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Effects of battery chemistry and performance on the life cycle greenhouse gas intensity of electric mobility

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... The high impact of the cells is common even for other LIB chemistries [30,52,53]. In studies that focused on NCA batteries, the main contributors to the impact of battery production on CC were the cell manufacturing energy, the NCA active material, and aluminum [11,14], which is coherent with our findings. When focusing on cell estimates, the cost of cylindrical cells is higher than prismatic cells, as prismatic cells require less inactive material than cylindrical cells, on a per-kWh basis [12]. ...
... The high impact of the cells is common even for other LIB chemistries [30,52,53]. In studies that focused on NCA batteries, the main contributors to the impact of battery production on CC were the cell manufacturing energy, the NCA active material, and aluminum [11,14], which is coherent with our findings. ...
... The production GHG emissions of our battery pack, which was manufactured in an average capacity plant in Korea, were 123 kg CO 2 eq/kWh. In the literature, there is more than a fivefold variability in results, from 49 kg CO 2 eq/kWh [14] to 272 kg CO 2 eq/kWh [11] for NCA batteries. The lowest value is obtained for the manufacturing of a solid-state NCA cell [14]. ...
Article
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Lithium-ion battery packs inside electric vehicles represents a high share of the final price. Nevertheless, with technology advances and the growth of the market, the price of the battery is getting more competitive. The greenhouse gas emissions and the battery cost have been studied previously, but coherent boundaries between environmental and economic assessments are needed to assess the eco-efficiency of batteries. In this research, a detailed study is presented, providing an environmental and economic assessment of the manufacturing of one specific lithium-ion battery chemistry. The relevance of parameters is pointed out, including the manufacturing place, the production volume, the commodity prices, and the energy density. The inventory is obtained by dismantling commercial cells. The correlation between the battery cost and the commodity price is much lower than the correlation between the battery cost and the production volume. The developed life cycle assessment concludes that the electricity mix that is used to power the battery factory is a key parameter for the impact of the battery manufacturing on climate change. To improve the battery manufacturing eco-efficiency, a high production capacity and an electricity mix with low carbon intensity are suggested. Optimizing the process by reducing the electricity consumption during the manufacturing is also suggested, and combined with higher pack energy density, the impact on climate change of the pack manufacturing is as low as 39.5 kg CO2 eq/kWh.
... Depending on the electricity used to power the EV in its use phase, battery manufacturing was found to contribute between 8% and 38% of the total life-cycle emissions (Poland and Sweden, with electricity CO 2 emissions of with 650 and 20 g/kWh, respectively), or 15% at the EU-average electricity CO 2 emissions (300 g/kWh) [14]. Notter et al. [7] estimate that batteries cause 7%-15% of the environmental impacts of e-mobility, while Ambrose and Kendall [15] estimate that the battery production phase accounts for 5%-15% of the fuel cycle GHGs of plug-in electric vehicles. Peters et al. [10] find equivalent CO 2 emissions for battery manufacturing of 110 kg/kWh, while Ambrose and Kendall [15] find 256-261 kg/kWh. ...
... Notter et al. [7] estimate that batteries cause 7%-15% of the environmental impacts of e-mobility, while Ambrose and Kendall [15] estimate that the battery production phase accounts for 5%-15% of the fuel cycle GHGs of plug-in electric vehicles. Peters et al. [10] find equivalent CO 2 emissions for battery manufacturing of 110 kg/kWh, while Ambrose and Kendall [15] find 256-261 kg/kWh. Hall and Lutsey [16], in a wide-ranging review (including the two sources mentioned here), find a range of battery manufacturing emissions of 30-494 g/kWh. ...
... The most commonly noted determinant of the overall CO 2 emissions of BEVs is the carbon intensity of the electricity used to power the vehicles [2,5,7,15,[18][19][20]. For example, Onat et al. [21] find different optimum vehicle types in different US states based on the states' electricity generation (and driving patterns). ...
Article
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Biofuels and electrification are potential ways to reduce CO2 emissions from the transport sector, although not without limitations or associated problems. This paper describes a life-cycle analysis (LCA) of the Brazilian urban passenger transport system. The LCA considers various scenarios of a wholesale conversion of car and urban bus fleets to 100% electric or biofuel (bioethanol and biodiesel) use by 2050 compared to a business as usual (BAU) scenario. The LCA includes the following phases of vehicles and their life: fuel use and manufacturing (including electricity generation and land-use emissions), vehicle and battery manufacturing and end of life. The results are presented in terms of CO2, nitrous oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) emissions, electricity consumption and the land required to grow the requisite biofuel feedstocks. Biofuels result in similar or higher CO2 and air pollutant emissions than BAU, while electrification resulted in significantly lower emissions of all types. Possible limitations found include the amount of electricity consumed by electric vehicles in the electrification scenarios.
... This value emerges from the literature value of 173 kg CO2eq and the stated potential of 60% reduction due to the use of renewable energies (Ellingsen et al, 2013), which seems a reasonable assumption regarding current development such as the Tesla Gigafactory (Tesla, 2016). The values of Ellingsen et al. (2013) lie within the range of other literature assessing the environmental impact of battery production (Ambrose & Kendall, 2016) and were obtained by using data from an actual existing plant (Ellingsen et al., 2013). ...
... The assumed battery lifetime may seem relatively conservative regarding existing cycle numbers for electric vehicles (see e.g. Ambrose & Kendall, 2016). However, it should not be forgotten, that the energy and power figures of merit necessary for a fully-electric aircraft like the Ce-Liner are not expected to be reached with current battery materials but new materials are needed, which still require further investigation and research especially in case of degradation. ...
Conference Paper
The electrification of aircraft is seen as one promising technology to achieve ambitious targets of reducing aircraft CO2 emissions per passenger kilometer, e.g. by 75% until 2050 as proposed by the European Commission’s Flightpath 2050, . While electric motors powered by batteries lead to zero local emissions during operation, the comprehensive approach of environmental life cycle assessment (LCA) is required to assess electric flying’s climate change impact in order to avoid burden-shifting. With the aim to find the main drivers of the climate change impacts of an electric aircraft and conditions under which this technology could help mitigating aviation’s contribution to climate change, existing LCAs of electric vehicles and conventional aircraft were analyzed to conduct a basic LCA for a fully-electric aircraft – exemplified on Ce-Liner concept –- with a targeted entry-into-service for the year 2035. LCAs of electric vehicles show a higher impact during the production phase, mainly because of the production of the battery. However, electric vehicles have the potential to compensate for this during the use phase, subject to the right external conditions, i.e. mainly the source of the electricity used for charging. The operation phase is dominating the climate impact of conventional aircraft even more than for passenger cars. This study shows that the batteries are likely to cause significant additional greenhouse gas emissions during the production phase in the order of magnitude of the emissions of producing the rest of the aircraft. Examining scenarios with different sources of electricity used for charging the aircraft’s batteries shows the clearly dominating impact of the electricity footprint on use phase’s and total emissions. With an expected worldwide electricity mix in 2035, the improvement towards the emissions of a current technology aircraft of the same size and operation characteristics is estimated at around 42% for the Ce-Liner, in comparison to the evolutionary development of conventional technology until 2035 leading to 35% reduction. To better exploit its ecological potential and also reach the Flightpath 2050 targets, the electric aircraft would have to be charged with electricity from mainly renewable sources. This study also indicates great uncertainties in the assessment of the environmental impacts for this future technology and further research in the areas of emissions from production and end-of-life of the components. For improving the quantification of the carbon footprint of electric aircraft by LCA, data quality should be improved significantly.
... To have robust results, sensitivity should be addressed [2] in order to understand the relative importance of parameters. Electricity mix is often a relevant parameter assessed during sensitivity analysis [7]- [9]. Reliability can also be attained thanks to a range-based analysis [10] or uncertainty quantification [7], [11]. ...
... Electricity mix is often a relevant parameter assessed during sensitivity analysis [7]- [9]. Reliability can also be attained thanks to a range-based analysis [10] or uncertainty quantification [7], [11]. ...
... The data on the climate change impact of NMC battery production were obtained from previously published research. In the study by Ambrose and Kendall [42], the mean global warming potential (GWP), a climate change impact assessment method, of producing 1 kWh of the installed storage capacity of the NMC batteries was 254 kg CO 2 -eq., whereas the values of 248 and 258 kg CO 2 -eq. representing the 25th and 75th percentiles were also presented. ...
... Based on those studies, the average GWP of producing 1 kWh of installed storage capacity in NMC batteries was calculated. The average GWP of producing 1 kWh of the storage capacity [42] aaverage value, whereas [42] b and c represent the values for the 25th and 75th percentiles from the probability distribution of NMC battery production, [8] a, b, and c represent the different amount of electricity needed in the production of the NMC batteries. ...
Article
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The use of Li-ion batteries for stationary energy storage in households represents a viable solution to mitigate climate change when compared with the reference situation of electricity supply from the grid in various countries. This study quantifies the climate change impacts of production, use, and disposal of NMC batteries and compares the impacts with provision of electricity from grids of six European countries to calculate their carbon handprints, a measure of positive climate impacts. The study also develops a general cycle life model for NMC batteries to show the impact of various stress factors on the lifetime of the battery, which was then used to show the impact of battery management on its climate change impacts due to varying energy throughput. Of the countries studied, the carbon handprint was the highest in Bulgaria at 13,450 kg CO 2-eq. per energy throughput of the battery during its life cycle of 25.3 MWh. The lowest handprint achieved was in Finland at 2000 kg CO 2-eq., while no handprint was achieved in Norway. Uncertainty in the data on Li-ion battery production and recycling was found to be of minor importance when the entire life cycle of the batteries was studied and compared with the baseline scenario. Operating temperature, cycle depth and average state of charge during cycling have significant impact on the lifetime of Li-ion batteries and hence on their carbon handprint. The longest lifetime with NMC batteries can be achieved by cycling the battery at low cycle depth at an average state of charge of around 50% and an operating temperature close to 25 °C. Operating the battery at 50% cycle depth instead of 90% cycle depth more than doubled the carbon handprint in all the counties studied except Norway.
