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Climate change is a major challenge in wine production. Temperatures are increasing worldwide, and most regions are exposed to water deficits more frequently. Higher temperatures trigger advanced phenology. This shifts the ripening phase to warmer periods in the summer, which will affect grape composition, in particular with respect to aroma compounds. Increased water stress reduces yields and modifies fruit composition. The frequency of extreme climatic events (hail, flooding) is likely to increase. Depending on the region and the amount of change, this may have positive or negative implications on wine quality. Adaptation strategies are needed to continue to produce high-quality wines and to preserve their typicity according to their origin in a changing climate. The choice of plant material is a valuable resource to implement these strategies. (JEL Classifications: Q13, Q54)
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The Impact of Climate Change on Viticulture and
Wine Quality*
Cornelis van Leeuwen
and Philippe Darriet
Climate change is a major challenge in wine production. Temperatures are increasing world-
wide, and most regions are exposed to water decits more frequently. Higher temperatures
trigger advanced phenology. This shifts the ripening phase to warmer periods in the summer,
which will affect grape composition, in particular with respect to aroma compounds. Increased
water stress reduces yields and modies fruit composition. The frequency of extreme climatic
events (hail, ooding) is likely to increase. Depending on the region and the amount of change,
this may have positive or negative implications on wine quality. Adaptation strategies are
needed to continue to produce high-quality wines and to preserve their typicity according
to their origin in a changing climate. The choice of plant material is a valuable resource to
implement these strategies. (JEL Classications: Q13, Q54)
Keywords: Climate change, temperature, water decit, wine quality, wine typicity.
I. Introduction
The reality of climate change is admitted by the vast majority of the scientic
community (IPCC, 2014). Among human activities, agriculturein particular
viticultureis highly dependent upon climatic conditions during the growing
season. Hence, wine production is obviously affected by climate change. Return
on investment in most agricultural production is driven by yield, thus it is relevant
to study the impact of climate change on yield parameters. Return on investment
in wine production is driven as much by sales prices, based on quality and reputa-
tion, as by yield. In viticulture, it is thus important to study the implications of
We thank Marc and Matthieu Dubernet for the data on grape composition in the Languedoc (Figure 2)
and Alexandre Pons for the massoia lactone data (Figure 4).
Bordeaux Sciences Agro, ISVV, UMR Ecophysiologie et Génomique Fonctionnelle de la Vigne n° 1287,
F-33140 Villenave dOrnon, France; e-mail: (corresponding author).
Université de Bordeaux, Unité de recherche Œnologie, ESC 1366 INRA, ISVV, F-33140 Villenave
dOrnon, France; e-mail:
Journal of Wine Economics, Volume 11, Number 1, 2016, Pages 150167
© American Association of Wine Economists, 2016
climate change not only on yield but also on quality (e.g., Ashenfelter and
Storchmann, 2016; Oczkowski, 2016). In this paper, we address the impact of
climate change on vine phenology and development, grape and wine composition,
and wine typicity according to origin. Some of these changes have already occurred
and can be quantied; others are predictable in the coming decades.
II. The Effect of Climate on Wine Production
Climate is a major factor in wine production. In the scientic literature, many papers
address the effect of climate. Vines are grown in a wide variety of climatic situations.
However, a majority of the major wine-growing regions are located between the 35th
and the 50th parallels in the Northern Hemisphere and between the 30th and the
45th parallels in the Southern Hemisphere. It is virtually impossible to produce
high-quality wines in tropical or subtropical regions. Wine growing is also complicat-
ed at high latitudes because of injury caused by spring or winter frost and because of
a loss of bud fertility at low temperatures. Each of the main wine-producing regions
can be characterized by mean climatic conditions, which are well described in
Gladstones (2011). These climatic conditions are a major driver of wine typicity in
relation to its origin (van Leeuwen and Seguin, 2006). Among environmental
factors, climate has a greater impact on vine development and fruit composition
compared to soil and grapevine variety (van Leeuwen et al., 2004). In a given
wine-producing region, climatic conditions vary from one year to the other. These
variations induce the vintage effect,year-to-year variations in yield, quality, and
typicity. Growers have chosen plant materials (variety, clone, and rootstock) accord-
ing to local climatic conditions in order to optimize the compromise between yield
and quality. Viticultural practices can be modied to adapt to climatic variability
among vintages.
A. Temperatures
Vine phenologythat is, the date on which bud break, owering, and véraison
(onset of ripening) occuris driven by temperature. This relation is so strong that
vine phenology can be predicted by models that are based only on temperature
(Parker et al., 2011). Temperature also affects fruit ripening. Sugar accumulation in-
creases with temperature (Coombe, 1987), but certain secondary metabolites, like
anthocyanins, are negatively affected by high temperature (Kliewer and Torres,
1972). Grape acidity, in particular the malic acid content, decreases in high temper-
ature (Coombe, 1987).
B. Water Status
Vine water status depends on soil texture, percentage of stones, rooting depth, rain-
fall, reference evapotranspiration (ET
), and leaf area. Water decit impairs
Cornelis van Leeuwen and Philippe Darriet 151
photosynthesis (Hsiao, 1973), and shoot growth (Lebon et al., 2006) and reduces
berry size (Trégoat et al., 2002; van Leeuwen and Seguin, 1994). It increases grape
tannin and anthocyanin content (Duteau et al., 1981; Matthews and Anderson,
1988; van Leeuwen and Seguin, 1994). Excessive water decit stress can lead to
damage on leaves and stuck grape ripening.
C. Radiation
As long as water is not a limiting factor, vine photosynthesis increases with light in-
tensity until one-third of maximal radiation and then levels off (Kriedemann and
Smart, 1971). Contradictory results have been published on the impact of light on
grape phenolics, probably because it is difcult to separate the effect of light from
that of temperature. In a eld study with an adapted experimental design, Spayd
et al. (2002) showed that the amount of anthocyanin in grape skins increases with
light but is negatively affected by high temperature.
III. Climate Change
Most scientists have admitted the reality of climate change, caused by human activ-
ities and in particular the emission of greenhouse gases, since the 1990s. The main
measurable effect of climate change is a steady increase in temperature. This is ob-
served worldwide, although signicant differences in the rate of heating exist from
one region to another (Schar et al., 2004). Depending on the scenario of greenhouse
gas emissions, temperatures are predicted to increase by from 1 °C to 3.7 °C until the
end of the century, compared to the reference period 19852005 (IPCC, 2014). Less
consensus exists concerning a modication in rainfall patterns. Rainfall is a discon-
tinuous phenomenon, and tendencies can be assessed only over very long periods
(several decades). Moreover, it is likely that modications in rainfall will differ
from one region to another (IPCC, 2014). However, vine water status is driven as
much by evapotranspiration as by rainfall (Lebon et al., 2003; see discussions in
companion paper, Gambetta, 2016). Evapotranspiration increases with temperature.
