ArticlePDF Available

Oats: A multi-functional grain


Abstract and Figures

Oats are predominantly a European and North American crop, as they have cool moist climate; Russia, Canada, the United States, Finland, and Poland are leading oat producing countries. Oats have been used as livestock and human foods since ancient times. Oats (Avena sativa) is a class of cereal grain essentially grown for human consumption as well as for livestock fodder. Food industry fundamentally alter agricultural commodities into foods making it edible, palatable as well as appealing; by innumerable physical and chemical operations increasing shelf-life, bioavailability of the nutrients, stabilizing colour, flavour along with increase in the economic value of the grain. Recent observational and human interventional studies indicate that oats can have an impact on various non-communicable diseases like cardiovascular disease, diabetes; obesity and hypertension etc. Therefore it is important to increase awareness of oats and its health benefits among individuals thereby encouraging them to increase the frequency of oats in the diet. In the year 1997, USFDA approved the use of a health claim "3g/day of oat Beta- glucan may help lower blood total and low-density lipoprotein (LDL-C) cholesterol". Over all consumption of oats has increased in the recent years due to its nutritional benefits; presence of Beta-glucan, antioxidants like Avenanthramides, vitamin E (tocotrienols and tocopherols).
Content may be subject to copyright.
© 2016 Journal of Clinical and Preventive Cardiology | Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow
Address for correspondence:
Purvi Varma,
Marico Limited, Marks Office, Plot No. 23/C, Mahal Industrial
Estate. Mahakali Caves Road. Landmark: Before Paper Box
Factory, Opp Andhra Bank and Travellers Inn Hotel. Andheri (E),
Mumbai - 400093, Maharashtra, India.
disorders forcing more and more people to reel under
excess body weight, even relatively younger people are
developing joint disorders and knee pain. Excessive
weight is associated with a series of health problems,
including blood pressure, diabetes, and cardiovascular
Experts have pointed that the phenomenon in South
Asians has characteristic features - high prevalence of
abdominal obesity, with more “intra-abdominal and
truncal subcutaneous adiposity.”
Weight loss has beneficial effects on blood pressure,
lipids and glucose control, and weight loss in the range
of 5–10% of initial weight that can confer significant
improvement in these variables. In population
studies, dietary factors, such as consumption of a
vegetarian diet or a diet high in cereal fiber, fruits,
and vegetables, also appear to be associated with
The burden of chronic diseases is rapidly increasing
worldwide. Almost half of the total chronic disease
deaths are attributable to cardiovascular diseases (CVDs);
obesity and diabetes are also showing worrying trends,
not only because they already affect a large proportion
of the population, but also because they have started
to appear earlier in life. A systematic analysis in Global
Burden of Disease Study revealed that the US had the
highest number of the obese people worldwide (13%)
in 2013, while China and India together accounted for
15% of the world’s obese population, with 46 million
and 30 million obese people, respectively.[1]
It is clear that the earlier labeling of chronic diseases as
“diseases of affluence” is increasingly a misnomer, as
they emerge both in poorer countries and in the poorer
population groups in richer countries. This shift in the
pattern of disease is taking place at an accelerating
rate; furthermore, it is occurring at a faster rate in
developing countries than it did in the industrialized
regions of the world half a century ago. This rapid
rate of change, together with the increasing burden of
disease, is creating a major public health threat which
demands immediate and effective action. With lifestyle
Review Article
Oats: A multi‑functional grain
Purvi Varma1, M.Sc. R.D.; Hitha Bhankharia2, M.Sc.CND, R.D.; Shikha Bhatia3, M.Sc. CND
Oats are predominantly a European and North American crop, as they have cool
moist climate; Russia, Canada, the United States, Finland, and Poland are leading
oat producing countries. Oats have been used as livestock and human foods since
ancient times. Oats (Avena sativa) is a class of cereal grain essentially grown for
human consumption as well as for livestock fodder. Food industry fundamentally alter
agricultural commodities into foods making it edible, palatable as well as appealing;
by innumerable physical and chemical operations increasing shelf-life, bioavailability
of the nutrients, stabilizing colour, flavour along with increase in the economic value
of the grain. Recent observational and human interventional studies indicate that
oats can have an impact on various non-communicable diseases like cardiovascular
disease, diabetes; obesity and hypertension etc. Therefore it is important to increase
awareness of oats and its health benefits among individuals thereby encouraging
them to increase the frequency of oats in the diet. In the year 1997, USFDA approved
the use of a health claim “3g/day of oat Beta- glucan may help lower blood total
and low-density lipoprotein (LDL-C) cholesterol”. Over all consumption of oats has
increased in the recent years due to its nutritional benefits; presence of Beta-glucan,
antioxidants like Avenanthramides, vitamin E (tocotrienols and tocopherols).
Key Words: Adiposity, cardiovascular disease, weight loss
From the 1Principal
Nutrition Manager,
Marico Ltd, 2Senior
Nutrition Officer, Marico
Ltd, 3Research Officer,
Marico Ltd, Mumbai,
Maharashtra, India
Received: March, 2016.
Accepted: April, 2016.
Access this article online
Quick Response Code:
DOI: 10.4103/2250-3528.183984 How to cite this article: Varma P, Bhankharia H, Bhatia S. Oats: A
multi-functional grain. J Clin Prev Cardiol 2016;5:9-17.
This is an open access arcle distributed under the terms of the Creave Commons
Aribuon-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 License, which allows others to remix, tweak,
and build upon the work non-commercially, as long as the author is credited and the new
creaons are licensed under the idencal terms.
For reprints contact:
[Downloaded free from on Wednesday, September 28, 2016, IP:]
10 Journal of Clinical and Preventive Cardiology ¦ Jan-Mar 2016 ¦ Volume 5 ¦ Issue 1
Varma, et al.: Benefits of oat grains
reduced risk for hypertension, dyslipidemia, and CVD
itself. Identification of such factors has stimulated
considerable research effort directed toward the
prevention of CVD and its risk factors through
diet modification. In many circumstances, dietary
interventions have been shown to have salutary effects
on hypertension and hyperlipidemia. Oats (Avena
sativa) is a class of cereal grain essentially grown for
human consumption as well as for livestock fodder.[3]
Complex diets have shown to impart beneficial
results in weight reduction and also in other diseases’
management. It remains possible that particular classes
of food or individual foods can confer specific benefit.
Sometimes, it is difficult to bring about broader dietary
changes in the diet; in such cases, it is preferable to
introduce individual diet constituents which may bring
about a major change. One such possible constituent is
oats, a whole-grain cereal that is rich in soluble fiber. The
effects of oats on lipid metabolism are well documented,
and there is a growing body of literature to suggest that
oats also lower blood pressure or help prevent CVD.
Population studies suggest that diets rich in oats or other
foods containing soluble fiber are associated with lower
levels of blood pressure or rates of coronary disease.
Oat or oat fiber consumption has been shown to reduce
postprandial glucose and insulin concentrations, and
the reduction in insulin concentration may provide a
mechanism by which blood pressure could be reduced
in response to oats consumption.[4]
New insights about the potential benefits of oats have
emerged over the past 10 years. More recent data
indicate that including oats and oat-based products
as part of a lifestyle management program may confer
health benefits that extend beyond total cholesterol and
low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol reduction.
Oats remain an important cereal crop in the developing
world, and the most popularly cultivated species is
Avena sativa L. Compared to other cereals, oats require
a cool and moist climate. It requires more moisture for
its growth. Oats is predominantly grown in American
and European countries, mainly Russia, Canada and the
United States of America. Oats are grown in temperate
regions. They have a lower summer heat requirement
and greater tolerance of rain than other cereals, such
as wheat, rye, or barley, so are particularly important
in areas with cool, wet summers, such as Northwest
Europe and even Iceland. Oats are an annual harvest,
and can be planted either in autumn (for late summer
harvest) or in the spring (for early autumn harvest).[5]
It was used mostly for animal feeding and to some
extent as human food. The use of oats as animal
feed has declined steadily owing to emerging use
and interest in oats as human health food. Oats
consumption in human diet has been increased because
of health benefits associated with dietary fibers such
as beta-glucan, functional protein, lipid and starch
components, and phytochemicals present in the oat
In the year 1997, USFDA approved the use of a health
claim “3g/day of oat Beta- glucan may help lower blood
total and low-density lipoprotein (LDL-C) cholesterol”.[7]
Over all consumption of oats has increased in the recent
years due to its nutritional benefits; presence of Beta-
glucan, antioxidants like Avenanthramides, vitamin E
(tocotrienols and tocopherols).[8]
oAts versus other GrAIns
Compared with other cereals (wheat, rice, barley,
buckwheat, and rice), oats contain higher content
of protein, and the composition of oat amino acid is
more reasonable [Table 1]. Moreover, the levels of
crude fat, showing the nutritional and functional
potential, in oats are much higher than that of other
cereal grains, which leads oat to become an excellent
source of functional food. Oat lipids are rich in
polyunsaturated fatty acids, Vitamin E, and plan
sterols. Judd and Truswell[9] concluded that both the
lipophilic and lipophobic components of oat play a
major role in decreasing serum cholesterol in humans.