... The performance of the LIBs gradually decreases during a vehicle's operational lifetime, hence, LIBs need to be replaced [2]. The condition of the battery is described with the battery's state of health (SOH), which is commonly defined as the ratio of the actual available capacity to the nominal capacity of the battery. ...
... Further, battery degradation in the LCA of EVs increases the GHG emissions per mile by approximately 30% [33]. In addition to the operation practices and conditions, the degradation rate and thus the length of the service life depends on the utilized Li-ion battery chemistry, which should be taken into account in the LCA [2]. ...
Conference Paper
Repurposing automotive lithium-ion batteries, which have reached their end of life, for stationary applications, allows for significant extension of their lifetime compared to recycling. Life cycle assessment has been broadly applied to analyse the environmental performance of energy storage systems in both mobile and stationary applications. The impact of battery degradation on the battery's first life cycle was found to be significant. Furthermore, choices regarding the system boundaries, baseline scenario and the degradation ratio of the battery are found to have a pronounced contribution to the results. A fair comparison of the second-life batteries with the newly manufactured ones used for energy storage in stationary applications, such as residential households, requires allocation of the environmental burden associated with the batteries in their first life. The state of the degradation of a battery after its first life can serve as an allocation factor.
... Long-term planning scenarios aim towards global vehicle fleets to be almost entirely made up of electric vehicles by 2050 [6]. Following this trend, several countries have committed to sustainable Ambrose and Kendall [34] pointed out battery chemistry as also being an important factor in emission estimations. They simulated life-cycle emissions for five commercial lithium chemistries (NCA, NMC, LMO, LFP, and LMO/LTO), concluding that GHG emissions from battery production vary in the range 197-494 kgCO 2 e/kwh. ...
Article
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The number of battery electric vehicle models available in the market has been increasing, as well as their battery capacity, and these trends are likely to continue in the future as sustainable transportation goals rise in importance, supported by advances in battery chemistry and technology. Given the rapid pace of these advances, the impact of new chemistries, e.g., lithium-manganese rich cathode materials and silicon/graphite anodes, has not yet been thoroughly considered in the literature. This research estimates life cycle greenhouse gas and other air pollutants emissions of battery electric vehicles with different battery chemistries, including the above advances. The analysis methodology, which uses the greenhouse gases, regulated emissions, and energy use in transportation (GREET) life-cycle assessment model, considers 8 battery types, 13 electricity generation mixes with different predominant primary energy sources, and 4 vehicle segments (small, medium, large, and sport utility vehicles), represented by prototype vehicles, with both battery replacement and non-replacement during the life cycle. Outputs are expressed as emissions ratios to the equivalent petrol internal combustion engine vehicle and two-way analysis of variance is used to test results for statistical significance. Results show that newer Li-ion battery technology can yield significant improvements over older battery chemistries, which can be as high as 60% emissions reduction, depending on pollutant type and electricity generation mix.
... The batteries reach the end of their functional first life once they have lost 20% to 30% of their capacity [38]. When this exactly is depends on many factors, including: ...
Article
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In the near future, a large volume of electric vehicle (EV) batteries will reach their end-of-life in EVs. However, they may still retain capacity that could be used in a second life, e.g., for a second use in an EV, or for home electricity storage, thus becoming part of the circular economy instead of becoming waste. The aim of this paper is to explore second life of EV batteries to provide an understanding of how the battery value chain and related business models can become more circular. We apply qualitative research methods and draw on data from interviews and workshops with stakeholders, to identify barriers to and opportunities for second use of EV batteries. New business models are conceptualized, in which increased economic viability of second life and recycling and increased business opportunities for stakeholders may lead to reduced resource consumption. The results show that although several stakeholders see potential in second life, there are several barriers, many of which are of an organizational and cognitive nature. The paper concludes that actors along the battery value chain should set up new collaborations with other actors to be able to benefit from creating new business opportunities and developing new business models together.
... Ethanol has an important role for low carbon transportation in Brazil. A Comparative Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) study shows that when replacing gasoline 2 Journal of Advanced Transportation CO 2 emissions [11][12][13][14][15][16][17]. This makes EVs a more appropriate option for urban space [18]. ...
Article
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In pursuit of a more sustainable transportation system, electric vehicles (EVs) have the potential to play a fundamental role due to their improved efficiency and lower emissions. The absence of an adequate electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE) network has been one of the major obstacles for the mass adoption of EV, in large municipalities of developing countries. This is the case in Belo Horizonte (BH), Brazil, which also has a high motorization rate (7 light-duty vehicles per 10 inhabitants). The purpose of this study is to measure and identify the optimal locations for EVSE according to selected criteria to meet the needs of light-duty electric vehicles (LDEV) corresponding to a penetration of 1% by 2025 in the municipality of BH. The study highlights the most important attributes that need to be considered for the installation of an EVSE network in an urban space for a developing country. Multi-Criteria Decision Making (MCDM), the Weighted Linear Combination (WLC) method, and the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) technique based on the inputs from a group of Brazilian electrical mobility specialists, coupled with a Geographic Information System (GIS) modeling tool, were used for this study. The results revealed that around 1,200 EVSE units are needed, with a large concentration of EVSE in a small region. We also illustrate where stakeholders should focus their attention for the successful promotion of EV. The development methodology has the potential to be applied in other future EVSE development projects.
... Because the quantity of Li-ion batteries used in light vehicles is growing, interest in energy consumption and GHG emissions from their production is of interest [169][170][171][172][173][174][175][176][177][178][179][180][181][182][183][184][185]. The findings obtained from these studies differ in quality in areas such as transparency, assumptions used, and depth of review, so the reliability of the findings is varied [184]. ...
Article
As more renewable energy is developed, energy storage is increasingly important and attractive, especially grid-scale electrical energy storage; hence, finding and implementing cost-effective and sustainable energy storage and conversion systems is vital. Batteries of various types and sizes are considered one of the most suitable approaches to store energy and extensive research exists for different technologies and applications of batteries; however, environmental impacts of large-scale battery use remain a major challenge that requires further study. In this paper, batteries from various aspects including design features, advantages, disadvantages, and environmental impacts are assessed. This review reaffirms that batteries are efficient, convenient, reliable and easy-to-use energy storage systems (ESSs). It also confirms that battery shelf life and use life are limited; a large amount and wide range of raw materials, including metals and non-metals, are used to produce batteries; and, the battery industry can generate considerable amounts of environmental pollutants (e.g., hazardous waste, greenhouse gas emissions and toxic gases) during different processes such as mining, manufacturing, use, transportation, collection, storage, treatment, disposal and recycling. Battery use at a large scale or grid-scale (>50 MW), which is widely anticipated, will have significant social and environmental impacts; hence, it must be compared carefully with alternatives in terms of sustainability, while focusing on research to quantify externalities and reduce risk. Alternatives such as pumped hydro and compressed air energy storage must be encouraged because of their low environmental impact compared to different types of batteries.
... Hawkins and Nordelöf et al. provide an extensive overview of the existing literature on life cycle emissions of BEV and hybrid vehicles (Hawkins, 2012;Nordelöf et al., 2014). Even though these studies show that BEVs, in general, decrease emissions compared to conventional vehicles, most of them either focus on particular BEV components, such as batteries (e.g., Notter (2010), Ambrose and Kendall (2016) and Kim et al. (2016)), failing to perform a full environmental assessment, or choose to focus on passenger cars and their usage (Burnham, 2012;CARB, 2012;Hawkins, 2012). In this latter group, we find studies that make use of vehicle and component models present in existing libraries, such as the ones present in GREET software and BatPac, both created by Argonne National Lab (Burnham, 2012;Gaines et al., 2011), to model the environmental impact of different vehicle technologies (CARB, 2012;Hawkins, 2012). ...
Article
Poor air quality in urban areas and environmental concerns attributable to road transportation are growing and significant problems for governments. Many different options have been proposed to lower emissions, and a critical one is the use of battery electric vehicles (BEVs). Since city-logistics accounts for about 25% of urban mobility emissions, we focus on battery electric and diesel delivery vans. The aim of this paper is to present a holistic view of the problem, comparing the environmental, social and economic impact of BEV and diesel delivery vans, providing useful insights to policy makers and fleet owners willing to replace or select delivery vans to include in their city-logistics fleets. In cities where new BEV vans replace old diesel vans and the electricity mix is relatively clean, CO2 emissions and air pollutants decrease by 93–98% and 85–99%, respectively. If BEVs use electricity coming from coal energy and are compared to new diesel vans, reductions of CO2 emissions and air pollutants are in the order of 12–13% and 0–92%, respectively. Longer battery life and greater annual mileage improve these results and decrease cost differences. Results also reveal that annual emissions benefits of replacing older diesel vans with BEVs are on the same order of magnitude of equivalent annual cost differences. From a strictly business perspective, BEV vans are already economically attractive in some cities with existing incentives; however, for other cities incentives equal to the value of their emissions reduction benefits are needed, but might not be sufficient to justify BEV acquisition.
