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Abstract

Purpose – Despite the increasing importance of shared leadership, researches examining its relations with vertical leadership, a complementary source of power, has been scarce. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to extend the authors’ knowledge on this little-known topic by analysing vertical and shared leadership interactions in a change management project. Design/methodology/approach – A qualitative content analysis based on nine semi-structured interviews with top and middle managers, and a dataset of documents including corporate reports, a Road Map book and presentations was carried out, analysing the reciprocal leadership relationships by using an extended framework, which includes directive, transformational, transactional and empowering behaviours. Findings – Both in radical and incremental step, vertical as well as shared leadership interacted, showing their reciprocal need to deal with change. Leadership approaches and behaviours, conceptually and empirically distinct, even if highly related, are complementary sources that shape a constant compromise, according to the contextual demands of the project, to face change. Research limitations/implications – Further studies could strengthen the generalizability of the findings that suffer for the qualitative method. Moreover further studies could extend leadership interactions beyond leader-change management team relationships to the top-bottom levels of the organization. Contribution to theory is mainly twofold. First, findings highlight that for every specific change phase, both radical and incremental ones, different gradients of vertical and shared leadership are required. Second the authors found that leadership behaviours could be contrasting, requiring the ability to perform the multiple roles and behaviours in a well-balanced way in order to deal with the contextual demands of the change project. Practical implications – The paper includes implication for developing and training leaders, as well as followers, to have effective and multiple leadership skills and be able to apply them in different contexts, both by switching from vertical to shared, and vice versa, and by having the capability to respond with appropriately behaviours to a wide range of situations, that could also be mixed and opposing more than linear. Originality/value – The paper fills a gap in research about the interactions between vertical and shared leadership dynamics, through a qualitative study, during a change management project.

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... In relation to mobilizing change, an individual leadership perspective needs to be complemented with a plural leadership view, because the distribution of leadership in organizations is a trigger for building a shared vision and direction of change (Buchanan, Addicott, Fitzgerald, Ferlie, & Baeza, 2007). At the most basic level, distributed leadership relates to interactions between multiple leaders in specific organiza-body of literature at the intersection between leadership and change focuses on complementing the individual leadership orientation with a plural approach to change leadership (Bolden, 2011;Binci, Cerruti, & Braganza, 2016;Denis et al., 2012;Gronn, 2002Gronn, , 2009Higgs & Rowland, 2011;White, Currie, & Lockett, 2014), the impact of specific individual leadership approaches, such as task-and person-centred leadership behaviours, on the distribution of leadership remains underexplored. ...
... Although leadership is nowadays considered to involve interactions between leaders and followers (Brown & Treviño, 2009), leaders' individual inclinations and behaviours are still seen as crucial (Binci et al., 2016;Friedrich, Griffith, & Mumford, 2016;Paunova, 2015;White et al., 2014), particularly with reference to change effectiveness (Ford & Ford, 2012). In fact, organizational leaders are typically in charge of providing members of the system with a structured process to transform the system's structures, processes, values, culture and routines, as they should be able to convince members to adopt the new practices as new routines (Higgs & Rowland, 2005;Kotter, 1995). ...
... Bligh, Pearce, & Kohles, 2006;Friedrich et al., 2016;Paunova, 2015;White et al., 2014). Its main purpose is to show how the plural approach should complement the individual approach to supply specific competencies, skills and power legitimacy in leading an organization (Binci et al., 2016;Denis et al., 2012). Individual leadership attitudes may be predictors of the plural form of leadership adopted by groups of individuals (White et al., 2014), but the impact of specific individual leadership behaviours on the distribution of leadership remains unclear. ...
... Similarly, shared leadership is believed to simulate interrelationships among team members as they practice mutual influence and responsibility within the team (Binci, Cerruti, & Braganza, 2014). Therefore, a general assumption was that shared leadership is beneficial to the overall team, as all team members have balanced influence, are evenly engaged, and equally value all divergent perspectives of team members (Chiu, Owens, & Tesluk, 2016). ...
... However, participants in voluntary cooperation groups reported less mental effort, than the increased task interdependence groups (Nebel et al., 2017). Similarly, Binci et al. (2014) aligned with Nebel et al.'s (2017) assessment workflows, as they posited reduced team boundaries augment information exchange and collaboration. Explicitly, when members contribute their expertise and skills empowering practices have a positive outcome on task interdependence in teams (Binci et al. 2014). ...
... Similarly, Binci et al. (2014) aligned with Nebel et al.'s (2017) assessment workflows, as they posited reduced team boundaries augment information exchange and collaboration. Explicitly, when members contribute their expertise and skills empowering practices have a positive outcome on task interdependence in teams (Binci et al. 2014). All things considered, directional workflows generate specific components in process activities. ...
Research
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This study bridged a gap in Shared Leadership literature on task interdependent workflow relationships. The aim of this quantitative, nonexperimental, explanatory study was to explain the predictability of Initiated Task Interdependence and Received Task Interdependence workflows on Shared Leadership.
... How to combine these shared and vertical leadership behaviours in practice is not obvious, and is sometimes even described as paradoxical (Binci, Cerruti, & Braganza, 2016;Elloy, 2006;Meirink, Imants, Meijer, & Verloop, 2010). For example, in our previous study participants and team coaches explained that it was important that participants could take the lead in defining the team goals, as this promoted their sense of ownership. ...
... The nine-step method helped the team coach and technical chair to remind them of the important steps (such as articulating the goals and plans) that should not be overlooked. In contrast to previous research that indicated that combining shared and vertical leadership could be experienced as paradoxical (Binci et al., 2016;Elloy, 2006;Meirink et al., 2010), none of the participants experienced these leadership behaviours as conflicting. It could therefore be suggested that explicitly mentioning 'brainstorming' and 'articulating' as separate steps emphasizes the importance of both shared and vertical leadership behaviours, even if they are exhibited in the same conversation. ...
... Vertical leadership behaviour also ensured that all participants were actively engaged in the discussions. These findings further support the idea that both shared and vertical leadership behaviours are needed to support the team's work process (Binci et al., 2016;Gronn, 2009;Pearce, 2004). ...