However, there is no information about the effect of
these components other than beta-glucan in oat on the
reduction of serum cholesterol in animals or humans.
Moreover, oats are therapeutically active against
diabetes, high blood pressure, inflammatory state,
and dyslipidemia rather than other grains which are
predominantly insoluble such as wheat or rice. This
makes oats a unique cereal.
In oats, there are more than 20 distinct forms of
avenanthramides (AVEs) differing in the substituents of
the acid rings, but the three major forms are A, B, and C.
They help in reduction of coronary heart disease (CHD)
as they posses anti-inflammatory and antiproliferative
properties and also cause vasodilation, anti-itch and
Table 1: Comparison of oats with other cereals
Characteristics Oats Other cereals
Crude fat ↑ ↓
Polyunsaturated fatty
↑ ↓
Vitamin E ↑ ↓
Plant sterols ↑ ↓
Lipophilic properties ↑ ↓
Lipophobic properties ↑ ↓
Beta-glucan ↑↑ ↓
Micronutrients ↑ ↓
Only cereal to
Not available
Consumption form Mostly consumed
as a whole-gain
Mostly as flour
(except rice)
International health
Available None
=High, =Low
[Downloaded free from on Wednesday, September 28, 2016, IP:]
Journal of Clinical and Preventive Cardiology ¦ Jan-Mar 2016 ¦ Volume 5 ¦ Issue 1
Varma, et al.: Benefits of oat grains
cytoprotection effects. A randomized placebo-controlled
three-way crossover study was conducted to determine
the bioavailability and bioactivity of AVE A, B, and C
in healthy older adults with 1-week washout period.
Six free-living patients were asked to consume
360 ml skim milk alone (placebo) or containing 0.5 or
1 g avenanthramide-enriched mixture (AEM) extracted
from oats. Plasma samples were collected over a 10-h
period. The bioavailability of avenanthramides (AV-A)
was 4-fold larger than that of avenanthramides (AV-B)
at 0.5 g AEM dose. Thus, oats AV are bio-available and
increase antioxidant capacity in healthy older adults.
Another beneficial compound found in oats is tocols
also known as Vitamin E. These are natural antioxidants
in grains that may benefit human and animal health. It
includes both tocopherols and tocotrienols. They help in
scavenging of free radicals, thereby helping in lowering
the cholesterol levels. Certain trace elements such as
flavonoids, saponins, lignans, and sterols are found in
oat grain, but in minor quantities. These compounds are
bioactive and possess antioxidant properties.
vAlue And functIonAlIty cApture of oAts
Oats is a multifunctional grain. Its uses include animal
feed, human food and raw material for food, health
care, and cosmetic products. Figure 1 shows the
value pyramid and functionality of oats. The major
components of oats that contribute to its functions
include protein, oil, starch, and beta-glucan.[10]
nutrIent coMposItIon of oAts
Oats are unique among the cereals. It consists of a
large amount of total proteins, carbohydrates, i.e.,
starch crude fat, dietary fiber (nonstarch), unique
antioxidant, and vitamins and minerals [Table 2]. They
also contain a varied range of phenolic compounds
including ester-linked glycerol conjugates, ester-linked
alkyl conjugates, ether- and ester-linked glycerides,
anthranilic acids, and AVEs. These compounds possess
high level of antioxidant activity. These antioxidants
are concentrated in the outer layer of the kernel in
the bran fraction of the oat grain. The nutritional
benefits of oat have attracted attention from researchers
worldwide and have resulted in the increased interest
of food industry in using oats as food ingredient in
various food products including infant food, oat milk,
beverages, breakfast cereals, and biscuits. Whole grain
oat contains considerable amount of valuable nutrients
such as proteins, starch, unsaturated fatty acids, and
dietary fiber as soluble and insoluble fractions. Oat also
contains micronutrients such as Vitamin E, folates, zinc,
iron, selenium, copper, manganese, carotenoids, betaine,
choline, sulfur-containing amino acids, phytic acid,
lignins, lignane, and alkyl resorcinols. Although wheat
and rice are consumed in considerably higher quantities
worldwide than oat, oat has the advantage that it is
consumed as a whole grain cereal normally than its
processed products. Increasing recognition is now being
given to the consumption of whole grain cereals due to
the pro-phylactic benefits they provide.[11]
heAlth clAIM on oAts
The USFDA has allowed a health claim for an
association between consumption of diet which is
high in oat meal, oat bran, or oat flour, and reduced
risk of CHD. This represents the first health claim
for a specific food under the Nutrition Labeling and
Education Act (1990) and follows on the long history
of investigation and controversy. The claim is based on
many clinical studies that concluded oat products may
reduce serum cholesterol levels, a risk factor in CHD.
Beta-glucan is accepted as a main active ingredient,
but this does not imply that any source of beta-glucan
is allowed; the health claim is especially for oat bran,
rolled oats (oatmeal), and oat flour, and does not hold
true for other sources of beta-glucan such as oats
products or barley.[12]
The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) approved
the following health claim for food containing
beta-glucan derived from oats or oat bran, or mixtures
of nonprocessed or minimally processed beta-glucans:
“Regular consumption of beta-glucans contributes to
maintenance of normal blood cholesterol concentrations
in the body of the consumer.” Like that of FDA, EFSA
has also concluded that an intake of 3 g beta-glucans
per day was the minimum dose. The EFSA also
stated that the intake could be distributed over one or
more servings, without giving any lower limit for the
beta-glucan content of food products.
Health claims regarding the association between
cholesterol-lowering and soluble fiber from oat
products/oat beta-glucan (OBG) have been approved by
the food standards agencies worldwide (United States: US
Food and Drug Administration; Canada: Health Canada;
Europe: European Food Safety Authority; Australia and
New Zealand: Food Standards Australia New Zealand;
Malaysia: Ministry of Health Malaysia).[13-17]
processInG of oAts
Oats are processed to make it palatable and also to
improve nutrient availability as shown in Figure 2.
Oat kernel is largely nondigestible and is thus milled
to make it suitable for human consumption and
There are few steps followed while milling oats:
1. Dehull – It helps to expose the groat
2. Exposure to heat – The heat processing helps to
Table 2: Composition of oats fiber and
beta‑glucan (g/kg dry weight)
Components Oat groat Oat gum Oat bran Oat hull fiber
Total dietary
60-90 - 120-240 900-970
Beta-glucan 35-50 600-800 55-90 -
[Downloaded free from on Wednesday, September 28, 2016, IP:]
12 Journal of Clinical and Preventive Cardiology ¦ Jan-Mar 2016 ¦ Volume 5 ¦ Issue 1
Varma, et al.: Benefits of oat grains
inactivate the enzymes that cause rancidity and
help in developing flavor
3. Cut/flake/roll/grind – Oat groats are cut, rolled,
ground, or flattened. These groats of varying sizes
are used to make oat flakes/oat flour/oatmeal or as
an ingredient in products such as cookies/bread/
bars, etc.
GlyceMIc Index of vArIous forMs of oAts
During processing of oats, this cereal undergoes change
in physical characteristics which may influence serum
glycemic response. According to a systemic review,
the effect of different processes on acute postprandial
glycemic response, quantified using glycemic index
(GI) measurements. Table 3 below shows variety of oats
and its glycemic index (GI).
The data revealed that steel-cut and large-flake oats
have low GI value whereas muesli and granola have
medium but quick-cooking oats, and instant oatmeal
(IO) fell in the category of high GI value.
The analysis establishes that differences in processing
protocols and cooking practices modify the glycemic
response to foods made with whole-grain oats. Smaller
particle size and increased starch gelatinization appear to
increase the glycemic response[13] (Tosh and Chu, 2015).
The effects of various commercial hydrothermal
processes (steaming, autoclaving, and drum drying) on
the levels of selected oat antioxidants were investigated.