... In recent years, the substantial depletion of non-renewable fossil fuels and emission of CO 2 has encouraged the popularity of battery electric vehicles (BEVs). Rechargeable Li-ion batteries are the paramount candidate for BEVs due to their numerous intrinsic advantages such as low self-discharge, high-power and high-energy densities, high efficiency and long lifespan relative to other chemical batteries such as lead acid and nickel metal hydride [1]. A battery management system (BMS) is essential in BEVs for ensuring safety and extending the expected life and performance of the battery [2]. ...
Article
The battery management system in electrified transportation requires an accurate battery model for online state estimation of the battery. The parameters of the battery model depend upon state of charge, C-rate, and temperature. A detailed battery model defined by 31 polynomial coefficients is used for determination of battery parameters. The parameter estimation is formulated as an optimisation problem and six different meta-heuristic optimisation techniques are utilised for solving it. The efficiency of optimisation techniques is compared in terms of solution quality, computation efficiency, and convergence characteristics. Further, their performance is analysed statistically using parametric (t-test) and non-parametric tests (Wilcoxon test). The parameters values estimated by applying optimisation techniques are cross-validated with value of parameters extracted using standard constant-current pulse charge-discharge test to establish the effectiveness of the proposed approach.
... There have been some efforts to harmonize the results from existing LCA studies on LIBs [39][40][41]. Here, we discuss two harmonization opportunities at the LCI level: Solvent use for slurry preparation in cell production, and the recycled content of aluminum used in the battery. The assumed solvent types and quantities in existing LCA studies are summarized in Table 2. Table 2 shows a marked difference in the assumed solvent consumption between GREET and other studies. ...
Article
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In light of the increasing penetration of electric vehicles (EVs) in the global vehicle market, understanding the environmental impacts of lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) that characterize the EVs is key to sustainable EV deployment. This study analyzes the cradle-to-gate total energy use, greenhouse gas emissions, SOx, NOx, PM10 emissions, and water consumption associated with current industrial production of lithium nickel manganese cobalt oxide (NMC) batteries, with the battery life cycle analysis (LCA) module in the Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation (GREET) model, which was recently updated with primary data collected from large-scale commercial battery material producers and automotive LIB manufacturers. The results show that active cathode material, aluminum, and energy use for cell production are the major contributors to the energy and environmental impacts of NMC batteries. However, this study also notes that the impacts could change significantly, depending on where in the world the battery is produced, and where the materials are sourced. In an effort to harmonize existing LCAs of automotive LIBs and guide future research, this study also lays out differences in life cycle inventories (LCIs) for key battery materials among existing LIB LCA studies, and identifies knowledge gaps.
... The studies by Yuksel et al. [43] and Ambrose et al. [54] rely on regression results respectively from Siler-Evans et al. [44] and Archsmith et al. [22]. They do not specify the time horizon of their study, but they rely on regression data from 2011 and 2012 respectively. ...
Article
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: Life Cycle assessments (LCAs) on electric mobility are providing a plethora of diverging results. 44 articles, published from 2008 to 2018 have been investigated in this review, in order to find the extent and the reason behind this deviation. The first hurdle can be found in the goal definition, followed by the modelling choice, as both are generally incomplete and inconsistent. These gaps influence the choices made in the Life Cycle Inventory (LCI) stage, particularly in regards to the selection of the electricity mix. A statistical regression is made with results available in the literature. It emerges that, despite the wide-ranging scopes and the numerous variables present in the assessments, the electricity mix’s carbon intensity can explain 70% of the variability of the results. This encourages a shared framework to drive practitioners in the execution of the assessment and policy makers in the interpretation of the results.
... Replacing internal combustion engines (ICE) with EV charged with clean energy has the potential to further reduce CO2 emissions (Baptista et al. 2014;Wolfram 2017;Ambrose 2016;Peters et al. 2017;Hawkins et al. 2013). This makes EVs a more appropriate option for urban space . ...
Thesis
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Mobility has proved to be a major challenge for human development, especially in urban centers worldwide, where more displacement is required, since fossil fuels consumption is increasing as well as greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, causing air quality degradation and global warming. The predicted population increase in cities tends to increase the demand for mobility and to further exacerbate those impacts. Therefore, sustainable transport is key for the future of mobility, and electric vehicle (EV) has emerged as a recognized sustainable option. However, there are many electric vehicle barriers diffusion. This research aims to contribute to the diffusion of EV in Brazil, by assessing: 1) whether EV is a more sustainable technology when compared with ethanol vehicle; 2) the impacts of the expansion of electric mobility on CO2 emissions, in Sao Paulo; 3) how to overcome the barriers for the charging infrastructure deployment at the municipality level, in Sao Paulo, Rio de Janeiro and Belo Horizonte; and 4) key challenges and opportunities from the mass adoption of EV in Brazil. A plethora of different methods were used, including scenario analysis, multi-criteria decision methods, geographic information systems and SWOT analysis. Main results point to EV as the best technology to mitigate passenger transport related CO2 emissions in Brazil, due to its low carbon footprint. In Sao Paulo, this option could reduce around 11 MtCO2 by 2030 and save 6,200 billion USD in energy with the replacement of 20 percent of gasoline cars with EV. To meet 1 percent of EV's market share, Sao Paulo, Rio de Janeiro and Belo Horizonte together will need around 6,500 charging stations concentrated in around 1/3 of their territories (level 2). Brazil may likely have up to 10 percent of EV penetration by 2030, with the diffusion taking place mostly in southeastern municipality. Ethanol, lack of electric mobility public policy, non-urbanized like subnormal agglomerates, and risk areas, like flood hazard, are major obstacles for EV diffusion in Brazil.
... The Life Cycle Inventory (LCI) for lithium ion battery production are based on primary data for batteries with a Li(Ni x Co y Mn z )O 2 (NCM) anode and a graphite cathode [47]. According to the currently available literature, the largest contributing factor to the climate burdens of lithium ion battery production is the energy consumption during the assembly process, though the actual amount of energy required is still under debate as the production facility analyzed in the primary data source [47] was not operating at full capacity and was comparatively small [7,9,14,[48][49][50][51][52][53]. Thus, battery cell energy consumption is included as an uncertain parameter that ranges from 4 to 20 kWh/kg battery cell (most likely 8 kWh/kg) for current batteries and 4-12 kWh/ kg battery cell (most likely value 8 kWh / kg battery cell) for future batteries; similarly, a current power density of 1.3-2.3 ...
Article
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In this analysis, life cycle environmental burdens and total costs of ownership (TCO) of current (2017) and future (2040) passenger cars with different powertrain configurations are compared. For all vehicle configurations, probability distributions are defined for all performance parameters. Using these, a Monte Carlo based global sensitivity analysis is performed to determine the input parameters that contribute most to overall variability of results. To capture the systematic effects of the energy transition, future electricity scenarios are deeply integrated into the ecoinvent life cycle assessment background database. With this integration, not only the way how future electric vehicles are charged is captured, but also how future vehicles and batteries are produced. If electricity has a life cycle carbon content similar to or better than a modern natural gas combined cycle powerplant, full powertrain electrification makes sense from a climate point of view, and in many cases also provides reductions in TCO. In general, vehicles with smaller batteries and longer lifetime distances have the best cost and climate performance. If a very large driving range is required or clean electricity is not available, hybrid powertrain and compressed natural gas vehicles are good options in terms of both costs and climate change impacts. Alternative powertrains containing large batteries or fuel cells are the most sensitive to changes in the future electricity system as their life cycles are more electricity intensive. The benefits of these alternative drivetrains are strongly linked to the success of the energy transition: the more the electricity sector is decarbonized, the greater the benefit of electrifying passenger vehicles.
... A key parameter was the available energy storage per viable seconduse BEV LIB, which was derived from the original storage capacity across a wide range of BEV LIBs at point-of-sale (C O,x ), reduced to the LIB's remaining capacity (S x ) and the discharge efficiency (E x ) after first-use in a BEV. LIBs are assumed to reach the end of their initial BEV service life when their capacity is reduced to 70%−80% of the original (point-of-sale) capacity (C O,x ) (Ambrose and Kendall, 2016;European Commission, 2019a;Richa et al., 2017). Capacity and efficiency losses are incorporated to account for ways in which technical performance during second-use may be impacted by variability during the first (BEV) use, such as charging and driving behaviors (Faria et al., 2014;Hawkins et al., 2012), the technical specifications of the LIB (Ellingsen et al., 2014), and the climate where the LIB was used (Boyden et al., 2016). ...
Article
A novel electrolyte additive, tetrafluoroterephthalonitrile (TFTPN), is proposed to improve the cyclic stability of lithium cobalt oxide (LiCoO2)/graphite lithium-ion full cells up to 4.4 V. Electrochemical measurements indicate that TFTPN can be reduced on graphite electrode and oxidized on LiCoO2 electrode preferentially compared to the baseline electrolyte, 1.0 M LiPF6 in EC/DEC/EMC (1/1/1, in weight), and thus improves the cyclic stability of graphite/Li and LiCoO2/Li half cells, respectively. Further charge/discharge tests demonstrate that the cyclic stability of LiCoO2/graphite full cell can be significantly improved by TFTPN. A high capacity retention of 91% is achieved for the full cell using 0.5% TFTPN-containing electrolyte after cycling at 0.5C between 3.0 and 4.4 V for 300 cycles, compared to the 79% for that using the baseline electrolyte. This effect is attributed to the simultaneously formed protective interphase films on graphite and LiCoO2 by TFTPN due to its preferential reduction or oxidation. The resulting interphase films are verified by physical characterizations and theoretical calculations.