Hence, a warmer climate is also a dryer climate, even when rainfall does not decrease.
Climate change will also increase radiation and the frequency of extreme weather
events (IPCC, 2014).
IV. The Impact of Increasing Temperatures on Vine Development, Fruit
Composition, and Wine Quality
A. Measurable Effects
An increase in temperature, which is one of the major consequences of climate
change, triggers an advance in phenology. Since the 1980s, harvest dates have ad-
vanced by two weeks in Alsace (Duchêne et al., 2005) and Bordeaux, France
152 The Impact of Climate Change on Viticulture and Wine Quality
(Figure 1A). In northern (Alsace) or Atlantic (Bordeaux) wine-growing regions,
growers take advantage of warmer conditions to pick fruit at greater levels of ripe-
ness (Figure 1B). Hence, the advance in harvest date is less compared to the real
advance in phenology. In Mediterranean conditions, increasing the ripeness levels
of grapes is not needed. This explains why the advance in harvest dates is greater
in this situation (approximately four weeks for Châteauneuf du Pape, Figure 1C).
Figure 1A
Harvest Dates in an Estate in Saint-Emilion from 1892 to 2014
Fig. 1a - Colour online, B/W in print
Source: ONERC, 2014.
Figure 1B
Duration from Véraison to Harvest from 1988 to 2014 from a Block of Cabernet Franc in the
Saint-Emilion Area (Bordeaux, France)
Note: The length
Fig. 1b - B/W online, B/W in print
of the ripening period increased by 20 days over 25 years. An exception to this tendency was 2013, when growers picked
relatively early because of Botrytis pressure.
Cornelis van Leeuwen and Philippe Darriet 153
In any case, grapes ripen in warmer conditions because of climate change, not only
because the climate is warming up but also because phenology is advanced.
Data from the Dubernet laboratory (11100 Montredon-Corbières, France) shows
that there has been a signicant evolution in grape composition at harvest over the
past 30 years (Figure 2). This data is based on thousands of samples analyzed every
year. Potential alcohol levels increased by more than 2% by volume, total acidity de-
creased by 1 g tartrate/L and pH increased by 0.2 units. Similar modications in
grape composition have been reported at many other vineyards (Duchêne and
Schneider, 2005; Mira de Ordunia, 2010). It is likely that this evolution is not only
the result of an increase in temperature. Other factors include increased atmospheric
carbon dioxide (CO
) (+15% over the period), increased radiation, improved
Figure 1C
Harvest Dates in Châteauneuf du Pape from 1945 to 2012
Source: ONERC,
Fig. 1c - B/W online, B/W in print
Figure 2
Potential Alcohol Levels, Total Acidity and pH of Grape Juice Just Prior to Harvest in
Languedoc from 1984 to 2013
Source: Dubernet
Fig. 2 - B/W online, B/W in print
laboratory, 11100 Montredon-Corbières.
154 The Impact of Climate Change on Viticulture and Wine Quality
viticultural techniques, and longer hangtime(Figure 1B). More research is needed
to quantify the impact of each of these factors in modied grape composition at
B. Predictable Effects
It is possible to model predicted phenology by using temperature projections until
the end of the century. Flowering in Bordeaux (France) will be advanced by 15
days in the near future (20202050) and by 30 days at the end of the century
(20702100, Figure 3). Ripeness will be advanced by 25 and 45 days, respectively
(Pieri, 2010). This would mean harvest in the rst week of September in two
decades and around mid-August by the end of the century. These early harvest
dates are incompatible with the production of great terroir wines (van Leeuwen
and Seguin, 2006).
It is quite easy to model phenology based on predicted temperatures, but predict-
ing grape composition as a result of changing climatic conditions in the years to
come is much less obvious. However, it is very likely that the already observed
trend in grape composition (Figure 2) will continue. Increased sugar levels in
grapes yield wines with a higher alcohol level. The best possible alcohol level for
quality may vary with the concentration in other compounds like organic acids
and the style of the wine targeted by the producer. Wine quality can be impaired
when alcohol level is too low but also when the alcohol level is too high. Until the
early 1980s, wine quality was altered in most situations by having an alcohol level
that was too low. Hence, wine quality beneted from increased sugar levels in
grapes. Today it has become more common to harvest grapes with a potential
Figure 3
Modeled Mean Flowering and Harvest Dates
Note: Modeled
Fig. 3 - B/W online, B/W in print
mean owering (A) and harvest dates (B) for Merlot in Avignon (avi),Bordeaux (bor), Colmar (col), Dijon (dij) and Toulouse
(tou). All towns located in France. RP = Recent Past (19712000), NF = Near Future (20202050) and DF = Distant Future (20702100).
Adapted from Pieri (2010).
Cornelis van Leeuwen and Philippe Darriet 155
alcohol level of over 14%, which, for most wines, is too high for optimum quality.
Regarding acidity, the most relevant indicator is must and wine pH. Wines are per-
ceived as being rounder, sweeter, and less aggressive when pH increases. Most con-
sumers consider this a positive change. However, wines can lack freshness when
pH is too high, and it can also impair stability. The wild yeast Brettanomyces brux-
ellensis can spoil wine during aging in barrels or tanks, even after bottling, when pH
is high (Lonvaud-Funel et al., 2010). Higher levels of sulfur dioxide (SO
) have to be
added to stabilize wines when pH is high.
With respect to aroma, concentrations of 2-methoxy-3-isobutyl-methoxypyrazine
(IBMP, responsible for bell pepper aroma in wine) in grapes decrease with temper-
ature (Falcão et al., 2007). However, other factors, such as fruit exposure, also
play an important role in grape IBMP content (Koch et al., 2012). It is frequently
observed that wines produced in warm climates from vines with dense canopies
can show a vegetal character. Rotundone levels in grapes, responsible for the
peppery aroma of Syrah wines, decrease with temperature (Scarlett et al., 2014).
Hence, wines produced from Syrah grapes will exhibit this characteristic less fre-
quently when temperatures increase. However, 1,1,6-trimethyl-1,2-dihydronaphtha-
lene (TDN), the compound responsible for petrol avors in wines produced from
Riesling grapes, increases with temperature during the berry-ripening phase
(Marais et al., 1992). Contrasting results are reported for aromas from the terpenol
family. Linalol content in berries is impaired at high temperatures, while no detri-
mental effect is shown on geraniol content (Duchêne, personal communication,
2015). Massoia lactone (5,6-dihydro-6-pentyl-2(2H)-pyranone) is the characteristic
aroma of gs and coconut that can be found in wines produced from overripe
fruit. In Bordeaux, Pons et al. (2011) found more massoia lactone in Pomerol
wines, produced from a majority of Merlot grapes, in warm vintages, whether
they are dry (2003) or wet (2007) (Figure 4).
