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The Sociology of Georg Simmel

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... Temporal networks often evolve by following certain patterns. Ranging from triadic closure [2] to higher-order motif closure [3][4][5][6], the interacting behaviors between multiple nodes have been shown to strongly depend on the network structure of their joint neighborhood. Researchers have leveraged this observation and built many practical systems to monitor and make prediction on temporal networks such as anomaly detection in financial networks [7][8][9], friend recommendation in social networks [10], and collaborative filtering techniques in e-commerce systems [11]. ...
... Given the historical temporal network as shown in the left, the task is to predict whether u prefers to interact with v or w at timestamp t3. If this is a social network, (u, v) is likely to happen because u, v share a common neighbor a and follow the principle of triadic closure [2]. However, traditional GNNs, even for their generalization on temporal networks fail here as they learn the same representations for node v and node w due to their common structural contexts, as shown in the middle. ...
... In our experiments, we consider at most K = 2 hops, and set the numbers of tracked neighbors M 1 , M 2 ∈ [2, 40] and the size of each representation F ∈ [2,8], which already gives very good performance. Based on the above design, the overall memory overhead is just about hundreds per node, which is comparable to the commonly-used memory cost of tracking a big single-vector representation for each node. ...
Preprint
Temporal networks have been widely used to model real-world complex systems such as financial systems and e-commerce systems. In a temporal network, the joint neighborhood of a set of nodes often provides crucial structural information on predicting whether they may interact at a certain time. However, recent representation learning methods for temporal networks often fail to extract such information or depend on extremely time-consuming feature construction approaches. To address the issue, this work proposes Neighborhood-Aware Temporal network model (NAT). For each node in the network, NAT abandons the commonly-used one-single-vector-based representation while adopting a novel dictionary-type neighborhood representation. Such a dictionary representation records a down-sampled set of the neighboring nodes as keys, and allows fast construction of structural features for a joint neighborhood of multiple nodes. We also design dedicated data structure termed N-cache to support parallel access and update of those dictionary representations on GPUs. NAT gets evaluated over seven real-world large-scale temporal networks. NAT not only outperforms all cutting-edge baselines by averaged 5.9% and 6.0% in transductive and inductive link prediction accuracy, respectively, but also keeps scalable by achieving a speed-up of 4.1-76.7 against the baselines that adopts joint structural features and achieves a speed-up of 1.6-4.0 against the baselines that cannot adopt those features. The link to the code: https://github.com/Graph-COM/Neighborhood-Aware-Temporal-Network.
... Pour cela, il me semble nécessaire d'ouvrir quelque peu le débat et de s'intéresser à la place qui est accordée à la figure de l'« étranger » en général. d ) Comprendre la valorisation sélective à travers la translation d'un concept : le « scientifique-étranger » Dans un texte de 1908, le sociologue allemand Georg Simmel définit le concept d'« étranger » comme « a member of a group in a spatial sense, but still not a member in a social sense, a person who may be in the group but not of it » (Simmel, 1950(Simmel, [1908 : 402-403). ...
... Pour cela, il me semble nécessaire d'ouvrir quelque peu le débat et de s'intéresser à la place qui est accordée à la figure de l'« étranger » en général. d ) Comprendre la valorisation sélective à travers la translation d'un concept : le « scientifique-étranger » Dans un texte de 1908, le sociologue allemand Georg Simmel définit le concept d'« étranger » comme « a member of a group in a spatial sense, but still not a member in a social sense, a person who may be in the group but not of it » (Simmel, 1950(Simmel, [1908 : 402-403). ...
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Cette thèse se propose de comprendre la place qu’occupe le discours scientifique sur le changement climatique dans la vie des gens d’un territoire insulaire considéré comme particulièrement vulnérable à ce sujet: les îles Cook dans le Pacifique Sud. Trop souvent envisagé dans une perspective universelle, ce discours scientifique est tout sauf socialement neutre, puisqu’il s’appuie sur des concepts, des représentations du monde, du temps et de l’espace qui sont propres aux sociétés occidentales. Prenant pour base de réflexion une enquête ethnographique comparative de dix-huit mois menée à Ma’uke et à Manihiki entre 2014 et 2018, la présente étude interroge la perception et l’usage que les populations insulaires font de ce discours depuis son émergence au cours de la décennie 2010. L’un des principaux enseignements de cette thèse est que cet usage s’inscrit dans des stratégies individuelles et sociales qui dépassent le cadre de la problématique environnementale à proprement parler. L’interprétation de la théorie du changement climatique par les habitants des îles, ainsi que les pratiques et les discours qui lui sont associés, sont ainsi indépendants des caractéristiques du problème climatique, qui se voit subordonnée aux statuts sociaux des insulaires, définis selon les rôles et les fonctions qu’ils occupent au sein de la communauté. En l’espèce, à défaut de provoquer une rupture de l’ordre social, la problématique du changement climatique reproduit et même renforce les systèmes de valeurs et de hiérarchies qui préexistaient à son émergence chez les Ma’ukean et les Manihikian. Ce travail montre combien il est nécessaire, pour comprendre les multiples sens qu’une communauté donne au discours scientifique sur le changement climatique, de mettre au cœur de l’analyse les tensions et dynamiques sociales qui la structurent.
... The king-minister model is part of the Simmelian tradition in social theory. Indeed, Georg Simmel's (1950Simmel's ( [1908) tertius gaudens -or "the third who enjoys" -is an abstract version of it. Here, the power of tertius is not intrinsic, but depends on "the strength which each of [the two parties] has relative to the other" (Simmel, 1950(Simmel, [1908, p. 157). ...
... Indeed, Georg Simmel's (1950Simmel's ( [1908) tertius gaudens -or "the third who enjoys" -is an abstract version of it. Here, the power of tertius is not intrinsic, but depends on "the strength which each of [the two parties] has relative to the other" (Simmel, 1950(Simmel, [1908, p. 157). Two instances that are not specified in Simmel's tertius gaudens but define the king-minister dynamic are when 1) the initiators of conflict are strongly interrelated, and 2) tertius is an actor outside the traditional circle of power. ...