Conference Paper
Low emission alternative driveline technologies are of increasing interest for bus fleet operators due to evidence of reduced environmental impact and potential for lower operating costs. However, with uncertainty regarding the total cost of ownership of new technologies and life cycle impacts beyond the typical well-to-wheel boundary, bus operators and manufacturers may not have the necessary specific tools or evidence to evaluate whole life cycle impacts. This paper evaluates the Technology Impact Forecasting methodology as one such technique for assessing whole life cycle impacts in an exploratory assessment environment. The assessment of ten technology scenarios within a life cycle framework has demonstrated that the method is applicable for evaluating contrasting drivetrain technologies and combinations of technology and operational conditions. High levels of uncertainty within the framework have highlighted the need for increased fidelity in the life cycle model and appropriate application of shape functions.
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Numerous studies exist on the environmental impact of Li-Ion battery (LIB) production. Nevertheless, these studies use different impact assessment methods and different approaches for modelling key aspects like energy demand for cell manufacturing or the composition of the cell package. Since the outcomes of the studies are highly sensitive on these aspects, a direct comparison of the corresponding results is not possible. However, a robust comparative analysis would be of high interest for evaluating the actual environmental performance of different alternative battery chemistries. Based on a review of existing LCA studies on LIB production, the corresponding discrepancies in the modelling of these key aspects are pointed out and their impact on the outcomes of the underlying studies is highlighted. The existing primary life cycle inventory data (LCI) for the principle LIB chemistries are then recompiled and common average values implemented for the identified key parameters. In this way, the environmental impacts associated with the production of different battery chemistries are assessed on a common base. This provides an improved comparability between studies and allows for a tentative technology benchmarking of different Li-Ion battery chemistries. It can be observed that the different assumptions and modelling approaches for the mentioned key aspects can have a stronger impact on the final results than the battery chemistry itself. Especially the approach for modelling the cell manufacturing energy demand, but also for the electrode binder and the battery management system influence the results significantly. Thus, putting existing LCA studies on a common base is essential for battery technology benchmarking and avoids erroneous conclusions when comparing the environmental impacts associated with the production of different Li-Ion battery chemistries.
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Überblick über die Entwicklungen in der Batterietechnick und im Recycling.
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This study is a critical review of the application of life cycle assessment (LCA) to lithium ion batteries in the automotive sector. The aim of this study is to identify the crucial points of the analysis and the results achieved until now in this field. In the first part of the study, a selection of papers is reviewed. In the second part of the study, a methodological approach to LCA is adopted to make clear the strengths and weaknesses of this analysis method. The lack of primary data is a crucial concern. Even if the cradle-to-grave approach is the most chosen system boundary, further scientific contribution to the life cycle inventory phase is necessary. It is likely that the more the electric vehicle becomes widespread, the more data will be accessible. Many authors have not specified the chemistry of the used batteries (5% of the studies), the software tool used (30%) or the functional unit used (17%) and, consequently, their obtained results can be questionable. However, even with the aforementioned limitations, the performed review allows us to point out the potential of electric vehicles and lithium ion batteries to reduce the overall contribution of the transportation sector to GHG emissions.
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Although deployments of grid-scale stationary lithium ion battery energy storage systems are accelerating, the environmental impacts of this new infrastructure class are not well studied. To date, a small literature of environmental life cycle assessments (LCAs) and related studies has examined associated environmental impacts, but they rely on a variety of methods and system boundaries rather than a consistent approach. The large LCA literature of transportation applications of LIB contains selected life-cycle inventory data relevant for stationary ESSs, but does not incorporate characteristics unique to stationary systems, such as balance of system materials; operational profiles; and perhaps even different end-of-life (EOL) phase needs. This critical literature review surveys the existing studies on grid-scale stationary LIB ESS, and highlights research gaps concerning comprehensive environmental impacts. Further analysis specific to grid-connected LIB systems – encompassing use phase (battery operation) and EOL, in addition to production phase – is required for a robust assessment of environmental impacts of grid-connected energy storage in LIB systems. For example, thus far studies that systematically evaluate the consequential impact of storage system operation have been focused on energy arbitrage and frequency regulation applications. Future work should consider the impact of ESS providing other grid services as well. Although EOL costs and impacts for stationary LIB ESSs are an important consideration for prospective asset owners and key users of grid-scale ESS (such as electric utility companies and project developers), they are not yet addressed in the literature.
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This paper collects facts and background information about E-Mobility. It is intended to enhance public knowledge and to answer frequently raised questions and concerns.
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In response to growing awareness of climate change, requests to establish product carbon footprints have been increasing. Product carbon footprints are life cycle assessments restricted to just one impact category, global warming. Product carbon footprint studies generate life cycle inventory results, listing the environmental emissions of greenhouse gases from a product's lifecycle, and characterize these by their global warming potentials, producing product carbon footprints that are commonly communicated as point values. In the present research we show that the uncertainties surrounding these point values necessitate more sophisticated ways of communicating product carbon footprints, using different sizes of catfish (Pangasius spp.) farms in Vietnam as a case study. As most product carbon footprint studies only have a comparative meaning, we used dependent sampling to produce relative results in order to increase the power for identifying environmentally superior products. We therefore argue that product carbon footprints, supported by quantitative uncertainty estimates, should be used to test hypotheses, rather than to provide point value estimates or plain confidence intervals of products' environmental performance.
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Simulations predict that the introduction of PHEVs could impact demand peaks, reduce reserve margins, and increase prices. The type of power generation used to recharge the PHEVs and associated emissions will depend upon the region and the timing of the recharge.
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In a laboratory environment, it is cost prohibitive to run automotive battery aging experiments across a wide range of possible ambient environment, drive cycle and charging scenarios. Since worst-case scenarios drive the conservative sizing of electric-drive vehicle batteries, it is useful to understand how and why those scenarios arise and what design or control actions might be taken to mitigate them. In an effort to explore this problem, this paper applies a semi-empirical life model of the graphite/nickel-cobalt-aluminum lithium-ion chemistry to investigate impacts of geographic environments under storage and simplified cycling conditions. The model is then applied to analyze complex cycling conditions, using battery charge/discharge profiles generated from simulations of PHEV10 and PHEV40 vehicles across 782 single-day driving cycles taken from Texas travel survey data.
Technical Report
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Plug-in hybrid vehicles (PHEVs) are being developed around the world; much work is going on to optimize engine and battery operations for efficient operation, both during discharge and when grid electricity is available for recharging. However, there has generally been the expectation that the grid will not be greatly affected by the use of the vehicles, because the recharging would only occur during offpeak hours, or the number of vehicles will grow slowly enough that capacity planning will respond adequately. But this expectation does not incorporate that endusers will have control of the time of recharging and the inclination for people will be to plug in when convenient for them, rather than when utilities would prefer. It is important to understand the ramifications of introducing a number of plug-in hybrid vehicles onto the grid. Depending on when and where the vehicles are plugged in, they could cause local or regional constraints on the grid. They could require both the addition of new electric capacity along with an increase in the utilization of existing capacity. Local distribution grids will see a change in their utilization pattern, and some lines or substations may become overloaded sooner than expected. Furthermore, the type of generation used to recharge the vehicles will be different depending on the region of the country and timing when the PHEVs recharge. We conducted an analysis of what the grid impact may be in 2018 with one million PHEVs added to the VACAR sub-region of the Southeast Electric Reliability Council, a region that includes South Carolina, North Carolina, and much of Virginia. To do this, we used the Oak Ridge Competitive Electricity Dispatch model, which simulates the hourly dispatch of power generators to meet demand for a region over a given year. Depending on the vehicle, its battery, the charger voltage level, amperage, and duration, the impact on regional electricity demand varied from 1,400 to 6,000 MW. If recharging occurred in the early evening, then peak loads were raised and demands were met largely by combustion turbines and combined cycle plants. Nighttime recharging had less impact on peak loads and generation adequacy, but the increased use of coal-fired generation changed the relative amounts of air emissions. Costs of generation also fluctuated greatly depending on the timing. However, initial analysis shows that even charging at peak times may be less costly than using gasoline to operate the vehicles. Even if the overall region may have sufficient generating power, the region's transmission system or distribution lines to different areas may not be large enough to handle this new type of load. A largely residential feeder circuit may not be sized to have a significant proportion of its customers adding 1.4 to 6 kW loads that would operate continuously for two to six hours beginning in the early evening. On a broader scale, the transmission lines feeding the local substations may be similarly constrained if they are not sized to respond to this extra growth in demand. This initial analysis identifies some of the complexities in analyzing the integrated system of PHEVs and the grid. Depending on the power level, timing, and duration of the PHEV connection to the grid, there could be a wide variety of impacts on grid constraints, capacity needs, fuel types used, and emissions generated. This paper provides a brief description of plug-in hybrid vehicle characteristics in Chapter 2. Various charging strategies for vehicles are discussed, with a consequent impact on the grid. In Chapter 3 we describe the future electrical demand for a region of the country and the impact on this demand with a number of plug-in hybrids. We apply that demand to an inventory of power plants for the region using the Oak Ridge Competitive Electricity Dispatch (ORCED) model to evaluate the change in power production and emissions. In Chapter 4 we discuss the impact of demand increases on local distribution systems. In Chapter 5 we conclude and provide insights into the impacts of plug-ins. Future tasks will be proposed to better define the interaction electricity and transportation, and how society can better prepare for their confluence.