Article
Teacher Design Teams (TDTs) are professional learning communities in which teachers collaborate to (re)design educational materials. Although studies have indicated that leadership is vital for TDTs’ functioning, providing adequate leadership is challenging. Both shared and vertical leadership are needed, and how to combine them is not obvious. TDT participants and coaches might benefit from insight into what shared and vertical leadership look like in practice. In this study, we monitored two TDTs that used a stepwise method that integrates shared and vertical leadership. Findings reveal that combining shared and vertical leadership in TDTs is possible, but remains a challenging balancing act.
... While Sloyan et al., [54] advised that during the change process employee In their empirical study Binci et al., [55] concluded that during radical change they observed the existence of transformational leadership style in relation to change initiatives in organization, meanwhile in incremental change they observed the presence of transactional and empowering leadership styles. While ...
... This study provided two separate sections focusing on the relationship between transformational leadership and change management for which Binci et al., [55] concluded that during radical change they observed the existence of transformational leadership style in relation to change initiatives in organization, meanwhile in incremental change they observed the presence of transactional and empowering leadership styles. ...
... Furthermore, the respondents also indicated that vertical leadership was needed to provide structure and clarity in the process, which is essential for actually achieving something. Therefore, we conclude that a hybrid form of leadership, with a mix of both shared and vertical leadership (Binci, Cerruti, & Braganza, 2016;Ensley, Hmieleski, & Pearce, 2006;Gronn, 2009;Pearce, 2004) appears to be most effective for TDTs. ...
... However, how to provide a mix of vertical and shared leadership is not self-evident, and is sometimes even described as paradoxical (Binci et al., 2016;Elloy, 2006;Meirink et al., 2010). There is no literature yet on how team coaches can effectively combine these seemingly contradictory tasks in TDTs or other (networked) PLCs. ...
Article
Teacher Design Teams (TDTs) are professional learning communities in which teachers collaborate to (re)design innovative educational materials. TDTs can contribute to teachers’ professional growth. Furthermore, engaging teachers in the design process could create ownership, increasing the likelihood that teachers actually use the innovative materials in practice. In this study, we aimed to obtain in-depth insights into the TDT process and to identify possible links with the outcomes. We studied three cases of TDTs, collecting qualitative data from multiple perspectives. We found that the perceived outcomes of the TDTs were mixed. The leadership style appeared to play an important role in shaping the process and hence the perceived outcomes. To improve the outcomes of future TDTs, insights from this study suggest that team coaches should provide more structure and clarity during the process. At the same time, the coaches should create an atmosphere in which participants can take the initiative.
... Bulat bulatan berwarna menunjukkan bobot kejadian. (Lowe, 2018) (Guerrero, 2018) (Grant, 2010) (Liotas, 2014) (Schmidt, 2017) (Dzwigol, 2019) (Lee, 2011) (Chandran, 2013) (R. Hechanova, 2013 (Binci, 2016) (Holten, 2019) (Lines, 2019) (Reddeman, 2016) (Rossum, 2016) (Kumar, 2018)(S. Brown, 2014 (Lowe, 2017) (Shriberg, 2012) (Stampa, 2010) (Macphee, 2012) (May, 2017) (Lunts, 2012) (Grossman, 2017) (M. ...
Article
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Abstrak Penelitian ini merupakan pemetaan sistematik dalam topik kajian Change Management dan Leadership berdasarkan analisis bibliometrik. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui perkembangan penelitian pada artikel Change Management dan Leadership dan mengetahui bagaiaman visualisasi VOSviewer bedasrakn kata kunci pada 10 tahun terahir pada tahun 2010-2019 jurnal terindek scopus Q1 dan Q2. Pengumpulan data melalui perangkat lunak yang digunakan adalah Publish or Perish (PoP) untuk mencari bibliografi. Perangkat Lunak Mendeley digunakan untuk mengelola dan melanjutkan referensi. Hasil dari penelitian ini ditemukan 43 Artikel dengan 523 sitasi. Bedasarkan hasil visualisasi VOSviewer ditemukan 153 term dengan 15 Items dan 6 Cluster. Cluster yang lebih sering muncul yaitu cluster Change Mangement, Leasership dan Effective Change Management.
... The fact that executives in the frequently changing organization consistently had more pessimistic views of their organization's culture than did lower level employees offers insight into the important role of leaders in creating a positive mutually reinforcing relationship between organizational culture and change. Thus far, evidence has largely focused on leaders' influence on employee change-related behaviors (Hechanova et al., 2018;Purcell and Chahine, 2019;Stumpf et al., 2016) and, more specifically on motivation (Binci, et al., 2016) and creativity (Svendsen and Joensson, 2016). Research has largely failed to examine how leaders can influence the interrelations between culture and change-related outcomes. ...
Article
Purpose: Despite considerable conceptual interest in the relationship between organizational culture and various types of organizational change, empirical evidence regarding this relationship at different levels and types of change is surprisingly absent. This study examines whether organizational culture perceptions differ in frequently versus infrequently changing organizations, and whether this relationship is moderated by members’ hierarchical level in the organization (i.e., staff, manager, executive). Design/methodology/approach: Study includes culture survey data for 904 staff, managers, and executives from one frequently changing and two infrequently changing organizations in the education sector. Findings: Results show multiple non-monotonic organization-by-organizational level interaction effects on cultural style scores. In the frequently changing organization, executives report lower constructive cultural style scores and higher defensive cultural style scores than do managers and staff. In the infrequently changing organizations, executives, managers, and staff report similar constructive and defensive style scores. Originality: Our findings show that systematic differences in perceptions of cultural styles across organizational levels relate to organizational change frequency. This contrasts with existing literature emphasizing the importance of culture perceptions being pervasive throughout the organization. Practical Implications: In frequently changing organizations, leaders are more likely to be discontent with the status quo and continuously encourage change efforts, while lower level members’ have considerable experience with change and are empowered to continuously create change. The result is systematic differences in culture perceptions across levels, but also an agile organization capable of pursuing opportunities to improve organizational performance.
... formed environments described as open and creative(Binci, Cerruti, & Braganza, 2016;Novo, Landis, & Haley, 2017;Tyssen, Wald, & Heidenreich, 2014). De Araújo et al. (2018) demonstrated that project managers, who possessed procedural and personal competencies, were able to drive commitment in team members during periods of project crisis. ...