Steaming and flaking of dehulled oat groats resulted in
moderate losses of tocotrienols, caffeic acid, and the AVE
Bp (N-(4’-hydroxy)-(E)-cinnamoyl-5-hydroxy-anthranilic
acid), while ferulic acid and vanillin
increased. The tocopherols and the AVEs Bc
(N-(3’,4’-dihydroxy-(E)-cinnamoyl -5-hydroxy-anthranilic
acid) and Bf (N-(4’-hydroxy-3’-methoxy)-(E)-
cinnamoyl-5-hydroxy-anthranilic acid) were not
affected by steaming. Autoclaving of grains (including
the hulls) caused increased levels of all tocopherols
and tocotrienols which were analyzed except
beta-tocotrienol, which was not affected. Vanillin,
ferulic, and p-coumaric acids also increased, whereas
the AVEs decreased, and caffeic acid was almost
completely eliminated. Drum drying of steamed rolled
oats resulted in an almost complete loss of tocopherols
and tocotrienols, as well as a large decrease in total
cinnamic acids and avenanthramides. The same
process applied to whole meal made from groats from
autoclaved grains resulted in less pronounced losses,
especially for the avenanthramides which were not
significantly affected.[18]
effect of cookInG on oAts
The effects of cooking, baking, and drying on the
extractability of OBG were comprehensively evaluated
by Johansson et al. Cooking was found to release
more soluble beta-glucan whereas baking decreased
the amount of soluble beta-glucan probably due to
enzyme activity in the flour toward beta-glucan.
Drying (overnight at 60°C) decreased the amount of
soluble beta-glucan both in bread and fermentate,
but not in porridge. All processing conditions did
not influence the ratio of cellotriosyl to cellotetraosyl
residues in soluble beta-glucan molecular structure.[19]
Major viscosity losses in oat gum have been observed
during centrifuging, which produce high shear
damage to beta-glucan residues (Wood et al. 1989).
Extrusion processing at high temperature might
Figure 1: Value pyramid
Bran isolated
Whole kernel Oat bran
Hull removed Ready to eat processed foods lik
breakfast cereals, baked goods &
snack bars
Oat groats
Heat exposure
Cut up Rolled
Steel cut oats Ready to
cook oats
Develop flavor reduce rancidity flattened
Scottish oats
Rolled flattened
Old fashioned oats
Figure 2: Processing of oats
Table 3: Variety of Oats and GI values
Oats Glycemic index
Steel-cut oats 55
Large-flake oats 53
Muesli 56
Granola 56
Quick-cooking oats 71
Instant oatmeal 75
[Downloaded free from on Wednesday, September 28, 2016, IP:]
Journal of Clinical and Preventive Cardiology ¦ Jan-Mar 2016 ¦ Volume 5 ¦ Issue 1
Varma, et al.: Benefits of oat grains
decrease the molecular weight of beta-glucan.[20]
The cholesterol-lowering effect of OBG depends on
its viscosity in the small intestine and therefore its
molecular weight. A high molecular weight means it
can be released from the food matrix during digestion
and form a viscous gel inside the small intestine.
cholesterol reductIon wIth oAts
According to scientific research results it has been
known to scientists for over 2 decades that β-glucan
(oat β-glucan) has strong cholesterol and triglyceride
lowering properties leading to reduced cardiovascular
By the early 1960s, Groot et al. had observed the
cholesterol-lowering effects of rolled oats in humans.
Since then, many human studies have confirmed this
health benefit. From the meta-analysis of 20 trials,
incorporating oat products into the diet was found
to cause a modest reduction in blood cholesterol
levels, and large reductions were observed in
hypercholesterolemic subjects, particularly when a dose
of 3 g or more of soluble oat fiber was employed.[22]
Behall et al. (1997) reported that 2.1 g of β-glucan per
day reduced total cholesterol levels by 9.5%.[23] The
studies of Anderson and colleagues first brought the
potential cholesterol lowering effect of oats to public
attention, showing that oat bran reduced total serum
cholesterol in hypercholesterolemic subjects by as
much as 23%with no change in high density lipoprotein
(HDL) cholesterol.
A recent meta-analysis, which included 25 studies on
oat products, found that 3 g of soluble fiber from oats
(three servings of oatmeal, 28 g each) reduced total
cholesterol and low-density lipid by approximately
0.13 mmol/L (i.e., 2%).
A meta-analysis of 67 controlled trials of dietary
soluble fiber as a single intervention showed that the
effects on total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol levels
were modest. For example, the addition of three 28 g
servings of oats per day decreases LDL cholesterol
levels by 5 mg/dL (0.13 mmol/L).
A systematic review of literature was extracted
from Embase, Medline, and the Cochrane Library,
which identified 654 potential articles. Seventy-six
articles describing 69 studies met the inclusion
criteria. Most studies lacked statistical power to
detect a significant effect of oats on any of the risk
factors considered: 59% of the studies had less than
thirty subjects in the oat intervention group. Out of
64 studies that assessed systemic lipid markers, 37
(58%) and 34 (49%) showed a significant reduction
in total cholesterol (2–19% reduction) and LDL
cholesterol (4–23% reduction), respectively, mostly
in hypercholesterolemic subjects. Few studies (three
and five, respectively) described significant effects on
HDL cholesterol and TAG concentrations. Long-term
dietary intake of oats or oat bran has a beneficial
effect on blood cholesterol.
A meta-analysis published in the American Journal of
Clinical Nutrition shows that daily consumption of at
least 3 g OBG reduces cholesterol levels. This effect
was observed in lean, overweight, and obese male and
female adults, with and without type-2 diabetes, across
28 randomized controlled trials.
The cholesterol-lowering effect of oat products has been
attributed specifically to OBGs. In a subsequent study,
oat gum containing 80% of beta-glucans significantly
reduced the total and LDL cholesterol levels of
hypercholesterolemic human subjects without effects
on plasma HDL cholesterol, suggesting that beta-glucan
could be the major component of oats responsible for
the overall cholesterol-lowering effect.[24]
A systematic review of observational studies also
supported the fact that increased oats consumption has
a beneficial effect on serum cholesterol concentration,
particularly in hypercholesterolemic subjects. This
is consistent with a rigorous meta-analysis by
Ripsin et al. (90) which concluded that about 3 g/day of
soluble fiber from oat products can lower total cholesterol
by 0·13–0·16 mmol/L, with a greater reduction in
individuals with higher initial cholesterol concentrations.
A 1% reduction in total cholesterol or LDL cholesterol
is associated with a 2–3% or 1% decreased risk,
respectively, of CHD. The magnitude of the effect found
in the present review (3–6% for total cholesterol and
4–8% for LDL-cholesterol when considering studies
with a sufficient sample size) would translate to a
6–18% decrease in CHD risk, which would equate to a
substantial health benefit at a population level.
The soluble fiber in oats helps lower total and
LDL cholesterol, but scientists now say that the
cardiovascular health benefits of oats go beyond fiber.
Eleven top scientists from around the globe presented
the latest findings on the powerful compounds found
in oats in a scientific session in Dallas, TX. Scientists
described research on the diverse health benefits of oats
and emphasized the growing evidence that the type
of phenolic compound AVE–found only in oats–may
possess antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-itch, and
anti-cancer properties. The culmination of the studies
suggests that oat AVEs may play an important role in
protecting the heart.
mechanism of choLesteroL reduction
A study on 4-week-old Wistar rats was conducted to
understand the mechanism of cholesterol reduction
with oats consumption. Rats were divided into six
groups of 7 rats each with similar mean body weights
and serum cholesterol concentrations. Rats were fed
with the experimental diets containing 10% oats
flour for 30 days. The results indicated that dietary
oat improved hypercholesterolemia by increasing the
[Downloaded free from on Wednesday, September 28, 2016, IP:]
14 Journal of Clinical and Preventive Cardiology ¦ Jan-Mar 2016 ¦ Volume 5 ¦ Issue 1
Varma, et al.: Benefits of oat grains
excretions of fecal bile acids, and this improvement was
not only related to beta-glucan, but also attributed to
the lipids and proteins. Oat proteins decreased serum
total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol contents due to
their low lysine/arginin and methionine/glycine ratio.
The co-existence of oleic acid, linoleic, Vitamin E, or
plant sterols accounted for the hypocholesterolemic
properties of oat lipids.
The mechanism by which oat-soluble fiber lowers blood
lipids is probably related to its ability to either reduce
the absorption of cholesterol and bile acids or delay
lipid digestion, although two recent studies suggest
that oats may also reduce LDL oxidation due to the
presence of various phenolic compounds. In addition,
oatmeal has been shown to prevent the constriction
of arteries, an early sign of heart disease, when
served with a high-fat meal. Beta-glucans decrease the
absorption and re-absorption of cholesterol, bile acids,
and their metabolites by increasing the viscosity of the
gastrointestinal tract contents.[25]
The mechanism for beta-glucans to lower LDL is
considered to be mediated by bile acids binding property
of beta-glucans. Therefore, beta-glucans increase the
exclusion of bile acids, and this, in turn, activates
cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase and upregulates
low-density lipoprotein receptor, and thus increase the
transport of LDL into hepatocytes and the conversion of
cholesterol into bile acids as seen in Figure 3.