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This article develops a model to explain the incorporation of new groups into the political elites in oligarchic societies. In this model, factions within the traditional power-holding group compete, and as their conflict escalates, they recruit the support of groups traditionally excluded from politics. This mechanism changes the ruling class’s social composition without the need for a substantial push from lower-status groups. I apply this model to analyze sequential changes in the social composition of the Chilean Congress from 1834 to 1894. To identify old versus new elites, I use an original database of kinship ties among all Chilean ministers and Congress members. By combining social network analysis and historical evidence, I show that, in times of increased intra-oligarchic conflict, groups traditionally excluded from the inner circles of power – the bourgeoisie and the bureaucrats initially – made breakthroughs in their political representation.
... The resistance values carried in the lyrics of Rap songs had their influences in the world both nationally and internationally (Bucca, 2016). Simmel's (1908) concept of distance comes into play. Simmel identifies a stranger as a person that is far away and close at the same time. ...
... More generally, Simmel (1908) observes that because of their peculiar position in the group, strangers often carry out special tasks that the other members of the group are either incapable or unwilling to carry out. For example, especially in pre-modern societies, most strangers made a living from trade, which was often viewed as an unpleasant activity by "native" members of those societies. ...
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The present study addressed the popular beliefs in the Palestinian society Popular belief practices were evaluated using an index of a 39-item scale developed by the researchers, and were administrated to 1,066 Palestinians in the West Bank, Palestine, during 2022. The sample population was selected via the stratified random selection method. Study findings revealed that almost three quarters of the participants (71.6%) experienced a moderate level of popular belief practices in their daily life. The study indicated that gender, educational level, age and the degree of religiosity were significant predictors of popular belief practices. The consequences of the study findings for prac�tice were highlighted. Keywords Popular Beliefs, Practices, Traditions, Faith, Culture, Palestine
... In terms of control, structural holes and brokerage are thought to provide benefits by allowing the broker to manage the flow and movement of information. The benefits are captured by the concept of tertius gaudens, which translates to "the third who benefits" (Simmel, 1950). Monge and Contractor (2003) discussed two situations where benefits of control accrue to the broker (p. ...
... A basic definition of trust is the expectation that actors will take each other's interests into account when making decisions or taking action (Lin, 2001, p. 147). Trust is seen as a critical element to the basic functioning of society and the multitude of formal and informal relationships that exist (Simmel, 1950). Trust is tightly linked with the concept of social capital. ...
Article
This article contributes to the network effectiveness literature by identifying the theoretical mechanisms and network measures scholars in public administration and policy use to draw inferences between network structures and network effects. We conducted a systematic review of empirical network effects research in 40 public administration and policy journals from 1998 to 2019. We reviewed and coded 89 articles and described the main social theories used in the network effectiveness literature and the associated mechanisms that translate network structures to network effects. We also explain how scholars operationalize those theoretical mechanisms through network measures. Overall, our findings reflect that there is limited use of social theories for the explanation of network effects and in some cases, inconsistent use of network measures associated with theories. Moreover, we identify several challenges confronting network effects research. These challenges include the difficulty of isolating specific mechanisms related to a particular social theory, the use of network structures both as a mechanism and as a measure, and the lack of data to examine network dynamics and coevolution.
... Nonetheless, bridging positions between informal groups can also come with high costs. In a seminal work, Simmel (1950) already underlined how go-betweens could be left with a sense of anomie since they are not full-fledged members of any group. When informal groups are the basis of a strong 'us-them' mentality (e.g., due to assortative mixing, past conflicts, or intense grouplevel competition), group spanning can entail even larger disadvantages (Krackhardt, 1999;Tasselli and Kilduff, 2017). ...
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Brokerage is a central concept in the organization literature. It has been argued that individuals in broker positions-i.e., connecting otherwise disconnected parts within a firm's social network-can control the flow of information. It would imply their increased relevance in workplace gossip. This allegation, however, has not been addressed empirically yet. To fill this gap, we apply social network analysis techniques to relational data from six organizations in Hungary. First, we identify informal groups and individuals in broker positions. Then, we use this information to predict the likelihood with which positive or negative gossip is reported. We find more gossip when the sender and receiver are part of the same group and more positive gossip about in-group rather than out-group targets. Individuals in broker positions are more likely the senders and targets of negative gossip. Finally, even if both the brokers and the boss(es) are the targets of their colleagues' negative gossip, the combination of the two categories (bosses in broker positions) does not predict more negative gossip anymore. Results are discussed in relation to the theoretical accounts on brokerage that emphasize its power for information control but fail to recognize the pitfalls of being in such positions.
... Simmel drew attention to the internal tensions inherent in any relationship built on trust. 11 His analysis of 'the fascination of betrayal' is based upon the role of secrets in social interactions. 12 While knowledge of others is essential in any relationship, withholding information is equally important. ...
Article
In this article, I explore the different ways in which educated young people in urban Mahajanga experience and anticipate social relationships. Taking rumours of betrayal as my starting point, I shed light on the ambivalent nature of friendship and commensality. While both phenomena echo Malagasy values encompassing solidarity and sharing, they also contain the threat of switching into dangerous territory: when trust becomes mistrust, a close friend can well become an enemy and a commensal situation might ultimately be poisoned. This article focuses on a relatively affluent group of young people and examines how narratives of betrayal both reflect and contribute to general frustrations and worries about personal failure. Individual life courses revolve essentially around a social project of anticipation which includes not only hope and aspiration but also fear of potential failure and of arousing envy among others. I argue that these generalised anxieties do not stifle social interaction; instead they foster an attitude of suspicion that serves as a useful tool of temporary detachment, giving space to gather knowledge about someone or something before determining the appropriate response.
... Many sociologists and anthropologists tend to see conflict as part of the interaction between people or groups (Bernard, 1957;Coser, 1956;Dahrendorf, 1958;Simmel, 1964). ...