Figure 4
Level of 5,6-Dihydro-6-Pentyl-2(2H)-Pyranone for Selected Vintages
Note: Level of
Fig. 4 - B/W online, B/W in print
5,6-dihydro-6-pentyl-2(2H)-pyranone (called massoia lactone) in wine produced in a Pomerol estate (Bordeaux) for the vin-
tages 1999 to 2008 (Pons et al., 2011).
156 The Impact of Climate Change on Viticulture and Wine Quality
V. The Impact of Increasing Water Decits on Vine Development, Fruit
Composition, and Wine Quality
A. Measurable Effects
Water balance modeling is an appropriate tool for estimating vine water decits in a
specic block or vintage. In Table 1, water decit was modeled for the Saint-Emilion
region (Bordeaux, France) according to Lebon et al. (2003) for 61 vintages from
Table 1
Classication of 61 Vintages from Driest to Wettest in Saint-Emilion
Sept 30
1 to 20) Vintage
Sept 30
1 to 20)
2005 365.55 3/8 20 2002 164.22 10/8 16
2010 320.08 7/8 19 1967 157.55 19/8 14
2011 309.19 21/7 16 1976 150.51 7/8 16
1989 307.26 4/8 19 1984 149.61 20/8 12
1990 306.43 6/8 19 1955 148.85 12/8 18
2012 305.33 8/8 16 1981 145.59 20/8 16
2003 304.65 27/7 18 1953 144.41 14/8 18
2000 289.60 6/8 19 1974 142.73 19/8 12
1986 270.95 9/8 18 1994 132.02 6/8 15
1998 256.04 7/8 17 1952 128.59 3/8 17
2004 251.27 9/8 17 1980 125.94 3/9 13
1995 241.39 10/8 17 1983 125.89 19/8 17
2009 241.18 3/8 19 1975 120.27 20/8 17
1962 230.57 22/8 17 1957 119.00 19/8 12
1964 220.22 14/8 17 1982 113.65 9/8 19
2008 212.22 11/8 18 1972 108.44 1/9 10
1997 211.23 31/7 15 1959 86.80 10/8 19
1988 211.00 17/8 17 1977 86.59 2/9 11
1970 210.04 21/8 18 1993 80.00 9/8 14
2007 209.52 26/7 16 1954 79.91 28/8 9
1961 206.65 7/8 20 1971 40.08 21/8 17
2001 206.28 12/8 17 1956 39.20 28/8 9
1991 205.57 20/8 13 1968 32.72 23/8 6
1985 198.05 16/8 18 1958 31.48 24/8 12
2006 196.21 4/8 18 1969 13.70 24/8 12
1987 181.46 16/8 14 1973 12.36 13/8 12
1979 179.04 25/8 16 1965 10.85 27/8 3
1999 174.19 4/8 16 1963 7.50 25/8 3
1996 170.97 10/8 18 1992 3.60 14/8 12
1978 169.90 2/9 17 1960 0.80 7/8 12
1966 164.90 13/8 17
Note: Classication of 61 vintages from the driest to the wettest by water balance modeling between April 1 and September 30 in the
Saint-Emilion region (Bordeaux, France). Water balance model according to Lebon et al. (2003). Parameters: Soil Water Holding
Capacity =0 mm; no stomatal regulation. Vintage quality ratings according to Bordeaux wine brokers Tasted and Lawton.
Cornelis van Leeuwen and Philippe Darriet 157
1952 to 2012. To emphasize the effect of climate in the models results, we used a soil
water holding capacity of 0 mm and ignored possible stomatal regulation. For this
reason, values are negative; the more negative the value, the dryer the vintage.
Over the period considered, vintages become dryer (Figure 5), not necessarily
because of decreased rainfall but more certainly because evapotranspiration increas-
es with higher temperatures. Among the 20 driest vintages in 61 years, 10 occurred in
the period 20002012. At the same time, overall quality of the vintage, as rated by the
Bordeaux wine brokers Tasted and Lawton (33000 Bordeaux, France), increases with
the level of water decit. The correlation between quality and water decit is highly
signicant (R
= 0.54, Figure 6). Over the same period, vintage quality is much less
correlated to the average temperature from April to October (R
= 0.26). In
Bordeaux, all dry years are good or great vintages. If modeled water decit is over
220 mm from April 1 to September 30, quality is equal to or higher than 16/20.
This does not mean that all wet vintages are necessarily poor vintages. Some wet vin-
tages have been saved by a particularly dry and sunny September. This analysis
shows that, over the past years, average vintage quality in Bordeaux improved,
not necessarily because of higher temperature but, rather, because of dryer produc-
tion conditions. However, these two factors are not completely independent, because
high temperatures induce high evapotranspiration. Water decit improves quality
potential for the production of red wine because it induces early cessation of shoot
growth, reduces berry size, and enhances skin phenolics in grapes (van Leeuwen
et al., 2009). These results from the Bordeaux area cannot automatically be repro-
duced in dryer regions, where yield and quality may suffer from excessive water
stress, in particular in soils with low water-holding capacity.
The impact of climate change on aromas and aroma precursors is compound
specic. Berry content in volatile thiole precursors is reduced by water stress,
while it can be increased by moderate water decit (Peyrot des Gachons et al.,
Figure 5
Evolution of Water Balance from 1952 to 2012 for Saint-Emilion
Note: Evolution of
Fig. 5 - Colour online, B/W in print
water balance from 1952 to 2012 calculated between April 1 and 3 September 0 for the Saint-Emilion region (France).
Water balance model according to Lebon et al. (2003). Parameters: Soil Water Holding Capacity = 0 mm; no stomatal regulation.
158 The Impact of Climate Change on Viticulture and Wine Quality
2005). This result was conrmed for Riesling by Schüttler et al. (2011,2013) in semi-
controlled conditions (Figure 7). Volatile thiole content was not signicantly
modied by grape exposure, neither by leaf pulling pre-véraison nor by leaf
pulling at véraison. In this study, monoterpenes, another family of aroma com-
pounds, were not affected by vine water status.
Koundouras et al. (2006) reported increased norisoprenoid C13 levels in grapes
under water decit conditions. However, this might be an indirect effect linked to
Figure 6
Correlation Between Vintage Quality and Water Balance in Saint-Emilion
Note: Correlation between
Fig. 6 - Colour online, B/W in print
vintage quality in Bordeaux and water balance calculated between April 1 and September 30 for the vintages from
1952 to 2012 in Saint-Emilion (Bordeaux, France). Water balance model according to Lebon et al. (2003). Parameters: Soil Water Holding
Capacity = 0 mm; no stomatal regulation. Vintage quality ratings according to Bordeaux wine brokers Tasted and Lawton.
