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Bee Venom: Production, Composition, Quality

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The Bee Venom Book
Eros, stung by a bee,
Ran away and cried for plea:
Venus, mother, I cry ,
Please help me or I‘ll die
What a terrible disgrace –
A dragon bit me on my face
Venus comforting her son
Speaking with a mocking fun -
The little bee's tiny sting
Is for you an earnest thing
But more painful and real hard
Are your stings in human’s heart
Anacreontean songs, 6 BC
Venus, Eros and the bees
By A. Dürer, 1514
Be aware that this online book is only for private use and should not be copied and reprinted as some of the images
are not copyrighted.
I would appreciate your feedback at info@bee-hexagon.net
Stefan Bogdanov, Muehlethurnen, Switzerland
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Bee Venom:
Production
Composition
Quality
Stefan Bogdanov
BEE VENOM PRODUCTION
Bees produce their venom in their venom glands,
schematically described in the figure left. The BV is
secreted in a branched acid gland (above) and in the
alkaline Dufour’s gland (below), in the whole BV both
secretions are mixed.
New born bees do not sting. Venom synthesis begins
after two or three days, while the maximal production
rate is reached when bees are two to three weeks old.
Older worker bees produce less venom. One sting
contains about 100 µg of dry BV.
Drones do not have stings, while bee queens have BV,
its maximum quantity being that of newly emerged
queens, in order to facilitate their fight for survival
against competing queens.
The sting consists of three parts: a stylus and two
barbed slides (or lancets), one on either side of the
stylus. The bee does not push the sting in but it is
drawn in by the barbed slides. The slides move
alternately up and down the stylus so when the barb of
one slide has caught and retracts it pulls the stylus and
the other barbed slide into the wound. When the other
barb has caught it also retracts up the stylus pulling the
sting further in. This process is repeated until the sting
is fully in and even continues after the sting and its
mechanism is detached from the bee's abdomen.
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When stinging a mammal the sting is barbed so that it
lodges in the victim's skin, tearing loose from the bee's
abdomen and leading to its death in minutes. However,
this only happens if the victim is a mammal or bird.
It has been speculated why bees lose their stings. The
first theory says that the sting evolved early in
evolution, before the appearance of mammals.
Another theory says that both bees and mammals
evolved at the same time. Losing the sting and dying
during the fight with mammals is hypothesised to be
more advantageous than the eventual loss of several
worker bees because the bee can deliver a greater
amount of BV into the victim. The alternative is the life
loss of several worker bees
14
All images were freely available in Internet, the sources could not identified
HARVEST OF BEE VENOM
Today BV is collected for commercial purposes by special collectors.
Collection of bee venom
Scheme of a BV collector, (after U. Mueller)
Most commercial venom collectors are composed of four
parts:
- Battery or accumulator (24 to 30 V)
- Transformer from constant to alternating current, with
impulse frequency of 50 to 1000 Hz and an impulse
duration of 3 to 6 seconds.
- Collector frame consisting of an electric wire net and a
glass plate, covered by a thin polyethylene membrane.
The collector can be mounted in or out of the hive. The
bees get in contact with the charged wire net and are
stimulated to sting through the membrane and spray their
venom on the glass plate. The glass plates are dried in a
dark, well ventilated room.
Commercial BV collector
Beekeeper with a BV collector
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An electric BV collecting technique was described for the first time in 1954 by Markovic und Mollnar
15
. Many
different models have been developed
4, 6, 13, 17, 21
. The collectors have been used under different conditions:
Voltage: from 24 to 30 V,
Impulse duration: 2-3 seconds
Pauses: 3 to 6 seconds; impulse frequency from 50 to 1000 Hz.
Bees are not harmed during the BV collection. Repeated 3 hours collection periods, carried out 3 to 4 times per
month do not harm bees, resulting in a total harvest of 4 g dry BV. This collection resulted in a decrease of brood
production and honey yield of about 10-15 %. If the collection was less frequent, e.g. 3-4 times per season, the bee
performance was not influenced
13
. 10’000 bees are needed for the collection of 1 g dry BV
23
.
BV is gathered commercially in Eastern Europe, Far East and North and South America.