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This study aims to explain the strategies taken by two major countries in the region, China and India, in overcoming border disputes in the Aksai Chin region. By using rational choice theory to explain the behavior of India and China and the reasons why they choose to use non-confrontational strategies. The research methodology used is qualitative with a case study model to analyze the policies of the two countries. The results of the study found that despite different views regarding Aksai Chin, the two countries both built trust and were committed that the border dispute would not affect their bilateral relationship as a whole. India and China have opted for a strategy of optimizing mutual benefits over purely national interests. It can be concluded that the two countries chose to take a non-confrontational policy in the border dispute in Aksai Chin as a rational choice in times of crisis based on the optimal benefits that can be obtained by both countries. Keywords: Aksai Chin, border dispute, India-China, non-confrontational policy, rational choice
... Although new ideas on "friendship" (Delitsch, 1900), "social circles" (Simmel, 1950), "social integration" (Moreno, 1934), "social structure" (Radcliffe-Brown, 1940), "role concept" (Nadel, 1957), or "figurations" (Elias, 1978) can already be found in classics of sociology, social anthropology, and psychology, the methodological procedure and the related structural analysis are relatively new (Freeman, 2004). In recent years, there has been very dynamic and innovative development on analysis tools for large data sets and visual network research. ...
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“Tell me how much your friends earn and I’ll tell you whether you smoke, what diseases you have and how old you’re going to become!” Part of this statement should be familiar to those who are interested in the connection between social inequality and health. People of comparatively lower socioeconomic status are at higher risk of health problems and are more likely to fall ill and die earlier than those who have a higher income etc. However, the sentence does not ask about your own income, but about the income of your friends. Is this information really meaningful? Does it really make a difference to your own health which friends you have, who you surround yourself with in your everyday life and what social position these people have?
... Public spaces have been stressed as socialising nodes, where people have the opportunity and also the obligation of accommodating themselves to the presence of strangers. Life in the metropolis is both about the strengthening of individuality while accepting and accommodating itself to pluralism and diversity (Simmel & Wolff, 1964). This is stressed by Frug (2001) as an essential step towards participation in urban and community life. ...
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The current thesis presents research about new methods of citizen participation based on digital technologies. The focus on the research lies on decentralized methods of participation where citizens take the role of co-creators. The research project first conducted a review of the literature on citizen participation, its origins and the different paradigms that have emerged over the years. The literature review also looked at the influence of technologies on participation processes and the theoretical frameworks that have emerged to understand the introduction of technologies in the context of urban development. The literature review generated the conceptual basis for the further development of the thesis. The research begins with a survey of technology enabled participation applications that examined the roles and structures emerging due to the introduction of technology. The results showed that cities use technology mostly to control and monitor urban infrastructure and are rather reluctant to give citizens the role of co-creators. Based on these findings, three case studies were developed. Digital tools for citizen participation were conceived and introduced for each case study. The adoption and reaction of the citizens were observed using three data collection methods. The results of the case studies showed consistently that previous participation and engagement with informal citizen participation are a determinining factor in the potential adoption of digital tools for decentralized engagement. Based on these results, the case studies proposed methods and frameworks that can be used for the conception and introduction of technologies for decentralized citizen participation.
... Studies conducted by Landau (2018) and Landau and Freemantle (2016) have also reported similar findings. Dana (2007Dana ( , 2008, Kim and Hurh (1985), Knight (1921), Rath (2006), Salaff (2002), Santarelli and Tran (2013), Schumpeter (1934), Simmel (1950), Sombart (1914), Landau (2018) and Worku (2018) have provided a robust historical perspective and valuable lessons from countries such as the USA, Canada, the United Kingdom, Germany, South Korea and Vietnam in which migrant entrepreneurs have made significant contributions to overall economic growth, development and job creation in their host nations. The authors have highlighted the merits and potential benefits of fulfilling the socioeconomic needs of migrant entrepreneurs by citing empirical evidence from the developed nations of the world. ...
Article
The capacity of small business enterprises to pay back loan money to microfinance agencies is a key determinant of long-term profitability in microfinance agencies (Mayer, Caruso & Salovey, 2016). Ethiopian entrepreneurs who conduct business in South Africa rely heavily on start-up capital raised from social capital schemes (Haile, 2015). The purpose of research was to determine factors that affect the repayment of loan money obtained from social capital schemes. The study points out necessary and sufficient conditions for the repayment of loans. The research found that 84% of the migrant entrepreneurs managed to pay back their loans in time, whereas about 16% of them failed to do the same. By the standards of Mayer et al. (2016), about 71% of respondents had adequate emotional intelligence. By the standards of Sahoo and Lenka (2016), about 72% of migrant entrepreneurs possessed adequate entrepreneurial skills. One key finding of study was that the repayment of loan money to social capital schemes was dependent upon awareness about the relative importance of adhering to business ethics principals, emotional intelligence, and the profitability of businesses. The study shows that the prompt repayment of loan money to social capital schemes, the acknowledgement of business ethics principles, and the possession of adequate emotional intelligence are key attributes of profitable businesses.
... This interdependence, reminiscent of Durkheim's "organic solidarity," has given rise to new forms of risk. Simmel (1950), in his discussion of knowledge, truth, and falsehood in human relations notes, "In a richer and larger cultural life [i.e., one like modern society], . . . existence rests on a thousand premises which the single individual cannot trace and verify to their roots at all, but must take on faith" (p. ...