Thesis
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The purpose of this research sought to investigate the relationship between project management competencies and project complexity upon project success. A literature review indicates that project complexity is a primary source of project failure. A gap exists concerning how project management competencies and project complexity predict project success. The first research question was, “To what extent do project management competencies predict project success?” The second research question was, “To what extent does project complexity predict project success?” A quantitative method nonexperimental research design, using a correlational approach, was deployed. The theory of complexity explains that the relationship between project management competencies and project success is influenced by project complexity. The standard project management model and the expanded standard project management model were used to relate the three variables. The study population was project management professional certified project managers, who operated in the United States of America, and who completed a project within the last six months from the time of this research. Research results showed that project management competencies positively predict project success. Results were inconclusive concerning whether project complexity predicts project success. The predictive model involving project management competencies and project complexity upon project success is a good model. The predictive model offers insight into managing project complexity. Using project management competencies, project managers can establish an environment built on collaboration and knowledge sharing. Using collaboration and knowledge sharing, project managers can seize creativity and ingenuity, available in complex systems through interdependence, to influence project success.
... In fact, leveraging both vertical and shared leadership at the same time can efficiently be used to enhance the skills of key stakeholders (Ensley et al., 2006;Pearce & Sims, 2002). The roles played by the vertical leader in developing shared leadership should mainly embrace responsibilities of designing the team and controlling its boundaries (Binci et al., 2016). ...
Article
The fragmentation in decision-making among different stakeholders severely influences the effectiveness of tourism promotion, in well-known destinations as well. Through the lens of Collaboration Theory, the paper empirically aims at exploring how an Integrated Marketing Communications (IMC) approach may be applied in a fragmented context of tourism with the objective of fostering collaboration between different players. Constructivist grounded theory is also employed to analyse interviews with tourism body stakeholders, organizations and other local government associations from the Amalfi coast region of Italy. The findings underpin the development of propositions presented not only for the purpose of guiding collaborative initiatives based on integrated communication’s principles, but also for encouraging/urging local stakeholders to attain the main benefits of creating and maintaining a multifaceted network of relationships; that network of relations could constitute an efficient way to overcome uncertainty in tourism. Thus, the present paper advances a multidimensional IMC approach in a tourism framework, supporting the need to help local stakeholders to overcome boundaries that hinder them from joining forces. This approach will allow them to attract tourist interest, build and sustain a co-developed place brand, and as a result strengthen community identity.
... Further, existing research is aligned with the finding that CCD requires expert facilitators (Boschman et al., 2016). The facilitator's task of combining both shared and vertical leadership styles has been described as challenging, even paradoxical (Binci, Cerruti, & Braganza, 2016). Binkhorst et al. (2018) described a stepwise approach to supporting the combination of both vertical and shared leadership, though they acknowledged that this work remains a challenging balancing act. ...
Book
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This open access book provides insight into what it takes to actively involve teachers in the curriculum design process. It examines different aspects of teacher involvement in collaborative curriculum design, with specific attention to its implications for sustainable curriculum innovation and teacher learning. Divided into six sections, the book starts out by introducing the notion of collaborative curriculum design and discusses its historical and theoretical foundations. It describes various approaches commonly adopted to actively involve teachers in the (co-)design of curriculum materials. Sections two and three provide examples of what key phases in the curriculum design process - such as needs analysis, design and development, and implementation - look like across various collaborative curriculum design projects. Section four reports on the impact of collaborative curriculum design on student learning, teacher practices, teacher professional growth, and institutional change. Building on the research evidence about the outcomes of collaborative curriculum design, section five focuses on sustainability, scaling-up and curriculum leadership issues, which are key to the continuation and further evolution of curriculum innovations. Future perspectives are addressed in section six with emphasis on the infrastructure of a sustainable curriculum innovation.
... The antecedents of shared leadership can be examined in educational settings in public sector (Carvalho, 2018). It will be useful to examine the simultaneous role formal and informal leadership plays (Binci et al., 2016) in fostering change oriented organization citizenship behaviors. This will strengthen the line of inquiry that suggests that vertical leadership can impact shared leadership either directly or indirectly (Pearce et al., 2014) in eastern and developing nations' context. ...
Article
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to advance the theoretical perspective of complexity leadership paradigm to introduce shared leadership style as a precursor of taking charge behavior in public sector higher educational institutions (HEIs) of Pakistan. Moreover, this study unveils the underlying mechanisms of the climate of initiative and psychological safety for clarifying the link of shared leadership and taking charge. Design/methodology/approach The multi-source and multi-wave data were analyzed by employing double mediation analysis (PROCESS Model 4); using 282 valid responses obtained from a proportionate stratified sample of faculty members working in public sector HEIs of Pakistan. Findings The result indicates that shared leadership is a suitable style for governing the public sector HEIs and it fosters taking charge behavior in teaching faculty. Additionally, shared leadership creates climates that support initiatives and are psychologically safe that set stage for taking charge behaviors in teaching faculty of public sector HEIs of Pakistan. Originality/value This research has filled the gap of focusing on more collaborative leadership styles instead of traditional vertical leadership practices in public sector HEIs of Pakistan. Theoretically, this study suggests new insights into the contextual antecedents and mediating mechanisms of taking charge behaviors.
... It has also been suggested that different levels of vertical and shared leadership may be required depending on where a team is in its life cycle (e.g. initial stages, facing change; Binci, Cerruti, & Braganza, 2016;Loughead et al., 2006). Our findings appear to align with these postulations and suggest that the extent to which athlete leadership becomes more shared over time may depend on the type of leadership (i.e. ...
Article
Athlete leadership has been shown to be a shared practice. That is, numerous team members provide leadership through formal and informal leadership positions. Researchers have typically examined athlete leadership using cross-sectional designs, while largely ignoring the nature of this construct over time. Taking a longitudinal approach, the current study used social network analysis (SNA) to examine shared athlete leadership within a competitive, highly ranked youth male ice hockey team. Members of the team (N = 20) completed roster-based surveys related to task and social athlete leadership at five time points during the season. Density (i.e. the overall amount of leadership) and degree centralization (i.e. the distribution of leadership) were the two network level measures used to examine the temporal nature of shared athlete leadership over the five time points. The findings demonstrated significant increases in the amount of task athlete leadership over the course of the season; however, task athlete leadership did not become more shared with time. Further, there were significant increases in both the amount of social athlete leadership within the team as well as the degree to which social leadership was shared among team members as the season progressed. The results of the current study shed light on the dynamic nature of athlete leadership and highlight the value of using longitudinal designs and SNA to examine shared athlete leadership.
