Potatoes have shown promising health promoting properties in human cell culture, experimental animal and human clinical studies including antioxidant, hypocholesterolemic, antiinflammatory, antiobesity, anticancer and antidiabetic effects. Compounds present such as the phenolics, fiber, starch, and proteins as well the compounds considered antinutritional such as glycoalkaloids, lectins and proteinase inhibitors are believed to contribute to the health benefits of potatoes. However, epidemiologic studies exploring the role of potatoes in human health have been inconclusive. Some studies support a protective effect of potato consumption in weight management and diabetes while other studies demonstrate no effect, and a few studies suggest a negative effect. Because there are many biological activities attributed to the compounds present in potato, some of which could be beneficial or detrimental depending on specific circumstances, a long term study investigating the association between potato consumption and diabetes, obesity, cardiovascular disease, and cancer while controlling for fat intake is needed.
Received: 25 March 2015 Revised: 28 October 2015 Accepted article published: 15 June 2016 Published online in Wiley Online Library:
(wileyonlinelibrary.com) DOI 10.1002/jsfa.7848
Health-beneficial properties of potato
and compounds of interest
Rizliya Visvanathan,aChathuni Jayathilake,aBarana Chaminda
Jayawardanaband Ruvini Liyanagea*
Potatoes have shown promising health-promoting properties in human cell culture, experimental animal and human clini-
cal studies, including antioxidant, hypocholesterolemic, anti-inflammatory, antiobesity, anticancer and antidiabetic effects.
Compounds present such as phenolics, fiber, starch and proteins as well as compounds considered antinutritional such as gly-
coalkaloids, lectins and proteinase inhibitors are believed to contribute to the health benefits of potatoes. However, epidemio-
logical studies exploring the role of potatoes in human health have been inconclusive. Some studies support a protective effect
of potato consumption in weight management and diabetes, while other studies demonstrate no effect and a few suggest a
negative effect. As there are many biological activities attributed to the compounds present in potato, some of which could be
beneficial or detrimental depending on specific circumstances, a long-term study investigating the association between potato
consumption and diabetes, obesity, cardiovascular disease and cancer while controlling for fat intake is needed.
© 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
Keywords: potatoes; consumption; functional compounds; antinutritional compounds; beneficial effects
Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) belonging to the family Solanaceae
is a nourishing food that is rich in calories and biologically active
phytochemicals such as 𝛽-carotene, polyphenols, ascorbic acid,
tocopherol, 𝛼-lipoic acid, selenium and dietary fiber.1The main
nutrient in potato is the storage polysaccharide starch. When
consumed in whole food form, the energy density of potato is
similar to that of legumes.2Potatoes are an inexpensive source of
energy and good quality protein.3Historically, this was the typical
Irish diet, which provided all the important vitamins and nutrients
required to support a better life than any other crop when eaten
as the sole article of diet.4
Potato production has significantly increased in recent years
in many countries, especially in Asia where it has become
more important as a food and industrial crop.2In terms of
production, potato ranks sixth in the world after sugar cane,
maize, rice, wheat and milk (http://faostat3.fao.org/browse/
rankings/commodities_by_regions/E). Until the early 1990s, most
potatoes were grown and consumed in Europe, North America
and countries of the Soviet Union. Since then, there has been
a dramatic increase in potato production and demand in Asia
and Africa, where output rose from less than 26 million tons in
the early 1960s to more than 217 million tons in 2013. In 2009,
world production of potatoes exceeded 334 million tons, and
according to FAO data, world production has increased up to
approximately 376 million tons in 2013 (http://faostat3.fao.org/
browse/rankings/commodities_by_regions/E). Asia and Europe
are the world’s major potato-producing regions, accounting for
more than 80% of world production in 2013 (http://faostat3.
fao.org/browse/rankings/commodities_by_regions/E). The per
capita consumption of potato is very high in European countries
(87.8 kg year1). Though Asia is the largest producer in the world,
the per capita consumption of potato was only 23.9 kg year1
in 2005 (http://www.fao.org/potato-2008/en/world/index.html).
Potato consumption in Asia is on the increase, and the demand
for potato in Asia is expected to double or triple over the next
few years.2Although people in Asia are traditionally dependent
upon cereals and are generally unaware of the nutritional value
of potatoes, in many countries, potatoes are a very significant
part of the diet and can make a significant contribution to human
In addition to the starch content, potato tubers are rich in pro-
teins, carbohydrates, minerals, vitamins and especially bioactive
compounds that contribute to the health-beneficial properties of
potato.2Phytochemicals in potato are concentrated in its peel, and
their content is higher in cultivars with brighter peel colors.5Phyto-
chemicals play an important role in human health as antioxidants,
and the high daily consumption of potato contributes to a high
phenolic content in our diet.6Since the fat content of potato is
low, consumption of potato instead of other high-carbohydrate
foods such as rice and pasta may potentially benefit our overall
health.7Potato has been suggested as a potential functional food
by several authors owing to the presence of several antioxidant
compounds in abundant quantities.1,2,8
On the contrary, potatoes are also reported to be unhealthy and
are often maligned in nutrition because of their suspected link to
Correspondence to: R Liyanage, Nutritional Biochemistry, National Institute of
Fundamental Studies, Kandy, Sri Lanka.E-mail: ruvinill@yahoo.com
aDivision of Nutritional Biochemistry, National Institute of FundamentalStudies,
Kandy, Sri Lanka
bDepartment of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Peradeniya,
Peradeniya, Sri Lanka
J Sci Food Agric (2016) www.soci.org © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
www.soci.org R Visvanathan et al.
obesity.7This is the reason why their Economic Research Service
(ERS) data for per capita availability (PCA) of vegetables, a proxy
for vegetable consumption, show that vegetable consumption,
including consumption of white potatoes, has declined in the
past decade.9Though the fat content and energy density of
potato are similar to those of legumes, potato is thought to
contain more calories and fat compared with rice.2Some food
guides do not include potatoes in the vegetable group because
of their association with high-fat diets.7To change this negative
trend, it is important to point out the nutritionally important
components of potato tubers, including bioactive compounds
such as polyphenols and carotenoids. Consumption of potato
in the right amount with low fat, as opposed to its usual form
of French fries or potato chips, could potentially lead to the
prevention of oxidation-linked chronic diseases such as type II
diabetes and cardiovascular diseases.2Therefore this review will
mainly focus on discussing the functional properties of potatoes
and their link in preventing the development of chronic diseases.
Several authors have reviewed the health benefits of potatoes.2,8,10
Potatoes which were assumed to play an important role in the
development of chronic diseases in the western world were found
to exert many health-promoting properties. The beneficial prop-
erties exerted by the tubers are reported to be due to the pres-
ence of compounds such as phenolics, anthocyanins, resistant
starch, dietary fiber, potato proteins, etc.2Compounds such as gly-
coalkaloids and lectins which were considered as antinutritional
compounds were also found to exert some health-promoting
properties.11,12 Therefore this part of the review will briefly discuss
some of the compounds which are reported to contribute to the
health-promoting properties of potato.
Phenolic compounds
Phenolic acids and polyphenols play an important role in human
health. Though potatoes are not considered as a food item with
high antioxidant activity, the tubers actually present a very sig-
nificant source of antioxidants in our daily diet owing to their
high daily consumption.1Potatoes are reported to be the third
most important source of phenols after apples and oranges.13 Phe-
nolic acids and flavonoids are the most prominent phytochemi-
cal groups present in potato.10 Chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid
are the two main phenolic acids present in potato, followed by
protocatechuic acid, trans-cinnamic acid, p-coumaric acid, ferulic
acid, vanillic acid, gallic acid, syringic acid and salicylic acid.14
Most of the phenolic acids in potato are present between the cor-
tex and the peel of the potato tuber, and their content reduces
towards the center of the tuber.15
Chlorogenic acid is the predominant phenolic acid (>90%) found
in potatoes, ranging from 3 to 90 mg per 100 g fresh weight (FW) in
flesh and from 100 to 400 mg per 100 g FW in peel.10 Chlorogenic
acid is reported to play an important role against the development
of diabetes16 and hypertension17 and has also been reported to
exhibit several desirable anticarcinogenic properties.18,19 Chloro-
genic acid has strong antioxidant activity and potatoes are an
excellent source of this. This partially explains the protective role
of potatoes against the development of many chronic diseases.
After chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid is the second most abun-
dant phenolic acid present in potato, ranging from 310 to 420 μg
per 100 g FW.14 There is a huge variation in the chlorogenic acid
content of potatoes based on variety. The chlorogenic acid and
caffeic acid content in pigmented cultivars is greater than that
in non-pigmented cultivars. Stushnoff et al.20 foundanapproxi-
mately 10-fold difference in the chlorogenic acid content of pig-
mented and non-pigmented cultivars and a 100-fold difference in
caffeic acid content.21 The cultivars Vitelotte and Luminella were
reported to have the highest polyphenol contents (5202 and 572
1dry weight (DW) respectively in outer flesh), whereas Char-
lotte and Bintje had the lowest contents (19.5 and 48.0 μgg
respectively.22 The yellow PORO3PG6-3 and purple PORO4PG82-1
cultivars had the highest concentration of total phenolics, 2-fold
greater than in the white cultivar Russet Burbank.23 However, in
contrast,inastudydonebyAl-Saikhanet al.,24 total phenolics were
found to be dependent on genotype and not on flesh color.