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Since the 1960s, social science research has distinguished technological from natural disasters. Empirical evidence on disaster-related stress, social impacts of disasters, and risk has advanced our understanding of natural and technological disasters. However, there remains a critical need for synthesis of key concepts to advance theoretical development. This dissertation explores the capacity of social capital theory to integrate important conceptual elements of technological disaster research. Focusing on the community of Cordova in Prince William Sound, Alaska, this research examines persistent social impacts of the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill (EVOS). Employing a mixed-method approach to explore relationships between social capital and existing technological disaster concepts, I analyze primary qualitative data collected through in-depth personal interviews and participant-observation, as well as extant quantitative data on social and psychological impacts of the EVOS. This analysis reviews different conceptualizations of social capital, highlighting issues related to the following concepts: (1) the ecological-symbolic perspective; (2) renewable resource community; (3) recreancy; (4) collective trauma; (5) corrosive community; (6) lifestyle and lifescape change; (7) ontological security; and (8) secondary disasters. Research findings suggest that social capital theory integrates existing research on technological disasters. Findings also suggest that the EVOS initiated a social capital loss spiral, hindering Cordova’s ability to take effective collective action to address local social and economic issues. Social capital loss spirals are related to: (1) individual stress and collective trauma, (2) a corrosive community, and (3) changes in lifestyle and lifescape. Although Cordovans do not attribute all of the community’s ills to the EVOS, narratives described how initial social impacts depleted stores of social capital that have yet to recover. From this perspective, diminished social capital is a secondary disaster. Communities experiencing technological disasters can employ social capital theory to enhance recovery by focusing on efforts to rebuild trust, associations, and norms of reciprocity. Conceptualizing social impacts using language of social capital theory can: (1) reduce stigma; (2) enhance survivors’ beliefs about their ability to do something to restore social capital; and (3) improve opportunities for broader public support and policy change. Finally, social capital theory holds promise for natural disaster research.
... Unlike attitudinal evaluations of a desirable volume of immigration, in this study, we use the social distance concept, defined by Bogardus [1,2] as the degree of understanding, tolerance, and acceptance that people have towards members of different groups, to better capture how native-born citizens feel when faced with dissimilar others. To use Simmel's metaphor [3], immigrants are not wanderers or visitors who arrive today but leave tomorrow. They are strangers who arrive today and stay tomorrow-they live nearby and may share office space or even become close relatives via marriage. ...
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Attitudes toward immigrants can, to a large extent, be determined by certain macro contextual factors. This paper tests a number of proposed hypotheses to illustrate patterns of influence generated by economic and social globalization on perceived social distance relative to immigrants. The European Union (EU) constitutes an ideal study case as its Member States vary in exposure to globalization and attract immigrants from different countries of origin. We conduct a multilevel analysis combining individual level variables from Eurobarometer’s recent dataset collected in 2017 and country-level variables from KOF of Globalization Index and other major sources. The results show that individuals in countries with higher degrees of social globalization have lower levels of social distance toward immigrants, while relative level of economic globalization has scant influence. Contact factors are also evaluated for their potential effects. Both casual and close contacts, as specified, reduce social distance. This study contributes to migration studies by offering a clearer specification of how social, rather than economic, globalization interact with contact factors to decrease one’s perceived distance from immigrants in the EU.
... He tells us that doctors often give orders to nurses, but the opposite almost never happens, although nurses usually, without the feeling obliged to the same when a nurse enters. [21][22][23][24] ...
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This work provides an interactionist approach to innovative legal teaching practices through the analysis of modes of professional legal education: the simulations of civil court beatings in chambers at the workshops École fédérale du barreau (EFB), based on direct observations carried out in February and March 2016. These reflections are the continuation of empirical studies on the practicesof preparation for the ENM examination1 and on the teaching of law in France.2 One of the difficulties found is the huge gap between the very numerous writings on teaching at the ENM3 and the almost non-existent analyses of the professional learning of lawyers in the bar schools.
... Kot rečeno, del trenutnega razmaha družbenega interesa za hojo je tudi v povečanju akademskega zanimanja, pri čemer se dosežki na obeh področjih, kolikor ju je pač moč ločevati, medsebojno paradigmatsko podpirajo in dopolnjujejo. Ob določenih zgodnjih družboslovnih delih z vključevanjem telesa (Mauss 1996;Bourdieu 1977;de Certeau 2007;Simmel 1950; je hoja v zadnjih dveh desetletjih kot predmet in kot prizma raziskovanja doživela razmah na več akademskih področjih -v filozofiji (Gros 2017), zgodovini (Solnit 2006 Genealogija sodobnega zanimanja za hojo sega tako v romantiko in njeno pojmovanje hoje v naravi in na podeželju kot rešitve »estetskih težav, ki jih je povzročila hitra industrializacija« (Wallace po Edensor 2000: 83) kot tudi v modernistični flânerie, postopanje in opazovanje življenja v urbanih središčih, predvsem, seveda, v Haussmanovem »strateško olepšanem« (po Jay 1994: 117) Parizu. 9 Romantični pogled je v hoji, ki je sicer v kontekstu urbanizacije in industrializacije postala povezana z revščino, kriminalnostjo in norostjo, videl način odkrivanja izgubljenih korenin, estetskih in moralnih 9 ...
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Through the prism of urban space, the paper critically analyses and reflects on cultural anthropological and humanistic orientations in the study of the senses. The first part of the paper explores the genealogy of two key anthropological approaches to the 'life of the senses', namely the anthropology of the senses and sensory anthropology, outlines their relationship to art, and relates them to the recent emergence of 'walking methodologies'. The second part of the paper focuses primarily on the methodological integration of anthropology with art, while the third part of the paper focuses on the introduction of walking as a methodological 'tool' in ethnographic research. * * * Skozi prizmo urbanega prostora prispevek kritično razčlenjuje in reflektira kulturnoantropološke in humanistične usmeritve v preučevanju čutov. Prvi del prispevka raziskuje genealogijo dveh ključnih antropoloških pristopov k »življenju čutov«, in sicer antropologije čutov in čutne antropologije, oriše njun odnos do umetnosti in ju poveže z nedavnim porastom t. i. hodečih metodologij. Drugi del prispevka se tako osredinja na predvsem metodološko povezovanje antropologije z umetnostjo, tretji pa na vpeljevanje hoje kot metodološkega »pripomočka« v etnografskem raziskovanju. Nazadnje prispevek očrta druge prispevke, ki sestavljajo zbornik.
... Privacy is considered as a priority, expectation, value, need, and behaviours which enables individuals to reflect on the meanings of the events and respond to them (Gifford, 2002). According to Simmel (1950), all social processes are comprised of dialectical connections between different forces (privacy, intimacy, etc.). Thus, privacy is closely related to ideas such as social process, social influence, a sense of personal control, and independence (Altman, 1976: 9;Al Moqrin, 2016: 189). ...