Other soluble dietary fibres that are resistant to
digestion by human enzymes such as pectins, guar
gums, psyllium can also have similar effects.[26,27] The
advantages for beta-glucans are that they exhibit high
viscosities at very low concentration (1%) and are stable
with pH. The viscosity determined by water solubility
and molecular weight has been shown to affect the
hypocholesterolemic effect of beta-glucans.[28] Thus,
different structure of beta-glucans may have different
properties to cause viscosity. Some betaglucans may
have no effects. It is important to characterize what sort
of structure features are essential for lowering lipids
and antidiabetic effects.[29]
oAts And prebIotIc effect
Beta-glucan present in oats has been shown to stimulate
the growth of bifido bacterium and lactobacillus in a
dose-dependent manner and also inhibit Enterobacillus
growth in the colon in a study conducted on mice.[30]
The contents of short-chain fatty acids in the colon were
significantly higher in mice fed with OBG compared to
those fed with the controlled diet. Shen et al. (2006).[30]
indicated that prebiotic effects of OBG were associated
with their molecular weight. Another study conducted
on rats where rats were fed with oat bran diets and
results showed that there was an increase in the
content of lactobacilli and bifido bacteria in fecal flora
as compared with other group which was fed fiber-free
Kedia et al.[32] compared the fermentation ability of oat
fractions (pearling, whole flour, and bran) by human
Lactobacillus strains in vitro. Oat fractions with a high
concentration of soluble fiber have resulted in greater
growth of Lactobacillus reuteri, Lactobacillus plantarum,
and Lactobacillus acidophilus. The 1–3% of pearling oat
sample containing the highest amount of soluble fiber
and beta-glucan had the greatest fermentation ability,
and the nondigestible components of this fraction
treated with an in vitro digestion model also showed
the greatest growth of the three lacto bacillus strains.
mechanism of oats as a prebiotic
Oligosaccharides produced from beta-glucan have been
demonstrated to act as selective factors, favoring growth
of at least some known probiotic bacterial strains. The
favorable effect on colon function is based partly on
the enhanced production of microbial mass with good
water retention properties, partly by the bulking effect
of the insoluble components of the fiber. Soluble dietary
fiber has been found to increase the fermentation
activity in the large intestinal bowel because of the
production of butyric acid, also accelerates the growth
and colonization of some strains of probiotic bacteria,
has been found to increase the production of microbial
mass and thereby aids the removal of nitrogen via
stool. Increases the wet weight of feces, thus decreases
the constipation problems. Short-chain fatty acids
formed used as energy source for colonic mucosa as
shown in Figure 4. Effect of beta-glucans in increasing
caecal and colon mass, by increasing the resistance of
starch to digestion, and hence altering the amount of
fermentable material reaching the caecum.
oAts And dIAbetes
OBG plays a role in modulating the metabolic effects
observed after fiber-rich meals. As a soluble fiber with
viscous characteristics, it affects gastric emptying, gut
motility, and nutrient absorption, which are reflected in
lower postprandial glycemic and insulin responses.
The benefits of oats have been officially endorsed by
the American Dietetic Association (ADA). According
to a 1996 report from the ADA, oat consumption does
improve glucose control by moderating the large blood
glucose spikes that cause metabolic upsets among
Blood sugar control can be determined by the cooking
time of a cereal, in this case the longer cooking time
(of oats) more thorough is the breakdown of cell wall,
therefore, the rate at which beta- glucans enters the
blood stream is faster; once it enters the blood stream,
it stimulates insulin production. Low glycemic index
of oats may help in regulating blood sugar levels. The
quantity of oats and cooking time work together to
deliver the best possible glycemic control.
A study revealed the efficacy of beta-glucans from oats
which helped in slowing down the blood sugar levels.
[Downloaded free from on Wednesday, September 28, 2016, IP:]
Journal of Clinical and Preventive Cardiology ¦ Jan-Mar 2016 ¦ Volume 5 ¦ Issue 1
Varma, et al.: Benefits of oat grains
According to this study, dietary oats were compared
with mixed-food diets containing other water-soluble
fibers. The results showed that the mixed food diet did
not match the effectiveness of daily servings of ordinary
whole oats in controlling postmeal blood sugar.
A beta-glucan-rich diet was tested against the American
Diabetic Association’s recommended diet for type-2
diabetics. About 16 males with well-controlled type-2
diabetes were split into two groups of 8, one assigned to
continue with the ADA’s diet, the other fed a modified
low-calorie diet featuring OBG sweetened by sucrose
and fructose. Both groups maintained their diets for
4 weeks while exercising 60 min each day. Glucose,
along with body mass index (BMI) and other measures
was monitored. Both diets reduced participant’s
weight, BMI, lipid profile, and basal glucose. The
significant difference was that the beta-glucan-rich
diet outstripped the ADA diet in controlling metabolic
and other nonweight body changes, the most reason is
that oats should figure importantly in the diet of every
person suffering type-2 diabetes.
Another study investigated the postprandial effect of
2 oat products, namely flaked oats (muesli) and boiled
oat flakes (oat porridge), in healthy subjects. Both
products had a similar GI effect as white bread, while
intake of boiled oat kernels tested at the same time
gave lower glucose and insulin responses. Tappy et al.
(1996)[33] gave diabetic subjects a cooked extruded oat
bran concentrate for breakfast at different doses (4.0,
6.0, and 8.4 g beta-glucan). The maximum increases in
plasma glucose for the oat bran meals were 67%, 42%,
and 38%, respectively, compared with a continental
breakfast (35 g available carbohydrates). Other studies
also showed, that when a more concentrated oat extract
is consumed in cooked, boiled, or baked form, it lowers
the glucose and insulin responses.[34]
Tapola et al. (2005)[35] in their study, “glycemic responses
of oat bran products in type-2 diabetic patients” also
concluded the same when they studied volunteers with
type-2 diabetes fed on oat bran flour, oat bran crisp, and
a glucose load providing 12.5 g glycemic carbohydrate
(series 1) and 25 g glucose load alone, and 25 g glucose
load with 30 g oat bran flour (series 2). In both series,
oat bran products rapidly lowered postprandial glucose
concentrations than after the 12.5 g or 25 g glucose
load during the 1st h, but the glucose concentration was
greater at 120 min after the oat bran products ingestion
than after the glucose load. This decrease of glucose
absorption will decrease insulin release and thereby
attenuate pancreatic insulin response. Therefore, OBG
has a greater effect at lowering peak glucose absorption
concurrently with an attenuated insulin response,
which has a high significance in control and prevention
of type-2 diabetes.[21,36]
mechanism of oats in diabetes
The potential reduction of glycemic response following
ingestion of dietary fiber has led to proposals which
implicate that the amount and quality of fiber increased
the intrinsic viscosity of the food in combination with
fluids and hence the gastrointestinal environment;
maintenance of physical integrity of the food material
and incomplete starch gelatinization. Beta-glucans
delay gastric emptying, gut motility, and the intestinal
absorption of nutrients such as digestible carbohydrates
[Figure 5]. Higher levels of fermentable material in the
caecum will lead to increased short-chain fatty acid
Binding ability of beta- glucan to
bile acids SCFA produced after fermentation inhibit
hepatic cholesterol synthesis
Favor exclusion of bile acids
Activation of cholesterol 7 a-
hydroxylase which favor
increased expression of LDLR
Transport of LDL into
Conversion of cholesterol into
bile acids
cholesterol level
Figure 3: Action of oats against dyslipidemia
Contain beta glucan
Contain other soluble fiber
Favour growth of probiotic
bacterial strains
Production of butyric acid. Increased
colonization and growth of some
strains of probiotic bacteria
Increased production of microbial mass and acids in
nitrogen removal via stool
Figure 4: Mechanism of oats as prebiotic effect
Figure 5: Mechanism of action of oats against diabetes
[Downloaded free from on Wednesday, September 28, 2016, IP:]
16 Journal of Clinical and Preventive Cardiology ¦ Jan-Mar 2016 ¦ Volume 5 ¦ Issue 1
Varma, et al.: Benefits of oat grains
levels in the caecal contents. This “bulking” effect of
dietary fiber may be a consequence of increased water
holding capacity of fiber-rich foods, and thus reducing
postprandial hyperglycemia and insulin secretion. This
provides health benefits for those with type-2 diabetes,
and is also associated with reduced risk of developing
the disease and insulin insensitivity. Other notable, but
less well-documented effects of beta-glucans include
the diminished absorption of nutrients, prolonged
postprandial satiety, and increased stool bulk and relief
of constipation.