Anthocyanins belonging to the flavonoid group are present in high
amounts in pigmented potatoes.1Anthocyanins play an important
role in human health and are reported to show antioxidant,25,26
anticancer27 and anti-inflammatory28 activities. The anthocyanin
content in potatoes has been reported to range between 5.5 and
35 mg per 100 g FW.2Generally, purple and red flesh cultivars
contain higher amounts of polyphenols than cultivars with a cream
or white flesh.23,29 The total anthocyanin content in red flesh
potato ranged from 6.9 to 35 mg per 100 g FW and that in purple
flesh potato from 5.5 to 17.1 mg per 100 g FW.1Andre et al.30
observed an 11-fold variation in the total phenolic content of
Andean potato landraces, and the dark purple flesh tubers from
the Andean cultivar 704429 contained exceptionally high levels
of total anthocyanins (16.33 mg g1DW). In a study done by
Hamouz et al.,29 the purple flesh varieties Blaue Elise, Blaue St.
Galler, Violette and Vitelotte and the red flesh varieties Herbie 26,
Highland Burgundy Red, Rosalinde and Rote Emma were found to
contain high amounts of anthocyanins in the range of 135.3 –573.5
mg cyanidin kg1FW. Anthocyanin concentration extending up to
368 mg per 100 g FW was found in the purple flesh cv. Urenika.31
More than 98% of the total anthocyanins in potatoes are in
acylated form, and many are acylated with p-coumaric acid
and ferulic acid.1In colored potatoes, 3-rutinoside-5-glucoside
and 3-rutinoside derivatives of pelargonidin, petunidin,
malvidin, cyanidin, peonidin and delphinidin have been
reported.31 33 Red flesh potatoes contain pelargonidin- and
peonidin-3-rutinoside-5-glycosides while purple flesh potatoes
are rich in malvidin- and petunidin-3-rutinoside-5-glycosides
acylated with p-coumaric and ferulic acid.32,33 Eichhorn and
Winterhalter34 studied the major anthocyanins in four pigmented
potato cultivars. Pelargonidin was found to be the only antho-
cyanidin in cv. Highland Burgundy Red, malvidin was the predom-
inant aglycon of cv. Vitolette, and peonidin derivatives were found
only in cv. Shetland Black in minor amounts. Petunidin derivatives
were detected in all varieties except Highland Burgundy Red.
Potato starch
Starch is the major storage polysaccharide in potato. Potatoes con-
tain amylose and amylopectin in a ratio of 1:3 (w/w).8The amy-
lose content of potato cultivars is approximately 31.2% while the
content in wild species is 29.7% of the total starch.2Amylose is
more resistant to digestion than amylopectin. Owing to the high
amylose content, potato starch is generally resistant to the action
of amylase and other amylolytic enzymes in the digestive tract,
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Health-beneficial properties of potato www.soci.org
behaving as a resistant starch.8Rawpotatostarchwasshownto
be highly resistant to hydrolysis with pancreatic amylase in vitro.35
The low digestibility of potato starches is due to the granule crys-
tallinity, the smaller surface/volume ratio of the granules, and the
presence of a layer of non-starch barrier material such as polysac-
charides on the surface of starch granules.36 However, cooking
leads to a loss of crystallinity, thereby reducing the resistance to
amylase digestion.2Cooling, freezing and drying make the starch
partially resistant to amylase.
In addition to this, phosphorylated potato starches also add to
the digestive resistance.2Potato starches are more highly phos-
phorylated than other cereal starches.37 Potato starch was found
to contain 0.2– 0.4% (w/w) of monoesterified phosphate groups.38
The phosphorus in potato starch is present primarily as phosphate
esterified to the glucose residues of the starch.39 Phosphate is
bound only in the amylopectin fraction of the starch, and the glu-
cosyl residues of amylopectin are phosphorylated at either the C6
or C3 position. Most phosphorylation occurs at the C6 position
(70 –80%), while only 20 –30% occurs at the C3 position.39 On aver-
age, one out of every 200300 glucose units is reported to be
phosphorylated.40 Noda et al.41 studied the phosphorus content of
69 potato cultivars and reported a range between 434 and 1087 μg
g1. The lowest content was observed in Setoyutaka and the high-
est in Kachikei No. 11. In their study, the purple (Inca Purple, Kita-
murasaki and Hokkai No. 92) and red (Inca Red and Hokkai No. 91)
flesh potato cultivars were found to contain relatively higher lev-
els of phosphorus (8911065 μgg
1). Resistant starch and phos-
phorylated starch in potatoes have been reported to contribute to
blood glucose-lowering and cholesterol-lowering properties.37,42
Enzymatically solubilized polysaccharides from potato pulp have
been reported to act as dietary fibers and prebiotics in vitro43 and
in vivo.44
Glycoalkaloids are nitrogen-containing steroidal glycosides. The
primary glycoalkaloids in potato are 𝛼-solanine and 𝛼-chaconine,
which make up 95% of total glycoalkaloids.12 The other glycoal-
kaloids found are 𝛽-and𝛾-solanine, 𝛽-and𝛾-chaconine, 𝛼-and
𝛽-solamarine, demissidine and 5-𝛽-solanidan-3-𝛼-ol in cultivated
potatoes and leptines, commersonine, demissine and tomatine in
wild potatoes.3At certain levels, these compounds may be toxic
to bacteria, fungi, viruses, insects, animals and even humans. This
toxic effect occurs only when glycoalkaloid intake is very high.45
The maximum established level for potato glycoalkaloids is 20 mg
per 100 g FW. However, the glycoalkaloid content of the majority
of potato cultivars is between 3 and 10 mg per 100 g of tubers.45
In addition to their known toxic effects, studies during the past
10 years suggest that glycoalkaloids may also possess beneficial
effects, including anticancer,46,47 antimalarial, anti-inflammatory
and antiglycemic2effects, depending on the dose and conditions
of use.
Potato fiber
Dietary fiber plays an important role in human health by acting as
a bulking agent and increasing the intestinal mobility and hydra-
tion of feces, binding unwanted materials such as carcinogenic
and mutagenic substances, facilitating digestion and acting as a
growth medium for beneficial intestinal microflora and is reported
to exert hypoglycemic, hypocholesterolemic and anticancer
effects.4851 The European Prospective Investigation on Cancer
study reported that the protective effect exerted by fiber against
colorectal cancer and other health problems was irrespective of
the fiber source.52
Dietary fiber in potatoes is made of cellulose, hemicelluloses,
pectins, lignin and other substances that are resistant to digestive
enzymes.53 In the UK, next to cereals and vegetables, potatoes
are the main contributor of dietary fiber in all age groups of men
and women.52 Dietary fiber makes up approximately 2.5% of fresh
tuber mass and is concentrated in the peel, with approximately
50% of potato peel being dietary fiber.48 According to Buttriss and
Stokes,52 the non-starch polysaccharide content or dietary fiber
content of baked potato with and without skin was 2.7 and 1.4 g
per 100 g FW respectively.
Cooking, cooling and storage of potatoes are reported to
produce retrograded starch.52 Microwave heating and deep-fat
frying of potatoes were found to reduce the amount of in vitro
digestible starch and significantly increase both resistant starch
and water-insoluble dietary fiber, while the soluble dietary fiber
content was unchanged.54 Soluble dietary fibers are reported to
decrease the rate of gastric emptying and intestinal transit time,
thereby slowing down the rate of digestion and glucose absorp-
tion by the intestine through forming viscous solutions.36 Potato
is a good source of the water-soluble dietary fiber pectin, which
is almost completely metabolized by colonic bacteria.55 Baking
and extrusion cooking increased the non-starch polysaccharides
in potato peel, while the soluble/insoluble dietary fiber ratio in
the peel was increased only in the latter.55 Varo et al.56 reported
that heat-treated potato samples contained more water-insoluble
dietary fiber and less starch than raw samples.
The addition of viscous dietary fiber to a carbohydrate meal
reduces the glycemic response of the meal.57 Lightowler and
Henry57 investigated mashed potatoes containing 1, 2 or 3%
(w/w) of high-viscosity hydroxypropylmethylcellulose, a modi-
fied cellulose dietary fiber, and observed a significant reduction
in glycemic responses in all samples compared with standard
mashed potato. Dietary fiber preparations from potato skin and
flesh were tested for their ability to adsorb the hydrophobic muta-
gen 1,8-dinitropyrene (DNP) in vitro. Potato skin walls were found
to strongly adsorb DNP, whereas the flesh walls of potato adsorbed
only a small proportion of DNP and a large increase in the propor-
tion of DNP was found in solution.58
Potato protein and peptides
The major groups of potato proteins present in potato tuber are
patatins, protease inhibitors and other proteins.59 Patatin has been
shown to possess antioxidant activity and also inhibit hydroxyl
radical-induced DNA damage in vitro.24,6062 Since peptides have
lower molecular weights and less complex structures than pro-
teins, their solubility, digestibility and absorbability are higher than
those of proteins.63 Peptides isolated from potato protein have
been reported to exhibit antioxidant,63 anticancer,64 antiobesity,65
antihyperlipidemic66 and antifungal/antibiotic67 activities and
were also reported to exhibit angiotensin-converting enzyme
(ACE) inhibition in vitro.68
Potato protease inhibitors
Protease inhibitors (PIs) represent approximately 50% of the total
amount of proteins in potato juice.69 The most studied protease
inhibitors from potato tuber are potato protease inhibitor I (PI-1),
potato protease inhibitor II (PI-2) and potato carboxypeptidase
inhibitor (PCI).69 Although PIs were considered as antinutritional
compounds, they have regained interest in recent years because
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www.soci.org R Visvanathan et al.