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As urban populations continue to increase, residents face a number of challenges including the need for spaces to spend their leisure time and satisfy the demand for social interaction and privacy. Privacy in urban environments means feeling comfortable in controlling the relationship with others without being disturbed. This research aims to examine the privacy patterns and environmental and human factors affecting it. The research method is quantitative and qualitative analyses and data is collected through field surveys. Moreover, behavioural mapping was also used for recording privacy patterns in urban spaces as a new method that has not been used before in the privacy field. The results showed privacy in two forms: individual and collective. Individual privacy, generally formed on benches and along main routes; and collective privacy for team games or particular sports areas as formal leisure. The human dimension, particularly age and gender, exerts the most prominent influence over individuals' privacy. Considering the environmental dimensions, the possibility of contemplation in place had the highest effect on people's privacy. The design strategies for some parameters that create social environments with desired privacy were mentioned at the end. There are some approaches to providing desirable privacy in urban open spaces, such as the circular arrangement of sits with a supporting angle of more than 45 degrees, using semi-open spaces in the park, installing lights in the green areas of the park to create security, and design pergolas with suitable furniture that can be personalised.
... In most cases, social networks exhibit a pattern of brokerage which means cross-group edges are not distributed uniformly, instead a small subgroup of nodes hold a disproportionate level of cross-group edges. Simmel (1950) was the first to introduce the concept of network brokerage in triadic relations. Burt (2009) later advanced our understanding of brokerage by introducing the concept of "structural holes" between two unconnected communities, across which brokers act as intermediary. ...
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Social networks affect the diffusion of information, and thus have the potential to reduce or amplify inequality in access to opportunity. We show empirically that social networks often exhibit a much larger potential for unequal diffusion across groups along paths of length 2 and 3 than expected by our random graph models. We argue that homophily alone cannot not fully explain the extent of unequal diffusion and attribute this mismatch to unequal distribution of cross-group links among the nodes. Based on this insight, we develop a variant of the stochastic block model that incorporates the heterogeneity in cross-group linking. The model provides an unbiased and consistent estimate of assortativity or homophily on paths of length 2 and provide a more accurate estimate along paths of length 3 than existing models. We characterize the null distribution of its log-likelihood ratio test and argue that the goodness of fit test is valid only when the network is dense. Based on our empirical observations and modeling results, we conclude that the impact of any departure from equal distribution of links to source nodes in the diffusion process is not limited to its first order effects as some nodes will have fewer direct links to the sources. More importantly, this unequal distribution will also lead to second order effects as the whole group will have fewer diffusion paths to the sources.
... However, modern applications in various fields highlight the need to account for high-order interactions, to include the information deriving from groups of three or more nodes. Simple examples include triadic and larger groups interactions in social networks (whose importance has early been acknowledged in Simmel, 1950), scientific co-authorship (Estrada and Rodríguez-Velázquez, 2006), interactions between more than two species in ecological systems (Muyinda et al., 2020;Singh and Baruah, 2021) or high-order correlations between neurons in brain networks (Chelaru et al., 2021). Hypergraphs provide the most general formalization of high-order interactions: similarly to a graph, a hypergraph is defined as a set of nodes and a set of hyperedges; each hyperedge is a subset of nodes taking part in an interaction. ...
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We present a new hypergraph stochastic blockmodel and an associated inference procedure for model-based clustering of the nodes in simple hypergraphs. Simple hypergraphs, where a node may not appear several times in a same hyperedge, have been overlooked in the literature, though they appropriately model some high-order interactions (such as co-authorship). The model assumes latent groups for the nodes and conditional independence of the hyperedges given the latent groups. We establish the first proof of generic identifiability of the parameters in such a model. We develop a variational approximation Expectation-Maximization algorithm for parameter inference and node clustering, and derive an integrated classification likelihood criterion for model selection. We illustrate the performance of our algorithm on synthetic data and analyse a real dataset of co-authorship. Our method called HyperSBM is implemented in C++ for efficiency and available as an R package at https://github.com/LB1304/HyperSBM.
... Cohesive networks imply reciprocal connections among multiple members in support of a generally connected and reciprocal system. Indeed, in early thinking about network closure, Georg Simmel focused his attention on triads as a unit of analysis that was representative of larger structures (Simmel and Wolff 1950). Simmel's analysis indicates that nodes within triads (cliques) are different from dyads in terms of reduced individuality, reduced individual power, and moderated conflict. ...
... This study adopts Wissink and Hazelzet (2012) definition of social networks and focuses on residential social networks within neighborhoods. Theoretically, this paper builds on Simmel's classic theory of social networks (Simmel, 1950). Simmel first defined social networks as dynamic systems consisting of social circles and exchanges between individuals, each forming and being formed by the others. ...
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The process of urban renewal extensively changes residents' physical and social environments and, at the same time, reconstructs their social networks. Although there is a growing interest in analyzing the determinants of social networks, extant research neither accounts for the change in social networks after urban renewal nor considers the various residential groups affected by urban renewal. This work of research aims to examine the impact of urban renewal on social networks within neighborhoods based on three affected residential groups (in-site stayers, nearby stayers, and relocated residents) using data collected from six renewal areas in Chongqing, China. The results show that physical and social environmental changes significantly influence social networks during urban renewal. Socio-demographic factors such as age and education are associated with social network changes. The three affected residential groups identified significant differences in social networks after urban renewal. Nearby stayers experienced the largest increase in their network, while relocated residents experienced the most significant decrease. Social network changes for the same affected residential group also vary based on socioeconomic factors and perceptions of the residential environment. Targeted policy implications are provided for the specific affected residential groups.
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In recent decades, public spaces have been populated by forms of association that bring together individuals and organizations from different social milieus. These complex associative systems (CASs) may vary in many respects. But in trying to span the boundaries between state, market, and civil society, they all face a similar challenge: how to articulate the actions of participants— without destroying their autonomy and diversity—to address a public problem than none of them can solve without the cooperation of the others. Drawing on the study of several concrete cases, this book develops a model to analyze and evaluate those systems, in both their sociological and political dimensions.