... Formal leaders also act as role models for shared leadership. Encouraging others to act similarly and share influence, as well as shaping collective purpose to unite a group, build trust, integrate ideas, and support contributions (Binci, Cerruti, & Braganza, 2016). While these conditions for shared leadership are likely necessary, they alone are not necessarily sufficient, particularly in an environment that in the past has relied on vertical leadership. ...
Article
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Much organisational decision-making is embedded in hierarchical structures and leadership, even though hierarchies are limited in how they deal with increasingly complex issues. This paper explores links between identity formation, and the subsequent development of shared leadership. It explores how a programme to develop shared leadership changed a public science organisation, from one dependent on hierarchical leadership, to one that also used shared leadership to better address the complex public context. Using Day and Harrison’s levels of leadership identity framework, this study first examines the processes of a development programme at individual, relational, and collective levels. Results reveal cascading growth in leadership identities through processes such as job crafting and contagion. Despite the resulting positive processes, inherent paradoxes of power, goals, and attitude underlying shared leadership development are also identified. Within these paradoxes, tensions between vertical hierarchy versus dispersed networks, task performance versus job crafting, fatigue versus revitalisation, and cynicism versus evangelism were found.
... One of the questions researchers have been studying in the field of leadership is; what constitutes a great leader in a business environment? Some controversies surround the contingency leadership theory within the literature concerning the behavioral field of leadership (Binci, Cerruti, & Braganza, 2016;Homan et al., 2014). The use of technology and the size of the organization are two elements discussed by scholars to understand effects of behavior on employees in a business environment (Carroll, Ford, & Taylor, 2015). ...
Thesis
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The loss of revenue, profits, brand, and corporate sustainability are possible for companies whose managers do not use strategies to motivate employee sales performance. The purpose of this multiple case study was to explore the strategies managers use to motivate sales employees’ performance. A purposeful sample of 3 managers from U.S. companies with sales employees shared their strategies to motivate sales employees’ performance. Methodological triangulation was used to review and analyze information from semistructured interviews, journal notes, member checking data, and review and analysis of relevant company documents. Additionally, coding indicated 4 main themes supporting the benefits of strategies to motivate sales employees’ performance: sales personnel with self-motivation exhibit enhanced sales results earlier than nonself-motivated personnel; setting mandatory guidelines, and continuous checking to observe results motivates performance; financial rewards enhance performance; and sales employees receive motivation from recognition of their peer sales group and the organization. The study findings may contribute to social change by increasing the awareness of sales managers to motivate their sales employees, who will add revenue and profits to the organization thereby maintaining jobs, creating more jobs, and providing additional disposable income for health and well-being.
... A final conclusion was that task complexity and task interdependence positively moderated knowledge sharing and team creativity, but at the individual level, task complexity and task interdependence did not change the relationship (in any way) between knowledge sharing and individual creativity. Binci et al. (2016) found that in order to account for the complexity that change management introduces to any organisation; both vertical and shared leadership styles are needed. Their study found that need for task complexity, task interdependence, and effective and quality decision making all impacted the need for both vertical and shared leadership styles. ...
... A final conclusion was that task complexity and task interdependence positively moderated knowledge sharing and team creativity, but at the individual level, task complexity and task interdependence did not change the relationship (in any way) between knowledge sharing and individual creativity. Binci et al. (2016) found that in order to account for the complexity that change management introduces to any organisation; both vertical and shared leadership styles are needed. Their study found that need for task complexity, task interdependence, and effective and quality decision making all impacted the need for both vertical and shared leadership styles. ...
Article
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Shared leadership has gained a great deal of attention in organizations as team-based structures replace hierarchical structures. We present an experimental design approach for identifying the optimal levels of the key internal and external environmental conditions of shared leadership, which, in turn, would enable an engineering team to develop and maximize the degree of shared leadership. A full factorial design is applied to evaluate four control factors (shared purpose, social support, voice and external coaching) at two levels and analyze one output metric, defined as “team centralization”. Although we did not find any interdependence between the four factors, we observed that when these four factors are present at their corresponding high levels the output metric is at its best. Our analysis shows that the four factors are the main contributors to the output metric. However, interactions between the factors are either weak contributors or do not contribute at all to the performance of the output metric. We conclude that having high levels of the three internal team environmental factors and the external coaching environmental condition results in the greatest degree of shared leadership in the senior design environment. The findings have far-reaching implications and practical suggestions for every level of academia, from the department or advisor down to the internal team members themselves.
Article
This research explores the antecedents of sharing leadership throughout an event management organisation. Previous research into shared leadership has been shown to improve team performance and effectiveness in organisations with team-based structures, involved in knowledge work and operating within high pressured environments. We propose therefore that shared leadership offers a useful solution to the problems presented by the rapidly changing and challenging event industry environment. However, little is known about how shared leadership happens within project multi-teams and research into the antecedents of shared leadership is still in its infancy. To enrich the current understanding, we employed exploratory qualitative research involving three case study organisations. Our findings were drawn from 34 in-depth interviews and 33 h of observation with participants from all layers of the management hierarchy and employees from across experiential event management agencies. We identified the antecedents of shared leadership at all levels of management: at the leadership team level, organisational leaders must communicate a clear vision, and act with transparency whilst empowering staff to enact leadership. At the project multi-team level, team members must be willing to collaborate with, and recognise the expertise of other team members and, at an individual level, employees must interact with empathy and good communication. Our findings illuminate how the sharing of leadership relies on multi-level interactions in which management, teams and individuals participate. Based on the findings, the implications for both theory and management practice are discussed and, given the exploratory, qualitative, nature of the study, future research directions are recommended.
Article
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Article
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Managerial shared leadership is a practice that goes beyond traditional ways of organising leadership functions. It is an organisational phenomenon where a few individuals share responsibility for the tasks of a managerial position. This paper reviews 67 empirical papers published in scientific journals. The review covers 55 years (1965–2019). The aim is to contribute knowledge about managerial shared leadership as a research field and offer some relevant theoretical concepts. No review to date has specifically focused on managerial shared leadership, and this paper intends to close this knowledge gap. The paper details the start of managerial shared leadership as a research field, presents a bibliometric analysis and the methodological approaches used, and describes the structural characteristics of managerial shared leadership. The paper includes a thematic content analysis of necessary and enabling antecedents and outcomes. Historically, the imprecise use of concepts has hampered managerial shared leadership’s development into a cohesive research field, so this paper develops and uses theoretical concepts to form a theoretical construct for the entire field. This construct is briefly discussed in relation to general shared leadership theory and critical leadership studies. In practice, managerial shared leadership may provide leadership solutions where there is an imbalance between demands and resources while managing complex situations.