Table 1. Functional properties and physiological effects of potato compounds
Active ingredient Functional properties Physiological effects References
Phenolic compounds Antioxidant Prevent oxidative damage to DNA and other biomolecules; up-regulate expression
of cellular antioxidant enzymes
Antidiabetic Reduce gut glucose absorption; increase insulin sensitivity; inhibit hepatic
glucose-6-phosphatase; reduce oxidative stress and overall food intake
Antihypertensive Reduce systolic and diastolic blood pressure; inhibit angiotensin-converting
enzyme (ACE)
Anticancer Prevent proliferation of cancer cells; up-regulate expression of cellular antioxidant
enzymes; block inflammatory mediators linked to cancer; suppress
ROS-mediated NF-kB, AP-1 and MAPK activation
Antiobesity Inhibit lipid metabolism through down-regulation of expression of p38
mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and uncoupled protein 3 (UCP-3);
suppress adipogenesis
Anthocyanins Antioxidant Prevent oxidative damage to DNA; prevent lipid oxidation; up-regulate expression
of cellular antioxidant enzymes
Anticancer Suppress proliferation and elevate apoptosis; induce mitochondrial release and
nuclear uptake of proapoptotic Endo G and AIF proteins; cytotoxic effect against
cancer cell lines
Anti-inflammatory Reduce plasma concentrations of CRP, 8-hydrodeoxyguanosine and IL-6 28
Potato starch Hypoglycemic Reduce glycemic response of food 115
(resistant and
Hypolipidemic Resist digestion; increase fecal bile acid excretion; inhibit synthesis of fatty acids;
increase cecal short-chain fatty acid synthesis
Glycoalkaloids Anticancer Reduce metastasis and induce apoptosis; inhibit proliferation; reduce matrix
metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and MMP-9 activity; cytotoxic to cancer cells
Anti-inflammatory Reduce interleukin-2 (IL-2) and IL-8 production; reduce NO production 121
Lectins Anticancer Induce apoptosis; limit synthesis of proteins, DNA and RNA in cancer cells 2,11
Fiber Hypoglycemic Reduce glycemic response of food; reduce hypertrophy of liver and kidney;
normalize activity of antioxidant enzymes
Hypocholesterolemic Bind to bile acid and reduce availability; increase cecal short-chain fatty acid
synthesis; increase neutral steroid excretion
Anticancer Prevent tumor cell proliferation; reduce cancer cell motility; induce apoptosis;
cause morphological changes in tumor cells; adsorb mutagens
Potato protein and
Antioxidant Prevent oxidative damage to DNA and other biomolecules 60,63,87
Antiobesity Induce CCK release/enhance response; stimulate CCK1R expression in
enteroendocrine cells; inhibit luminal proteases
Antihyperlipidemic Increase fecal bile acid and neutral steroid excretion; inhibit cholesterol absorption
through suppression of micellar solubility of cholesterol;
Antihypertensive increase cecal short-chain fatty acid synthesis
Inhibit ACE
Potato protease
Anticancer Prevent tumor cell proliferation and H2O2formation; block UV-induced activation
of AP-1
Antiobesity Enhance release of CCK and reduce food intake; enhance response to CCK primarily
by inhibition of trypsin-like proteolytic activity
of their exerted anticancer64 and antiobesity70 activities. PIs have
been reported to show anticancer activity by preventing tumor
cell proliferation and H2O2formation and by protecting from the
effects of solar UV irradiation.69 They act as satiety agents by
enhancing the release of cholecystokinin.71
Potatoes have received much interest recently owing to
their observed biological effects in vitro,suchasfreeradi-
cal scavenging,72,73 modulation of enzymatic activity74 and
inhibition of cellular proliferation.18,51,75 There is an exten-
sive literature describing each of these biological properties
(Table 1). We have focused on the biological effects of potatoes,
including their antioxidant, antiobesity, antidiabetic, anticancer,
anti-inflammatory, antihyperlipidemic and antihypertensive activ-
ities, which are commonly ascribed to help explain their potential
role against the development of non-communicable diseases
such as cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D),
cancer, etc.
Antioxidant activity
Health-promoting properties such as antidiabetic, antithrombotic,
anticancer, antimutagenic, anti-inflammatory and antiallergic
activities of plant extracts result from powerful antioxidant and
free radical-scavenging properties of phenolic compounds.72,73,76
Potato tubers are one of the richest sources of antioxidants in
the human diet. For example, in the USA, among all fruits and
vegetables consumed, potatoes ensure an average daily intake of
about 64 mg polyphenols per capita.1The main potato antiox-
idants are polyphenols (1.226– 4.405 mg kg1), ascorbic acid
(170990 mg kg1), carotenoids (as high as 4 mg kg1), toco-
pherols (0.5– 2.8 mg kg1), selenium (0.01 mg kg1)and𝛼-lipoic
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Health-beneficial properties of potato www.soci.org
acid.1Chlorogenic acid is the primary phenolic compound (being
more than 90% of phenolics) found in potatoes.10,22,77 In a US
study, the total phenolic content of peeled potato was 28 mg
per 100 g FW and it was ranked 20th out of 23 commonly con-
sumed vegetables and was ranked ninth in terms of antioxidant
activity.78 Flavonoid and flavone extracts from potatoes show high
scavenging activities toward oxygen radicals.79
Potato chlorogenic acid has been found to be an effective
inhibitor of lipid oxidation.24 Antioxidant capacity has been
directly related to anthocyanin content in potatoes.25 Hyperc-
holesterolemic rats fed 300 g of purple potato flakes experienced
significantly lower thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS)
levels in the serum and liver and antioxidant enzyme activities
in the liver than those in the control and white potato groups.80
The serum urate levels in all flake groups were significantly lower
than that in the control group. An extract from purple potato
(Hokkai No. 91) ameliorated galactosamine-induced liver damage
in rats81 and was suggested to show hepatoprotective effects via
inhibition of lipid peroxidation and/or inflammation in rats. Red
potato flakes improved the antioxidant system by enhancing the
expression of hepatic superoxide dismutase mRNA in rats.82
Potato peel extracts (PPEs) possess strong antioxidant activity.
Almost 50% of phenolics are located in the peel and adjoining
tissues, while the level decreases toward the center of the tuber.15
Probably owing to the strong antioxidant activity of anthocyanins,
extracts prepared from red peels have stronger activity than those
from brown peels.83 PPE inhibited lipid peroxidation induced by
FeSO4and ascorbic acid in rat red blood cells (RBCs) and human
RBC membranes with similar effectiveness (80– 85% inhibition) at
a concentration of 2.5 mg mL1.73 Scanning electron microscopy
results demonstrated that PPE significantly protected rat RBCs
against H2O2-induced morphological changes and inhibited
oxidative damage to human erythrocytes. Additionally, some
studies have reported the use of potato peel as a source of antiox-
idant for the prevention of oxidation of meat products,84 soy bean
oil85 and fish oil.86
Potato protein hydrolysatehas demonstrated potent antioxidant
activity in vitro and in vivo.63,87 Intact and hydrolyzed potato
proteins lowered the production of peroxide and TBARS values
in beef, and hydrolyzed potato protein reduced oxidant-induced
biochemical changes of pork myofibril protein isolate.88 Three
peptides (5A, 5C and 6C) purified from potato protein hydrolysate
fractions inhibited linoleic acid oxidation and lipid oxidation in the
erythrocyte membrane, and oral administration of the peptides
reduced ethanol-induced gastric mucosal damage in rats.63
Antiobesity activity
From 1991 to 1999, Schulze et al.89 examined the association
between dietary patterns and weight gain in women enrolled in
the Nurse’s Health Study II. The western dietary pattern (included
red and processed meats, refined grains, sweets and desserts,
and potatoes) was associated with weight gain, while the pru-
dent dietary pattern (included fruits, vegetables, whole grains,
fish, poultry and salad dressing) facilitated weight maintenance.
Mozaffarian et al.90 followedupontheSchulzeet al.89 study and
evaluated weight gain in 4 year intervals between 1986 and
2006 in three separate prospective cohorts. Participants gained
weight with an increase in the intake of potato chips, fried pota-
toes, sugar-sweetened beverages and unprocessed and processed
meats. Anyhow, the two prospective cohort studies did not con-
sider the effect of the fat consumed along with potato, which can
also contribute to weight gain.