obesIty And blood pressure
Weight loss is often advocated as a first-line treatment
for hypertension and hypercholesterolemia, and the
identification of weight-loss diets likely to maximize
the effects on blood pressure and blood lipids is of
considerable importance. In a study, a hypocaloric
diet-containing oats were given for over 6 weeks. It
resulted in greater decreases in SBP, total cholesterol,
and LDL cholesterol than did in a similar diet without
oats. In this normotensive population, a hypocaloric
diet-containing oats were associated with a decrease
in SBP of 6 mm Hg and a net advantage over the
control diet of 25 mmHg. Many studies have shown
beta-glucans reduced body weight.[37,38] For example,
Sanchez and Colleagues et al. (2008) showed the
lowering of body weight effect of oat bran beta-glucan
at the concentration of 10%.[39]
According to Anderson (1990) and Malkki, and
Virtanen (2001)[26,40] the diet which is rich in soluble
fiber can affect fullness (satiety) and promote weight
loss for a number of reasons including a slower rate
of meal intake, a delay in gastric emptying, elevation
of cholecystokinin (a gut hormone correlated with
prolonged satiety), and production of gas and
short-chain fatty acids by fermentation of the fiber
in the colon. A study was conducted to examine
the effect of two types of oatmeal and an oat-based
ready to eat breakfast cereal (RTEC) on appetite and
assessed differences in meal viscosity and beta-glucan
characteristics among the cereals. About 48 subjects
were enrolled in a randomized crossover trial. Subjects
consumed isocaloric breakfast meals containing
instant oatmeal (IO), old fashioned oatmeal (SO) or
RTEC in random order at least a week apart. Starch
digestion kinetics, meal viscosities, and beta-glucan
characteristics for each meal were determined. IO and
SO had higher beta-glucan content, molecular weight,
gastric viscosity, and larger hydration spheres than the
RTEC, and IO had greater viscosity after oral and initial
gastric digestion (initial viscosity) than the RTEC. IO
and SO improved appetite control over four hours
compared to RTEC.
Oat compounds provide various opportunities for
incorporating oats in functional food products. There
is a great need to determine the bioavailability of
antioxidants from oat and other food sources and to
determine various effects on human and animal health.
Oats contain very interesting components including
antioxidants and beta-glucan. Oat, being a convenience
food material consumed by humans irrespective of the
age, requires more scientific attention to justify and
modify its nutraceutical status in geriatric as well as
pediatric diets. Research and development are further
needed to determine novel functional compounds in
oat to extract these components in fractions that can be
incorporated in food products.
financiaL support and sponsorship
confLicts of interest
There are no conflicts of interest.
1. Marie Ng, Fleming T, Robinson M, Thomson B, Nicholas
Graetz N, Margono C, et al. Global, regional and national
prevalence of overweight and obesity in children
and adults 1980-2013: A systematic analysis. Lancet
2014;384:766-81. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(14)60460-8.
2. World Health Organization. The Global Burden of Chronic
Disease. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2002.
3. Daou C, Zhang H. Oat Beta-Glucan: It’s Role in Health
Promotion and Prevention of Diseases. Comprehensive
Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety 2012;11:355-65.
4. Saltzman E, Das SK, Lichtenstein AH, Dallal GE,
Corrales A, Schaefer EJ, et al. An oat-containing
hypocaloric diet reduces systolic blood pressure and
improves lipid profile beyond effects of weight loss in
men and women. J Nutr 2001;131:1465-70.
5. Francisco E. Contreras-Govea and Kenneth A. Albrecht.
Forage Production and Nutritive Value of Oat in autumn
and Early Summer. Crop Sci 2006;46:2382–6. doi:10.2135/
6. Decker EA, Rose DJ, Stewart D. Processing of oats and the
impact of processing operations on nutrition and health
benefits. Br J Nutr 2014;112 Suppl 2:S58-64.
7. Katz DL. A scientific review of the health benefits of oats.
The Quaker Oats Company; 2001.
8. Young VL. Oat lipids and lipid-related enzymes. In:
Webster FH, St. Paul MN, editors. Oats – Chemistry
and Technology. Francis H. Webster. St. Paul, MN, USA:
American Association of Cereal Chemists; 1986.
9. Judd PA, Truswell AS. The effect of rolled oats on blood
lipids and fecal steroid excretion in man. Am J Clin Nutr
10. Agrifoods Research Report 51. Proceedings 7th
International Oats Conference, Helsinki; 2004.
11. Ahmad WS, Rouf TS, Bindu B, Ahmad NG, Amir G,
Khalid M, et al. Oats as a functional food: A review.
Universal Journal of Pharmacy 2014;3:14-20.
12. Food and drug administration Department of Health
and Human Services Subchapter B: Food for human
consumption. Code of Federal Regulations, Title 21,
Volume 2, Revised as of April 1, 2015. CITE:21CFR101.81.
2015. Available from:
scripts/cdrh/cfdocs/cfcfr/cfrsearch.cfm?fr=101.81. [Last
accessed on 2015 Aug 21].
13. Health Canada. Summary of Assessment of a Health
[Downloaded free from on Wednesday, September 28, 2016, IP:]
Journal of Clinical and Preventive Cardiology ¦ Jan-Mar 2016 ¦ Volume 5 ¦ Issue 1
Varma, et al.: Benefits of oat grains
Claim about Oat Products and Blood Cholesterol
Lowering; 2010. Available from:
eng.php. [Last accessed on 2013 Nov 14].
14. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies
(NDA). Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of
health claims related to beta-glucans from oats and
barley and maintenance of normal blood LDL-cholesterol
concentrations (ID 1236, 1299), increase in satiety leading
to a reduction in energy intake (ID 851, 852), reduction
of post-prandial glycaemic responses (ID 821, 824), and
“digestive function” (ID 850) pursuant to Article 13(1)
of regulation (EC) No 1924/2006. EFSA J 2011;9:2207.
Available from:
[Last accessed on 2011 Mar 25].
15. Food Standards Australia New Zealand. Standard 1.2.7:
Nutrition, Health and Related Claims. Food Standards
Gazette; 2013. p. 80. Available from: http://www.
Amendment%20No.%20154%20WEB%20version.pdf. [Last
accessed on 2013 Jan 07].
16. Ministry of Health Malaysia. Malaysian Dietary Guidelines
– Key Message 14 – Make Effective Use of Nutrition
Information on Food Labels. Putrajaya, Malaysia: Ministry
of Health Malaysia; 2010. Available from: http://www2.
[Last cited on 2013 Nov 14].
17. Commission Regulation (EU) No 1160/2011 of 14
November 2011 on the Authorisation and Refusal
of Authorisation of Certain Health Claims Made on
Foods and Referring to the Reduction of Disease
Risk. Brussels, Belgium: Eur-Lex; 2011. Available
TXT/?uri=CELEX%3A32011R1160. [Last cited on 2013
Nov 14].
18. Bryngelsson S, Dimberg LH, Kamal-Eldin A. Effects of
commercial processing on levels of antioxidants in oats
(Avena sativa L.). J Agric Food Chem 2002;50:1890-6.
19. Johanssona L, Tuomainena P, Anttilab H, Ritac H,
Virkkia L. Effect of processing on the extractability of oat
β-glucan. Food Chem 2007;105:1439-45.
20. Suortti T, Johansson L, Autio K. Effect of Heating and
Freezing on Molecular Weight of oat Beta Glucan.
American Association of Clinical Chemistry (AACC)
Annual Meeting. Abstract 32. November 5-9, 2000.
Kansas City, Missouri; 2000.
21. Daou C, Zhang H. Oat beta-glucan: It’s role in health
promotion and prevention of diseases. Compr Rev Food
Sci Food Saf 2012;11:355-65. DOI: 10.1111/j.1541-
22. Yu LL, Tsao R, Shahidi F. Cereals and Pulses: Nutraceutical
Properties and Health Benefits. Edition first published
2012, Pondicherry, India: John Wiley & Sons Publication.
2012, p. 26-27.
23. Behalla KM, Scholfielda DJ, Hallfrischa J. Effect of beta-
glucan level in oat fiber extracts on blood lipids in men
and women. Journal of the American College of Nutrition
24. Braaten JT, Wood PJ, Scott FW, Wolynetz MS, Lowe
MK, Bradley-White P, et al. Oat beta-glucan reduces
blood cholesterol concentration in hypercholesterolemic
subjects. Eur J Clin Nutr 1994;48:465-74.
25. Guo L, Tong LT, Liu L, Zhong K, Qiu J, Zhou S. The
cholesterol-lowering effects of oat varieties based on
their difference in the composition of proteins and lipids.
Lipids Health Dis 2014;13:182.
26. Anderson JW. Dietary fiber and human health.
HortScience 1990;25:1488-95.
27. Anderson JW. Dietary fibre, complex carbohydrate and
coronary artery disease. Can J Cardiol 1995;11 Suppl
28. Sadiq Butt M, Tahir-Nadeem M, Khan MK, Shabir R,
Butt MS. Oat: Unique among the cereals. Eur J Nutr
29. Chen J, Raymond K. Beta-glucans in the treatment of
diabetes and associated cardiovascular risks. Vasc Health
Risk Manag 2008;4:1265-72.