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This initial paper estimates the regional percentages of the energy requirements for the U.S. light duty vehicle stock that could be supported by the existing grid, based on 12 NERC regions. This paper also discusses the impact of overall emissions of criteria gases and greenhouse gases as a result of shifting emission from millions of tailpipes to a relatively few power plants. The paper concludes with an outlook of the technology requirements necessary to manage the additional and potentially sizable new load to maintain grid reliability.
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The load-carrying capacity of the member with imperfections under axial compression is analysed in the present paper. The study is divided into two parts: (i) in the first one, the input parameters are considered to be random numbers (with distribution of probability functions obtained from experimental results and/or tolerance standard), while (ii) in the other one, the input parameters are considered to be fuzzy numbers (with membership functions). The load-carrying capacity was calculated by geometrical nonlinear solution of a beam by means of the finite element method. In the case (ii), the membership function was determined by applying the fuzzy sets, whereas in the case (i), the distribution probability function of load-carrying capacity was determined. For (i) stochastic solution, the numerical simulation Monte Carlo method was applied, whereas for (ii) fuzzy solution, the method of the so-called α cuts was applied. The design load-carrying capacity was determined according to the EC3 and EN1990 standards. The results of the fuzzy, stochastic and deterministic analyses are compared in the concluding part of the paper.
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Goal, Scope and Background In this article, the Life Cycle Impact Assessment of the average passenger vehicle of the Netherlands is performed, with emphasis on the current dismantling and recycling practice in this country. From calculations on recovery rates of the several material streams from ELY (End-of-Live Vehicle) recycling, it seems that attaining the European ELV legislation recycling targets (Directive 2000/53/EC 2000) is very difficult, even for countries with advanced collection and recycling infrastructures such as the Netherlands. An LCA of the current average passenger vehicle of the Netherlands, including a detailed modelling of the recovery and recycling should form a sound basis for comparison with alternative automotive life cycle designs and legislation efforts. Model and System Definition An average passenger vehicle is defined, having average weight and material composition. A cradle to grave approach is taken, including all relevant upstream processes for the production of materials and fuels, and the return of the recycled materials to the material cycles in the EOL (End-of-Life) phase. A particularity of this model is the detailed description of the Dutch collection and recycling infrastructure, with current data for the shredding, separation and metallurgical recycling processes (ARN 2000, Barkhof 1998, Chapman 1983, Püchert et al.1994, Worrel et al. 1992). Results and Discussion According to the Eco-indicator 99 (EI99) (Ministerie van V.R.O.M 1999), the largest environmental impact of the passenger vehicle’s life cycle occurs in the use phase — over 90% —, due to the combustion and depletion of fossil fuels. This is in agreement of previous studies (Kasai 2000, Kanesaki 2000). Also in the other life cycle phases, the use of fossil fuels is the dominant impact, even for the production phase. Resource depletion due to the use of the materials employed in the vehicle causes a comparatively lower environmental impact, namely due to the high recovery rate and efficiency of the metallurgical recycling, that balances for about 30% the total impacts of the materials production and use. NOx emission was one of the smallest emissions to air in quantity, but was responsible for 36% of the impact of the life cycle, while CO2 was the largest emission to air but caused only 6% of the environmental impact. Conclusion and Recommendation Although there is a growing awareness and concern on increasing the recyclability of vehicles, the use phase still has the largest environmental impact of the vehicle’s life cycle. A life cycle assessment can be a sound basis to evaluate and compare design alternatives to increase the sustainability of passenger vehicles. The ASR (Automotive shredder residue) is currently the greatest concern with regard to the recovery targets. It is a large amount of materials (about 32 wt.%), difficult and costly to recycle, and thermal recovery is limited to a maximum of 15wt.% in 1015 by the European ELV legislation. Joint efforts from the automotive industry and legislative institutions are required to find a sensible solution. LCA can be a useful tool to support legislative decisions, as purely weight-based recovery definitions are not adequate to evaluate the sustainability of the automobile life cycle.
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Lithium batteries are characterized by high specific energy, high efficiency and long life. These unique properties have made lithium batteries the power sources of choice for the consumer electronics market with a production of the order of billions of units per year. These batteries are also expected to find a prominent role as ideal electrochemical storage systems in renewable energy plants, as well as power systems for sustainable vehicles, such as hybrid and electric vehicles. However, scaling up the lithium battery technology for these applications is still problematic since issues such as safety, costs, wide operational temperature and materials availability, are still to be resolved. This review focuses first on the present status of lithium battery technology, then on its near future development and finally it examines important new directions aimed at achieving quantum jumps in energy and power content.
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The main aim of the study was to explore how LCA can be used to optimize the design of lithium-ion batteries for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles. Two lithium-ion batteries, both based on lithium iron phosphate, but using different solvents during cell manufacturing, were studied by means of life cycle assessment, LCA. The general conclusions are limited to results showing robustness against variation in critical data. The study showed that it is environmentally preferable to use water as a solvent instead of N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone, NMP, in the slurry for casting the cathode and anode of lithium-ion batteries. Recent years’ improvements in battery technology, especially related to cycle life, have decreased production phase environmental impacts almost to the level of use phase impacts. In the use phase, environmental impacts related to internal battery efficiency are two to six times larger than the impact from losses due to battery weight in plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, assuming 90% internal battery efficiency. Thus, internal battery efficiency is a very important parameter; at least as important as battery weight. Areas, in which data is missing or inadequate and the environmental impact is or may be significant, include: production of binders, production of lithium salts, cell manufacturing and assembly, the relationship between weight of vehicle and vehicle energy consumption, information about internal battery efficiency and recycling of lithium-ion batteries based on lithium iron phosphate.
Chapter
There has been much discussion of fast charging of lithium-ion batteries as a means of extending the practical daily range of electric vehicles making them more competitive with engine-powered conventional vehicles in terms of range and refueling time. In the present chapter, fast charging tests were performed on cells of three lithium-ion chemistries to determine their characteristics for charging rates up to 6C. The test results showed that the lithium titanium oxide (LTO) chemistry has a clear advantage over the other chemistries especially compared to the nickel cobalt manganese chemistry for fast charging.
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U.S. programs subsidize electric vehicles (EVs) in part to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. We model a suite of life cycle GHG emissions considerations to estimate the GHG abatement potential from switching from an internal combustion engine vehicle (ICE) to an EV in the continental U.S. The GHG intensity of EVs hinges on the electricity and ambient temperature when charged and operated. Both have high spatial and temporal heterogeneity, yet are typically modeled inadequately or overlooked entirely. We calculate marginal emissions, including renewables, for electricity by region and test forecasted grid composition to estimate future performance. Location and timing of charging are important GHG determinants, but temperature effects on EV performance can be equally important. On average, EVs slightly reduce GHGs relative to ICEs, but there are many regions where EVs provide a decisive benefit and others where EVs are significantly worse. The forecasted grid shifts from coal towards renewables, improving EV performance; the GHG benefit per EV in western states is roughly $425 today and $2400 in 2040.
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Abstract In this study, the deterioration of lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4) /graphite batteries during cycling at different discharge rates and temperatures is examined, and the degradation under high-rate discharge (10C) cycling is extensively investigated using full batteries combining with post-mortem analysis. The results show that high discharge current results in an instability of electrode/electrolyte interface and unstable solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) layers are expected to form on the newly exposed graphite anode surface, which cause sustainable consumption of active lithium and further lead to the performance degradation of active materials. For LiFePO4 cathode, the initial capacity is largely recovered under low rate (0.1-0.2C), whereas a decline in the capability is observed at higher rates (0.5-3.0C). For graphite anode, half-cell study shows that considerable capacity loss occurs even at low rates. A small amount of Fe deposition is observed on graphite anode after cycling under 10C discharge at 55°C. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis confirms that a layer composed of lithium compounds is formed on the surface of anode, which can not participate in the reversible electrochemical reaction again. In addition, electrochemical impedance spectrum (EIS) measurements of half-cell indicate that the increased resistance of the positive electrode is suggested to be the root cause of power fading under high-rate discharge cycling, especially at high temperature.
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This work depicts the calendar aging results of four Li-ion battery technologies. The differences in the chemistry of Li-ion batteries was studied and revealed that cathodes containing manganese are more sensitive to state-of-charge and temperature increase than lithium–iron-phosphate or lithium–nickel–cobalt–aluminum batteries. The first step in presenting the differences in technology of the Li-ion battery is through the study of the battery voltage evolution versus the amount of charge at various states of health. This study revealed a significant increase in resistance on lithium–nickel–manganese–cobalt and lithium–manganese-oxide cells; a result which was confirmed through impedance spectroscopy measurements. Finally, a study of the comparison of the different types of Li-ion batteries was undertaken, based on the analysis of the evolution of energy efficiency with respect to aging.
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We characterize the effect of regional temperature differences on battery electric vehicle (BEV) efficiency, range, and use-phase CO2 emissions in the U.S. The efficiency of a BEV varies with ambient temperature due to battery efficiency and cabin climate control. We find that annual energy consumption of BEVs can increase by an average of 15% in the Upper Midwest or in the Southwest compared to the Pacific Coast due to temperature differences. Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from EVs vary primarily with marginal regional grid mix - which has twice the GHG-intensity in the Upper Midwest as on the Pacific Coast. However, even within a grid region, BEV emissions vary by up to 22% due to spatial and temporal ambient temperature variation and its implications for vehicle efficiency and charging duration and timing. Cold climate regions also encounter days with substantial reduction in EV range: the average range of a Nissan Leaf on the coldest day of the year drops from 70 miles on the Pacific Coast to less than 45 miles in the Upper Midwest. These regional differences are large enough to affect adoption patterns and energy and environmental implications of BEVs relative to alternatives.