Figure 7
3-Sulfanylhexane-1-ol Content in Wine
Note: Wine
Fig. 7 - B/W online, B/W in print
content in 3-sulfanylhexane-1-ol as modied by water status and grape exposure. (C) Control with high water decit ; (I) mod-
erately irrigated vines, resulting in mild water decit ; (IdB) irrigated vines with pre-véraison leaf pulling et (IdV) irrigated vines with leaf
pulling at véraison (Schüttler et al., 2011, 2013).
Cornelis van Leeuwen and Philippe Darriet 159
reduced vigor and increased bunch exposure. In dry vintages in the Bordeaux area,
Sauvignon blanc grapes contain more avane-3-ols and less glutathione (Figure 8).
Glutathione has anti-oxydative properties and increases aging potential in white
B. Predictable Effects in Climate Change Scenarios
Higher temperatures will increase evapotranspiration. Modications in rainfall pat-
terns are difcult to predict. It is likely that rainfall will be subject to great regional
and temporal variations. In some regions, rainfall will be higher, while other regions
might be experience longer periods of drought. Rainfall distribution over the year
might also be subject to major changes. Hence, it is difcult to predict the impact
of climate change on water balance. Moreover, the reproductive cycle of the vine
will be compressed in warmer conditions. When the harvest takes place earlier in
the season (i.e., in August in the Northern Hemisphere), the most intense period
of water stress will occur after the harvest (Ollat et al., 2013). Despite these uncer-
tainties, most wine-growing regions will be subject to increased water decits
because of the weight of evapotranspiration in the water balance (see discussion in
companion paper, Schultz, 2016). The rst impact of water decit is reduced yield,
because of a smaller berry size (Ollat et al., 2002) and reduced bud fertility
(Guilpart et al., 2014). All wine-growing regions in the world will experience
reduced yields, although the magnitude might vary. The impact of increasing
water decits on wine quality will vary. In red wine production, water decit (but
not severe stress) enhances quality. For instance, in Bordeaux, to date overall
vintage quality has never been jeopardized by excessive water decit, even in an ex-
tremely dry vintage such as 2005, when rainfall was close to half that of a normal
year. As in Bordeaux, red wine quality will increase with developing water decits
in most Atlantic and northern wine-growing regions in Europe. In Mediterranean
or other very dry climates, quality might suffer from excessive water stress, which
Figure 8
Glutathione Content of Sauvignon Blanc Grape Must at Harvest
Note: Glutathione
Fig. 8 - B/W online, B/W in print
content of Sauvignon blanc grape must at harvest in two Graves estates (Bordeaux) in vintages from 2002 to 2007 (Pons
et al., 2014).
160 The Impact of Climate Change on Viticulture and Wine Quality
can lead to impaired photosynthesis and leaf necrosis, in particular on soils with low
water-holding capacity. However, no serious study has been published on the fre-
quency of situations in which quality might benet from more water decits
versus those in which quality might suffer. This sort of investigation would be a
welcome contribution to the literature and very useful for growers in developing
adaptive strategies.
VI. The Impact of Increasing Radiation on Vine Development, Fruit
Composition, and Wine Quality
A. Measurable Effects
Over the past few decades, radiation has been steadily increasing, in particular UV-B
radiation (280320 nm). However, the extent of this phenomenon reported in the lit-
erature varies according to the region and the author. The UV-B radiation increase is
about 12% per decade, but can reach 8% per decade at higher altitudes (Schultz,
2000). Higher UV-B radiation enhances color, avonol, and tannin synthesis
in red grapes (Berli et al., 2008; Martinez-Lüscher et al., 2014), but can induce
off-avors in white grapes, such as o-Acetoaminophenone and 1,1,6-trimethyl-1,2-
dihydronaphthalene (TDN) (Schultz, 2000).
B. Predictable Effects
An increase in radiation can cause sunburn on grapes, particularly in the pre-
véraison phase. An increase in UV-B radiation might be favorable in red wine pro-
duction because of increased skin phenolics but can impair white wine quality and
induce atypical aging. The proportion of UV-B radiation is related to changes in
the ozone layer.
VII. Adaptations to Limit the Impact of Climate Change on Wine Quality
A. Adaptations to Increased Temperatures
Harvest is taking place earlier in the season as a result of increased temperatures.
This has increased wine quality in many regions, because grapes can be picked
when they are more mature. However, when ripeness is reached too early in the
season (July or August in the Northern Hemisphere, January or February in the
Southern Hemisphere) grape composition is unbalanced and wine quality is jeopar-
dized. This evolution is currently taking place, in particular in production regions
with warm climates. To avoid quality alterations caused by high temperatures
during fruit ripening, phenology should be delayed.
Plant material is a major tool for reaching this goal. Growers can use rootstocks
that induce a longer cycle, and clonal selection should be oriented toward
Cornelis van Leeuwen and Philippe Darriet 161
late-ripening clones. These adaptations will not change wine typicity. Together, they
can delay ripeness by approximately seven to ten days. Over the long term, ripeness
can be delayed much more by the use of late-ripening varieties. Late-ripening vari-
eties can be found among the traditional varieties in some wine-growing regions.
This is the case with Cabernet-Sauvignon in Bordeaux and Mourvèdre in
Languedoc-Roussillon (France). When the climate becomes too warm for Merlot
in Bordeaux and for Syrah in Languedoc, the proportion of Cabernet-Sauvignon
and Mourvèdre, respectively, can be increased in these regions, without altering
the wine style. In the long run, it might be necessary to use nonlocal varieties.
These varieties must be chosen in order to change the wine style produced in each
region as little as possible. This adaptation is obviously easier to implement in
New World wine-growing regions than in European countries with traditional appel-
lations. Today, in these appellations, growers can only use local varieties. It might be
worthwhile to start experimenting with a small proportion of nonlocal varieties, in
order to have accumulated enough experience by the time a major change in varieties
becomes unavoidable.
Training systems can be modied to delay phenology. Higher trunks can reduce
the temperature in the bunch zone and, in particular, limit maximum temperatures
on dry and stony soils. Late pruning (end of February or March in the Northern
Hemisphere) delays bud break and subsequent phenological stages. Low leaf area:
fruit weight ratios delay véraison (Parker et al., 2014). However, it can have a neg-
ative impact on fruit composition and, in particular, reduce the tannin and anthocy-
anin content in grape berries. These are key compounds in red wine quality.