30. Rui-ling S, Zhang-cun W, Ji-lin D, Hui-yuan Y. Effect of
oat β-glucan on colon flora and its function in mice. Acta
Nutrimenta Sinica 2005-2006;28: 430-3.
31. Ryhänen EL, Mantere-Alhonen S, Salovaara H. Effects
of oat bran and rye bran diet on intestinal lactobacillus
and bifidobacterium flora of Wistar rats. In: Mälkki Y,
Cummings JH. eds. COST Action 92 Dietary Fibre and
Fermentation in the Colon. Proceedings of COST Action
92 Workshop:55-57. Belgium; European Commission
Brussels; 1996.
32. Kedia G, Vázquez JA, Pandiella SS. Enzymatic
digestion and in vitro fermentation of oat fractions by
human Lactobacillus strains. Enzyme Microb Technol
33. Tappy L, Gügolz E, Würsch P. Effects of breakfast cereals
containing various amounts of beta-glucan fibers on
plasma glucose and insulin responses in NIDDM subjects.
Diabetes Care 1996;19:831-4.
34. Arnoldi A. Functional Foods, Cardiovascular Disease and
Diabetes. Use of Cereal Beta Glucans to Control Diabetes
and CVD. Abington, Cambridge, England: Woodhead
Publishing in Food Science and Technology; 2004. p. 415.
35. Tapola N, Karvonen H, Niskanen L, Mikola M,
Sarkkinen E. Glycemic responses of oat bran products
in type 2 diabetic patients. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis
36. Hoodaa S, Matteb JJ, Vasanthana T, Zijlstraa RT. Dietary
purified oat β-glucan reduces peak glucose absorption and
portal insulin release in portal-vein catheterized grower
pigs. Livest Sci 2010;134:15-7.
37. Artiss JD, Brogan K, Brucal M, Moghaddam M, Jen KL.
The effects of a new soluble dietary fiber on weight
gain and selected blood parameters in rats. Metabolism
38. Reyna-Villasmil N, Bermúdez-Pirela V, Mengual-
Moreno E, Arias N, Cano-Ponce C, Leal-Gonzalez E, et al.
Oat-derived beta-glucan significantly improves HDLC and
diminishes LDLC and non-HDL cholesterol in overweight
individuals with mild hypercholesterolemia. Am J Ther
39. Sánchez D, Muguerza B, Moulay L, Hernández R, Miguel M,
Aleixandre A. Highly methoxylated pectin improves insulin
resistance and other cardiometabolic risk factors in Zucker
fatty rats. J Agric Food Chem 2008;56:3574-81.
40. Malkki Y, Virtanen E. Gastrointestinal effects of oat
bran and oat gum – A review. Lebenson Wiss Technol
[Downloaded free from on Wednesday, September 28, 2016, IP:]
... Oat is considered one of the best dual-purpose cereal crops that fit well into the platter of human and cattle as well. From human sustenance point of view, oat have interesting qualities as they are having moderately great level of proteins, vitamins, lipids, (unsaturated fatty acids), antioxidants, minerals and additionally serve as amazing source of βglucan (Varma et al., 2016). Cultivated common oat is an allohexaploid species contains A, C and D genomes inferred from normal conglomeration of cross between A. ventricosa, A. strigosa and still unknown species, respectively. ...
Full-text available
A study was undertaken to select oat genotypes which were powdery mildew resistant and had high β-glucan content during Rabi 2018-19. The data of β-glucan and yield related traits were evaluated using several biometrical approaches. In both the experiments, it was found that there was negligible difference in β-glucan content, indicating that β-glucan content showed no reduction effect after single cut. Eleven genotypes were found most promising for β-glucan content. Cluster analysis revealed that in both the experiments, genotypes EC523890, JPO-10, JPO-25, ALGERIAN and EC528889 could be considered as the best with respect to β-glucan and related traits. Principal component analysis revealed that in both the experiments β-glucan content, crude protein and tillers per plant were the major sources of variation among oat genotypes. Genotypes JPO-28, OS-6, PLP-1, JPO-46, JPO-36, KRR-AK-26, JPO-38, and IG-03-205 were found powdery mildew resistant under in vivo and in vitro conditions and confirmed using microsatellite marker AM-102 that was tightly linked to resistant gene Eg-5. Genotypes IG-03-205, JPO-38 and JPO-46 were selected as the best genotypes having disease resistance and potential β-glucan content as well.
... The grain provides excellent nutritional value and outstanding health benefits. Oat is high in protein, vitamins and minerals, in addition confers positive impact on cardiovascular health considering the role of β-glucan in lowering plasma cholesterol levels and attenuating elevation of plasma glucose levels (Ho et al., 2016;Shen et al., 2016;Varma et al., 2016). Oat porridge is one of the traditional oat dishes in developed countries which has also been adopted as food in Nigeria. ...
Full-text available
There is an increased utilization of wholegrain cereals in food formulations considering their richness in essential nutritional and biological properties. In this study, each component (amaranth, acha and pearl millet) of the multigrain blend was individually pre‐fermented. Thereafter, the pre‐fermented grain flours were optimized to obtain two unique blends (90:5:5 and 47.98: 26.68:25.34) containing high protein content (~23% and 17%) and low glycemic index (~43). The optimum blends were processed into instant porridges (PR1, PR2) and analyzed for its nutritional composition, blood glucose lowering ability, antioxidant enzyme and tissue/serum biochemical makers modulatory ability in obese‐diabetic animals. The porridge showed significant nutritional profile, consumption of formulated multigrain porridge reduced blood glucose level (by 62% and 66%), upregulated the antioxidant defense system to near normal levels likewise, significantly reduced serum biochemical parameters. Thus, suggests that the multigrain blends/porridge is nutrient‐dense possessing beneficial effect to maintain antioxidant levels in the diabetic condition with potential to attenuate oxidative damage. Practical applications Prolonged feeding with high‐fat diet induces hypercholesterolemia in experimental animals. Further interperitoneal injection of streptozotocin induces experimental diabetes with a cascade of oxidative stress related complications in serum and tissue parameters. Porridge is a traditional meal while multigrain porridge is a nutrient dense meal which may exert curative effect. In this work, it was shown that dietary intervention with multigrain porridge product promoted positive weight control, portrayed hepatoprotective effect as shown by the elevated levels of biomarker (ALT, AST, ALP) and antioxidant enzymes (CAT, SOD, GPx) as well as modulation of serum lipid profile (total cholesterol, triglycerides, high density lipoprotein‐cholesterol). Thus, the multigrain porridge may be a functional food product to combat hypercholesterolemia and hyperglycemia especially PR1 which appeared to be more efficient than PR2 in modulating oxidative stress, conferring hypoglycemic effect and lowering lipid levels in obese‐diabetic rats model studied.
... Oat is an excellent source of the dietary soluble fibre -glucan making it well accepted for human nutrition (Premkumar et al., 2017;Varma et al., 2016), providing 5.0 g (oatmeal) to 7.2 g (oat bran) per 100 g serving (Glore et al., 1994). Nutrition experts believe that -glucan, can help to inhibit cholesterol build up and ultimately reducing low density lipoprotein and total cholesterol level thus reducing heart diseases (Brown et al., 1999;Whitehead et al., 2014). ...
Full-text available
Oat is a dual-purpose Rabi cereal that emerged as a valuable crop because of its utilization as quality fodder for livestock. The multi-cut nature of oat crop with high regeneration capacity, fast-growing plant habit, palatable, succulent and nutritious fodder make it more suitable for livestock sustainability. In recent years, the grain component of oat gained accelerative attention due to its growing popularity as healthy food and ultimately in the food industry. The potential nutritional characteristics, health promoting and therapeutics benefits offered by oat grains make it "super-grain" as it contains all the principle nutritional components including carbohydrates, protein, vitamins, minerals, antioxidants, and soluble fibre. The expansion of cultivated area under forage crops is not possible due to pressure of more remunerative and commercial crops like rice, wheat and barley. Therefore, the alternative way to meet the demand for quality fodder is through increasing productivity. Earlier oat was grown by farmers solely as fodder crop but more focus is to tailor dual-purpose (forage-cum-grain) oat genotypes adaptable under changing climatic conditions. The dual-purpose oat presents extra advantage of the nutritional value of the crop for human consumption as well as burgeoning livestock production.
... oat and oat derivatives for regulating the blood cholesterol level and lowering the risk of coronary heart diseases (Purvi et al., 2016). In recent years, many scientists studied improving the functionality and health benefits of processed cheese, the most consumed cheese with various forms worldwide, using spice extracts (Krumov et al., 2010), reduction of fat and using prebiotics (Ferrão et al., 2016), low sodium spreadable processed cheese (Nogueira et al., 2018;Talbot-Walsh et al., 2018), incorporating vegetable oil (Shabani et al., 2016), using probiotics (Dantas et al., 2016). ...