BV from different honeybee species are slightly different but its overall activity is similar
12
In warm and humid zones the BV can be more toxic than in cold temperate zones. Regarding the BV in different
Apis types, it was found out that A. melifera and A.dorsata venom had similar toxicity, while A. dorsata venom
contains much more alarm pheromones
23
.
Different BV components can be isolated for special uses in medicine and biology.
PROPERTIES AND COMPOSITION
Properties of fresh bee venom, after
3, 5, 20
:
A bee venom drop
The water content varies between 55 and 70 %.
Yellowish opalescent liquid sometimes almost
colourless,
odour: honey-like; taste: aromatic, bitter, acidic and
hot
Soluble in water and diluted acids, insoluble in
alcohol
pH: 4.5-5.5
Specific gravity: about 1.13
Soluble in water, about 10 % are insoluble, water
solutions are unstable, insoluble in ethanol,
dried BV: a gum like powder
The collected venom dries quickly in ordinary room
temperature, turning into a yellow-brownish powder
crystalline mass.
BV, relatively stable, destroyed by sun light and higher
temperatures, stable at low temperature. easily destroyed by
oxidizing substances: potassium permanganate, potassium
sulphate; halogen elements-chlorine and bromine-destroy it
very quickly; the effect of iodine is much slower. Alcohol
possesses a strong and quick destructive effect on the
venom. In contact with tincture of iodine, the alcohol is
more destructive than the dissolved iodine,
after
3, 19
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Composition
Bee venom is a complex mixture of proteins, peptides and low molecular components. Nowadays its components
have been characterised. The main components are proteins and peptides. The different components are reviewed
recently
1
. Here the most relevant components are given.
The composition of dry BV is given in the table below. The composition of fresh and dried BV differs mainly in
regards to the volatile components; the overall biological activity is similar.
Proteins (Enzymes)
The enzymes are proteins catalyzing specific reactions. There are 5 enzymes in BV.
Polypeptides
Polypeptides are smaller in molecular weight than enzymes, made of 2 or
more amino acids. BV has numerous polypeptides (see table 1), the main
one being melittin, which is also the main component of BV. Melittin has a
MW of 2840 daltons but it can reach 12 500 daltons because it can be also in
a tetrameric form
7-9
The protein and the melittin electrophoretic patterns are typical of the
honeybee species
12
.
To the left: the structure of melittin (source: Wikipedia)
Low molecular compounds
BV contains smaller quantities of low molecular compounds are different in nature: amino acids,
catecholamines, sugars and minerals. Sugars have been identified in some BV preparations, but if BV is
collected with a collector preventing the contamination by pollen and nectar, it does not contain
carbohydrates
20
.
Table 1: Composition of bee venom dry matter,
after
1, 2, 5, 20, 23
Substance Group Component % of dry weight
Proteins (Enzymes) Phospholipase A2
Phospholipase B
Hyaluronidase
Phosphatase
α - Glucosidase
10-12
1
1-2
1
0.6
Peptides Melittin
Apamine
MCD peptide
Secapine
Pamine
Minimine
Adolapine
Procamine A, B
Protease inhibitor
Tertiapine, cardiopep, melittin F
40-50
2-3
2-3
0.5-2
1-3
2
0.5-1
1-2
0.1-0.8
1-2
Phospholipids 1-3
Biogenic amines Histamine
Dopamine
Noradrenalin
0.5-2
0.2-1
0.1-0.5
Amino acids Aminobutyric acid, α-amino acids 1
Sugars Glucose, fructose 2-4
Volatiles (pheromones) Complex ethers 4-8
Minerals P, Ca, Mg 3-4
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QUALITY OF BEE VENOM
If it is not protected, oxidation will change the color from white to brownish-yellow. Changes caused by oxidation
of certain components of the venom may decrease its healing effect. There are different kinds of venom such as:
pure whole dried, whole dried and freeze-dried (lyophilized) BV. Pure whole dried BV is the purest venom. It is
white in colour (often it is snow white), not contaminated with foreign materials and colourless when it is used in a
solution. Optimal quality of BV can be achieved when it is harvested correctly. Contamination with bee faeces,
dust, pollen, honey and other bee hive components should be avoided.