Article
Purpose This study investigated the differential effects of empowering leadership and directive leadership in projects. Moreover, how the complex interplay between empowering and directive leadership styles influences both leader–member exchange and project performance was also explored. Design/methodology/approach Polynomial regression analysis and response surface modeling were applied to analyze 161 matched data collected from project members and managers worked in different projects located in China. Findings Four leadership styles were identified, i.e. ambidextrous, delegating, directive and laissez-faire styles. These may be combined with empowering and directive leadership. With regard to (in)congruence, leader–member exchange and project performance improved with ambidextrous style as a form of high–high congruence between empowering and directive leadership compared with laissez-faire style (i.e. low–low congruence). Results were better when a delegating style was combined with empowering leadership at a high level compared with the combination of directive style as directive leadership at a high level. Leader–member exchange was identified to exert a mediating role of the (in)congruence on project performance. Originality/value This study confirmed the contingent viewpoint of leadership by identifying distinct leadership styles applied in projects. Furthermore, the co-existence of empowering leadership and directive leadership was examined, and the underlying mechanism between the (in)congruence of empowering and directive leadership and project performance was identified.
Book
With newly commissioned contributions from an international set of scholars at the forefront of nonprofit management research, this volume provides a thorough overview of the most current management thinking in this field. It contextualizes nonprofit management globally, provides an extensive introduction to key management functions, core revenue sources and the emerging social enterprise space, and raises a number of emerging topics and issues that will shape nonprofit management in future decades. As graduate programs continue to evolve to serve the training needs in the field, The Routledge Companion to Nonprofit Management is an essential reference and resource for graduate students, researchers, and practitioners interested in a deeper understanding of the operation of the nonprofit sector.
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Organizational transformation and change scholars and researchers published many articles linking and studying the effect of vertical (transactional) leadership and horizontal (transformational) leadership on organizations during transformation. As much attention has been given in the last two decades to transformational leadership as being one of the trendiest leadership styles that focuses on the relation between followers and leaders to achieve better performance during organizational transformation, transactional leadership is still of benefit. This paper bridges organizational transformation and leadership literature and show the importance of transformational (horizontal) leadership alongside transactional (vertical) leadership in achieving efficient performance and optimal results during organizational transformation. Methodology: A literature review will be conducted based on literature related to certain key word and through a systematic literature review protocol. Keywords: organizational transformation, leadership, transactional leadership, transformational leadership
Chapter
Collaborative curriculum design is a process through which two objectives are typically pursued, namely, the development of curriculum and materials for use in everyday classroom settings, and, through the discussions that this process engenders, teacher professional development. Yet, as described in the preceding chapters, achieving these goals is not easy. While many factors influence design team outcomes, the human, material, and structural aspects of infrastructure that are present in a collaborative design context are particularly important. First, the people engaging directly and indirectly in collaborative curriculum design process influence both its process and its outcomes. Second, teacher design teams can be facilitated or hampered by the material resources that they have available to them or that they create for themselves. Third, the structural conditions under which teams work, including policies, norms and routines, wield powerful influence on the teams’ motivation, feasibility and effectiveness. This chapter begins by briefly discussing the relationship between the two goals of collaborative curriculum design (curriculum development and teacher development). Next, the human, material, and structural aspects of infrastructure are introduced as an analytical frame. The body of the chapter revisits key findings from the cases given throughout this book, in light of the processes and outcomes of collaborative curriculum design, as well as the human, material, and structural aspects of infrastructure that can support them. The chapter concludes with a synthesis of these insights (which constitute recommendations for practice and policy), discussion of the findings, and recommendations for future research.
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The current study aims to investigate the effect of strategic consensus among managers on organizational performance, with an emphasis on shared leadership and communications in Iranian knowledge-intensive firms. Since Iran has its unique cultural characteristics with favoring a more authoritarian attribute, and leadership in knowledge-intensive firms has a more shared style, the context of the study is more appealing to such relationships. Data were collected from 115 randomly selected knowledge-intensive firms and analyzed using structural equation modeling by LISREL. Findings show that shared leadership positively influences strategic consensus of the management team, but it does not have a direct effect on performance. Also, communication among managers increases their strategic consensus which in turn positively affects firm performance. The findings act as a guideline for managers and suggest them to broaden the scope and the content of consensus and also for more effective decision-making and improved performance.
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Leadership in today's NHS, either as a leader or follower, is everybody's business. In this article, an MSc student undertaking the Developing Professional Leadership module at King's College London describes two leadership models and considers their application to two dimensions of the NHS Healthcare Leadership Model: 'Engaging the team' and 'Leading with care'. The author demonstrates the value of this knowledge to all those involved in health care with a case scenario from clinical practice and key lessons to help frontline staff in their everyday work.
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This study investigates the relationships and impacts that shared leadership development has on two team dynamic conditions during a Six Sigma project, including internal team environment (cohesion) and external coaching style. The study seeks to understand mitigating factors that affect the relationships and presence of variables. It concludes that shared leadership has unique relationships with the two-team dynamic variables. Shared leadership also has a statistically significant relationship with the internal team environment at all phases of DMAIC, but only in the measure, analyze, and improve phases when examined with external coaching. Several mitigating factors impact these relationships and variables' presence, including: task complexities and deliverables, decision-making, a coach's traits, presence of the three team cohesion dimensions, etc. A direct relationship exists between shared leadership and decision-making. This relationship impacts all the other relationships. Finally, the degree and style of external coaching has a critical role in relationship development.