Potato proteinase inhibitor II (PI2) reduced food intake in
humans when administered orally.65,70 At a 1.5 g dose before a
meal, PI2 reduced energy intake in healthy subjects,65 while an
average 2 kg weight loss was demonstrated in overweight women
when PI2 was taken daily prior to lunch and dinner for 4 weeks.91
PI2 has been reported to enhance the release of cholecystokinin
(CCK), which induces satiety.71,92 CCK is a natural signaling peptide
released by the gut in response to food. Once released, CCK acts
on various target organs, resulting in signals to the brain, where it
induces feeling of fullness and satiety.65,93
Several studies have shown that intact proteins or their
hydrolysates could stimulate the secretion of CCK from enteroen-
docrine cells.9497 A potato extract (Potein) containing 60% (w/w)
carbohydrate and 20% (w/w) protein, including trypsin-inhibitory
proteins, was examined for its effect on food intake and CCK
secretion in enteroendocrine cells in rats.71 Oral administration
of the extract was found to suppress food intake and stimulate
CCK secretion by direct stimulation of enteroendocrine cells and
through inhibition of luminal trypsin. In contrast, in another
study, feeding of a crude potato PI concentrate was suggested
to enhance CCK response, primarily by inhibition of trypsin-like
proteolytic activity in the small intestine and not by direct stimula-
tion of CCK-producing cells.92 The potato extract (Potein) included
proteins other than trypsin inhibitors and other non-protein com-
ponents. Thus the presence of some of these components might
be responsible for the direct stimulation of CCK secretion. It is
likely that CCK secretion is the result of both the direct action of
an active compound on CCK-producing cells and luminal protease
inhibition in vivo.98
Yoon et al.74 studied the antiobesity mechanism of a new pur-
ple potato variety in Sprague-Dawley rats. The rats were fed a
high-fat diet (HFD) with ethanol extract of S. tuberosum L. cv.
Bora Valley (ESTBV). ESTBV showed potential antiobesity activity
via inhibition of lipid metabolism through down-regulating the
expression of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and
uncoupled protein 3 (UCP-3). In a study done by Kubow et al.,99
both sexes of C57BL/6J mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) for 10
weeks with and without polyphenolic-rich potato extract (PRPE)
of cultivars Onaway and Russet Burbank. PRPE attenuated weight
gain in male and female mice by as much as 63.2 and 55.75%
respectively. The reduced body weight gain in mice treated with
PRPE was mostly due to reduction in adiposity. These results
demonstrated greater potency of weight reduction than reported
for the anthocyanin-rich extract of purple flesh potatoes in
HFD-fed rats.74
Pharmacological treatment of obesity has become widely used
in most countries, although the number of available drugs are
still very limited. The FDA-approved antiobesity drugs orlistat and
sibutramine are widely used and have been reported to show a
weight loss of <5 kg in 1– 4 year randomized, placebo-controlled
trials.100 PI-2 found in potatoes is commercially available for weight
loss applications (e.g. Slendesta, Suprx™, Sola thin). Clinical trials
indicate that PI-2 is a safe and effective natural agent that pro-
motes satiety and healthy weight loss. When consumed as rec-
ommended, potato extract has resulted in statistically significant
weight loss and reductions in waist and hip measurements.101
Antidiabetic effect
The glycemic index (GI) of a food depends on the carbohydrate
source and amount, the degree of starch gelatinization and the
type and amount of fiber present.8Potato is a carbohydrate-rich
crop cultivated widely around the world. The GI value of potatoes
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www.soci.org R Visvanathan et al.
and potato products varies widely based on the cultivar, maturity,
starch structure, processing and storage conditions.36 According
to published literature, the GI values of potatoes range from very
low, i.e. 23– 41, in unspecified cultivars of potatoes grown in Africa,
India and Romania102 to as high as 144 in boiled Desiree.103 The
GI value of boiled red potatoes (consumed cold), baked US Rus-
set potatoes, instant mashed potatoes and boiled red potatoes
was 56, 77, 88 and 89 respectively.104 Henry et al.105 examined the
GI values of eight varieties of commercially available potatoes in
Great Britain and reported a range from 56 to 94. In addition, some
wild cultivars grown in Australian Aboriginal regions are reported
to exhibit lower GI values than the commercially grown potato cul-
tivars in the western world.36 Based on available studies, potato is
the food which yields the most variable glycemic response. How-
ever, despite all these facts, potatoes as a whole are categorized as
a high-GI food, which requires reconsideration.
In a study done by Montonen et al.,106 potatoes consumed along
with butter and whole milk were reported to be associated with
increased risk of T2D. Fried potatoes were found to be associated
with increased risk of T2D in both men and women.107 Data from
the Nurse’s Health Study reported a positive association between
intake of potatoes and diabetes risk in obese women. It was found
that substituting one serving of potatoes per day for one serving
of whole grains increased the risk of T2D by 30%.108
lower risk of T2D in the Shanghai Women’s Health Study, where
rice was found to increase the risk.109 The contradictory findings
of these studies were explained based on a relatively low intake
of potato in the Chinese population and the lower amounts of fat
added to potatoes during the cooking process by Chinese women.
Some other reports also show an inverse relationship between
potato intake and risk of T2D,110,111 and some studies also found
no association between potato intake and risk of T2D.112114
To date, most studies on potato intake and diabetes have
focused on a potential positive association. Anyhow, digestibility
of raw uncooked potato starch was reported to be poor compared
with that of most cereal starches: in the raw state, 87% of potato
starch resists digestion, while cereal starches are digested slowly
but completely and absorbed in vivo.115 In addition, PPEs, which
are rich in polyphenolic antioxidants, were reported to reduce
hyperglycemia, oxidative stress and overall food intake in dia-
betic rats.116 Potatoes are rich in chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid
which are implicated in the prevention of T2D.117 Chlorogenic acid
slows down the release of glucose into the blood stream16 and
hence could be helpful in lowering the GI of potatoes. More stud-
ies are needed to confirm the link between potato dietary fiber
and polyphenolic content in prevention or therapy for T2D; also,
development of potato cultivars with high resistance to diges-
tion will open up a new avenue for low-GI potatoes which would
be a good source for diabetic patients and may even decrease
the risk of T2D.
Anti-inflammatory effect
Markers of systemic inflammation include C-reactive protein
(CRP) and the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6). Data
from subjec ts (age 6 years) participating in the 19992000 and
20012002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey
(NHANES) showed an association between consumption of whole
plant foods, including potatoes, and lower CRP levels.118 The
ethanolic extract of potato tubers significantly inhibited both
carrageenan- and formalin-induced inflammation in mice as well
as arachidonic acid-induced ear edema in mice.119 In the Busselton
Health Study, when the body mass index (BMI) was controlled,
potato intake was associated with lower CRP levels.120 In the first
human study to investigate the effects of potato consumption
on inflammation, Kaspar et al.28 showed that pigmented potatoes
were anti-inflammatory and lowered plasma concentrations of
CRP, 8-hydrodeoxyguanosine and IL-6 in healthy men compared
with men fed a white potato diet. In a recent study, potato gly-
coalkaloids and PPEs were found to possess anti-inflammatory
properties in vitro.121
Antihyperlipidemic effect
There is some evidence that potato protein,66,122 resistant and
phosphorylated starch,37,42 potato fiber,50,123 glycoalkaloids124 and
phenolic compounds15 contribute to the cholesterol-lowering
properties of potato. Rats fed a potato-enriched diet for 3 weeks
had lower plasma cholesterol and triglycerides and reduced liver
cholesterol compared with control rats.123 In another rat feed-
ing study, Robert et al.125 compared the effects of potato-, starch-
and sucrose-based diets on lipid metabolism. Compared with
starch and sucrose diets, consumption of cooked potatoes for 3
weeks lowered cholesterol and triglycerides and enhanced the
antioxidant status and short-chain fatty acids in the potato-fed
Some studies have reported the positive effect of raw potato
starch on plasma and liver lipids.126,127 Unlike gelatinized potato
starch, raw potato starch is resistant to digestion and acts as dietary
fiber in the digestive tract. Retrograded starch from two varieties of
potato pulp lowered serum total cholesterol and triglyceride lev-
els compared with controls.42 Rats fed Benimaru potato showed
reduced cholesterol levels and higher levels of fecal bile acids,
while rats fed Hokkaikogane potato exhibited reduced triglyc-
eride concentrations and lower hepatic mRNA levels of fatty
acid synthase and sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c
(SREBP-1c).42 Potato starches are naturally highly phosphorylated,
which possibly avoids attack by digestive enzymes and controls
serum lipids.42 Gelatinized potato starch containing a high level of
phosphate was found to reduce serum free fatty acids and triglyc-
erides and liver triglycerides.37 Potato starch increased fecal bile
acid excretion but had no effect on cecal short-chain fatty acid syn-
thesis or pH. Thus the lipid-lowering properties were suggested to
be due to slow digestion of gelatinized high-phosphorus potato
starch and not due to the cecal fermentation-promoting proper-
ties of resistant starch.37
Compared with soy and casein, feeding potato protein to rats
resulted in reduced serum total cholesterol, increased fecal bile
acid and neutral steroid excretion.128 The lipid-lowering prop-
erty was related to the relatively lower methionine content and
methionine/glycine ratio in potato protein. Lower concentrations
of plasma cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) were also
reported in pigs fed potato protein for 3 weeks.129 Liyanage et al.122
studied the hypocholesterolemic effect of potato peptides. Rats
fed a cholesterol-free diet containing 20% (w/w) potato peptides
showed greater serum high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol
and fecal steroid output and less non-HDL cholesterol. The results
were attributed to inhibition of cholesterol absorption, possibly via
suppression of micellar solubility of cholesterol. In another study
where hypercholesterolemia was induced in rats, potato peptides
reduced the serum non-HDL cholesterol level by stimulating fecal
steroid excretion, accelerated by cecal short-chain fatty acids.66
Whole potato is a rich source of dietary fiber. Camire et al.49
evaluated the bile acid-binding ability of potato peels in vitro.