Full-text available
Four different levels (0, 1.00, 2.50, and 5.00%) of oat flour (OF) were used to produce processed cheese to assess their impact on the antioxidant activity, mineral contents, phenol contents, physicochemical, microstructure, and sensory properties of the resulting OF processed cheese. Dry matter and pH values of processed cheese increased with increasing OF. Meltability and oil separation of cheese decreased significantly (p ≤ .05) but increased during storage. The functionality of processed cheese increased with the addition of OF and samples with OF exhibited significantly (p ≤ .05) high levels of phenols, antioxidant activity, and mineral contents. Microstructure of processed cheese indicated that the samples with added OF had a dense protein network with lower interfaces, which affect the texture of cheese compared to control. In conclusion, the added proportions 1.00 or 2.50% of oat flour in processed cheese could be successfully used to improve functionality, health benefits and nutritional quality.
... The ash content of oat drinking yoghurt was higher than that of M (P=0.024) due to the presence of bran layers and alurone layers in oat particles [36]. According to the SLS standard, SLS 824 [16], yoghurt should contain a minimum 8.0% SNF. ...
Full-text available
Background: Consumption of oats (Avena sativa) has increased steeply over the last few years due to the multiple health benefits shown by its constituents, including dietary fibre. Accordingly, numerous functional foods have been formulated incorporating oats. The aim of this study was to determine the optimum particle size of oat flakes for the development of oat incorporated drinking yoghurt. Methods: Drinking yoghurt was formulated incorporating oat flakes of particle sizes 850-425 µm, 425-180 µm and <180 µm. Physicochemical parameters of the formulated drinking yoghurts, including pH, Titratable Acidity (TA), Total Soluble Solids (TSS), degree of syneresis and firmness were determined for 21 days. The sample that showed the best sensory attributes and physicochemical properties was analysed for proximate composition and microbial safety. Results: The sensory attributes of the drinking yoghurts with oat flakes of three different particle sizes were not significantly different (P>0.05). The particle size of oat flakes affected the physicochemical properties of drinking yoghurts. In fact, the yoghurt with oat flakes of the smallest size showed the highest titratable acidity, TSS and firmness in the drinking yoghurt (P≤0.05). The variation of the physicochemical properties of the yoghurts with time followed a similar pattern. In fact, the pH decreased, TA increased, while TSS decreased with time (P≤0.05). The selected drinking yoghurt, which was prepared incorporating oat flakes of size range 850-425 µm and 300 ppm of potassium sorbate, showed a shelf life of 14 days at 4 °C. It exhibited similar sensory attributes other than taste to a popular drinking yoghurt from the market. Conclusions : Drinking yoghurt incorporated with oat flakes of 850-425 µm size range showed a better taste and nutritional profile, than regular yoghurt.
... Oat (Avena sativa L.) has achieved status of "super grain" globally due to better quality protein, helpful against cardio-vascular diseases, celiac disease, cholesterol lowering effects, obesity and also posses anticancerous properties [1], [11], [12], [14]. Oat is locally known as "jai" is very important fodder crop for livestock sustainability during Rabi season due to supply of green fodder and can be stored as hay or silage during fodder scarcity periods. ...
principal component, genetic diversity, green fodder yield, oat, multi-cut In the present investigation 92 Avena genotypes were evaluated for multi-cut nature in randomized block design with three replications at the Research Farm area of forage Section, Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, CCS HAU, Hisar during rabi season. Highly significant differences observed by analysis of variance showed presence of high amount of variability for single cut and multi-cut. Correlation analysis indicated positive and significant correlations of green fodder yield with dry matter yield, plant height and number of tillers. Genotypes collected from different geographical areas had a role in the clustering pattern and cluster with highest inter-cluster distances were considered for hybridization as potential parents for obtaining high heterotic response. In single cut, the principal component analysis found three components with eigen values more than one and altogether explained 67.95% of the total accumulated variability. The first principal component explained 26.24% followed by second (21.84%) and third (19.87%). of the total variance while principal factor-3 (PF-3) showed regarded as fodder yield factors. In second cut, seven principal components had eigen values more than one and altogether explained 73.34% of the total accumulated variability. The first principal component explained 15.31 % of the total variation, followed by second, third, fourth, fifth, sixth and seventh principal components explained 11.94, 11.79, 10.54, 10.40, 7.38 and 5.97 % of the total variance, respectively, while PF-2 and PF-4 regarded as fodder yield factors for second cut of multi-cut oat. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial 4.0 International License.
... Oats contain the highest protein level among the cereals, with 12 to 20% protein in the dehulled kernel (Peterson, 1992). Moreover, oat protein is unique and the amino acid profile is more reasonable in oat than cereals having high lysine content (Biel et al., 2009;Varma et al., 2016). In relation to fodder, oat used to be grown mostly as single cut which restricted its availability to shorter period but now it is extensively used as multi-cut leading to prolonged availability of green fodder which has a great role in establishing more productive dairy industry in India. ...
Full-text available
The present investigation was carried out with 92 genotypes of oat maintained in germplasm of Forage Section, Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, CCS HAU, Hisar. The Mahalanobis' D 2 statistics for genetic divergence classified 92 oat genotypes into eleven and nine clusters in first cut and second cut, respectively in multi-cut system, indicating the presence of substantial genetic diversity in the evaluated germplasm. Average inter-cluster distance in I st cut was found highest between cluster IX and XI (6.826) followed by cluster IV and VII (6.676). The minimum inter cluster distance was noticed between cluster V and VI (3.508). The minimum intra cluster distance was noticed in cluster VII (2.602) and highest intra-cluster distance was observed in cluster V (5.098).The clusters II, V, and XI were having higher cluster mean values for most of the characters studied. In 2 nd cut, average inter-cluster distance was found highest between cluster II and VII (8.071), followed by cluster III and VI (7.857). The minimum inter cluster distance was noticed between cluster VI and VIII (5.766). The minimum intra cluster distance was noticed in cluster IV (4.899) and highest intra-cluster distance was observed in cluster VII (6.078).The clusters II, III, IV and IX had higher cluster mean values for most of the characters studied. The genotypes HFO-58, OS-6, KENT, HFO-851, HFO-867, HFO-502, HFO-508 and HFO-880 which performed better in both 1 st cut and 2 nd cut clusters might prove as potential tool for obtaining high heterotic response and consequently superior segregants for dry matter yield and quality in forage oat under multi-cut system.
... From human health point of view, consumption of oat grains lowers the risk of cardiovascular diseases and inhibits bad cholesterol leading to increase in its demand in global food market (Tiwari et al., 2011;Devi 2018). Hence, it has been often referred to as "Supergrain" as it serves as excellent source of various nutritional features (Varma et al., 2016;Premkumar 2017). As fodder, the quality of the forage primarily depends upon both digestible and indigestible fractions. ...
Full-text available
The objective of the present study was to estimate the level of heterosis for different agro-morphological, yield attributing and quality traits in oat. A total of 40 F 1 hybrids along with parents and standard check PLP-1 were evaluated in RBD with three replications during Rabi 2018-19. Analysis of variance revealed significant differences among parents, genotypes and hybrids for almost all the traits indicating sufficient genetic variability in the material. UPO-130 × JPO-46 showed promising heterosis for green fodder yield and seed yield. HJ-8 × JPO-46 exhibited desirable acid detergent fibre, neutral detergent fibre and highest β-glucan content. Based on mean performance, heterosis studies and resistance to powdery mildew, cross combinations KRR-AK-26 × JPO-46, Kent × JPO-46 and PLP-14 × UPO-30 were found best and can be expected to throw transgressive segregants. Thus, these hybrids can be further evaluated at multilocation trials and commercially exploited through heterosis breeding.
Full-text available
Term hydroponics derived from the Greek words ‘hydro’ means water and ‘ponos’ means la�bour. The word 'hydroponics' coined by Dr. W.F. Gericke in 1936 and he has introduced commercial hydroponics and it is defined as growing plants using mineral nutrient solutions instead of soil and it is an eco-friendly and lucrative technology. In this technology yield of different crops can be aug�mented by growing crops throughout the year, because in which climatic changes doesn’t show any significant effects owing to controlled environmental conditions It has been reported by UN global population report that these plants under hydrophonics has yielded 20-25% more than traditional system of agriculture. In India hydroponics was started in the year 1946 by W.J. ShaltoDuglas in West Bengal and he developed laboratory for hydroponics (Radhakrishnan et al., 2019).
In the conditions of the Rostov region of the Russian Federation on ordinary micellar-carbonate chernozems, the influence of winter wheat and sunflower as precursors of spring oats on the parameters of the water regime, the structural and aggregate composition of the soil, its weediness and biological activity in oat crops was studied. The issues of formation of yield structure indicators depending on the predecessor and its influence on the biological yield of oats are considered. It was found that a greater amount of soil moisture both before sowing and during the growth and development of oat plants was after winter wheat due to the optimization of soil structure and its biological activity. Sunflower promotes clogging of the soil under oats and reduces the number of agronomically valuable soil aggregates, as a result of which the grain yield was lower than after winter wheat by 0.21 t/ha. Favorable conditions for the growth of oat plants after winter wheat are manifested in an increase in the number of productive stems compared to the predecessor sunflower by 15%.