Freeze-dried BV is highly processed and purified venom. During the preparation its moisture content and any other
contaminants are removed in order to purify and preserve it. Some of the active components may be removed also
if an uncontrolled purification method is used. It is widely used in creams, liniments and ointments. In a tablet
form, it can be used to prepare venom solution for electrophoresis or phonophoresis (ultrasound) applications. It is
easy to sterilize by syringe filtration
22
.
If BV is protected from moisture and light it can be stored for five years or more. It will not lose its toxicity,
however its healing effects are reduced by storage. Freeze-drying is the most effective method of preserving BV.
Optimal quality of BV can be achieved when it is harvested correctly. Contamination with pollen, honey
and other bee hive components should be avoided.
There is no international standard for BV quality. However, following quality criteria are followed by
pharmaceutical firms:
Table 2: Suggestion for a quality standard for dry bee venom, according to the literature and
after
16
,
20
Quality criteria Requirement
Organoleptic properties: typical
2 % BV solution: Extinction at 420 nm smaller than 0.55
Water content: less than 2 %
Water-insoluble substances less than 0.8 %
Sugars less than 6.5 %
Mellitin by HPLC
Biological activity of hyaluronidase,
phospholipase, melittin, protease-inhibitor satisfactory
Radio-immuno tests satisfactory
Toxicity LD
50
3.7 ± 0.6 mg/kg*
* - LD
50
– intravenous injection of a dose producing 50 % of mice survival
Russian bee venom standard
ФС 42-2683-89
Quality criteria Requirement
Organoleptic properties: typical
Water content: less than 12 %
Water-insoluble substances less than 10 %
% solids in the sol less than 2
Hemolysis time less than 480 seconds
Phospholipase activity units less than 100
Hyaluronidase activity units more than 70
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Melittin and Apamin should also be determined in a future standard as they are the main biologically
relevant components. Determination of melittin by HPLC in dry commercial BV in Iran showed variation
between 8 and 51 %
11
or in a later study by the same authors it was measured in bee-hive collected BV in
Iran, between 21.9 and 66.4
10
In a Chinese study with HPLC-DAD-MS/MS do determine melittin and apamin values of 46- 53 % and
2.2-3.7 % were found for both components (% of total dry weight)
24
In Poland melittin and apiamin were determined by HPLC and following values were found in % of total
dry weight: melittin: 61-70 %, apamin: 2.1 – 4.2
18
PRODUCTION AND TRADE
BV is produced in many countries, mainly in Eastern Europe, South East Asia and the Americas. There are no
official figures on the quantity of BV traded. Most of the BV is used for apitherapy and for desensitation in
hospitals, but lately there is demand for the cosmetic industry.
Good commercial source of whole BV are www.beevenom.com and
www.beevenomlab.com
Some companies produce and offer bee venom components such as melittin and apamin.
References
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2. BANKS, B E C; SHIPOLINI, R A (1986) Chemistry and pharmacology of honey-bee venom., In Piek, T (ed.)
Venoms of the Hymenoptera, Academic Press; London; pp 330-416.
3. BECK, B F (1935) Bee venom therapy. D. Appleton-Century Company New York and London
4. BENTON, F P; MORSE, R A; STEWART, J D (1963) Venom collection from honey bees. Science 142 (3589): 228-
230.
5. DOTIMAS, E M; HIDER, R C (1987) Honeybee venom. Bee World 68 (2): 51-70.
6. FAKHIM-ZADEH, K (1998) Improved device for venom extraction. Bee World 79 (1): 52-56.
7. HABERMANN, E; JENTSCH, J (1966) Über die Struktur des toxischen Bienengiftpeptids Melittin und deren
Beziehung zur pharmakologischen Wirkung. Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's archives of pharmacology 253: 40-41.
8. HABERMANN, E; REIZ, K G (1965) [On the biochemistry of bee venom peptides, melittin and apamin].
Biochemische Zeitschrift 343 (2): 192-203.