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This issue contains assessments of battery performance involving complex, interrelated physical and chemical processes between electrode materials and electrolytes. Transformational changes in battery technologies are critically needed to enable the effective use of renewable energy sources such as solar and wind to allow for the expansion of hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) to plug-in HEVs and pure-electric vehicles. For these applications, batteries must store more energy per unit volume and weight, and they must be capable of undergoing many thousands of charge-discharge cycles. The articles in this theme issue present details of several growing interest areas, including high-energy cathode and anode materials for rechargeable Li-ion batteries and challenges of Li metal as an anode material for Li batteries. They also address the recent progress in systems beyond Li ion, including Li-S and Li-air batteries, which represent possible next-generation batteries for electrical vehicles. One article reviews the recent understanding and new strategies and materials for rechargeable Mg batteries. The knowledge presented in these articles is anticipated to catalyze the design of new multifunctional materials that can be tailored to provide the optimal performance required for future electrical energy storage applications.
Article
Purpose A literature review is undertaken to understand how well existing studies of the environmental impacts of hybrid and electric vehicles (EV) address the full life cycle of these technologies. Results of studies are synthesized to compare the global warming potential (GWP) of different EV and internal combustion engine vehicle (ICEV) options. Other impacts are compared; however, data availability limits the extent to which this could be accomplished. Method We define what should be included in a complete, state-of-the-art environmental assessment of hybrid and electric vehicles considering components and life cycle stages, emission categories, impact categories, and resource use and compare the content of 51 environmental assessments of hybrid and electric vehicles to our definition. Impact assessment results associated with full life cycle inventories (LCI) are compared for GWP as well as emissions of other pollutants. GWP results by life cycle stage and key parameters are extracted and used to perform a meta-analysis quantifying the impacts of vehicle options. Results Few studies provide a full LCI for EVs together with assessment of multiple impacts. Research has focused on well to wheel studies comparing fossil fuel and electricity use as the use phase has been seen to dominate the life cycle of vehicles. Only very recently have studies begun to better address production impacts. Apart from batteries, very few studies provide transparent LCIs of other key EV drivetrain components. Estimates of EV energy use in the literature span a wide range, 0.10–0.24 kWh/km. Similarly, battery and vehicle lifetime plays an important role in results, yet lifetime assumptions range between 150,000–300,000 km. CO2 and GWP are the most frequently reported results. Compiled results suggest the GWP of EVs powered by coal electricity falls between small and large conventional vehicles while EVs powered by natural gas or low-carbon energy sources perform better than the most efficient ICEVs. EV results in regions dependant on coal electricity demonstrated a trend toward increased SOx emissions compared to fuel use by ICEVs. Conclusions Moving forward research should focus on providing consensus around a transparent inventory for production of electric vehicles, appropriate electricity grid mix assumptions, the implications of EV adoption on the existing grid, and means of comparing vehicle on the basis of common driving and charging patterns. Although EVs appear to demonstrate decreases in GWP compared to conventional ICEVs, high efficiency ICEVs and grid-independent hybrid electric vehicles perform better than EVs using coal-fired electricity.
Article
This paper represents the evaluation of ageing parameters in lithium iron phosphate based batteries, through investigating different current rates, working temperatures and depths of discharge. From these analyses, one can derive the impact of the working temperature on the battery performances over its lifetime. At elevated temperature (40 °C), the performances are less compared to at 25 °C. The obtained mathematical expression of the cycle life as function of the operating temperature reveals that the well-known Arrhenius law cannot be applied to derive the battery lifetime from one temperature to another. Moreover, a number of cycle life tests have been performed to illustrate the long-term capabilities of the proposed battery cells at different discharge constant current rates. The results reveal the harmful impact of high current rates on battery characteristics. On the other hand, the cycle life test at different depth of discharge levels indicates that the battery is able to perform 3221 cycles (till 80% DoD) compared to 34,957 shallow cycles (till 20% DoD). To investigate the cycle life capabilities of lithium iron phosphate based battery cells during fast charging, cycle life tests have been carried out at different constant charge current rates. The experimental analysis indicates that the cycle life of the battery degrades the more the charge current rate increases. From this analysis, one can conclude that the studied lithium iron based battery cells are not recommended to be charged at high current rates. This phenomenon affects the viability of ultra-fast charging systems.Finally, a cycle life model has been developed, which is able to predict the battery cycleability accurately.
Article
Electric vehicles (EVs) are vehicles that are propelled by electric motors powered by rechargeable battery. They are generally asserted to have GHG emissions, driveability and life cycle cost benefits over conventional vehicles. Despite this, EVs face significant challenges due to their limited on-board energy storage capacity. In addition to providing energy for traction, the energy storage device operates HVAC systems for cabin conditioning. This results in reduced driving range. The factors such as local ambient temperature, local solar radiation, local humidity, duration and thermal soak have been identified to affect the cabin conditions. In this paper, the development of a detailed system-level approach to HVAC energy consumption in EVs as a function of transient environmental parameters is described. The resulting vehicle thermal comfort model is used to address several questions such as 1) How does day to day environmental conditions affect EV range? 2) How does frequency of EV range change geographically? 3) How does trip start time affect EV range? 4) Under what conditions does cabin preconditioning assist in increasing the EV range? 5) What percentage increase in EV range can be expected due to cabin preconditioning at a given location?
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Building rural energy infrastructure in developing countries remains a significant financial, policy and technological challenge. The growth of the electric vehicle (EV) industry will rapidly expand the resource of partially degraded, 'retired', but still usable batteries in 2016 and beyond. These batteries can become the storage hubs for community-scale grids in the developing world. We model the resource and performance potential and the technological and economic aspects of the utilization of retired EV batteries in rural and decentralized mini- and micro-grids. We develop and explore four economic scenarios across three battery chemistries to examine the impacts on transport and recycling logistics. We find that EVs sold through 2020 will produce 120–549 GWh in retired storage potential by 2028. Outlining two use scenarios for decentralized systems, we discuss the possible impacts on global electrification rates. We find that used EV batteries can provide a cost-effective and lower environmental impact alternative to existing lead-acid storage systems in these applications.
Article
This study quantified the contributions of uncertainty and variability to the range of life-cycle greenhouse gas (LCGHG) emissions associated with conventional gas-fired electricity generation in the US. Whereas uncertainty is defined as lack of knowledge and can potentially be reduced by additional research, variability is an inherent characteristic of supply chains and cannot be reduced without physically modifying the system. The life-cycle included four stages: production, processing, transmission and power generation, and utilized a functional unit of 1 kWh of electricity generated at plant. Technological variability requires analyses of life cycles of individual power plants, e.g. combined cycle plants or boilers. Parameter uncertainty was modeled via Monte Carlo simulation. Our approach reveals that technological differences are the predominant cause for the range of LCGHG emissions associated with gas power, primarily due to variability in plant efficiencies. Uncertainties in model parameters played a minor role for 100 year time horizon. Variability in LCGHG emissions was a factor of 1.4 for combined cycle plants, and a factor of 1.3 for simple cycle plants (95% CI, 100 year horizon). The results can be used to assist decision-makers in assessing factors that contribute to LCGHG emissions despite uncertainties in parameters employed to estimate those emissions.
Article
Plug in electric vehicles are vehicles that use energy from the electric grid to provide tractive and accessory power to the vehicle. Due to the limited specific energy of energy storage systems, the energy requirements of heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems for cabin conditioning can significantly reduce their range between charges. Factors such as local ambient temperature, local solar radiation, local humidity, length of the trip and thermal soak have been identified as primary drivers of cabin conditioning loads and therefore of vehicle range. The objective of this paper is to develop a detailed systems-level approach to connect HVAC technologies and usage conditions to consumer-centric metrics of vehicle performance including energy consumption and range. This includes consideration of stochastic and transient inputs to the HVAC energy consumption model including local weather, solar loads, driving behavior, charging behavior, and regional passenger fleet population. The resulting engineering toolset is used to determine the summation of and geographical distribution of energy consumption by HVAC systems in electric vehicles, and to identify regions of US where the distributions of electric vehicle range are particularly sensitive to climate.
Article
Battery electric vehicles Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles Life-cycle assessment Greenhouse gas emissions Well-to-wheel balances Total costs of ownership a b s t r a c t This paper presents an environmental and an economic Life-Cycle Assessment (LCA) for conventional and electric vehicle technologies, focusing mainly on the primary energy source and the vehicle operation phase Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions. A detailed analysis of the electricity mix was performed, based on the contribution of each type of primary energy source and their variation along a year. Three mixes were considered, with different life cycle GHG intensity: one mainly based in fossil sources, a second one with a large contribution from nuclear and a third one with a significant share of renewable energy sources. The conventional vehicle technology is represented by gasoline and diesel International Combustion Engine Vehicles (ICEVs), while the electric technology is represented by Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs) and Battery Electric Vehicles (BEVs). Real world tests were performed for representative compact and sub-compact EVs. The use profile of the vehicle was based on data acquired by a real time data acquisition system installed in the vehicles. The results show that a mix with a large contribution from Renewable Energy Sources (RESs) does not always translate directly into low GHG emissions for EVs due to the high variability of these sources. The driving profile under different scenarios was also analyzed, showing that an aggressive style can increase the energy consumption by 47%. The tests also showed that the use of climate control can increase the energy consumption between 24 and 60%. Compared with other technologies, EVs can be more sustainable from an environmental and economic perspective; however, three main factors are required: improvement of battery technology, an eco-driving attitude and an environmental friendly electricity mix.