Wine-growing regions can be moved to higher latitudes, and in mountainous
regions, vineyards can be moved to higher altitudes. However, these adaptations
have a high social and economic cost. Regions located at high latitudes, which
might currently be marginal for wine production, will become suitable for grape
growing. Several studies focus on when and where this is likely to happen (Ferrise
et al., 2016; Fraga et al., 2012; Hannah et al., 2013; Roehrdanz and Hannah,
2016). The authorsin particular, Hannah and colleaguesalso model the decrease
in suitability of current wine-growing regions. However, they seem to underestimate
possible adaptation, which can be implemented by growers to maintain high-quality
wine production in warmer temperatures (van Leeuwen et al., 2013). When varia-
tions in altitude are signicant in the production region, which is the case, for in-
stance, in the Douro region (port wine production), grapevine can be planted at
higher elevations (Jones and Alves, 2012). Temperatures decrease by 0.65 °C per
100 m gain in elevation.
B. Adaptations to Increased Water Decits
The choice of plant material is a major tool to adapt vineyards to greater water
decits. Rootstock resistance to water decits is highly variable (Carbonneau,
1985). The genetic basis of these differences is currently under investigation
162 The Impact of Climate Change on Viticulture and Wine Quality
(Marguerit et al., 2012). Some existing rootstocks, like 140 Ruggeri or 110 Richter,
are highly resistant to drought. One of the priorities of todays viticultural research is
to create new rootstocks that show even greater drought resistance. In the same way,
large differences in drought tolerance exist among grapevine varieties (Albuquerque,
1993; see also discussion in companion paper, Gambetta, 2016). Mediterranean va-
rieties, such as Grenache or Carignan, are better adapted to dry conditions than
Atlantic varieties, such as Merlot or Sauvignon blanc. The great advantage of adapt-
ing vineyards to increased drought stress through the choice of plant material (root-
stock and variety) is that it is environmentally friendly and does not increase
production costs.
Training systems also vary with respect to their impact on water consumption by
the vines. In the Mediterranean region, over centuries growers have developed a
training system that has great drought-resistant performance: the so-called gobelet
(Mediterranean bush vines). This system limits vine water use by combining low
leaf area on a per-hectare basis (which means less transpiration) and relatively low
yields (lower need for photosynthesis). The low yield does not negatively affect eco-
nomic sustainability, because the production costs per hectare are low. There is no
trellis to set up and maintain, and no shoot positioning has to be carried out.
Hence, grapes are produced at reasonably low cost per kilogram. The main draw-
back of this system is that it makes harvesting by machine very difcult. The
paradox is that, for this reason, many drought- resistant gobelet vineyards are
being pulled up just when it should be a priority to focus on drought resistance
because of climate change. One of todays research priorities should be the develop-
ment of a mechanical harvester that is able to harvest gobelet vineyards. Any other
training system that limits leaf area per hectare increases drought resistance.
However, the leaf area: fruit weight ratio should not be reduced to maintain
quality. Hence, a lower leaf area per hectare will either decrease yield (if the ratio
is maintained) or quality (if the yield is maintained).
Vine water status is related both to climatic factors (rainfall and ET
) and soil-
related factors (soil water-holding capacity [SWHC]). Increased climatic dryness,
whether through a reduction in rainfall or an increase in ET
, can be compensated
for by an increase in the SWHC. In dry regions, or regions exposed to increased
drought, the development of vineyards on soils with at least a moderate SWHC
can limit the negative impact of excessive water stress, as long as winter rains is suf-
cient to replenish the soil water storage capacity.
Irrigation is also a way to avoid excessive drought stress. However, it should not be
considered the rst option when adapting a vineyard to increased water decits.
Unlike the other solutions proposed here, irrigation has an economic, environmen-
tal, and social cost. When water is becoming increasingly scarce, the irrigation of a
drought-resistant plant such as vines should not be a priority. In many irrigated
regions, in particular in California and Australia, access to irrigation water has
become a serious issue. Moreover, irrigation can lead salt to build up in vineyard
soils, when winter rain is insufcient for leaching it out of the soil. Vines are
Cornelis van Leeuwen and Philippe Darriet 163
highly sensitive to salt, so its buildup can make soils unsuitable for grape production.
When irrigation is the only option for maintaining vineyards in a given area, decit
irrigation should be implemented, both to save water and to optimize grape quality
C. Adaptations to High Radiation Levels
Excess radiation exposure can cause sunburn. A high proportion of UV-B radiation
is favorable to synthesis of skin phenolics (color, tannin) but can impair white wine
quality through the development of off-avors. High-altitude vineyards are affected
more than vineyards at sea level. The detrimental impact of high radiation can be
limited by using adapted training systems or canopy management. The exposure
of grapes can be limited through reduced hedging and leaf pulling. Special nets
that can lter UV-B radiation have also been developed and can be used to
protect the bunch zone.
VIII. Conclusion
Climate change is a major challenge for viticulture in the coming decades. In the recent
past, wine quality has increased in most wine-growing regions because of higher tem-
peratures and more frequent water decits while yields have decreased. If the tendency
continues, quality might be negatively affected in the near future. Growers need to im-
plement adaptive strategies to continue the production of high-quality wines at eco-
nomically acceptable yields in a warmer and dryer climate. Among various options,
the use of adapted plant material is one of the better tools, because it has the advantage
of being environmentally friendly and cost effective.
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... It is known that climate conditions are the driving factor influencing grape and wine quality [45,46]. Temperatures are rising worldwide, and most regions are being increasingly exposed to prolonged water deficit periods [46]. ...
... It is known that climate conditions are the driving factor influencing grape and wine quality [45,46]. Temperatures are rising worldwide, and most regions are being increasingly exposed to prolonged water deficit periods [46]. In fact, during the veraison of 2020, the precipitation levels were lower than in the veraison of 2021 (Figure 1). ...
... The average temperature in July 2020 was 28.8 • C [42], while in 2021, it was 24.7 • C [43]. The high temperatures, along with the low precipitation values, influenced the synthesis of bioactive compounds [44,46], leading to the increase verified in the veraison of 2020. This is quite noticeable in the total anthocyanins content in the veraison of 2020, which was 3.3 times higher than in 2021 ( Figure 5D). ...