All peels bound a smaller percentage of bile acids than did the
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Health-beneficial properties of potato www.soci.org
drug cholestyramine. Extrusion cooking of peel enhanced the
binding of cholic, deoxycholic and glycocholic acids, and bind-
ing of deoxycholic acid was highly correlated with total dietary
fiber and insoluble dietary fiber content. Feeding of potato peel
reduced plasma total cholesterol in rats.50,123 The authors ascribed
the hypolipidemic activity to its fiber content. However, it is likely
that the polyphenol content and other antioxidants15 as well as
glycoalkaloids contributed to the observed hypocholesterolemia,
since both tomato and potato glycoalkaloids have a strong affinity
for cholesterol.124
Anticancer effect
Several studies have shown a reduction in proliferation of can-
cer cells when treated with potato extracts.18,51,75,130 Phenolic
acids, anthocyanins, fiber, glycoalkaloids and proteinase inhibitors
identified in potatoes have been implicated in the suppres-
sion of cancer cell proliferation in vitro64,131133 and in vivo.27,134
Commercially available potato fiber extract (Potex) was reported
to exhibit antiproliferative effect in several tumor cell cultures.51
The fiber extract decreased cancer cell motility, induced apoptosis
and also caused morphological changes in tumor cells.51 Colored
flesh potatoes are a rich source of anthocyanins with a wide
array of health benefits.1Purple flesh potatoes were reported to
suppress proliferation and elevate apoptosis of colon cancer cells
compared with white and yellow flesh potatoes.130 Anthocyanins
in steamed purple and red potatoes suppressed the growth of
benzopyrene-induced stomach cancer in mice.134
Extracts from four specialty potatoes and the anthocyanin
fraction from genotype CO112F2-2 showed potent antiprolif-
erative properties by increasing the levels of cyclin-dependent
kinase inhibitor p27 in both androgen-dependent (LNCaP) and
androgen-independent (PC-3) prostate cancer cell lines.131 The
anthocyanin fraction of the potato extract induced mitochondrial
release and nuclear uptake of the proapoptotic Endo G and AIF
proteins. Solanum jamesii tuber extracts showed antiprolifera-
tive and cytotoxic effects against HT-29 human colon cancer
and LNCaP human prostate cancer cell lines.133 Red pigmented
Mountain Rose cultivar, rich in chlorogenic acid derivatives and
anthocyanins, showed greater inhibition of carcinogenesis in rats
with chemically induced breast cancer as compared with white
Russet Burbank cultivar.27
Potato polyphenols are effective against human liver, colon
and prostate cancer cells.75,133 Studies with individual phenolics
suggested that chlorogenic acid may be the primary compound
responsible for the antiproliferative activity. In JB6 mouse epider-
mal cell line, chlorogenic acid suppressed the proliferation of A549
human lung cancer cell lines and blocked UVB- or TPA-induced
transactivationofAP-1andNF-kB, which are inflammatory medi-
ators linked to cancer.18 Proliferation of colon cancer cells and
liver cancer cells in vitro was significantly inhibited by chlorogenic
Several studies have reported that potato glycoalkaloids exhibit
an inhibitory effect on the growth of human cancer cell lines such
as human colon (HT29), liver (HepG2), cervical (HeLa), lymphoma
(U937) and stomach cancer cells.135,136 𝛼-Chaconine was found to
be more effective than 𝛼-solanine.136 𝛼-Chaconine reduced lung
cancer metastasis in vitro by suppression of the phosphoinosi-
tide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt/NF-kB signaling pathway132 and induced
apoptosis in HT-29 human colon cancer cells through caspase-3
activation and inhibition of ERK 1/2 phosphorylation.137 In another
study, 𝛼-chaconine and gallic acid in potato extracts were reported
to decrease survival and induce apoptosis in LNCaP and PC3
prostate cancer cells.47 However, in a recent study, potato glycoal-
kaloids were reported to show poor apoptotic activity, although
the cytotoxic effect was equal to that of certain cancer drugs.12 In
addition to this, other compounds such as potato lectin11,138 and
potato protease inhibitors 1 and 2 were also reported to show anti-
cancer activity.64
Antihypertensive effect
High potassium intake is associated with reduced blood pressure
(BP). Potatoes are rich in potassium and very low in sodium.8
Vinson et al.139 studied the effect of potatoes on blood pressure
in 18 overweight, hypertensive adult subjects for 4 weeks in a
cross-over design. Consumption of purple potatoes reduced sys-
tolic and diastolic BP compared with baseline. Proteins isolated
from potatoes and potato products exhibit ACE-inhibitory action.
ACE inhibitors prevent the body from producing angiotensin II,
a substance that affects the cardiovascular system by narrow-
ing the blood vessels and releasing hormones that can raise
BP.140 Autolysis of protein isolates from potato tuber tissue was
found to enhance ACE inhibition.141 Pihlanto et al.68 reported
that hydrolysis of potato proteins increased their ACE-inhibitory
potency. Potato tuber liquid, a by-product of the potato starch
industry, was found to be a valuable source of ACE-inhibitory
peptides.59 The results of these studies suggest that potato may
be a source for bioactive compounds that benefit cardiovascular
Potato is a nutrient-dense food that provides significant amounts
of nutrients without adding too many calories. In populations
where potato is the staple food, potatoes are an important source
of starch, phenolic compounds and dietary fiber (when eaten
with the skin). Potatoes possess specific properties that benefit
human health in various ways. Potato protein, peptides, protease
inhibitors, phenolic compounds, anthocyanins, dietary fiber, resis-
tant starches and phosphorylated starches have been reported to
improve lipid profile, blood glucose level and blood pressure. In
vitro and in vivo studies also suggest that anthocyanins, glycoal-
kaloids and lectins from potatoes are anticancer agents. However,
as discussed, the in vitro and in vivo data have produced conflict-
ing results on the association of potato consumption with obe-
sity and development of diabetes. The data from epidemiological
studies regarding these matters are far from convincing. However,
to clearly understand the impact of potatoes on human health,
a long-term study investigating the association between potato
consumption and diabetes, obesity, cardiovascular disease and
cancer while controlling for fat intake is needed. More information
on the bioavailability of phenolic compounds in potatoes is also
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... Dietary compounds in potatoes such as polyphenols and anthocyanins are known as major contributors to the health benefits [63]. Polyphenols are considered to be healthpromoting phytochemicals as they have shown in vitro antioxidant activity and have been reported to exhibit beneficial anti-bacterial, hypoglycemic, anti-viral, anti-carcinogenic, anti-inflammatory, and vasodilatory properties [64]. ...
... The consumption of deep-fried food on a regular basis can lead to the risks of obesity, overweight, and various other diseases [75]. Deep-fried potatoes are also associated with these diseases in both men and women [63]. ...
... Up-regulate expression of cellular antioxidant enzymes; prevent oxidative damage to DNA and other biomolecules; inhibit the growth of few pathogenic fungi Antioxidant [63,114,115] Target stem cells of cancer; prevent the proliferation of cancer cells; cytotoxic to prostate cancer; inhibits prostate cancer, the proliferation of colon cancer; inhibits human colon and liver cancer cells Anticancer [108,109,111,[116][117][118] Reduce inflammation and edema volume increment Anti-inflammatory [119] Reduce postprandial glycemic response; inhibit hepatic glucose-6-phosphatase; reduce gut glucose absorption; reduce oxidative stress and overall food intake Antidiabetic [80,84,90,120] Suppress adipogenesis; inhibit lipid metabolism through down-regulation of expression of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and uncoupling protein 3 (UCP-3) ...
Full-text available
Polyphenol is one of the most essential phytochemicals with various health benefits. Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is known as a potential source of polyphenols, and also has health benefits in which phenolic acids, such as chlorogenic, ferulic acid, caffeic acid, and flavonoids, such as anthocyanins, sustainably play the most significant role. Almost every polyphenol contributes to various biological activities. In this review, we collected comprehensive information concerning the diversity of polyphenols in potatoes, and the effects of post-harvest processing and different cooking methods on the bioavailability of polyphenols. To achieve maximum health benefits, the selection of potato cultivars is necessary by choosing their colors, but various cooking methods are also very important in obtaining the maximum concentration of polyphenolic compounds. The health properties including major biological activities of polyphenols, such as antioxidant activity, anticarcinogenic activity, anti-inflammatory activity, anti-obesity activity, and antidiabetic activity, have also been summarized. All these biological activities of polyphenols in potatoes might be helpful for breeders in the design of new varieties with many health benefits, and are expected to play a vital role in both pharmaceutical and nutraceutical industries.
... Potatoes contain a complex antioxidant mixture, which shows multidirectional activities. The main antioxidant constituents in potatoes are polyphenols with chlorogenic acid as the predominant compound, ascorbic acid, carotenoids, tocopherols, selenium and a-lipoic acid (Visvanathan et al., 2016). Chlorogenic acids can constitute 90% of the total soluble phenolics with 5-Ocaffeoylquinic acid being the most abundant in potato tubers. ...
... PJ contains several ingredients with documented anticancer activity including GAs, phenolic acids, and proteinase inhibitors that may be involved in the suppression of cancer cell proliferation. There is an increasing number of reports on the anticancer potential of PJ components (Elizalde-Romero et al., 2021;Visvanathan et al., 2016;), indicating their multidirectional effects exerted at various stages of carcinogenesis including cancer prevention, inhibition of initiation, promotion and progression of the neoplastic process (Hassan et al., 2021;Lu et al., 2010;Mohsenikia et al., 2013). Unfortunately, the literature does not provide comprehensive research data for PJ, where synergistic or antagonistic relationships between bioactive compounds may appear. ...