Article
While lithium-ion battery (LIB) technology has improved substantially to achieve better performance in a wide variety of applications, this technological progress has led to a diverse mix of batteries in use that ultimately require waste management. Development of a robust end-of-life battery infrastructure requires a better understanding of how to maximize the economic opportunity of battery recycling while mitigating the uncertainties associated with a highly variable waste stream. This paper develops and applies an optimization model to analyze the profitability of recycling facilities given current estimates of LIB technologies, commodity market prices of materials expected to be recovered, and material composition for three common battery types (differentiated on the basis of cathode chemistry). Sensitivity analysis shows that the profitability is highly dependent on the expected mix of cathode chemistries in the waste stream and the resultant variability in material mass and value. The potential values of waste streams comprised of different cathode chemistry types show a variability ranging from $860 per ton1 for LiMn2O4 cathode batteries to $8900 per ton for LiCoO2 cathode batteries. In addition, these initial results and a policy case study can also help to promote end-of-life management and relative policymaking for spent LIBs.
Article
18650-type lithium iron phosphate/graphite cells are cycled at 25 and 55 °C in order to investigate cycle performance and diagnostics for capacity fading. The cell losses more than 30 % of its initial capacity after 600 cycles when cycled at 55 °C compared to a 5 % loss for the cell cycled at 25 °C. There is no evident difference appeared between cathode and anode capacities before and after cycling, but only part of the cathode capacity could be recovered on the first charge after cycling. The loss of cycleable lithium is supposed to be the reason for the capacity fade. And both catalytic reaction of iron deposited on graphite surface and damage of solid–electrolyte interface layer by volume change play important roles in capacity fade.
Article
Lithium-ion batteries have become the focus of research interest, thanks to their numerous benefits for vehicle applications. One main limitation of these technologies resides in the battery ageing. The effects of battery ageing limit its performance and occur throughout their whole life, whether the battery is used or not, which is a major drawback on real usage. Furthermore, degradations take place in every condition, but in different proportions as usage and external conditions interact to provoke degradations. The ageing phenomena are highly complicated to characterize due to the factors cross-dependence. This paper reviews various aspects of recent research and developments, from different fields, on lithium-ion battery ageing mechanisms and estimations. In this paper is presented a summary of techniques, models and algorithms used for battery ageing estimation (SOH, RUL), going from a detailed electrochemical approach to statistical methods based on data. In order to present the accuracy of currently used methods, their respective characteristics are discussed. Remaining challenges are deeply detailed, along with a discussion about the ideal method resulting from existing methods.
Article
Electric vehicles (EVs) coupled with low‐carbon electricity sources offer the potential for reducing greenhouse gas emissions and exposure to tailpipe emissions from personal transportation. In considering these benefits, it is important to address concerns of problem‐shifting. In addition, while many studies have focused on the use phase in comparing transportation options, vehicle production is also significant when comparing conventional and EVs. We develop and provide a transparent life cycle inventory of conventional and electric vehicles and apply our inventory to assess conventional and EVs over a range of impact categories. We find that EVs powered by the present European electricity mix offer a 10% to 24% decrease in global warming potential (GWP) relative to conventional diesel or gasoline vehicles assuming lifetimes of 150,000 km. However, EVs exhibit the potential for significant increases in human toxicity, freshwater eco‐toxicity, freshwater eutrophication, and metal depletion impacts, largely emanating from the vehicle supply chain. Results are sensitive to assumptions regarding electricity source, use phase energy consumption, vehicle lifetime, and battery replacement schedules. Because production impacts are more significant for EVs than conventional vehicles, assuming a vehicle lifetime of 200,000 km exaggerates the GWP benefits of EVs to 27% to 29% relative to gasoline vehicles or 17% to 20% relative to diesel. An assumption of 100,000 km decreases the benefit of EVs to 9% to 14% with respect to gasoline vehicles and results in impacts indistinguishable from those of a diesel vehicle. Improving the environmental profile of EVs requires engagement around reducing vehicle production supply chain impacts and promoting clean electricity sources in decision making regarding electricity infrastructure.
Article
In this paper, we develop a methodology for estimating marginal emissions of electricity demand that vary by location and time of day across the United States. The approach takes account of the generation mix within interconnected electricity markets and shifting load profiles throughout the day. Using data available for 2007 through 2009, with a focus on carbon dioxide (CO2), we find substantial variation among locations and times of day. Marginal emission rates are more than three times as large in the upper Midwest compared to the western United States, and within regions, rates for some hours of the day are more than twice those for others. We apply our results to an evaluation of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs). The CO2 emissions per mile from driving PEVs are less than those from driving a hybrid car in the western United States and Texas. In the upper Midwest, however, charging during the recommended hours at night implies that PEVs generate more emissions per mile than the average car currently on the road. Underlying many of our results is a fundamental tension between electricity load management and environmental goals: the hours when electricity is the least expensive to produce tend to be the hours with the greatest emissions. In addition to PEVs, we show how our estimates are useful for evaluating the heterogeneous effects of other policies and initiatives, such as distributed solar, energy efficiency, and real-time pricing.
Article
Polymer-based lithium batteries have attracted considerable interest in recent years. Presently, both ionically and electronically conducting polymers are available, and thus fully polymeric batteries are possible. The characteristics and properties of polymer electrolytes and polymer electrodes are examined here, and an evaluation of their applicability in electrochemical devices of practical interest is discussed.
Article
Seasonal averages of 700 mb height data are used to illustrate the problem and to demonstrate how the data set properties are taken into account. Papers by Hancock and Yarger (1979), Nastrom and Belmont (1980) and Williams (1980) are critically examined in light of these considerations and Monte Carlo strategies for clarification of ambiguities suggested. -from Authors
Article
This report details the Battery Performance and Cost model (BatPaC) developed at Argonne National Laboratory for lithium-ion battery packs used in automotive transportation. The model designs the battery for a specified power, energy, and type of vehicle battery. The cost of the designed battery is then calculated by accounting for every step in the lithium-ion battery manufacturing process. The assumed annual production level directly affects each process step. The total cost to the original equipment manufacturer calculated by the model includes the materials, manufacturing, and warranty costs for a battery produced in the year 2020 (in 2010 US$). At the time this report is written, this calculation is the only publically available model that performs a bottom-up lithium-ion battery design and cost calculation. Both the model and the report have been publically peer-reviewed by battery experts assembled by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. This report and accompanying model include changes made in response to the comments received during the peer-review. The purpose of the report is to document the equations and assumptions from which the model has been created. A user of the model will be able to recreate the calculations and perhaps more importantly, understand the driving forces for the results. Instructions for use and an illustration of model results are also presented. Almost every variable in the calculation may be changed by the user to represent a system different from the default values pre-entered into the program. The distinct advantage of using a bottom-up cost and design model is that the entire power-to-energy space may be traversed to examine the correlation between performance and cost. The BatPaC model accounts for the physical limitations of the electrochemical processes within the battery. Thus, unrealistic designs are penalized in energy density and cost, unlike cost models based on linear extrapolations. Additionally, the consequences on cost and energy density from changes in cell capacity, parallel cell groups, and manufacturing capabilities are easily assessed with the model. New proposed materials may also be examined to translate bench-scale values to the design of full-scale battery packs providing realistic energy densities and prices to the original equipment manufacturer. The model will be openly distributed to the public in the year 2011. Currently, the calculations are based in a Microsoft{reg_sign} Office Excel spreadsheet. Instructions are provided for use; however, the format is admittedly not user-friendly. A parallel development effort has created an alternate version based on a graphical user-interface that will be more intuitive to some users. The version that is more user-friendly should allow for wider adoption of the model.
Article
This document contains material and energy flows for lithium-ion batteries with an active cathode material of lithium manganese oxide (LiMnâOâ). These data are incorporated into Argonne National Laboratory's Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREET) model, replacing previous data for lithium-ion batteries that are based on a nickel/cobalt/manganese (Ni/Co/Mn) cathode chemistry. To identify and determine the mass of lithium-ion battery components, we modeled batteries with LiMnâOâ as the cathode material using Argonne's Battery Performance and Cost (BatPaC) model for hybrid electric vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, and electric vehicles. As input for GREET, we developed new or updated data for the cathode material and the following materials that are included in its supply chain: soda ash, lime, petroleum-derived ethanol, lithium brine, and lithium carbonate. Also as input to GREET, we calculated new emission factors for equipment (kilns, dryers, and calciners) that were not previously included in the model and developed new material and energy flows for the battery electrolyte, binder, and binder solvent. Finally, we revised the data included in GREET for graphite (the anode active material), battery electronics, and battery assembly. For the first time, we incorporated energy and material flows for battery recycling into GREET, considering four battery recycling processes: pyrometallurgical, hydrometallurgical, intermediate physical, and direct physical. Opportunities for future research include considering alternative battery chemistries and battery packaging. As battery assembly and recycling technologies develop, staying up to date with them will be critical to understanding the energy, materials, and emissions burdens associated with batteries.