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The Douro Demarcated Region (DDR) has peculiar edaphoclimatic characteristics that provide a suitable terroir for premium wine production. As climate change effects continue to emerge, ensuring productivity and quality becomes increasingly important for viticulturists, as those directly determine their profits. Cultural approaches, such as the use of biostimulants, are actively being developed to mitigate abiotic stress. The main objective of this work was to assess the effect of foliar sprays of a seaweed (Ascophyllum nodosum)-based extract (ANE) and glycine betaine (GB) on grape berry quality, bioactive compounds, and antioxidant activity. A trial was installed in a commercial vineyard (cv. ‘Touriga Franca’) in the Douro Superior (Upper Douro) sub-region of the Douro Demarcated Region. In 2020 and 2021, three foliar sprayings were performed during the growing season, namely at pea size, bunch closure, and veraison. There was a positive effect of both biostimulants (ANE and GB) on the physiological and biochemical performance of cv. ‘Touriga Franca’ exposed to summer stress. In general, the GB 0.2% spraying was the most promising treatment for this grape cultivar, as it increased berry quality, the concentration of bioactive compounds (total phenolics, flavonoids, and ortho-diphenols), and the antioxidant activity. These results revealed the efficacy of biostimulant sprayings as a sustainable viticultural practice, improving berry quality under summer stress conditions.
... Climate change is globally impacting agricultural produce, both in terms of yield and quality. 1,2 Despite these expected effects, the link between climate change and agricultural produce quality has not been widely explored. Wine (Vitis vinifera) presents the ideal system to study this relationship as wine price is governed primarily by quality, 3 which is dependent on weather during the vine's growing season. ...
... 32 It has been suggested that more rain in the winter could lead to a better water balance during the growing season, however, it has previously iScience Article been shown that in Bordeaux only 3 of the last 70 years have started the growing season not at full water soil capacity. 2 Flowering, fruit set, and potentially the onset of berry ripening (depending on the year) all occur in summer, with hotter and drier weather again being suggested to make high quality wine in this time period, potentially due to lower promotion of major grape diseases. 7,19 The individual AOC model (model 3 in Figure 1A) suggests a more complex view of the relationship and quality. ...
... The 2021 vintage during which the wine distillate was produced was wet and cool during the maturation period, climatic conditions that are known to enhance rotundone accumulation in grapes (Geffroy et al., 2020). It cannot be excluded that low rotundone concentrations would have been found in a wine distillate produced during a warmer and drier season, which tends to be common in France in the context of climate change (van Leeuwen & Darriet, 2016). ...
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Rotundone is the only known aroma compound imparting a peppery aroma to wine. Its presence has recently been documented in spirits, notably those aged in oak barrels. However, the sensory contribution of rotundone in such alcoholic beverages remains hard to predict, given their high ethanol level. The aim of this study was to estimate olfactory thresholds for rotundone in brandy using three different matrices. Rotundone concentrations in the unspiked samples were 50 ng/L for wine distillate and 135 ng/L for brandy, demonstrating for the first time the presence of rotundone in such spirits and a possible endogenous origin. The olfactory detection threshold was estimated at 103 ng/L in 40% (v/v) ethanol solution, while difference thresholds were 171 ng/L and 189 ng/L in fresh wine distillate and young French brandy, respectively, both standardised at 40% (v/v). These thresholds were 10-fold higher than in wines and did not significantly differ according to the complexity of the matrix. Our results, which are still preliminary and would deserve to be validated with a larger number of samples and using a higher number of panellists, open new fields of investigation for a deeper exploration of the concentration range of rotundone in brandies, particularly those that underwent a longer ageing period in barrels.
... More recently, prior experience with extreme weather events has been found to contribute positively to willingness-to-pay for weather derivatives (Liu et al., 2019;Senapati, 2020). Hence, increased volatility and occurrence of extreme weather events associated with climate change can have a significant impact on viticulture (Jones et al., 2022;Ashenfelter and Storchmann, 2016;Van Leeuwen and Darriet, 2016), and the growing awareness on the part of producers (Demberger, 2017;Mercer, 2018) may ultimately contribute to a greater usage of weather contracts. ...
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Although potentially useful for financially hedging systemic weather-related risks, weather contracts/derivatives (also referred to as parametric insurance) have not seen wide adoption in agriculture outside of applications in developing countries, frequently supported by governments and non-governmental organizations (NGOs). A significant impediment is the lack of financial firms willing to stand ready to sell weather derivatives to individual agricultural producers in the over-the-counter market who, due to the localized nature of weather, face idiosyncratic weather-related risks. In particular, the administrative and reinsurance costs of supplying relatively small contracts with specific terms to many different producers are often prohibitive. The current study considers the potential use of weather derivatives in hedging the aggregate yield/revenues of viticulture producers represented by an industry association located in the province of Ontario, Canada. We examine the sensitivity of aggregate industry yields to several relevant weather-related risks employing copula function analysis. We then consider the potential of a weather derivative in hedging the financial risk associated with cold winter temperatures, which pose the greatest risk to aggregate vinifera yields. The issue of attributing costs and payouts to individual association members remains unresolved, and several alternatives are suggested.
... Similarly to in other developed and emerging wine-producing countries, other drivers of wine farm specialization and labor employment on wine farms may include social capital and entrepreneurship, innovation, marketing factors associated with the wine grape and wine supply value chain market challenges, the reputation and advertising of brand members in the wine industry, means of coping with and mitigating various risks such as the spatial variation in weather conditions and climate change on wine production, grape and wine quality, and wine price volatility (Chaddad et al., 2017;da Silva Faria et al., 2020;Del Rey & Loose, 2023;Franken et al., 2018;Kemp et al., 2022;Lecocq & Visser, 2006;Niklas, 2017;Oczkowski, 2016;Sellers-Rubio et al., 2021;van Leeuwen & Darriet, 2016). These are issues for research in the future. ...
... Este resultado pode estar associado ao período de colheita, influenciado pelo ponto de maturação e condições climáticas, já que os cachos permaneceram por um maior período no vinhedo em relação aos Tratamentos 1 e 2. No período próximo a colheita, a temperatura foi superior à 30°C (Tabela 1).O papel das temperaturas é extremamente importante no acúmulo de açúcar nas bagas(Hochberg et al., 2015; citado por Gutiérrez-Gamboa, Zheng & Martínez De Toda, 2021). A temperatura mais elevada no período de maturação das uvas e a insolação estão diretamente relacionadas com a maturação das uvas, influenciando a composição das bagas e possibilitando um maior acúmulo de açúcares nos frutos(Pötter, Daudt, Brackamnn, Leite & Penna, 2010;Movahed et al., 2016;Van leeuwen & Darriet, 2016).Tabela 2 -Resultados das análises físico-químicas dos mostos da cultivar Chardonnay destinado à espumantização, durante os períodos de maturação no ciclo 2014/2015, em Dom Pedrito,RS, Brasil. As médias seguidas pela mesma letra não diferem estatisticamente entre si pelo teste de Tukey a 5% de probabilidade.Płotka-Wasylka, 2019;Rienth et al., 2016).O ácido málico também é formado no início da fase de crescimento, mas é metabolizado durante o amadurecimento da baga, devido ao aumento da respiração das células dos frutos sob ...