... Polyphenols found in PJ may participate in the inhibition of the growth of cancer cells. Chlorogenic acid has been suggested as the primary polyphenolic compound responsible for the antiproliferative activity of the potato polyphenol fraction (Feng et al., 2005;Visvanathan et al., 2016). Anticancer properties of chlorogenic acid are well documented in studies with animal and cell culture models . ...
Potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.), consumed daily by millions of people around the world, are one of the most important food crops. Potato juice (PJ) is a by-product of the starch production process and contains all the constituents of potato tubers except starch and fiber. A large volume of PJ is produced annually during the starch campaign. Currently, it can, at best, serve as a source of protein for animal nutrition. The proteins are isolated using an acidification and thermal treatment, and the remaining liquid fraction is generally considered a problematic waste. Literature reports indicate that PJ is a valuable raw material not only because of its high nutritional value but, above all, due to the biological activity that can facilitate the treatment of certain gastrointestinal tract diseases. Medicinal use of PJ in folk medicine dates back to the beginning of the 19th century when it was used to alleviate the symptoms of gastrointestinal tract dysfunctions. Currently, the compounds responsible for this activity have been identified, and their mechanism of action is known. Additionally, many more compounds were found in potato which are responsible for invoking various health-benefiting effects. This manuscript provides an overview of the data published on the production of potatoes and the accompanying PJ. First, the chemical characteristics of the protein and non-protein fractions are described together with the conventional methods for the handling of this by-product. Second, novel technologies of PJ processing are presented with emphasis on the separation of protein and its hydrolysis, and various potential applications in food technology and biotechnology. Finally third, the medical potential of PJ is reviewed. This includes antimicrobial, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, antiobesity, antidiabetic, antihyperlipidemic, antihypertensive activities of various constituents of the juice. The wide range of potential applications and a vast spectrum of beneficial properties make PJ a substance well worth the attention of researchers and industry.
... Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) belongs to the Solanaceae family, and is one of the most important food crops in the world, after wheat, rice, corn, and sugar cane (Fu, Liu, and Soladoye 2020;Visvanathan et al. 2016). World production increased considerably from 332 million tons in 2010 to 388 million in 2017, where Asia was responsible for almost 50% of the total production (196 million tons in 2017) (FAO 2019). ...
... Storage polysaccharides are the main nutritional components found in potatoes; thus, the primary industrial use for this tuber is starch extraction (Visvanathan et al. 2016). During industrial potato starch processing, a diluted by-product is produced (denoted as potato fruit juice), containing 1/3 of proteins, peptides and amino acids; apart from carbohydrates, lipids, organic acids, polyphenols, minerals, fiber, and glycoalkaloids (Baier and Knorr 2015; Fu, Liu, and Soladoye 2020). ...
... Nevertheless, it still represents a group of proteins that remain underutilized (Donadelli et al. 2019;Kowalczewski et al. 2019). Therefore, the appropriate extraction of this hydrocolloid from the protein-rich industrial waste of the starch industry can fulfill the requirements for an efficient use of the entire raw material, as well as add value to help supplement the industry in both economic and sustainable aspects (Galves et al. 2019;Stone et al. 2019;Visvanathan et al. 2016). ...
Studies regarding spray drying microencapsulation are aplenty available; especially focusing on processing parameters, microparticle characteristics and encapsulation efficiency. Hence, there is a rising interest in tailoring wall materials aiming to improve the process’s effectiveness. Reflecting a market trend in the food industry, plant-based proteins are emerging as alternative protein sources, and their application adaptability is an increasing research of interest related to consumers’ demand for healthy food, product innovation, and sustainability. This review presents a perspective on the investigation of potato protein as a technological ingredient, considering it a nonconventional source obtained as by-product from starch industry. Furthermore, this piece emphasizes the potential application of potato protein as wall material in spray drying encapsulation, considering that this purpose is still limited for this ingredient. The literature reports that vegetal-based proteins might present compromised functionality due to processing conditions, impairing its technological application. Structural modification can offer a potential approach to modify potato protein configuration aiming to improve its utilization. Studies reported that modified proteins can perform as better emulsifiers and antioxidant agents compared to intact proteins. Hence, it is expected that their use in microencapsulation would improve process efficiency and protection of the core material, consequently delivering superior encapsulation performance.
... Therefore, the glycoalkaloid composition should be a major criterion for the release of new potato cultivars (Friedman 2006; EFSA Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain et al. 2020). Although glycoalkaloids are perceived as potentially toxic, many studies suggest that they may also possess beneficial effects, depending on dose and conditions of use (Friedman 2006;Visvanathan et al. 2016). Daily consumption of high glycoalkaloid concentrations may lead to intestinal discomfort, vomiting, fever, diarrhoea and neurological problems and can lead to human or animal deaths in cases of acute toxicity (Kirui et al. 2009). ...
Intraspecific somatic hybrids (CN1 and CN2) produced by protoplast fusion between dihaploid lines of potato cultivars Cardinal and Nicola were analysed in terms of their bioactive compounds and antioxidant activities. The total phenolic compound levels were investigated from the extracts derived from whole tubers using the Folin-Ciocalteu ethanol reagent method, which demonstrated that CN1 and CN2 hybrids contained higher levels of phenolics than the tubers of cv. Nicola. The corresponding extracts were also used for determination of the bioactivity levels, and an increased antioxidant capacity in the extracts of hybrid potato was revealed by DPPH and ABTS radical-scavenging tests compared to the tuber extracts of cv. Nicola. The identification of bioactive compounds in tubers was carried out separately for peel and flesh compartments to determine the phenolic compounds: phenolic acids by UHPLC-DAD and anthocyanins by HPLC–DAD and LC–MS. Glycoalkaloids were determined by UPLC-QTOF MS analysis. Phenolic acid profiling showed the presence of caffeic acid and three caffeoylquinic acid isomeric forms (3-CQA, 4-CQA and 5-CQA) in the peels, whereas only caffeic acid and 5-CQA (chlorogenic acid) were detected in the flesh compartments. The phenolic acid profiles of the somatic hybrids did not remarkably differ from the corresponding profiles of cv. Nicola. The colour-pigmented peels of the somatic hybrids were also analysed for their anthocyanin content, and six substances were identified, four of them were acylated glucosides of pelargonidin and peonidin by coumaric or ferulic acids. The increased antioxidative activities determined in the somatic hybrid tubers are most probably linked to their higher phenolic compound levels due to the pigmented tuber skin colour. The somatic hybrids had α-solanine and α-chaconine as the major glycoalkaloid compounds, and their total quantities were less than that found in tubers of cv. Nicola. This confirms the safety of the hybrid tubers for human consumption. © 2022, The Author(s), under exclusive licence to European Association for Potato Research.
... Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is the third most consumed crop around the world and is grown in most countries [13]. The potato tuber supplies a wide range of nutrients and diverse bioactive compounds that are known to prevent and combat chronic diseases such as hypertension, cancer, diabetes, and heart disease [14][15][16][17][18][19]. The bioactive compounds found in potatoes are polyphenols (chlorogenic acid, apigenin, rutin, kaempferol rutinoside), terpenes (lutein and neoxanthin), alkaloids (solanine, tomatine, chaconine) and polyamines (kukoamines). ...
Full-text available
The benefits of lowering blood pressure (BP) are well established for the prevention of cardiovascular disease. While there are a number of pharmaceuticals available for lowering BP, there is considerable interest in using dietary modifications, lifestyle and behaviour changes as alternative strategies. Kukoamines, caffeic acid derivatives of polyamines present in solanaceous plants, have been reported to reduce BP. We investigated the effect of orally administered synthetic kukoamine A on BP in the Spontaneously Hypertensive Rat (SHR) laboratory animal model of hypertension. Prior to the hypertension study, we determined the safety of the synthetic kukoamine A in a single oral dose (5 or 10 mg kg ⁻¹ bodyweight) 14-day observational study in mice. No negative effects of the oral administration of kukoamine A were observed. We subsequently investigated the effect of daily oral doses of kukoamine A (0, 5, 10 mg kg ⁻¹ bodyweight) for 35 days using the SHR rat model of hypertension. The normotensive control Wistar Kyoto (WKY) strain was used to provide a baseline for normal BP in rats. We observed no effect of orally administered synthetic kukoamine A on arterial hypertension in this laboratory animal model of hypertension.
... Potatoes are among the most widespread crops consumed worldwide (Gebhardt, 2016;Zaheer and Akhtar, 2016), and represent a relevant source of carbohydrates (starch), but are also at the same time a source of proteins, vitamin C, vitamin B6, minerals, and fibers (Andre et al., 2007(Andre et al., , 2010Camire et al., 2009). Like all plant products, they also contains secondary metabolites, such as polyphenols (Perla et al., 2012;Visvanathan et al., 2016), and this seems to make the potatoes appropriate to be considered as a functional food (Burgos et al., 2020;Santini and Cicero, 2020). ...