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The development of salient ideas and publications on dynamic capabilities is given, extended by ideas outside the literature of strategic management. Dynamic capability is presented as an interdisciplinary subject to which knowledge is central. Diversity of knowledge is treated in terms of cognitive distance, limited through organisational focus. To deal with diversity, development and uncertainty, evolutionary theory and the notion of entropy are used. The relation between individual and organisational knowledge is modelled with the notion of a script and linguistic ideas. The governance of collaborative relations for innovation is discussed, including trust, which are also dynamic capabilities.
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The Scandinavian countries of Denmark, Sweden and Norway (sometimes including Finland and Iceland) have been depicted as small states punching above their demographic, political, military or economic weight in international affairs, especially in the post-Second World War era. The article historicises this notion by discussing nineteenth-century Scandinavian cultural elites and opinion makers who began portraying the region as culturally homogenous and distinctly modern. Coincidentally or consequently, this occurred at a time when Sweden and Denmark, having ceded their status as Northern European great powers to Russia and Prussia, were acutely preoccupied with reorienting themselves geopolitically. Expanding on the historiography of global positioning strategies in Scandinavia, the article centres on the interface between the realms of politics and cultural production during this period of transition. It highlights a group of self-declared cultural modernisers that in the 1880s came together under the banner of the Modern Breakthrough. Members of the group merit attention as public intellectuals advocating new ways of understanding Scandinavia’s place in the world by redefining the relationship between the local and the global. By focusing on their role as catalysts in a collective reorientation towards non-military claims to international relevance and status as an example of space-making practices, we can shed new light on region-building in Scandinavia against the backdrop of changing social and political realities.
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Salgınlar tarihin her döneminde insanlığın baş etmek durumunda kaldığı ölümcül felaketlerdendir. 2019 yılında insanlığın gündemine giren Covid-19 salgını da gerek insan sağlığı üzerindeki etkisi gerekse toplumların alışılmış yaşam biçimlerini dönüştürmesi bakımından tarihin önemli kırılma anlarından biri olmuştur. Salgının insan sağlığı ve toplum yaşamı üzerindeki yıkıcı etkilerinin en aza indirilmesi için ilgili otoritelerce (siyasi karar alıcılar ve sağlık otoriteleri) belirli tedbirler alınmıştır. Bu tedbirlerden biri de Covid-19 etkeninin bulaşma riskini azaltacak olan fiziksel mesafedir. Bir zorunluluk neticesinde insan hayatına giren fiziksel mesafenin, insan zihnindeki mesafe algısını değiştirip değiştirmeyeceği ve diğer insanlarla fiziksel bir mesafe koyma pratiğinin fiziksel olmaktan çıkıp zihni, duygusal ya da psikolojik bir mesafeye (diğer bir ifadeyle toplumsal mesafeye) dönüşüp dönüşmeyeceği üzerinde durulması gereken bir konudur. Buradan hareketle çalışmanın temel amacı, otoritelerce zorunlu hale getirilmiş fiziksel mesafe koyma pratiğinin kişilerin mesafe algısındaki etkilerinin izini sürmektir. Bu doğrultuda kişilerin fiziksel mesafe tedbirlerine karşı tutumları, bu tedbirlerin günlük yaşam pratikleri ve toplumsal ilişkiler üzerindeki etkilerine ilişkin kanaatleri ve diğer insanlarla aralarına fiziksel olmayan bir mesafe koyma tavırları incelenmiştir. Bu inceleme gerçekleştirilirken fiziksel mesafe temel boyutu ile bireysel farkındalık tutumu, yasal tedbirler tutumu ve toplumsal etki algısı alt boyutları üzerinde durulmuştur. Erzurum ili Yakutiye ilçesinde görev yapan ya da ikamet etmekte olan kamu sektörü çalışanları, özel sektör çalışanları ve çalışmayan yetişkin bireyler araştırmanın evrenini oluşturmaktadır. Araştırma sonucunda fiziksel mesafe tutumunun toplumsal mesafe tutumu üzerinde anlamlı etkisinin olduğu saptanmıştır.
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Brokers have long been under scrutiny for their purported disloyalty, but brokers’ attachments to and expectations of the parties they mediate for, remain largely neglected. This article contributes to existing scholarship on brokerage by reversing the much-discussed theme of betrayal by brokers, focussing instead on betrayal of brokers. It maps three forms of betrayal - interpersonal; institutional and ideological – drawing on unique empirical material, including interviews with Afghan interpreters who worked for Western armies. It argues that the betrayal of brokers is facilitated by conditions of reduced demand and weak social ties in an unequal global order. In cases where the brokers’ remit is largely dictated by the patron, brokers stand more to lose than to gain.
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The difference between esotericism and exoterism is unlike the difference between circles and rectangles. It is also not the difference between the size and relevance of a specific body of knowledge in circulation. It is rather the extent of the circulation, acceptance, understanding, and meaning of a particular body of knowledge, philosophy, or worldview, over the spiritual and socio-political life of diverse categories of people in society. The infancy of the academic study of esotericism, as well as its interdisciplinary nature, militate against the crystallization of a universally accepted definition of the term 'esotericism'. The various definitions of the term by researchers consistently relate to their research interests. In line with Faivre's concern with the forms of thought of esoteric movements (Faivre 1996), as well as the preoccupation that Versluis has with gnosis generation in esoteric movements (Versluis n.d), our study of Kereke ya Sephiri in Botswana and South Africa examines a) the cultural and religious contexts in which Frederick Modise, a gnostic in his own right, generated the underlying gnosis of his secret society, and b) the import of the content of this visionary mystical revelation in the spiritual and social lives of members of this secret society1. The study of the Setswana term, Kereke ya Sephiri (church of a secret, referring to a Christian-based secret society), is a study of African esotericism in South Africa and Botswana. The principal academic interest in the study of esotericism lies in our quest to identify the fundamental tenets of the worldviews of the specific esoteric society, the eclectic nature of its philosophy, and how this philosophy relates to the orthodoxy of the day (Christianity in this instance). We do so by concentrating on the form of thinking, engendered by esoteric practices. Esoteric groups do not appear or exist within cultural voids. For this reason, by identifying the eclectic or syncretic nature of the fundamental philosophy (gnosis) of these groups, we trace the cultural influences involved in the emergence and consolidation of these worldviews and philosophies. This study shows that African esotericism is not always antithetic or subversive of dominant or institutionalized Christianity.