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The development of human resources is a key factor for the success of organizations. Continuous training is an essential tool for this organizational development and is essential in the organizational process of change. Companies in the Rioja wine business have established important strategic objectives to deal with change in the highly competitive industry, which demands new and ongoing strategic plans. This study aims generally to analyse the strategic planning and the implementation of and requirements for continuous training in the Rioja wine sector in Spain. A quantitative study was performed by means of an interview questionnaire given to 58 wineries from the Rioja Denomination of Origin, consisting of 32.40% of the Rioja population. Two stratification criteria were utilized in the collection of data: the size of the company and the geographical localization of the wine production area. No significant differences were found in the realization of and requirement for training related to the objectives of strategic planning. This work contributes to the field of study of administration of companies by investigating key industrial knowledge in the Spanish economy, specifically in the La Rioja community, and emphasizes the necessity of further in-depth studies concerning change in planning in organizations.
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This study investigated vertical versus shared leadership as predictors of the effectiveness of 71 change management teams. Vertical leadership stems from an appointed or formal leader of a team, whereas shared leadership (C. L. Pearce, 1997; C. L. Pearce & J. A. Conger, in press; C. L. Pearce & H. P. Sims, 2000) is a group process in which leadership is distributed among, and stems from, team members. Team effectiveness was measured approximately 6 months after the assessment of leadership and was also measured from the viewpoints of managers, internal customers, and team members. Using multiple regression, the authors found both vertical and shared leadership to be significantly related to team effectiveness (p < .05), although shared leadership appears to be a more useful predictor of team effectiveness than vertical leadership.
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Knowledge work is becoming increasingly team-based. The reason is clear. It is becoming ever more difficult for any one person to be an expert on all aspects of the work that needs to be done, and this is true in a wide variety of contexts ranging from the R&D lab to the executive suite. With the shift to team-based knowledge work comes the need to question more traditional models of leadership. Traditionally, leadership has been conceived around the idea that one person is firmly "in charge" while the rest are simply followers-what is termed vertical leadership. However. recent research indicates that leadership can be shared by team leaders and team members-rotating to the person with the key knowledge, skills, and abilities for the particular issues facing the team at any given moment. In fact, research indicates that poor-performing teams tend to be dominated by the team leader, while high-performing teams display more dispersed leadership patterns, i.e., shared leadership.(1) This is not to suggest that leadership from above is unnecessary. On the contrary, the role of the vertical leader is critical to the ongoing success of the shared-leadership approach to knowledge work. Thus, this article addresses the following questions: (1) when is leadership most appropriately shared? (2) how is shared leadership best developed? and (3) how does one effectively utilize both vertical and shared leadership to leverage the capabilities of knowledge workers?
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This study integrates theories from the leadership and team development literatures to resolve ambiguity regarding the relative benefits of empowering and directive leadership in teams by focusing on their influence on team development processes over time. Empirical results based on longitudinal performance data from 60 teams suggest that teams led by a directive leader initially outperform those led by an empowering leader. However, despite lower early performance, teams led by an empowering leader experience higher performance improvement over time because of higher levels of team learning, coordination, empowerment, and mental model development. Implications for current and future team leadership research are discussed.
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Shared leadership refers to a team property whereby leadership is distributed among team members rather than focused on a single designated leader. We examined antecedent conditions that lead to the development of shared leadership and the influence of shared leadership on team performance in a sample of 59 consulting teams. Both the internal team environment, consisting of shared purpose, social support, and voice, and external coaching were important predictors of shared leadership emergence. In turn, shared leadership was found to predict team performance as rated by clients. We conclude by discussing the implications of these findings for team leadership and effectiveness.
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Kerr [1976] has coined the term "substitutes for leadership" in reference to nonleader sources of task structure and direction. We focus on one such substitute, the capability of the follower for self-management. Individuals manage their own behaviors by setting personal standards, evaluating their performance in terms of these standards, and by self-administering consequences based on their self-evaluations. Specific techniques such as self-observation, goal specification, cueing strategies, incentive modification, and rehearsal can be used to exercise self-management behavior. Organizational leaders can help subordinates develop self-management skills.
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Purpose The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between shared leadership, as a collective within-team leadership, and innovative behavior, as well as antecedents of shared leadership in terms of team composition and vertical transformational and empowering leadership. Design/Methodology/Approach Data were obtained from a field sample of 43 work teams, comprising 184 team members and their team leaders from two different companies. Team leaders rated the teams’ innovative behavior and their own leadership; team members provided information on their personality and their teams’ shared leadership. Findings Shared and vertical leadership, but not team composition, was positively associated with the teams’ level of innovative behavior. Vertical transformational and empowering leadership and team composition in terms of integrity were positively related to shared leadership. Implications Understanding how organizations can enhance their own innovation is crucial for the organizations’ competitiveness and survival. Furthermore, the increasing prevalence of teams, as work arrangements in organizations, raises the question of how to successfully manage teams. This study suggests that organizations should facilitate shared leadership which has a positive association with innovation. Originality/Value This is one of the first studies to provide evidence of the relationship between shared leadership and innovative behavior, an important organizational outcome. In addition, the study explores two important predictors of shared leadership, transformational and empowering leadership, and the team composition in respect to integrity. While researchers and practitioners agree that shared leadership is important, knowledge on its antecedents is still in its infancy.
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Extends the transactional‐transformational model of leadership by deductively developing four theoretical behavioral types of leadership based on a historical analysis of leadership literature. Then, in an exploratory empirical phase, uses two data sets to inductively develop alternative models of leadership types. Finally, with a third data set , tests several theoretically plausible typologies using second‐order confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). The results of the CFA generally support the existence of four leadership types: directive leadership, transactional leadership, transformational leadership, and empowering leadership.
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Purpose – Hersey and Blanchard's situational leadership (SL) model is widely utilised, but it has limited empirical support. This paper aims to investigate the model through content analysis of the transcripts of supervision sessions. Design/methodology/approach – Eight transcripts of successful supervision interviews are subjected to in‐depth content analysis to investigate the validity of aspects of the SL model, principally that successful leadership interactions would vary systematically according to the level of supervisee experience. The supervisees consist of a novice, four training therapists, and three post‐graduate therapist practitioners. Statistical analyses are undertaken to investigate fundamental, predicted differences between the speech behaviours associated with the different developmental levels of these supervisees. Findings – The findings offer only partial support for the model. As predicted, an increased proportion of supervisor speech is observed in the supervision of increasingly less experienced therapists. However, the majority of the more specific speech behaviours associated with supervisee experience level are not in keeping with the model. Originality/value – These results are consistent with the findings of other evaluations of the SL model. As the present results are based on a novel approach, this increases the plausibility of the claim that SL lacks adequate empirical support. Areas of development and exploration are recommended, and limits associated with the model's utility are highlighted.