9. HABERMANN, E; ZEUNER, G (1971) Comparative studies of native and synthetic melittins. Naunyn-
Schmiedeberg's archives of pharmacology 270 (1): 1-9.
10. HAGHI, G; HATAMI, A; MEHRAN, M (2013) Qualitative and Quantitative Evaluation of Melittin in Honeybee
Venom and Drug Products Containing Honeybee Venom. Journal of Apicultural Science 57 (2): 37-44.
11. HAGHI, G; HATAMI, A; SAFAEI, A; MEHRAN, M (2012) Determination of melittin in several honeybee venom
powder samples by HPLC. Res Pharm Sciences 7: S 747.
12. KRELL, R (1996) Value-added products from beekeeping. FAO Food and Agriculture Organization of the United
Nations Roma; 409 pp
13. KRIVTSOV, N; LEBEDEV, V (1995) The bee products (In Russian). Editing House, Niwa Niwa, Russia
14. KRYLOV, V (1995) Pcelni yad (Bee venom in Russian). Nizhny Novgorod University Nizhny Novgorod; 221 pp
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15. MARKOVIC, O; MOLLNAR, L (2009) Isolation of and determination of bee venom. Chemicke Zvesti 8: 80-90.
16. MÜLLER, U R (1988) Insektenstichallergie. Klinik, Diagnostik und Therapie. Gustav Fischer Verlag Stuttgart
17. NOWOTTNICK, K (1992) Bienengift - Anwendung und Gewinnung. Allgemeine Deutsche Imkerzeitung 26 (4): 12-
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18. RYBAK-CHMIELEWSKA, H; SZCZESNA, T (2004) HPLC study of chemical composition of honeybee (Apis
mellifera) bee venom. Journal of Apicultural Science 48 (2): 103-109.
19. SAVILOV, K (2010) Bee venom: physico-chemical properties. Biological and pharmacological effects. Use in
medical practice (in Russian), In Rakita, D; Krivtsov, N; Uzbekova, D G (eds) Theoretical and practical
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Honey bibliography): 1-238.
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Estero, Argentina
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CHEN, L Z (2010) Quantification of melittin and apamin in bee venom lyophilized powder from Apis
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404 (2): 171-178.
... The hymenopteran stinger is a sophisticated organ that is largely used to inject venom into a victim's body. It is usually associated with the venom gland, which produces a complex cocktail of numerous toxins dissolved in an aqueous solution, such as peptides, proteins (enzymes), amines, and amino acids (Thompson, 1932;Feldberg, 1940;Bogdanov, 2016). This venom is a typical chemical weapon designed to kill, drive away, injure, or paralyze the victim. ...
... Because the lancets alternately move up and down the stylet using a complex lever-like technique, the stinger is not continually put into the victim's body. The first barbs become trapped in the tissue, and the alternate movement of the lancets results in a jerky entry of the entire stinger into the victim's body (Snodgrass, 1925;Bogdanov, 2016). The venom is then injected into the tissue, and the entire stinging apparatus is removed from the bee body, with barbs trapping it in the victim's tissue. ...
... The venom contains mainly melittin (about 50% of dry matter), phospholipases, hyaluronidase, and additional enzymes, and many other substances, typically in low contents. In short, the principal toxic activity of bee venom is phospholipase activity (melittin, phospholipases), which causes cell destruction and following stimulation of biochemical cascades, which, in combination with other venom toxins, cause the well-known bee venom effects of pain, swelling, redness, and itching (for details, see Moreno & Girald, 2015;Bogdanov, 2016;Lubawy et al., 2019). ...
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In this study, we tested the hypothesis that a micro-serrated edge on the honey bee Apis mellifera stinger tip serves as a tool for more intensive crushing of cell membranes in the victim's tissues. This could have mechanical consequences as well as initiate metabolic pathways linked to cell membrane breakdown (e.g., production of biogenic amines). Accordingly, we found that hymenopteran species that use their stingers as an offensive or defensive weapon to do as much damage to the victim's body as possible had this cuticular microstructure. In parasitic hymenopterans, on the other hand, this structure was missing, as stingers are solely used to delicately transport venom to the victim's body in order to do little mechanical harm. We also demonstrated that the stinger lancets of the honey bee A. mellifera are living organs with sensilla innervated by sensory neurons and containing other essential tissues, rather than mere cuticular structures.