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Este artigo explora diferentes dinâmicas de parentesco e família em correlação a formas de deslocamento e alternância de moradia, consolidadas nos universos sociais do sertão de Pernambuco e do meio-norte do Mato Grosso. O propósito é mostrar, com o apoio de dados etnográficos, que os significados, funções e abrangência atribuídos à família estendem-se ou restringem-se, multiplicam-se ou deslocam-se ao longo das trajetórias das pessoas, e essa maleabilidade é testemunha de sua pertinência e vitalidade nos planos das ideias, da moral, dos sentimentos, bem como das relações e das práticas.
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Frente à ausência de uma política nacional de combate à pandemia de covid-19 foram sendo articuladas, nas periferias brasileiras, campanhas de solidariedade popular, a partir de redes que desde há muito combinam formas de cuidado e por meio de um modo de vida baseado na convivialidade e na consubstancialidade. Essas campanhas entendem a vida e a sobrevivência como indissociáveis: manter-se vivo, nessa conjuntura, é se alimentar bem, cuidar da saúde, cuidar de si e do outro e viver na luta em comunidade – driblando o confinamento à precariedade que o desmonte do Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS) produz. A partir da história e da experiência dos agentes populares de saúde de uma campanha de solidariedade, proponho reconhecer um vínculo entre convivialidade, consubstancialidade e a brincadeira com a legibilidade estatal por meio do cuidado, a partir do que os militantes reivindicam como saúde popular. Como a pesquisa se deu com ativistas envolvidos em distintos territórios nacionais em torno da campanha e em distintas instâncias organizativas, o método encontrado para torná-la inteligível à leitora foi uma experimentação etnográfica criando uma família composta pelas muitas famílias e pelos muitos ativistas com os quais conversei ao longo de 2020 e 2021.
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教師成長を探求するために、教師のアイデンティティを研究する必要がある。また、教師という専門職としてのアイデンティティに留まらず、個人的なアイデンティティも重要である。それらを踏まえ,本研究の目的は、ベトナム人日本語教師がその社会・文化的背景を持ち合わせる中でどのようにアイデンティティを確立・形成していくのかを明確にすることである。ナラティブインクワイアリーを用い、2名の日本語教師が同僚や学生との関係の中で自分なりに工夫しながら職場に合わせた経験を語る。教師は社会的な主体であり(Cross, 2018) 、学生と相互的な存在である(Barkhuizen, 2016)ことを前提に、社会文化的な背景に依拠するアイデンティティを分析する。分析した結果を詩や日記で表象することを通して、ベトナム人日本語教師が個人的なアイデンティティを確立しながら専門職のアイデンティティを構築する過程が明らかになった。日本語教師のアイデンティティと、教師成長や教育的な理念の構築のつながりに関しても議論した。
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Cryptology of the long eighteenth century became an explicit discipline of secrecy. Theorized in pedagogical texts that reached wide audiences, multimodal methods of secret writing during the period in England promoted algorithmic literacy, introducing reading practices like discernment, separation, recombination, and pattern recognition. In composition, secret writing manipulated materials and inspired new technologies in instrumentation, computation, word processing, and storage. Cryptology also revealed the visual habits of print and the observational consequences of increasing standardization in writing, challenging the relationship between print and script. Secret writing served not only military strategists and politicians; it gained popularity with everyday readers as a pleasurable cognitive activity for personal improvement and as an alternative way of thinking about secrecy and literacy.
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Gossip is a pervasive phenomenon in organizations causing many individuals to have second-hand information about their colleagues. However, whether it is used to inform friendship choices (i.e., friendship creation, friendship maintenance, friendship discontinuation) is not that evident. This paper articulates and empirically tests a complex contagion model to explain how gossip, through its reputational effects, can affect the evolution of friendship ties. We argue that hearing gossip from more than a single sender (and about several targets) impacts receivers’ friendships with the gossip targets. Hypotheses are tested in a two-wave sociometric panel study among 148 employees in a Dutch childcare organization. Stochastic actor-oriented models reveal positive gossip favors receiver-target friendships, whereas negative gossip inhibits them. We also find evidence supporting that, for damaging relationships, negative gossip needs to originate in more than a single sender. Positive gossip about a high number of targets discourages friendships with colleagues in general, while negative gossip about many targets produces diverging trends. Overall, the study demonstrates that second-hand information influences the evolution of expressive relations. It also underscores the need to refine and extend current theorizing concerning the multiple (and potentially competing) psychological mechanisms causing some of the observed effects.
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Este artículo aborda la configuración histórica de la nación española desde la perspectiva de la continuidad en el tiempo que el Antiguo Régimen presuponía a las comunidades políticas. Partiendo de la singular temporalidad de la Monarquía hispánica como un imperio, se ofrece un recorrido por el discurso elaborado para tratar de disipar la amenaza de su decadencia. Dicho discurso, centrado en la adopción del lenguaje del comercio y la ciencia de la economía política, eventualmente permitió ofrecer un diagnóstico de los males morales de los españoles que alejaba la posibilidad de una desnaturalización sin poner en riesgo la ortodoxia católica legitimadora de la monarquía hispánica y sin habilitar un sujeto con capacidad política. El texto permite así reflexionar sobre la dimensión tiempo inherente a toda definición de comunidad, así como sobre los rasgos distintivos de la nación española alumbrada por los proyectistas y reformadores ilustrados, marcada por el peso de rasgos impolíticos.