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Purpose To address the increasing need for novel approaches to leadership that deal with the challenges organizations face as they flatten, diversify, and confront increasingly complex problems. Design/methodology/approach A meso‐level theoretical model is developed that outlines the relationship between self‐ and shared leadership, focusing on the intermediary processes of trust, potency, and commitment that may lead to the development of shared leadership and ultimately more innovative knowledge creation. Findings Nine propositions are developed, addressing the relationships between self‐ and shared leadership, concluding with some of the theoretical and practical implications of the model and specific recommendations for future empirical work in this area. Research limitations/implications An important boundary condition of the model is that it assumes team and organizational incentives are in place to encourage team building and the facilitation of team over individual achievements. Practical implications Conceptualizing leadership in this way leads to numerous unanswered questions regarding how team dynamics influence, and are influenced by, various forms of leadership (including lateral, upward, and downward influence attempts). Greater dialogue between the team dynamics literature and the leadership literature may lead to new insights into how shared leadership is influenced by a variety of team characteristics, including team ability, size, member maturity, familiarity, likeability, cohesion, etc., all of which are potential areas for future research. Originality/value Important research questions that stem from consideration of these two theories in concert will prove critical in understanding the complex interrelationships among self‐leadership, shared leadership, and the creation of new knowledge in today's complex and dynamic organizations.
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Purpose This paper aims to provide an overview of the literature concerning distributed leadership and organisational change. The main purpose of the paper is to consider the empirical evidence that highlights a relationship between distributed leadership and organisational outcomes. Design/methodological approach The paper draws on several fields of enquiry, including organisational change, school effectiveness, school improvement and leadership. It systematically analyses the evidence in each field and presents a synthesis of key findings. Findings The evidence shows first, that there is a relationship between distributed leadership and organisational change, second, that there is evidence to suggest that this relationship is positive and third, that different patterns of distribution affect organisational outcomes. Originality/value The significance and originality of this paper lies in the fact that it: takes a normative position on distributed leadership and is chiefly concerned with the question of organisational impact; demonstrates the importance and necessity of further research about the way in which distributed leadership influences organisational outcomes; and acknowledges the methodological challenges in conducting research on distributed leadership but argues that such research will make a significant contribution to knowledge and theory generation in the leadership field.
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Focuses on a new form of leadership designed to facilitate the self-leadership energy within each person, suggesting a new measure of a leader's strength (i.e., the ability to maximize the contributions of others through recognition of their right to guide their own destiny) rather than the leader's ability to bend the will of others to his or her own. Steps are suggested for the superleader to lead followers to discover the potentialities that lie within themselves (e.g., developing self-leadership through reward, constructive reprimand, and teamwork). Leaders must be viewed not as heroes but as hero makers, and the spotlight must be not on the leader but on the achievement of the followers. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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This study investigated vertical versus shared leadership as predictors of the effectiveness of 71 change management teams. Vertical leadership stems from an appointed or formal leader of a team, whereas shared leadership (C. L. Pearce, 1997; C. L. Pearce & J. A. Conger, in press; C. L. Pearce & H. P. Sims, 2000) is a group process in which leadership is distributed among, and stems from, team members. Team effectiveness was measured approximately 6 months after the assessment of leadership and was also measured from the viewpoints of managers, internal customers, and team members. Using multiple regression, the authors found both vertical and shared leadership to be significantly related to team effectiveness ( p
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Edwin Locke contributed a chapter to the critique section of Craig Pearce and Jay Conger's (2003a) edited book, Shared Leadership: Reframing the Hows and Whys of Leadership, published by Sage. In this letter exchange, they continue their dialogue on this important topic. They focus in particular on clarifying what each means by “shared leadership” and on what shared leadership can and should look like at the top of organizations.
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The authors review and meta-analytically integrate the existing literature on leadership and innovation to show a complex and inconsistent picture of this relationship. Current research has mostly neglected the complex nature of innovation processes that leads to changing requirements within these processes. The main requirements of innovation are exploration and exploitation as well as a flexibility to switch between those two activities. The authors propose an ambidexterity theory of leadership for innovation that specifies two complementary sets of leadership behavior that foster exploration and exploitation in individuals and teams — opening and closing leader behaviors, respectively. We call this ambidextrous leadership because it utilizes opening and closing leader behaviors and switches between them to deal with the ever-changing requirements of the innovation process. Routes to ambidextrous leadership and opportunities for future research on leadership and innovation are discussed.
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Despite increased research on team leadership, little is known about the conditions under which coaching versus directive forms of team leader-ship are more effective, or the processes through which team leadership styles influence team outcomes. In the present study, the authors found that coaching leadership was more effective than directive leadership when the team leader was highly charismatic and less effective than directive leader-ship when the team leader lacked charisma. Directive leadership was more effective than coaching leadership when team members were high in self-efficacy and less effective than coaching leadership when team members lacked self-efficacy. The moderating effects of leader charisma and team member self-efficacy were mediated through motivational pathways involving team member effort.
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Punctuated change is usually defined as a discontinuity in organizational development and is traditionally associated with environmental turbulence; it is also associated with step changes in the performance of an organization. Starting from Gersick (1991), we discuss the foundations of the punctuatedÐincremental change paradox, and lay out hypotheses regarding the moments when such change is adopted and its economic effect. We explore these ideas through a study of the UK water industry: a contrived macro experiment. Following privatization, the ten major companies all faced similar pressures to adjust, but adopted widely differing responses. We find that the response to privatization was not always punctuated change, and that punctuated change processes were not necessarily superior to continuous processes. We contrast our findings with Romanelli and Tushman (1994), exploring the reasons why our results are so dissimilar.
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An ethnographic approach to document analysis is offered based on principles of qualitative data collection and analysis. It is proposed that numeric as well as narrative data be collected when studying such documents as TV new and movies. Ethnographic content analysis is briefly contrasted with conventional modes of quantitative content analysis to illustrate the usefulness of constant comparison for discovering emergent patterns, emphases and themes in an analysis of TV news coverage of the Iranian hostage situation. It is suggested that an ethnographic perspective can help delineate patterns of human action when document analysis is conceptualized as fieldwork.