... Bee venom is a natural substance produced by worker bees (Apis mellifera anatoliaca) [1]. Honeybees have two separate glands at the base of the needle apparatus, an acid gland (venom gland) and an alkaline gland (Dufour gland). ...
... The amount of venom in a bee ranges between 0.05 and 0.3 ml / bee, depending on the season and the nature of the animal [2]. Bee venom consists of a complex mixture of proteins, peptides and low molecular components [1]. It is also known for its antibacterial, anti-fungal, antiviral, metabolic, anti-inflammatory, anti-arthritis and anticancer characteristics. ...
... The total sugar content of a quality bee venom should be less than 6.5% [1]. As shown in Table 5, the majority of the samples in this study had higher sugar contents then the recommended value. ...
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Bee venom is a natural substance produced by worker bees. The aim of this research paper is to determine the characteristics of Anatolian bee venom by evaluating its chemical content and microbiological properties. Physical, chemical and microbiological analyses were performed on 25 bee venom samples from different areas of Anatolia, Turkey. Data obtained by 3-replicate studies were evaluated with normality and one-way and two-way ANOVA / Tukey tests. Chemical analyses of the bee venoms revealed average melittin, apamin, and phospholipase A2 contents of 40.57%, 2.12% and 13.67%, respectively. The results suggest that Anatolian bee venom has a high phospholipase A2 content compared to the previous literature. The results for apamin content were similar to those reported in other countries. Melittin content was within the range of standard values. Bee venom samples were also observed to have a high sugar content, associated with pollen and nectar contamination. Total aerobic mesophilic bacteria counts revealed no microbial development in 11 samples of bee venom. Staphylococcus aureus was not detected in any sample. A low microbial load was associated with a high phospholipase A2 content in the bee venom composition, thus contributing to its antimicrobial character. This study presents an examination of Anatolian bee venom in terms of chemical content and microbial quality. The examination of other components in addition to phospholipase A2, melittin and apamin in future studies, together with an analysis of antimicrobial properties will further our understanding of Anatolian bee venom.
... The stinger is not pushed into the victim's tissue continually; instead, the lancets move alternately up and down the stylus. As soon as the first barbs enter the tissue, they become trapped, whereupon the alternative moving of the lancets leads to a jerky insertion of the whole stinger into the victim's body (Bogdanov, 2016;Snodgrass, 2018). The position of the lancets is monitored by several sets of hair plates located on the movable parts of the stinging apparatus, and the depth of the stinger insertion is controlled by campaniform sensillae (Shing & Erickson, 1982). ...
... However, the structures found on the bee stinger seem to be unique, because their function is probably directly associated with venom activities. The bee venom that is released from these structures during a stinging response is a complicated cocktail of various biologically active substances such as proteins, peptides, amino acids, and amines dissolved in an aqueous solution (Bogdanov, 2016). The toxic effects of these substances proceed in cascades, where the effect of each individual toxin follows the effects of another toxin or where is a positive feedback loop among them. ...
... Melittin (about 50% of dry matter) and phospholipase (about 12% of dry matter) account for the highest proportions of this content. Other substances not exceeding 2% of the dry toxin content are various peptides and enzymes; bee venom contains also small amounts of a number of low-molecular-weight biologically active substances headed by amines (histamine, dopamine, serotonin, noradrenaline) (Bogdanov, 2016;Lubawy et al., 2019;Moreno & Giralt, 2015). ...
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Structure and function of the honey bee, Apis mellifera stinger is very well known. Nevertheless, we described two novel ultrastructural details at the end of the stinger using scanning electron microscopy. We found that the tips of the stinger lancets are not smooth; their edges are serrated and their surface contains numerous pits. We determined the height of the edge teeth to be approximately 0.16 ± 0.02 µm and the average width of the pits to range from 0.06 to 0.4 µm. We hypothesized these ultrastructures can cause more extensive tissue damage in victims and cut up more cell membranes than if their surfaces were smooth. The potential impact of such injury on the overall efficacy of the bee sting is discussed.