Full-text available
The aim of present study is to investigate the hypocholesterolemic effects of the oat components other than the beta-glucan in rats fed with a hypercholesterolemic diet. Four-week-old male Wister rats were divided into 6 groups of 7 rats each with similar mean body weights and serum cholesterol concentrations. Rats were fed with the experimental diets containing 10% oats flour for 30 days. Food intake was recorded and monitored everyday to ensure the similar contents of protein, starch, lipid and cellulose in all groups. The lipids levels in serum, liver, and faeces were determined. The plasma total cholesterol concentrations in different oat groups were significantly reduced compared with the control group, and the effects were different among oat groups. The decrease extent of plasma total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol concentrations increased with the increase of the proteins and lipids contents. Moreover, liver total cholesterol and cholesterol ester contents were markedly decreased. The fecal bile acids concentrations in the oat groups were significantly increased. Oat proteins had lower Lysine/Arginin (0.59 ~ 0.66) and Methionin/Glycine (0.27 ~ 0.35) ratio than casein (Lysine/Arginin, 2.33; Methionin/Glycine, 1.51). Oat lipids contained higher contents of total Vitamin E and plant sterols than that in soybean oil. These results indicated that dietary oat improved hypercholesterolemia by increasing the excretions of fecal bile acids, and this improvement was not only related to beta-glucan, but also attributed to the lipids and proteins. Oat proteins decreased serum total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol contents due to their low Lysine/Arginin and Methionin/Glycine ratio. The co-existence of oleic acid, linoleic, vitamin E, or plant sterols accounted for the hypocholesterolemic properties of oat lipids.
Full-text available
Oats are a uniquely nutritious food as they contain an excellent lipid profile and high amounts of soluble fibre. However, an oat kernel is largely non-digestible and thus must be utilised in milled form to reap its nutritional benefits. Milling is made up of numerous steps, the most important being dehulling to expose the digestible groat, heat processing to inactivate enzymes that cause rancidity, and cutting, rolling or grinding to convert the groat into a product that can be used directly in oatmeal or can be used as a food ingredient in products such as bread, ready-to-eat breakfast cereals and snack bars. Oats can also be processed into oat bran and fibre to obtain high-fibre-containing fractions that can be used in a variety of food products.
Full-text available
Background: In 2010, overweight and obesity were estimated to cause 3·4 million deaths, 3·9% of years of life lost, and 3·8% of disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) worldwide. The rise in obesity has led to widespread calls for regular monitoring of changes in overweight and obesity prevalence in all populations. Comparable, up-to-date information about levels and trends is essential to quantify population health effects and to prompt decision makers to prioritise action. We estimate the global, regional, and national prevalence of overweight and obesity in children and adults during 1980-2013. Methods: We systematically identified surveys, reports, and published studies (n=1769) that included data for height and weight, both through physical measurements and self-reports. We used mixed effects linear regression to correct for bias in self-reports. We obtained data for prevalence of obesity and overweight by age, sex, country, and year (n=19,244) with a spatiotemporal Gaussian process regression model to estimate prevalence with 95% uncertainty intervals (UIs). Findings: Worldwide, the proportion of adults with a body-mass index (BMI) of 25 kg/m(2) or greater increased between 1980 and 2013 from 28·8% (95% UI 28·4-29·3) to 36·9% (36·3-37·4) in men, and from 29·8% (29·3-30·2) to 38·0% (37·5-38·5) in women. Prevalence has increased substantially in children and adolescents in developed countries; 23·8% (22·9-24·7) of boys and 22·6% (21·7-23·6) of girls were overweight or obese in 2013. The prevalence of overweight and obesity has also increased in children and adolescents in developing countries, from 8·1% (7·7-8·6) to 12·9% (12·3-13·5) in 2013 for boys and from 8·4% (8·1-8·8) to 13·4% (13·0-13·9) in girls. In adults, estimated prevalence of obesity exceeded 50% in men in Tonga and in women in Kuwait, Kiribati, Federated States of Micronesia, Libya, Qatar, Tonga, and Samoa. Since 2006, the increase in adult obesity in developed countries has slowed down. Interpretation: Because of the established health risks and substantial increases in prevalence, obesity has become a major global health challenge. Not only is obesity increasing, but no national success stories have been reported in the past 33 years. Urgent global action and leadership is needed to help countries to more effectively intervene. Funding: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.
Full-text available
Oat has been recognised as a healthful and nutritious cereal containing high concentration of soluble fibre and dense nutrients. Irrespective of nutritionally rich cereal, it has physiological benefits like positive effect on reducing hyperglycaemia, hyperinsulinaemia, hypercholesterolemia and several other benefits are discussed in this review. The main part of the physiological effects of oat soluble fibre is due to the elevation of viscosity and that is due to soluble fibre such as (1→3, 1→4) - β -D-glucan or β- glucan. β- Glucan has been shown to have effects on the glycaemic, insulin, and cholesterol responses to foods. Oats are good sources for these functional ingredients like β- glucan, with studies clearly demonstrating their potential health benefits.
Cereal and pulse crops are staple foods that provide essential nutrients to many populations of the world. Traditionally, whole grains were consumed but most current foods are derived from refined fractions of cereal and pulse crops. Consumption of processed or refined products may reduce the health benefits of food. In wheat-based processed foods, for example, the removed 40% of the grain (mainly the bran and the germ of the wheat grain) contains the majority of the health beneficial components. These components, particularly non-essential phytochemicals such as carotenoids, polyphenols, phytosterols/ stanols, and dietary fibers, have been shown to reduce the risk of major chronic diseases of humans, such as cancer, cardiovascular diseases, and Parkinson's disease. Such bioactives are therefore good candidates for ingredients of nutraceuticals and functional foods. There are many factors that can affect the bioactive content of cereal and pulse-based food ingredients, including genetics, growing and storage conditions, post-harvest treatments, food formulation and processing. All of these factors ultimately affect human health and wellness. Bioavailability is also important for these compounds for exerting their protective roles. Cereals and Pulses: Nutraceutical Properties and Health Benefits provides a summary of current research findings related to phytochemical composition and properties of cereal and pulse crops. The nutraceutical properties of each major cereal and pulse are discussed. Coverage of cereals and pulse crops includes barley, oats, rice, rye, corn, adlay, wheat, buckwheat, psyllium, sorghum, millet, common beans, field peas, faba beans, chickpea, lentil and soybeans. Chapters for each crop discuss methods to improve crop utilization, nutraceutical components and properties, bioactive compositions, antioxidant properties, beneficial health effects, disease prevention activities, and areas for future research. Also included are two chapters that examine the beneficial health properties of dietary fibers and antioxidants. Edited and written by an international team of respected researchers, this book is a reference guide for scientists working in food ingredients, food product research and development, functional foods and nutraceuticals, crop breeding and genetics, human nutrition, post-harvest treatment and processing of cereal grains and pulses. It will enable them to effect value-added food innovation for health promotion and disease risk reduction.
This article presents an overview of the recent advances into the health promoting potentials of oat β‐glucan. Oat β‐glucan (OβG) consists mainly of the linear polysaccharide (1→3), (1→4)‐β‐D‐glucan and is often called β‐glucan. This soluble oat fiber is able to attenuate blood postprandial glycemic and insulinemic responses, to lower blood total cholesterol and low‐density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, and to improve high‐density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and blood lipid profiles as well as to maintain body weight. Thus, OβG intake is beneficial in the prevention, treatment, and control of diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. In addition, OβG can stimulate immune functions by activating monocytes/macrophages and increasing the amounts of immunoglobulin, NK cells, killer T‐cells, and so on, which will improve resistance to cancer and infectious and parasitic diseases, as well as increase biological therapies and their prevention. All these health benefits of OβG may be explained by its physicochemical properties (such as viscosity, molecular weight) which can be affected by extraction methods and its behavior in gastrointestinal tract. Articles documenting these health benefits and effects are reviewed.
Kinetics of glucose absorption may affect insulin secretion into the portal vein. The role of wet-fractionated oat β-glucan on these variables is unknown; thus, three 35-kg pigs were fitted with catheters in the portal vein and carotid artery and a portal vein flow probe. Pigs were fed 3 diets containing 0, 3, or 6% purified β-glucan for 7-d in a repeated 3×3 Latin square. On d 7, blood was sampled for 12h postprandially. Net glucose absorption rate was calculated from plasma portal-arterial differences×flow. Blood flow increased (P