Article
This work presents a rigorous continuum mechanics model of solvent diffusion describing the growth of solid-electrolyte interfaces (SEIs) in Li-ion cells incorporating carbon anodes. The model assumes that a reactive solvent component diffuses through the SEI and undergoes two-electron reduction at the carbon-SEI interface. Solvent reduction produces an insoluble product, resulting in increasing SEI thickness. The model predicts that the SEI thickness increases linearly with the square root of time. Experimental data from the literature for capacity loss in two types of prototype Li-ion cells validates the solvent diffusion model. We use the model to estimate SEI thickness and extract solvent diffusivity values from the capacity loss data. Solvent diffusivity values have an Arrhenius temperature dependence consistent with solvent diffusion through a solid SEI. The magnitudes of the diffusivities and activation energies are comparable to literature values for hydrocarbon diffusion in carbon molecular sieves and zeolites. These findings, viewed in the context of recent SEI morphology studies, suggest that the SEI may be viewed as a single layer with both micro- and macroporosity that controls the ingress of electrolyte, anode passivation by the SEI, and cell performance during initial cycling as well as long-term operation. © 2004 The Electrochemical Society. All rights reserved.
Article
This paper addresses the environmental burdens (energy consumption and air emissions, including greenhouse gases [GHGs]) of the material production, assembly, and recycling of automotive lithium-ion batteries in hybrid electric, plug-in hybrid electric, and battery electric vehicles (BEV) that use LiMn2O4 cathode material. In this analysis, we calculated the energy consumed and air emissions generated when recovering LiMn2O4, aluminum, and copper in three recycling processes (hydrometallurgical, intermediate physical, and direct physical recycling) and examined the effect(s) of closed-loop recycling on environmental impacts of battery production. We aimed to develop a U.S.-specific analysis of lithium-ion battery production and in particular sought to resolve literature discrepancies concerning energy consumed during battery assembly. Our analysis takes a process-level (versus a top-down) approach. For a battery used in a BEV, we estimated cradle-to-gate energy and GHG emissions of 75 MJ/kg battery and 5.1 kg CO2e/kg battery, respectively. Battery assembly consumes only 6% of this total energy. These results are significantly less than reported in studies that take a top-down approach. We further estimate that direct physical recycling of LiMn2O4, aluminum, and copper in a closed-loop scenario can reduce energy consumption during material production by up to 48%.
Article
Life-cycle assessment (LCA) practitioners build models to quantify resource consumption, environmental releases, and potential environmental and human health impacts of product systems. Most often, practitioners define a model structure, assign a single value to each parameter, and build deterministic models to approximate environmental outcomes. This approach fails to capture the variability and uncertainty inherent in LCA. To make good decisions, decision makers need to understand the uncertainty in and divergence between LCA outcomes for different product systems. Several approaches for conducting LCA under uncertainty have been proposed and implemented. For example, Monte Carlo simulation and fuzzy set theory have been applied in a limited number of LCA studies. These approaches are well understood and are generally accepted in quantitative decision analysis. But they do not guarantee reliable outcomes. A survey of approaches used to incorporate quantitative uncertainty analysis into LCA is presented. The suitability of each approach for providing reliable outcomes and enabling better decisions is discussed. Approaches that may lead to overconfident or unreliable results are discussed and guidance for improving uncertainty analysis in LCA is provided.
Article
U.S. energy and climate policy has evolved from the bottom - up, led by state governments, and internationally recognized for the use of unconventional and innovative policy instruments. This study focuses on policy instruments adopted throughout the era of state energy policy innovation that aim to diversify, decentralize, and decarbonize the electricity sector. Specific attention is devoted to the renewable portfolio standard, net metering, interconnection standards, tax incentives, public benefit funds, and energy efficiency resource standards. This analysis synthesizes the findings from the energy policy literature and provides a summary of the current state of understanding about the effects of various state energy policy instruments, and concludes with a discussion of broader trends that have emerged from the use of policy instruments in the state energy policy innovation era.
Article
Goal, Scope and BackgroundThis paper describes the influence of the choice of the functional unit on the results of an environmental assessment of different battery technologies for electric and hybrid vehicles. Battery, hybrid and fuel cell electric vehicles are considered as being environmentally friendly. However, the batteries they use are sometimes said to be environmentally unfriendly. At the current state of technology different battery types can be envisaged: lead-acid, nickel-cadmium, nickel-metal hydride, lithium-ion and sodium-nickel chloride. The environmental impacts described in this paper are based on a life cycle assessment (LCA) approach. One of the first critical stages of LCA is the definition of an appropriate and specific functional unit for electric and hybrid vehicle application. Most of the known LCA studies concerning batteries were performed while choosing different functional units, although this choice can influence the final results. An adequate functional unit, allowing to compare battery technologies in their real life vehicle application should be chosen. The results of the LCA are important as they will be used as a decision support for the end-of-life vehicles directive 2000/53/EC (Official Journal of the European Communities L269/24 2000). As a consequence, a thorough analysis is required to define an appropriate functional unit for the assessment of batteries for electric vehicles. This paper discusses this issue and will mainly focus on traction batteries for electric vehicles. Main FeaturesAn overview of the different parameters to be considered in the definition of a functional unit to compare battery technologies for battery electric vehicle application is described and discussed. An LCA study is performed for the most relevant potential functional units. SimaPro 6 is used as a software tool and Eco-indicator 99 as an impact assessment method. The influence of the different selected functional units on the results (Eco-indicator Points) is discussed. The environmental impact of the different electric vehicle battery technologies is described. A sensitivity analysis illustrates the robustness of the obtained results. Results and DiscussionFive main parameters are considered in each investigated functional unit: an equal depth of discharge is assumed, a relative number of batteries required during the life of the vehicle is calculated, the energy losses in the battery and the additional vehicle consumption due to the battery mass is included and the same lifetime distance target is taken into account. On the basis of the energy content, battery mass, number of cycles and vehicle autonomy three suitable functional units are defined: ‘battery packs with an identical mass’, ‘battery packs with an identical energy content’ and ‘battery packs with an identical one-charge range’. The results show that the differences in the results between these three functional units are small and imply less variation on the results than the other uncertainties inherent to LCA studies. On the other hand, the results obtained using other, less adequate, functional units can be quite different. ConclusionsWhen performing an LCA study, it’s important to choose an appropriate functional unit. Most of the time, this choice is unambiguous. However, sometimes this choice is more complicated when different correlated parameters have to be considered, as it is the case for traction batteries. When using a realistic functional unit, the result is not influenced significantly by the choice of one out of the three suitable functional units. Additionally, the life cycle assessment allowed concluding that three electric vehicle battery technologies have a comparable environmental impact: lead-acid, nickel-cadmium and nickel-metal hydride. Lithium-ion and sodium-nickel chloride have lower environmental impacts than the three previously cited technologies when used in a typical battery electric vehicle application. Recommendations and PerspectivesThe article describes the need to consider all relevant parameters for the choice of a functional unit for an electric vehicle battery, as this choice can influence the conclusions. A more standardised method to define the functional unit could avoid these differences and could make it possible to compare the results of different traction battery LCA studies more easily.
Conference Paper
This paper deals with life estimation of lithium batteries for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). An aging model, based on the concept of accumulated charge throughput, has been developed to estimate battery life under ldquoreal worldrdquo driving cycles (custom driving cycles based on driving statistics). The objective is to determine the ldquodamagerdquo on the life related to each driving pattern to determine equivalent miles/years. Results indicates that Lithium-ion batteries appear to be 10 year/150,000 mile capable, provided that they are not overcharged, nor consistently operated at high temperatures, nor in charge sustaining mode at a very low state of charge.
Article
The constantly evolving western grid of the United States is characterized by complex generation dispatch based on economics, contractual agreements, and regulations. The future electrification of transportation via plug-in electric vehicles calls for an energy and emissions analysis of electric vehicle (EV) penetration scenarios based on realistic resource dispatch. A resource dispatch and emissions model for the western grid is developed and a baseline case is modeled. Results are compared with recorded data to validate the model and provide confidence in the analysis of EV-grid interaction outlooks. A modeled dispatch approach, based on a correlation between actual historical dispatch and system load data, is exercised to show the impacts (emission intensity, temporally resolved load demand) associated with EV penetration on the western grid. The plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) and selected charging scenarios are the focus for the analysis. The results reveal that (1) a correlation between system load and resource group capacity factor can be utilized in dispatch modeling, (2) the hourly emissions intensity of the grid depends upon PHEV fleet charge scenario, (3) emissions can be reduced for some species depending on the PHEV fleet charge scenario, and (4) the hourly model resolution of changes in grid emissions intensity can be used to decide on preferred fleet-wide charge profiles.
Article
The technical performance and energy requirements for production and transportation of a stand alone photovoltaic (PV)-battery system at different operating conditions are presented. Eight battery technologies are evaluated: lithium-ion (Li-ion), sodium–sulphur (NaS), nickel–cadmium (NiCd), nickel–metal hydride (NiMH), lead–acid (PbA), vanadium-redox (VRB), zinc–bromine (ZnBr) and polysulfide-bromide (PSB). In the reference case, the energy requirements for production and transport of PV-battery systems that use the different battery technologies differ by up to a factor of three. Production and transport of batteries contribute 24–70% to the energy requirements, and the PV array contributes 26–68%. The contribution from other system components is less than 10%. The contribution of transport to energy requirements is 1–9% for transportation by truck, but may be up to 73% for air transportation. The energy requirement for battery production and transport is dominant for systems based on NiCd, NiMH and PbA batteries. The energy requirements for these systems are, therefore, sensitive to changes in battery service life and gravimetric energy density. For systems with batteries with relatively low energy requirement for production and transportation (Li-ion, NaS, VRB, ZnBr, PSB), the battery charge–discharge efficiency has a larger impact. In Part II, the data presented here are used to calculate energy payback times and overall battery efficiencies of the PV-battery systems.