... It is a complex mixture of substances (primarily polypeptides and enzymes) exhibiting a wide range of biological activities, including antimicrobial, cytotoxic, hemolytic and anti-inflammatory activity [9][10][11][12]. Generally, the biological activity of HBV stems from peptides (melittin, apamin, adolapin, the mast cell degranulating peptide, secapin, procamine, protease inhibitor, tertiapin, and other small peptides), enzymes (phospholipase A2 (PLA2), phospholipase B, hyaluronidase, Molecules 2021, 26, 3049 2 of 12 phosphatase, α-glucosidase, acid phosphomonoesterase, and lysophospholipase), amines (histamine, dopamine, and noradrenaline), amino acids (aminobutyric acid and α-amino acids), sugars (glucose and fructose), phospholipids, and volatile compounds [13][14][15][16]. However, the purity and composition of HBV, as well as the concentration of its substances, differ significantly [17,18]. ...
... The results of the spectral analysis revealed a characteristic FTIR-ATR spectrum of honey bee venom powder distinguished by a unique pattern of absorption bands primarily arising from molecular vibrations related to the structure of honey bee venom's major fractions-peptides and proteins ( Figure 1). Given that dried honey bee venom represents a complex biological mixture of various polymeric macromolecules with predominant peptide and protein (enzyme) constituents, such as the most abundant 26-amino-acid polypeptide melittin (comprising~40-60% of the dry weight of bee venom) and PLA2 (~10-12%) [15,27,37], the absorption bands of these macromolecules predominate in its IR spectrum. As presented in Figure 1, the FTIR-ATR spectrum of HBV powder is characterized by a broad medium-intensity absorption band observed in the spectral range from 3500 to 3100 cm −1 (with an absorption maximum at 3288 cm −1 ), which is assigned to the N-H stretching vibrations (amide A band) of the peptide and protein secondary structures [38,39], while low-intensity signal belonging to the same vibrational mode appears at 3060 cm −1 (amide B). ...
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... Arı zehirinin uygulanma şekli; ilaç ve krem formülasyonları, arı zehiri tozu, doğrudan zehir uygulaması ve direkt arı sokmasıdır. Arı zehiri bel ağrısı, migren, romatizma, multiple skleroz (MS), mafsal iltihabı (arterit), kronik yorgunluk sendromu, doku sertleşmesi, gut hastalığı, yara izleri, ekzema, alerjik hastalıklar, epilepsi, astım, boğaz enfeksiyonlarının tedavisi amacıyla uygulanmaktadır[41,95].BalmumuBalmumu 13-18 günlük işçi arıların karın halkalarının alt yüzünde yer alan balmumu salgı bezleri tarafından salgılanan, ham maddesi bal olan bir arı ürünüdür. Saf balmumu salgılandığında, ince saydam beyaz renkli görünüştedir ancak; sonraki etapta polenden geçen ve yağda çözünebilen karotenoid pigmentlerinden dolayı sarı renge dönüşmekte ve katılaşmaktadır. ...
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TTürkiye farklı iklim ve coğrafi şartlara sahip olduğu için çok çeşitli bal arı ırklarının merkezi konumundadır. Türkiye’de yaygın olarak Anadolu arısı (Apis mellifera anatolica M.), Kafkasya arısı (Apis mellifera caucasia G.), Suriye Arısı (Apis mellifera syrica), İran arısı (Apis mellifera meda Skorikov, 1929) ırkları bulunmaktadır. Arıcılığın geçmişi Taş Devri ve eski medeniyet çağlarına kadar dayanmaktadır. İspanya'da yapılan kazılarda ortaya çıkarılan M.Ö. 7000 yıllarına ait arı fosil ve resimleri eski çağ insanlarının doğal yaşamlarında arılardan yararlandığını kanıtlamaktadır. Arının kültüre alındığı ilk yer Mısır olup, arıcılığın ise ilk defa 7000 yıl önce Orta Anadolu’da başladığı bilinmektedir. Literatürde Mısırlılarda arıcılığın daha da geliştiği, 4.000 yıl öncesinde balın malların alım satımında takas malzemesi olduğu ve vergi ödemede kullanıldığı belirtilmektedir. Günümüzde arıcılık sektörü oldukça gelişmiş ve bal dışında diğer arı ürünlerinin önemi de araştırmacılar tarafından keşfedilmiştir. Bal dışındaki diğer arı ürünleri arasında propolis, arı sütü, polen, arı ekmeği (Perga), arı zehiri ve balmumu yer almaktadır. Bu çalışmada arı ürünlerinin tanıtılması, beslenme ve sağlık açısından önemlerinin vurgulanması amaçlanmaktadır.