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How does the pursuit of transparency and insight tend to produce secrecy and vice versa? In popular and political discourse, secrecy and transparency are usually depicted as mutually exclusive practices. At the same time, we know from extant research that the two are closely related, that they each have performative effects, and tend to encroach on each other. The inseparability and performative dynamics between the two, however, remains to be unfolded. This critical essay revisits the secrecy-transparency relationship through the lens of Edgar Morin’s dialogical principle. From this perspective, we argue that secrecy-transparency dialogics perform as a complex whole, involving both complementary and antagonistic forces. As an illustration of dialogic performativity, we draw on the phenomenon and practice of ‘open meetings’ in public sector organizations. Specifically, we argue that the ambiguous fascination with knowing and not knowing create conditions for simulated insight and self-imposed conformity in ways that recalibrate the relationship between transparency and secrecy. On this background, we call for renewed critical and reflexive engagement with the transparency ideal and its presumed antipode, secrecy.
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This paper sets out to study loyalty as identity formation through the cases of three Muslim leaders in France (T. Ramadan, A. Mamoun and M. Zenati). First, I will discuss the state of research on “Muslim loyalties” in the West. Afterwards, Ramadan’s concept of critical loyalties, Mamoun’s loyalty as gratitude, and Zenati’s human brotherhood as the basis of loyalty will be thoroughly examined. The main goal of the current study is to determine how the three Muslim leaders incorporate loyalty as an element of shaping the identity of French Muslim citizens while attempting to resolve the current tensions between the French state and Islam.
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People in different social statuses have different perceptions due to differences in cognition. Combined with the characteristics of public behaviour and cognition, this study examined the impact of the widespread cognitive biases in social status on performance perception. This study used the ordinary least squares model to verify that the cognitive bias in social status has a significant positive impact on the perception of social governance performance. At the same time, a moderated mediation model was constructed to verify that social trust plays a partial mediating role in the influence mechanism of cognitive bias in social status on the perception of social governance performance. The use of the Internet significantly inhibited the influence of cognitive bias in social status on the perception of social governance performance. Although it also weakened the influence of cognitive bias in social status on social trust, the moderating effect on the mediating effect is not obvious. This study verifies and analyses the internal relationship and mechanism of social status cognition deviation and perception of social governance performance from multidisciplinary dimensions, which enriches the social cognition theory of social status, and expands the research on the perception of social governance performance.
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The research is an inquiry to understand the socio-cultural interaction between the native Yogyanese and the incomers within multiculturalism. The focus of the study is the perception of the incomers toward Yogyakarta and Yogyanese. Considering pluralistic and multicultural Yogyakarta's society is predominantly Muslim, the research explicitly detects the perception of non-Muslim incomers (pendatang), particularly Christians. The result of the study exposes the complexity of interaction between the natives and the incomers. The mood celebrates diversity, acceptance, cordial relationship, tension, and distance. The pressure might occur through the cultural contrast of Javanese and non-Javanese and the social, cultural, religious, and political dynamics at the local and national levels. However, the dynamic is an ongoing socio-cultural negotiation that attempts to befit the best molding.
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Part of the reason women are disadvantaged in the labor market is because gender inequalities define social networks of the workplace. In the current project, I consider how gender shapes professional networks by focusing on the R&B/hip hop industry as an empirical case study. By conceptualizing the collaboration patterns between performers of popular R&B/hip hop songs from 2012 to 2020 as a network, I apply exponential random graph models (ERGMs) and find that women tend to occupy marginalized positions when compared to their male peers. Then, I adopt a social exchange framework to argue that critical acclaim is a resource that is associated with higher odds of collaborating for all artists, though gender differences define this process. For instance, the largest gender gaps in collaboration are present among artists who have either won Grammy awards or never received nominations for such honors. These findings suggest that female artists with lower status are often excluded from collaboration opportunities. Once women acquire enough prestige to “make up” for their gender, they may avoid collaborations because gender stereotypes challenge their decision-making power within these interactions.
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The urbanization of the ways of life is, in this sense, a major social and anthropological fact of civilization, and as such, the modernity that derives from an exploitation of urban sedentariness. Indeed, the creation of this discipline is contemporary, based on the urbanization of lifestyles and the social dynamics of modernity, of which the city is simultaneously the outcome and the vector: rationalization, individualism and differentiation. In the modern city, traditional community relations have been transformed to the point of becoming impersonal and anonymous. Cities are the places where there is the greatest concentration of diverse populations, in terms of both social and cultural levels. Sustainable urban development appears today as the idealized way to heal the ills of the city. The city thus needs social mobilization to regenerate itself, to find answers to the inflation of inequalities that it harbors and to confront the ecological crisis.
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Though the concept of community has been of central concern to the social sciences and social theory since the 19th century, it has also been a frequent target of criticism. Community is often accused of being a vague and sentimental concept. These criticisms are often accompanied by the claim that sociologists and social theorists have used the concept of community to cloak their political agendas. This article compares a range of radical, classical social theorists on three topics that intersect with discussions of community in the classical and contemporary periods: place, pace, and power. This comparison suggests that while the community concept in classical theory was sentimental in nature, it was also used to critique specific technological developments, from the rise of railways to the spread of industrial manufacturing. This revisionist reading of the concept of community achieves three things for contemporary radical theory: (1) it suggests that technological change should be at the center of social critique; (2) it demonstrates the interdependence of technology with other macro-historical social changes; and (3) it offers a model of how a sentimental concept can be used to develop critical and theoretical accounts of technological change.
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We examine the informal exchange of labour in farming villages with the successful adoption of labour-intensive farming practices. Previous studies have characterised the network pattern of labour exchange to relate such cooperative behaviour to the community’s social structure. We use network patterns from the literature and recreate the internal network structure of the labour exchange in selected Bhutanese villages to determine the type of social enforcement mechanisms used. Results show that labour exchange networks in these villages are characterised by a high prevalence of triad closure as an underlying social structure. These are completely connected structures within the labour exchange network in which any two farmers exchanging labour have a common farmer with whom both share labour. The results from our random graph modelling imply that villages with well-functioning labour exchange institutions may be most suitable for being promoted as “organic villages” as they can adapt to the high labour requirement that comes with organic farming. Future research should analyse how villages with different network structures produce different farm outcomes and how the village and farm-specific attributes affect their social enforcement mechanisms.
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