Full-text available
The potato is a root vegetable native to the Americas; it consists of the starchy tuber of the plant Solanum tuberosum. There are many varieties, and the flesh can have different colour ranging from yellow to red and purple. Coloured varieties have a denser texture and slightly nuttier, earthier flavour than other potatoes. The desirable quality characteristics of potatoes depends on the intended use, and the acceptability of raw potatoes is determined by size, shape, colour, and the quality of can be evaluated in terms of colour, flavour, and texture. Deep-frying is the century-old and it is among the most common cooking processes, still being used to prepare a variety of food products on both industrial and domestic scales. Frying the potatoes is among the tastiest and appreciated way to cook this vegetable. Purple fleshed potatoes are widely considered one of the best-tasting purple potatoes varieties, they have a nice taste and add colour to a meal. They are a source of beneficial health compounds which makes them interesting as functional food. The anthocyanins present in the Purple Majesty variety are interesting for their health promoting abilities, anti-oxidative activity, and even other health beneficial effects, e.g. anti-influenza virus activity, and anti-stomach cancer activity. The aim of this study has been to assess the effect of deep-frying of purple potato Purple Majesty using sunflower oil on the polyphenols, anthocyanins and to evaluate the antioxidant activity of the cooked matrix compared to the fresh one. The results seem to suggest that the healthy characteristics of this functional food are retained after the cooking by frying.
... As expected, most vegetables (starchy and not), legumes and fruit were assigned to higher-quality carbohydrates by the 4 CQI models and by CFQS-4. Starchy vegetables tend to be high in both potassium and fiber and low in free sugars and sodium (27,28). Based on the present results, it may be time to place starchy vegetables among the higher-quality CFs. ...
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Background Starchy vegetables, including white potatoes, are often categorized as “lower-quality” carbohydrate foods, along with refined grains, 100% fruit juices, sweetened beverages, and sugars, snacks and sweets. Among “higher-quality” carbohydrates are whole grains, non-starchy vegetables, legumes, and whole fruits. Objective To apply multiple nutrient profiling (NP) models of carbohydrate quality to foods containing >40% carbohydrate by dry weight in the USDA Food and Nutrient Database for Dietary Studies (FNDDS 2017-18). Methods Carbohydrate foods in the FNDDS ( n = 2423) were screened using four recent Carbohydrate Quality Indices (CQI) and a new Carbohydrate Food Quality Score (CFQS-4). Cereal products containing >25% whole grains by dry weight were classified as whole grain foods. Results Based on percent items meeting the criteria for 4 CQI scores, legumes, non-starchy and starchy vegetables, whole fruit, and whole grain foods qualified as “high quality” carbohydrate foods. Distribution of mean CFQS-4 values showed that starchy vegetables, including white potatoes placed closer to non-starchy vegetables and fruit than to candy and soda. Conclusion Published a priori determinations of carbohydrate quality do not always correspond to published carbohydrate quality metrics. Based on CQI metrics, specifically designed to assess carbohydrate quality, starchy vegetables, including white potatoes, merit a category reassignment and a more prominent place in dietary guidance.
... Only focusing on the quantitative aspects of two of these components likely misses or masks other important attributes of CFs. For example, the high carb:fiber ratio of starchy vegetables leads to classification as "lower-quality" CFs in the 10:1:1 scoring model, but if a scoring metric is used that reflects that these foods are also low in sodium, high in potassium, and rich in other health-promoting compounds [13,29,30], then many starchy vegetables may instead be classified as higher-quality CFs. ...
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Existing metrics of carbohydrate food quality have been based, for the most part, on favorable fiber- and free sugar-to-carbohydrate ratios. In these metrics, higher nutritional quality carbohydrate foods are defined as those with >10% fiber and <10% free sugar per 100 g carbohydrate. Although fiber- and sugar-based metrics may help to differentiate the nutritional quality of various types of grain products, they may not aptly capture the nutritional quality of other healthy carbohydrate foods, including beans, legumes, vegetables, and fruits. Carbohydrate food quality metrics need to be applicable across these diverse food groups. This report introduces a new carbohydrate food scoring system known as a Carbohydrate Food Quality Score (CFQS), which supplements the fiber and free sugar components of previous metrics with additional dietary components of public health concern (e.g., sodium, potassium, and whole grains) as identified by the Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Two CFQS models are developed and tested in this study: one that includes four dietary components (CFQS-4: fiber, free sugars, sodium, potassium) and one that considers five dietary components (CFQS-5: fiber, free sugars, sodium, potassium, and whole grains). These models are applied to 2596 carbohydrate foods in the Food and Nutrient Database for Dietary Studies (FNDDS) 2017–2018. Consistent with past studies, the new carbohydrate food scoring system places large percentages of beans, vegetables, and fruits among the top scoring carbohydrate foods. The whole grain component, which only applies to grain foods (N = 1561), identifies ready-to-eat cereals, oatmeal, other cooked cereals, and selected whole grain breads and crackers as higher-quality carbohydrate foods. The new carbohydrate food scoring system shows a high correlation with the Nutrient Rich Food (NRF9.3) index and the Nutri-Score. Metrics of carbohydrate food quality that incorporate whole grains, potassium, and sodium, in addition to sugar and fiber, are strategically aligned with multiple 2020–2025 dietary recommendations and may therefore help with the implementation of present and future dietary guidelines.
... Many compounds found in potato are good in health promotion although some could be beneficial or detrimental to human depending on specific circumstances. Studies geared to investigate the association between potato consumption and diabetes, cardiovascular disease, obesity, and cancer while controlling for fat intake are needful [32]. As a key dietary source of potassium, vitamin C, and dietary fiber, potatoes contribute significantly to nutrients with defined roles in promoting cardiovascular health [33]. ...
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Among food crops in terms of consumption, potato ranks fourth, most important and valuable crop worldwide in terms of production and area harvested after maize, wheat and rice. In the coming years, potato production must keep pace with global population expansion nutritiously and sustainably which can partially be achieved by reducing the yield losses caused by the destructive pest and disease activities to the crop. The challenge of 70–80% total microbial crop yield loss posed by pathogens must be addressed for sustainable potato production in order to properly alleviate the global starvation problem. Potato as a food security crop can help to achieve the four food security requirements: food availability, quality, accessibility and stability. Health benefits of potato have shown the presence of phytochemicals as well as resistant starch which serve as anticancer and antidiabetic. The role of potato in the global food security should not be over emphasized, hence in this chapter we want to give an overview on the global hunger and food security at present, and the role played by potato as a food security crop. In addition, potato yield losses caused by pests and diseases especially phytopathogens, their etiology and the role of crop protection in sustainable potato production to alleviate global starvation problem will be discussed.
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Physical inactivity, a prolonged sedentary lifestyle and unhealthy nutrition were identified a long time ago as the risk factors of excessive body weight and clinical obesity (hereinafter: obesity and the obese) as well as of a number of chronic diseases. How a modern person finds their way through this changed environment depends on a range of factors, mainly on the level of awareness about the many challenges that give rise to a need for an adjustment, the authenticity of the sources of information and the emerging possibilities and, eventually, the decisions to be made. The aim of the contribution is to provide accurate information about specific obsolete dogmas and to encourage the reader to take decisions that benefit their health.
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The aim of this study was to determine that the total anthocyanin content (TAC) and antioxidant activity (AOA) in potato flesh with different colours grown in the Czech Republic. Four yellow- or white-, six purple- and four red-fleshed varieties were grown in 2009 at two different sites (Valečov - highland, seed potato area at 460 m a.s.l., Přerov nad Labem - lowland, new potatoes area at 178 m a.s.l.) in precise field trials. For purple- and red-fleshed varieties, average TAC values ranged from 61.5 to 573.5 cyanidin mg/kg of FM and significant effect of the variety of the TAC was found. High content reached the Violette and Vitelotte varieties with dark purple flesh, and the lowest content the Blue Congo variety with light purple marbled flesh. Significantly higher TAC was found in a lowland area Přerovnad Labem, which is probably related to drought stress. The lowest AOA was achieved by a group of varieties with yellow or white flesh - averaging 82.8 mg ascorbic acid equivalent/kg FM, in a group of red-fleshed varieties it was higher 4.34 times and in a group of purple-fleshed varieties even 5.03 times higher. Also between purple-and red-fleshed varieties significant differences in AOA were found, both high and low values of AOA showed the same varieties as in the case of the TAC. Among experimental sites higher AOA was also demonstrated at Přerovnad Labem. Correlation analysis showed a strong correlation between AOA and TAC (r = 0.8099).
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Starch phosphorylation is an important aspect of plant metabolism due to its role in starch degradation. Moreover, the degree of phosphorylation of starch determines its physicochemical properties and is therefore relevant for industrial uses of starch. Currently, starch is chemically phosphorylated to increase viscosity and paste stability. Potato cultivars with elevated starch phosphorylation would make this process unnecessary, thereby bestowing economic and environmental benefits. Starch phosphorylation is a complex trait which has been previously shown by antisense gene repression to be influenced by a number of genes including those involved in starch synthesis and degradation. We have used an association mapping approach to discover genetic markers associated with the degree of starch phosphorylation. A diverse collection of 193 potato lines was grown in replicated field trials, and the levels of starch phosphorylation at the C6 and C3 positions of the glucosyl residues were determined by mass spectrometry of hydrolyzed starch from tubers. In addition, the potato lines were genotyped by amplicon sequencing and microsatellite analysis, focusing on candidate genes known to be involved in starch synthesis. As potato is an autotetraploid, genotyping included determination of allele dosage. Significant associations (p < 0.001) were found with SNPs in the glucan water dikinase (GWD), starch branching enzyme I (SBEI) and the starch synthase III (SSIII) genes, and with a SSR allele in the SBEII gene. SNPs in the GWD gene were associated with C6 phosphorylation, whereas polymorphisms in the SBEI and SBEII genes were associated with both C6 and C3 phosphorylation and the SNP in the SSIII gene was associated with C3 phosphorylation. These allelic variants have potential as genetic markers for starch phosphorylation in potato.