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O clima da Campanha Gaúcha é favorável para diminuição dos ácidos orgânicos e acidez total, desejáveis elevados para a qualidade de espumantes. O estudo teve por objetivo avaliar o ponto de colheita para Chardonnay, considerando a elaboração de vinho base com destino à espumantização, em Dom Pedrito, Região da Campanha do Brasil. As colheitas foram realizadas em diferentes períodos de maturação da Chardonnay, durante a safra 2015. O experimento foi completamente casualizado. T1 foi a colheita em 10 de janeiro, com os cachos colhidos da parte interna do dossel foliar. T2 foram colhidos os cachos mais expostos ao sol. T3 foi a segunda colheita realizada em 29 de janeiro. As variáveis avaliadas no mosto foram SS, pH, Acidez total, Ácido málico e Açúcares redutores. Após as microvinificações, foram avaliadas as variáveis no vinho: Etanol, Acidez total e volátil, pH, Ácido málico e lático, Glicerol. T3 apresentou o maior valor para sólidos solúveis e açúcares. T1 e T2 não apresentaram diferenças estatísticas significativas entre si. T3 apresentou o maior valor para pH, e T1 o valor mais baixo. Acidez total para T1 foi mais elevada. T3 apresentou maior índice de etanol no vinho. T3 apresentou acidez total inferior, justificada pelo período de colheita em que foi submetido e o T1 apresentou acidez mais elevada, justificado pelo menor período de maturação das uvas. T2, devido ao equilíbrio entre acidez, pH e açúcares, apresenta as condições necessárias para garantir o frescor aromático e gustativo de um vinho base de qualidade.
... Over the next few years, extreme drought events are projected to become more frequent, as it is testified by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change of the United Nations [2]. Moreover, climate change-related rising temperatures will directly affect the evapotranspirative demand of plants and soil, increasing the risk of water stress for many crops [55]. At the same time, food demand is predicted to increase as the world's population grows, and the low water availability will negatively impact the food supply [24]. ...
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In this paper, we propose a novel approach for analyzing the effects of water regime on grapevine canopy status using robotics as an aid for monitoring and mapping. Data from an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) and a ground mobile robot are used to obtain multispectral images and multiple vegetation indexes, and the 3D reconstruction of the canopy, respectively. Unlike previous works, sixty vegetation indexes are computed precisely by using the projected area of the vineyard point cloud as a mask. Extensive experimental tests on repeated plots of Pinot gris vines show that the GDVI, PVI, and TGI vegetation indexes are positively correlated with the water potential: GDVI (2 = 0.90 and 0.57 for the stem and pre-dawn water potential, respectively), PVI (2 = 0.90 and 0.57), TGI (2 = 0.87 and 0.77). Furthermore, the canopy volume and the canopy area projected on the ground are impacted by the water status, as well as stem and pre-dawn water potential measurements. The results obtained in this work demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed approach and the potential of robotic technologies, supporting precision viticulture. Nomenclature Symbols *
... Instead, excessive summer temperatures can inhibit several metabolic pathways, leading to changes in the accumulation of berry metabolites and disrupting the balance between sugar and organic acid composition (Blancquaert et al., 2018, van Leeuwen et al., 2019van Leeuwen and Darriet, 2016). The effects of high temperatures include the inhibition of the expression of the main genes involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis (Mori et al., 2005), the reduction of anthocyanins and lower concentrations of flavour compounds in berries (Azuma et al., 2012;Venios et al., 2020). ...
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The main worrying feature of climate change is its rapid evolution, in extent and variation, becoming less and less predictable. In this paper, we have reviewed the available literature and elaborated original data to outline how climate change will affect the grapevine cultivation and wine quality. We start by discussing which features of climate change will impact grapevine production most. The effects of heatwaves, air and soil temperature, extreme rainfall events, atmospheric evaporative demand, wildfires, and smoke are addressed. An increased frequency and intensity of heat waves since 2010 is shown in four grapevine production areas of Northern Italy. The focus then shifts to the impacts of the predicted increase in temperature and drought on frost risks, grapevine phenology, yield, berry quality and water needs as well as vine and vineyard carbon budgets. Climate change will challenge the achievement of current yields and wine quality as well as the ability of vineyards to sequester atmospheric carbon, but such effects will likely depend on the characteristics of the growing environments and on the varieties present. Climate change-related threats to grapevine call for a rapid implementation of adaptation strategies
... The bushfires of 2019-20 that resulted in significant agricultural crop losses, including smoketainted grape vines, are an example of the high-level impact Australia has already experienced due to climate change (McDonald, 2021). For viticulture, increased temperatures can directly or indirectly affect the phenology of grapes and grapevines, reducing berry quality through excessive sugar accumulation, lowering acidity, anthocyanin and flavonoid production and lowering yields (Mosedale et al., 2016;van Leeuwen and Darriet, 2016;Webb et al., 2007). ...
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Over the last few decades, there has been a gradual decrease in natural biodiversity, which is leading to the standardisation of wine products. Minor grape varieties possess key traits for producing wines with a specific territorial identity and they contribute to increasing biodiversity. Timorasso is an ancient Italian white grape variety native to the province of Alessandria in the Piedmont region. It fell into oblivion for a period of time due to the advent of phylloxera at the end of the 1800s and the abandonment of rural areas, which almost led to the extinction of this grapevine. This study aimed to identify the sensory properties that characterise Timorasso wine from different producers and production areas and to investigate the diversity of the sensory space. Sixteen Timorasso wines from the 2018 vintage and were evaluated for sensory description by a panel of nine semi-trained judges using the RATA method. The Timorasso wine was found to have a complex aromatic profile spanning fruity (citrus, tropical fruits, tree-fruit and dried/baked fruit), floral, vegetative, balsamic, honey and fuel/petroleum. The multiple factor analysis clearly differentiated wines with fruity notes from those with balsamic, vegetative and fuel/petroleum aromas. The hierarchical cluster analysis evidenced three main clusters. Cluster 1 comprised wines with pale-yellow colour and fruity-related aromas, low sourness, body and alcohol sensations. Cluster 2 comprised wines with dark yellow colour, low sourness, and high intensities of raisin and fuel aromas, probably due to specific oenological practices, such as grape maceration. Cluster 3 comprised wines with high sourness and vegetative odour. The results provide for the first time a sensory map of a grapevine that was almost forgotten until a few decades ago, but which is now considered to be among the most promising white wines on the Italian market.