... Arı zehirinin uygulanma şekli; ilaç ve krem formülasyonları, arı zehiri tozu, doğrudan zehir uygulaması ve direkt arı sokmasıdır. Arı zehiri bel ağrısı, migren, romatizma, multiple skleroz (MS), mafsal iltihabı (arterit), kronik yorgunluk sendromu, doku sertleşmesi, gut hastalığı, yara izleri, ekzema, alerjik hastalıklar, epilepsi, astım, boğaz enfeksiyonlarının tedavisi amacıyla uygulanmaktadır[41,95].BalmumuBalmumu 13-18 günlük işçi arıların karın halkalarının alt yüzünde yer alan balmumu salgı bezleri tarafından salgılanan, ham maddesi bal olan bir arı ürünüdür. Saf balmumu salgılandığında, ince saydam beyaz renkli görünüştedir ancak; sonraki etapta polenden geçen ve yağda çözünebilen karotenoid pigmentlerinden dolayı sarı renge dönüşmekte ve katılaşmaktadır. ...
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Türkiye farklı iklim ve coğrafi şartlara sahip olduğu için çok çeşitli bal arı ırklarının merkezi konumundadır. Türkiye’de yaygın olarak Anadolu arısı (Apis mellifera anatolica M.), Kafkasya arısı (Apis mellifera caucasia G.), Suriye Arısı (Apis mellifera syrica), İran arısı (Apis mellifera meda Skorikov, 1929) ırkları bulunmaktadır. Arıcılığın geçmişi Taş Devri ve eski medeniyet çağlarına kadar dayanmaktadır. İspanya'da yapılan kazılarda ortaya çıkarılan M.Ö. 7000 yıllarına ait arı fosil ve resimleri eski çağ insanlarının doğal yaşamlarında arılardan yararlandığını kanıtlamaktadır. Arının kültüre alındığı ilk yer Mısır olup, arıcılığın ise ilk defa 7000 yıl önce Orta Anadolu’da başladığı bilinmektedir. Literatürde Mısırlılarda arıcılığın daha da geliştiği, 4.000 yıl öncesinde balın malların alım satımında takas malzemesi olduğu ve vergi ödemede kullanıldığı belirtilmektedir. Günümüzde arıcılık sektörü oldukça gelişmiş ve bal dışında diğer arı ürünlerinin önemi de araştırmacılar tarafından keşfedilmiştir. Bal dışındaki diğer arı ürünleri arasında propolis, arı sütü, polen, arı ekmeği (Perga), arı zehiri ve balmumu yer almaktadır. Bu çalışmada arı ürünlerinin tanıtılması, beslenme ve sağlık açısından önemlerinin vurgulanması amaçlanmaktadır.
... Devices for bee venom collection have continuously been improved, and according to Bogdanov (2017) they mostly consist of four parts: ...
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Honey bees have a sting which allows them to inject venomous substances into the body of an opponent or attacker. As the sting originates from a modified ovipositor, it only occurs in the female insect, and this is a defining feature of the bee species that belong to a subclade of the Hymenoptera called Aculeata. There is considerable interest in bee venom research, primarily because of an important subset of the human population who will develop a sometimes life threatening allergic response after a bee sting. However, the use of honey bee venom goes much further, with alleged healing properties in ancient therapies and recent research. The present paper aims to standardize selected methods for honey bee venom research. It covers different methods of venom collection, characterization and storage. Much attention was also addressed to the determination of the biological activity of the venom and its use in the context of biomedical research, more specifically venom allergy. Finally, the procedure for the assignment of new venom allergens has been presented.