Several vegetables were selected to study their flavonoid contents and antioxidant activities. The results showed that both green and purple leaves of sweet potatoes (185.01 and 426.82 mg kg⁻¹ respectively) and the outer leaves of onion (264.03 mg kg⁻¹) possessed higher amounts of flavonoids, and more than 85% of free radical scavenging activities were evaluated by using 1,1‐diphenyl‐2‐picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), superoxide and hydroxyl radicals. In addition, green leaves of sweet potatoes and the outer leaves of onion showed higher reducing power and higher antioxidant activity in a linoleic acid system as compared to cabbage, spinach, potato and crown daisy. Blanching of green leaves of sweet potatoes for 30–60 s retained more flavonoids and higher free radical scavenging activities as compared to more than 1 min of blanching. The storage test showed that green leaves of sweet potatoes stored at 4–10 °C maintained better quality than those stored at room temperature. © 2000 Society of Chemical Industry
Peptones are potent stimulants of cholecystokinin (CCK) release in rats, both in vivo and ex vivo in a model of isolated vascularly perfused duodeno-jejunum preparation and in vitro in the intestinal CCK-producing cell line STC-1. The underlying mechanisms were here investigated with this cell line. Protein hydrolysates from various origins (meat, casein, soybean, and ovalbumin; 0.5–1%, wt/vol) dose dependently increased CCK release. Cephalosporin antibiotics, which mimic tripeptides, also stimulated the release of CCK over the concentration range 1–20 mm. The study of concentration dependence of cephalosporin uptake indicated a passive diffusion process at either pH 7.4 or pH 6.0, thus arguing against the involvement of a peptide transporter in CCK secretion. After pertussis toxin treatment (200 ng/ml; 5 h), the peptone- and cephalexin-induced CCK secretion was significantly reduced, suggesting the involvement of pertussis toxin-sensitive heterotrimeric G protein(s) in the secretory activity of STC-1 cel...
Several vegetables were selected to study their flavonoid contents and antioxidant activities. The results showed that both green and purple leaves of sweet potatoes (185.01 and 426.82 mg kg(-1) respectively) and the outer leaves of onion (264.03 mg kg(-1)) possessed higher amounts of flavonoids, and more than 85% of free radical scavenging activities were evaluated by using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), superoxide and hydroxyl radicals. In addition, green leaves of sweet potatoes and the outer leaves of onion showed higher reducing power and higher antioxidant activity in a Linoleic acid system as compared to cabbage, spinach, potato and crown daisy. Blanching of green leaves of sweet potatoes for 30-60 s retained more flavonoids and higher free radical scavenging activities as compared to more than 1 min of blanching. The storage test showed that green leaves of sweet potatoes stored at 4-10 degrees C maintained better quality than those stored at room temperature. (C) 2000 Society of Chemical Industry.
The antioxidant potency of freeze-dried aqueous extract of potato peel was investigated employing various established in vitro systems, such as lipid peroxidation in rat liver homogenate, 1, 1-diphenyl-2-pierylhydrazyl (DPPH)/superoxide/hydroxyl radical scavenging, reducing power, and iron ion chelation. Freeze-dried aqueous extract of potato peel powder (PPE) showed strong inhibitory activity toward lipid peroxidation of rat liver homogenate induced by the FeCl2-H2O2 system. Furthermore, PPE exhibited a strong concentration-dependent inhibition of deoxyribose oxidation. PPE also showed a considerable antioxidant activity in the DPPH radical assay system. The multiple antioxidant activity of PPE was evident as it showed strong reducing power, superoxide scavenging ability and also ferrous ion chelating potency. The data obtained in the in vitro models clearly establish the antioxidant potency of freeze-dried extract of potato peel. Considering that potato peels are discarded as waste and not effectively utilized, these in vitro results suggest the possibility that potato peel waste could be effectively employed as an ingredient in health or functional food, to alleviate oxidative stress. However, comprehensive studies need to be conducted to ascertain the in vivo safety of such extracts in experimental animal models.
The major anthocyanins, flavonoids and phenolic acids in the tubers (skin and flesh), flowers and leaves of 26 cultivars of Solanum tuberosum L with coloured skins and/or flesh have been identified and quantified using analytical HPLC. Red tubers contained mostly pelagonidin-3-(p-coumaroyl-rutinoside)-5-glucoside (200-2000 mu g g(-1) FW) plus lesser amounts of peonidin-3-(p-coumaroyl-rutinoside)-5-glucoside (20-400 mu g g(-1) FW). Light to medium purple tubers contained petunidin-3-(p-coumaroyl-rutinoside)-5-glucoside (1000-2000 mu g g(-1) FW) plus small amounts of malvidin-3-(p-coumaroyl-rutinoside)-5-glucoside (20-200 mu g g(-1) FW) whilst dark purple-black tubers contained similar levels of petunidin-3-(p-coumaroyl-rutinoside)-5-glucoside together with much higher concentrations of malvidin-3-(p-coumaroyl-rutinoside)-5-glucoside (2000-5000 mu g g(-1) FW). Tuber flesh also contained chlorogenic acid (30-900 mu g g(-1) FW) and other phenolic acids plus low concentrations of flavonoids (0-30 mu g g(-1) FW). Tuber skins showed much higher levels (1000-4000 mu g g(-1) FW) of chlorogenic acid. The major anthocyanins in flowers were present as the rutinosides or other glycosides of pelargonidin, petunidin and malvidin whilst glycosides of cyanidin and delphinidin were found in some flowers, together with many of the same phenolic acids as found in tubers. The commonest flavonoids included rutin, kaempferol-3-rutinoside and two quercetin-rhamnose-glucosides. Flowers and leaves contained higher concentrations of flavonoids which fell into two patterns, with some cultivars containing high concentrations of quercetin-3-glycosides, whilst others had much lower concentrations. (C) 1998 SCI.
This study was undertaken to determine whether potato peels, as a source of dietary fibre, exert a hypocholesterolaemic effect on rats fed cholesterol-rich diet. Male rats were fed diets containing 1% cholesterol and 0.2% cholic acid with either 6% cellulose or potato peels as the fibre source. The present study demonstrates for the first time the in vivo hypocholesterolaemic influence of potato peels. After 4 weeks, rats fed potato peels showed a 40% decrease in plasma cholesterol content and a reduction of 30% in hepatic fat cholesterol levels as compared with rats fed cellulose. Our data indicate that potato peels might be considered as a source of dietary fibres for human consumption.
Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is a good source of dietary antioxidants. Chlorogenic acid (CGA) and caffeic acid (CA) are the most abundant phenolic acid antioxidants in potato and formed by the phenylpropanoid pathway. A number of CGA biosynthetic routes that involve hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA quinate hydroxycinnamoyl transferase (HQT) and/or hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA shikimate/quinate hydroxycinnamoyl transferase (HCT) have been proposed but little is known in potato. CA production requires a caffeoyl shikimate esterase (CSE) and serves as substrate of lignin precursor ferulic acid, via the action of caffeic/5-hydroxyferulic acid O-methyltransferase (COMT I). CGA is precursor of caffeoyl-CoA and, via caffeoyl-CoA O-methyltransferase (CCoAOMT), of feruloyl-CoA. Feruloyl-CoA is required for lignin and suberin biosynthesis, crucial for tuber development. Here, metabolite and transcript levels of mentioned and related enzymes, such as cinnamate 4-hydroxylase (C4H), were determined in flesh and skin of fresh and stored tubers. Metabolite and transcript levels were higher in skin than in flesh, irrespective of storage. CGA and CA production appear to occur via p-coumaroyl-CoA, using HQT and CSE, respectively. HCT is likely involved in CGA remobilization towards suberin. The strong correlation between CGA and CA, the correspondence with C4H, HQT, CCoAOMT2 and CSE, and the negative correlation of HCT and COMT I in potato tubers, suggest a major flux towards suberin.
There is conflicting evidence that potato glycoalkaloids may have potential anticancer activity. The aim of this study was to screen potato glycoalkaloids for cytotoxicity in a range of cancerous cell lines. IC50 values (µg/ml) for each glycoalkaloid were calculated in six human cancerous cell lines including Jurkat T lymphocytes, U937 leukemic monocyte lymphoma cells, Caco-2 epithelial colorectal cells, HepG2 liver cells, HFFF2 foetal foreskin fibroblasts and MCF-7 breast cells. Cytotoxicity in a non-cancerous human colon cell line was also investigated. As expected, α-chaconine was the most cytotoxic glycoalkaloid across all cell lines. When compared to therapeutic drugs, α-chaconine has similar inhibitory effects to tamoxifen on cell viability. However, Hoechst staining and caspase analysis indicate that α-chaconine does not appear to inducing apoptotic cell death. Additionally, α-solanine and solanidine did not appear to possess strong apoptotic potential. In contrast, the therapeutic drugs, doxorubicin and tamoxifen did result in apoptotic morphological changes in U937 cells with an increase in caspase activity. Flow cytometry and DNA fragmentation assays confirmed the poor apoptotic potential of glycoalkaloids compared to the therapeutic drug tamoxifen. The cytotoxic profile of glycoalkaloids is apparent; however the mode of action underlying cell death for glycoalkaloids does not appear to be via an apoptotic pathway.