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El trabajo de campo programado para el XXVIII Congreso de Geografía de La Rioja se centra en dos espacios geográficos de la Comunidad Autónoma de La Rioja: el sector occidental de la Depresión del Ebro y el Sistema Ibérico (Cameros). En ambas unidades, de características geográficas muy diferentes, se explican aspectos relacionados con el medio ambiente y la ocupación del territorio, y se discuten propuestas de gestión.
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Grapevines are cultivated on six out of seven continents, between latitudes 4° and 51° in the Northern Hemisphere and between latitudes 6° and 45° in the Southern Hemisphere across a large diversity of climates (oceanic, warm oceanic, transition temperate, continental, cold continental, Mediterranean, subtropical, attenuated tropical, and arid climates). Accordingly, the range and magnitude of environmental factors differ considerably from region to region and so do the principal environmental constraints for grape production. The type, number, and magnitude of environmental constraints are currently undergoing changes due to shifts in climate patterns already observed for the past and predicted for the future. These changes are already affecting grape composition with observed changes in sugar and acidity concentrations. As with other components such as polyphenols or aroma compounds, their relationships to environmental changes are more difficult to quantify. In general, one can divide the expected climatic changes during the grape-ripening period into two scenarios: warmer and dryer and warmer and moister, with different responses for red and white grape varieties. The production challenges within this broad separation are vastly different, and the strategies to ensure a sustainable product need to be adapted accordingly. The economic impact of these changes is difficult to assess. An in-depth analysis is necessary to construct relevant scenarios and risk analysis for individual regions and to quantify the costs and/or benefits of regional climate developments. (JEL Classifications: Q1, Q54)
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Grape berry development is reviewed with special focus on berry growth, structure, substances imported, organic acid and sugar metabolism. Berry growth is divided into two growth periods. Berry structure and ultra-structure are adapted to sink function. Exocarp cells are characterized by intensive metabolic capacities, flesh cells by a storage role. Early growth is highly sensitive to internal and external parameters. Berry size is largely defined during the first growth period. After « véraison », the berry becomes a major storage sink. Many changes occur in berry metabolism and gene expression. Genomic researches are promising to elucidate the mechanisms of berry development.
p style="text-align: justify;">Dans huit parcelles de l'A.O.G. Saint-Emilion, dont certaines possèdent une nappe d'eau à portée des racines, nous avons étudié le régime hydrique par des mesures du potentiel hydrique foliaire au cours d'un été chaud et sec (1990) sur le cépage Cabemet franc. Ce potentiel est faiblement négatif sur les sols avec une nappe d'eau, ce qui indique que l'alimentation en eau de la vigne n'y est pas ou peu limitée. Il est fortement négatif à partir de la véraison sur les sols sableux à sous-sol très argileux et le plus fortement négatif sur un sol graveleux. Dans une parcelle située sur le calcaire à Astéries, le potentiel foliaire est assez fortement négatif au moment de la véraison, mais la diminution ne se poursuit pas jusqu'au moment des vendanges. La plupart des caractéristiques viticoles et oenologiques que nous avons mesurées sur les différentes parcelles sont corrélées avec les valeurs du potentiel foliaire. Sur les sols où l'alimentation en eau de la vigne est abondante, le cycle phénologique de la vigne est plus tardif, la vitesse de croissance et la longueur totale des rameaux sont plus importantes et le poids des bois de taille est plus élevé. En revanche, la puissance et la vigueur des souches sont plus faibles si l'alimentation en eau est limitée. Sur les sols avec une nappe d'eau, le poids des baies est plus élevé, les raisins sont moins riches en sucre, en anthocyanes et en composés phénoIiques et plus riches en acide malique par rapport aux sols qui induisent un déficit hydrique. Cet état de fait traduit un potentiel oenologique moins intéressant. Ces observations soulignent l'importance de l'alimentation en eau de la vigne, en zone tempérée, sur le comportement de la vigne et l'intérêt d'un régime hydrique modéré pour l'obtention d'un fruit de bonne qualité oenologique.</p
In this article, we provide an overview of the extensive literature on the impact of weather and climate on grapes and wine with the goal of describing how climate change is likely to affect their production. We start by discussing the physical impact of weather on vine phenology, berry composition, and yields and then survey the economic literature measuring the effects of temperature on wine quality, prices, costs, and profits and how climate change will affect these. We also describe what has been learned so far about possible adaptation strategies for grape growers that would allow them to mitigate the economic effects of climate change. We conclude that climate change is likely to produce winners and losers, with the winners being those closer to the North and South Poles. There are also likely to be some substantial short-run costs as growers adapt to climate change. Nevertheless, wine making has survived through thousands of years of recorded history, a history that includes large climate changes. (JEL Classifications: Q54, Q13)
Plant adaptation to global climate change has become one of the most pressing and important topics in biology. Changes in climate that lead to increased crop water use or decreases in water availability will increase the frequency and magnitude of plant water stress. Water stress reduces plant growth and crop yield, and for perennial crops like grape, there is an added consideration: their long-term ability to tolerate and recover from this stress. This primer introduces plant water relations basics, explaining how grape physiology is affected by water stress and discussing the physiological foundations for the development of drought-tolerant cultivars and rootstocks. (JEL Classifications: Q13, Q54)
In the context of the important implications of climate change, this paper analyzes the impact of weather on wine quality and prices for Australian premium wines. Motivated by a recognition of consumers’ accessed information sets, the impact of temperature and rainfall on retail wine prices is assessed through their relation with quality ratings from a high-profile wine guide and then on prices. For a broad spectrum of different quality wines from a cross section of wines available in 2014 and a separate analysis of eight wine varieties, the indirect approach to modeling weather effects through wine quality is found to be superior than assuming weather impacts directly on retail prices. The results also demonstrate the importance of regional variations in weather conditions in influencing prices and identify the optimal season growing temperatures for different grape varieties. (JEL Classifications: Q13, Q54)
The present paper aims to assess the impacts of climate change on grapevine cultivation in the Mediterranean basin by using three regional climatic models (RCMs), which were designed specifically for high-resolution simulation of climate in that region. RCM outputs were used to feed a grapevine growth simulation model, which was developed, tested, and calibrated for the Sangiovese variety. The study area was identified by implementing a bioclimatic classification of the regions based on the Winkler Index (ranging from 1,700 to 1,900 thermal units). The results indicated that the projected increasing temperatures will result in a general acceleration and shortening of the phenological stages compared to the present period. Accordingly, the reduction in time for biomass accumulation negatively affected the final yield. Few exceptions were found in the northern and central regions of the study area (southern France and western Balkans) for which changes in climatic conditions were not limiting and the crop benefited from the enhanced atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide. (JEL Classifications: Q100, Q540)