade Related Entrepreneurship Assistance and Development
(TREAD)
Working Women‘s Forum
Indira MahilaYojana Indira
Mahila Kendra
MahilaSamitiYojana
MahilaVikasNidhi
Micro Credit Scheme
RashtriyaMahilaKosh
SIDBI‘s MahilaUdyamNidhi
SBI‘s Stree Shakti Scheme
NGO‘s Credit Schemes
Micro & Small Enterprises Cluster Development Programmes
(MSE-CDP).
National Banks for Agriculture and Rural Development‘s
Schemes
Rajiv Gandhi MahilaVikasPariyojana (RGMVP)
Priyadarshini Project- A programme for ‗Rural Women
Empowerment and Livelihood in Mid Gangetic Plains‘
NABARD- KfW-SEWA Bank project
Exhibitions for women, under promotional package for Micro &
Small enterprises approved by CCEA under marketing support
The efforts of government and its different agencies are ably
supplemented by NGOs that are playing an equally important role in
facilitating women empowerment. Despite concerted efforts of
governments and NGOs there are certain gaps. Of course we have come
a long way in empowering women yet the future journey is difficult and
demanding.
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6. Suggestions to increase Women entrepreneurship in India.
The elimination of obstacles for women entrepreneurship requires a major
change in traditional attitudes and mindsets of people in society rather
than being limited to only creation of opportunities for women. Hence, it is
imperative to design programmes that will address to attitudinal changes,
training, supportive services. The basic requirement in development of
women entrepreneurship is to make aware the women regarding her
existence, her unique identity and her contribution towards the economic
growth and development of country. The basic instinct of
entrepreneurship should be tried to be reaped into the minds of the
women from their childhood. This could be achieved by carefully
designing the curriculum that will impart the basic knowledge along with
its practical implication regarding management (financial, legal etc.) of an
enterprise. Here are some suggestions to increase the role of women
entrepreneurs:-
Women Entrepreneurship in India
Infrastructure Infrastructure set up plays a vital role for any
enterprise. Government can set some priorities for women
entrepreneurs for allocation of industrial plots, sheds and other
amenities. However, precautionary measures should be undertaken to
avoid the misuse of such facility by the men in the name of the
women.
Personality Development-Attempts should be there to enhance the
standards of education of women in general as well making effective
provisions for their training, practical experience and personality
development programmes, to improvise their over-all personality
standards.
Self help groups of women entrepreneurs- Self help groups of
women entrepreneurs an mobilize resources and pool capital funds to
help the women in the field of industry, trade and commerce.
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Business Development Training Programs It includes basic day-
to-day management training like how to keep track of accounts,
handle taxes and understand compliance rules and regulations. They
can also focus on strategy and the long-range success of a business
from writing a business plan to targeting specific markets, along with
product innovation within business clusters and incubators.
Access to Finance Programs- Efforts to facilitate access to finance
for women entrepreneurs typically encompass initiatives that reform
restrictive bank and regulatory policies. Such reforms accept less
traditional forms of collateral, look at a lender’s willingness to repay
and simplify business registry. They also help financial institutions
develop innovative loan and savings products for female
entrepreneurs. To establish all India forums to discuss the problems,
grievances, issues, and filing complaints against constraints or
shortcomings towards the economic progress path of women
entrepreneurs and giving suitable decisions.
7. Conclusion
It can be said that today we are in a better position wherein women
participation in the field of entrepreneurship is increasing at a
considerable rate. Efforts are being taken at the economy as brought
promise of equality of opportunity in all spheres to the Indian women and
laws guaranteed equal rights of participation in political process and equal
opportunities and rights in education and employment were enacted. But
unfortunately, the government sponsored development activities have
benefited only a small section of women i.e. the urban middle class
women. Women sector occupies nearly 45% of the Indian population. At
this juncture, effective steps are needed to provide entrepreneurial
awareness, orientation and skill development programs to women. The
role of Women entrepreneur in economic development is
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also being recognized and steps are being taken to promote women
entrepreneurship. Resurgence of entrepreneurship is the need of the hour
emphasizing on educating women strata of population, spreading
awareness and consciousness amongst women to outshine in the
enterprise field, making them realize their strengths, and important
position in the society and the great contribution they can make for their
industry as well as the entire economy. Women entrepreneurship must be
molded properly with entrepreneurial traits and skills to meet the changes
in trends, challenges global markets and also be competent enough to
sustain and strive for excellence in the entrepreneurial arena. If every
citizen works with such an attitude towards respecting the important
position occupied by women in society and understanding their vital role
in the modern business field too, then very soon we can pre-estimate our
chances of out beating our own conservative and rigid thought process
which is the biggest barrier in our country‘s development process. We
always viewed that a smart woman can pick up a job any day, but if she
becomes an entrepreneur she can provide a livelihood to 10 more women
at least..!! Highly educated, technically sound and professionally qualified
women should be encouraged for managing their own business, rather
than dependent on wage employment outlets. The unexplored talents of
young women can be identified, trained and used for various types of
industries to increase the productivity in the industrial sector.
References
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... In Korea, for instance, women entrepreneurs make up only 6.8% (CEOs) and 5.6% (founders) of a total of 35,187 start-ups in 2017 (Korea Venture Business Association, 2018). In India, 45% of the venture companies are owned by women, which calls for effective training and skill development to bolster entrepreneurial awareness (Gali, 2016). In China, women make up only 20% of total entrepreneurs (Wang, 2011). ...
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A woman with a voice is by definition a strong woman. But the search to find that voice can be remarkably difficult."-Melinda Gates Traditionally, entrepreneurship has been a male-dominated chase however several of today's most impressive and rousing entrepreneurs are women. Women have broken down the glass ceiling of the traditional thought long prevailing in world and have emerged as successful entrepreneurs. Today women entrepreneurship becomes significant tool for women empowerment. Before the 20th century women were operating businesses as a way of supplementing income or in many cases they were simply trying to avoid poverty and making up for the loss of a spouse. The ventures that these women undertook were not known as entrepreneurial due to the time in history and usually had to yield to their domestic responsibilities. The term entrepreneur is used to describe individuals who have ideas for products and or services that they turn into a working business. In the process of empowerment, women need to realize their strength, weakness, opportunities and threats and move forward to come out their own potential in order to achieve their goals through self development. Moreover they want new challenges and opportunities for self fulfillment. Women entrepreneurs must have an intention to fulfill their dreams and it must be transferred into an idea enterprise. This paper focus towards the problems and opportunities of women entrepreneurs in India
Role of SHGs Opportunities and challenges for women in business
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