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Use of honey and other bee products in human treatments traced back thousands of years and healing properties are included in many religious texts including the Veda, Bible and Quran. Apitherapy is the use of honey bee products for medical purposes, this include bee venom, raw honey, royal jelly, pollen, propolis, and beeswax. Whereas bee venom therapy is the use of live bee stings (or injectable venom) to treat various diseases such as arthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis (MS), lupus, sciatica, low back pain, and tennis elbow to name a few. It refers to any use of venom to assist the body in healing itself. Bee venom contains at least 18 pharmacologically active components including various enzymes, peptides and amines. Sulfur is believed to be the main element in inducing the release of cortisol from the adrenal glands and in protecting the body from infections. Contact with bee venom produces a complex cascade of reactions in the human body. The bee venom is safe for human treatments, the median lethal dose (LD50) for an adult human is 2.8 mg of venom per kg of body weight, i.e. a person weighing 60 kg has a 50% chance of surviving injections totaling 168 mg of bee venom. Assuming each bee injects all its venom and no stings are quickly removed at a maximum of 0.3 mg venom per sting, 560 stings could well be lethal for such a person. For a child weighing 10 kg, as little as 93.33 stings could be fatal. However, most human deaths result from one or few bee stings due to allergic reactions, heart failure or suffocation from swelling around the neck or the mouth. As compare with other human diseases, accidents and other unusual cases, the bee venom is very safe for human treatments.
Article
Honey bee venom has long been used as a medicine. For example, Hippocrates 'the father of medicine' (400 BC) tells about bee sting therapy used for arthritis. Bee venom is reported as a potential medicine for rheumatism and arthritis, and for desensitizing people that are hypersensitive to bee stings11,13. Among the numerous applications of bee venom, its use as a selective insecticide is an interesting possibility4.
Article
Bee venom therapy is becoming recognized and accepted for treating certain human ailments. Honey bee venom can be used in many different ways and forms. I receive dozens of letters from people who ask me to send all the information I have on bee venom. I answer all the letters, however, I am unable to send them all of my approximately 5,000 pages of literature. In order to help I have gathered the most frequently asked questions which I will answer here. I have found people interested in bee venom therapy to be inquisitive and therefore I have referenced my information sources to enable the reader to begin research on his own on this fascinating topic.
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A reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic (RP-HPLC) method was developed and validated for the analysis of honeybee venom samples and drug products containing honeybee venom. The validation parameters were linearity, sensitivity, precision, and recovery. Melittin is the main component of honeybee venom was extracted with pure water, and then evaluated by RP-HPLC with a photodiode array (PDA) detector. Separation of the samples was achieved on a Europa Protein C-18 column with linear gradient elution of acetonitrile and 0.4% phosphoric acid at 25 degrees C. There was a flow rate of 1 mL/min. Detection was set at 220 nm. Limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) for melittin were 1.1 and 3.2 mu g/ml, respectively. The amount of melittin in honeybee venom samples ranged from 21.9 to 66.4%.
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A high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-MS/MS) method was developed for simultaneous determination of melittin and apamin in crude bee venom lyophilized powder (CBVLP) as the traditional Chinese medicine possessing specific biological activity. Melittin and apamin were extracted with pure water from CBVLP samples followed by HPLC-DAD-MS/MS analysis. The method was validated to demonstrate its selectivity, linearity, limit of quantification (LOQ), intraday precision, interday precision, accuracy, recovery, matrix effect, and stability. The assay was linear over the concentration ranges of 1-100 and 0.2-25 microg/ml with limit of quantifications (LOQs) of 1.0 and 0.3 microg/ml for melittin and apamin, respectively. The precision results were expressed as coefficients of variation (CVs), ranging from 2.2% to 11.4% for intraday repeatability and from 3.2% to 13.1% for interday intermediary precision. The concentrations of endogenous melittin and apamin in CBVLP samples ranged from 46% to 53% and from 2.2% to 3.7% of dry weight, respectively. This rapid, simple, precise, and sensitive method allowed the simultaneous determination of melittin and apamin to evaluate authenticity and quality of CBVLP samples.