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The issue of leadership in virtual teams is an increasingly important one for many modern organizations, because these teams – typically project-based with a finite lifespan and specific deliverables – are frequently self-managed, having no designated leader within the team (Yukl 1998). While such teams may have increased flexibility in setting goals and achieving them, the virtual context may hinder team members' abilities to coordinate activities and influence others (Manz and Sims 1993). Longitudinal data were collected over the course of a semester from virtual teams, comprised of students from three North American universities. Our results suggest that high performing self-managed virtual teams displayed significantly more leadership behaviors over time compared to their low performing counterparts. Specifically, these teams displayed significantly more concentrated leadership behavior focused on performance (i.e. “Producer” behavior) and shared leadership behavior focused on keeping track of group work (i.e. “Monitor” behavior) than the lower performing teams. Interestingly, these behaviors emerged strongly during the first half of the groups' lifespan, and stayed throughout the life of the groups, but steadily dissipated in strength over time.
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This study advances prior theoretical research by linking transformational and transactional behaviors of strategic leaders to two critical outputs of organizational learning: exploratory and exploitative innovation. Findings indicate that transformational leadership behaviors contribute significantly to adopting generative thinking and pursuing exploratory innovation. Transactional leadership behaviors, on the other hand, facilitate improving and extending existing knowledge and are associated with exploitative innovation. In addition, we argue that environmental dynamism needs to be taken into account to fully understand the effectiveness of strategic leaders. Our study provides new insights that misfits rather than fits between leadership behaviors and innovative outcomes matter in dynamic environments. Hence, we contribute to the debate on the role of strategic leaders in managing exploration and exploitation, not only by examining how specific leadership behaviors impact innovative outcomes, but also by revealing how the impact of leadership is contingent upon dynamic environmental conditions.
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This study uses social network analysis to examine distributed leadership in work teams. We used sociometric data from 28 field-based sales teams to investigate how the network structure of leadership perceptions considered at the team level of analysis was related to team performance. We failed to find support for the idea that the more leadership is distributed across the members of a team the better the team's performance: Decentralization of the leadership network (across three different operationalizations of network decentralization) was not significantly related to superior team performance. But we did find support for the idea that certain kinds of decentralized leadership structures are associated with better team performance than others. Our study suggests that distributed leadership structures can differ with regard to important structural characteristics, and these differences can have important implications for team performance.
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A situational theory of leadership attempts to match a particular leadership style or type to specific external circumstances. The general idea is that one type of leadership will be effective in one situation, but a different type of leadership will be effective in another situation. Historically, situational theories of leadership have been too abstract to apply to specific situations. Nevertheless, the concept of situational leadership retains considerable intuitive appeal. In this article we draw on our previous research about situational leadership during resuscitation in a trauma center, in order to derive a general strategy of how a leader can best develop his or her own personal theory of leadership which best works for their unique circumstances. The core of the strategic approach involves: (1) defining goals for a specific situation, (2) defining potential leadership types, (3) identifying situational conditions, (4) matching a leadership style to the particular situation, and (5) determining how the match between leadership style and situation will be made. The medical trauma center we profile provided an interesting example of how leaders considered elements of the situation to guide their own leadership.
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The present study examined the process of shared leadership in 45 ad hoc decision-making teams. Each team member's leadership behavior (n = 180) was assessed by behaviorally coding videotapes of the teams' discussions. The within-team patterns of leadership behavior were examined using cluster analysis. Results indicated that the likelihood of a team experiencing a full range of leadership behavior increased to the extent that multiple team members shared leadership, and that teams with shared leadership experienced less conflict, greater consensus, and higher intragroup trust and cohesion than teams without shared leadership. This study supports previous findings that shared leadership contributes to overall team functioning, and begins to delineate the extent to which team members may naturally share leadership.
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This paper explores the paradoxes and competing values inherent in leadership behavior. Scales for eight leadership roles are developed, providing empirical data about 176 executives. The article contributes to the theoretical understanding of the paradoxes of leadership and introduces the concept of behavioral complexity to understand leader behavior and integrate theoretical findings in the leadership literature.
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We surveyed management teams in 102 hotel properties in the United States to examine the intervening roles of knowledge sharing and team efficacy in the relationship between empowering leadership and team performance. Team performance was measured through a time-lagged market-based source. Results showed that empowering leadership was positively related to both knowledge sharing and team efficacy, which, in turn, were both positively related to performance.
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Organizations evolve through periods of incremental or evolutionary change punctuated by discontinuous or revolutionary change. The challenge for managers is to adapt the culture and strategy of their organizations to its current environment, but to do so in a way that does not undermine its ability to adjust to radical changes in that environment. They must, in other words, create an ambidextrous organization—one capable of simultaneously pursuing both incremental and discontinuous innovation.
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The article addresses the issue of leadership in dispersed teams, such as globally distributed research and development operations, focusing on the difficulties of coaching, coordinating and directly communicating to such teams. Possible alternatives to the traditional vertical leadership paradigm are analyzed, including such concepts as proactive followership and shared leadership as a form of mutual influence, both of which are hypothesized to be beneficial to team performance in terms of dispersed innovation.
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Knowledge creation is a dynamic activity where new ideas and meanings are created through coaction and interactive relationships. However, due to overemphasis on competitive spirit and individualistic orientation, knowledge organizations ignore the significance of people and relationships. Extending a relational perspective, this article proposes a model of servant leadership for facilitating knowledge creation through sharing leadership responsibilities with followers resulting in mutual influence and direction, and inculcating caring relationships. It ensures greater exchange of ideas, experiences, and expertise between servant leaders and followers that result in the generation of new knowledge. By constructing this model we have explained various processes with several propositions showing relationships between servant leadership and shared leadership, shared leadership and knowledge creation, servant leadership and caring relationships, and caring relationships and knowledge creation.
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Human resource management systems (HRMS) integrate human resource processes and an organization's information systems. An HRMS frequently represents one of the modules of an enterprise resource planning system (ERP). ERPs are information systems that manage the business and consist of integrated software applications such customer relations and supply chain management, manufacturing, finance and human resources. ERP implementation projects frequently have high failure rates; although research has investigated a number of factors for success and failure rates, limited attention has been directed toward the implementation teams, and how to make these more effective. In this paper we argue that shared leadership represents an appropriate approach to improving the functioning of ERP implementation teams. Shared leadership represents a form of team leadership where the team members, rather than only a single team leader, engage in leadership behaviors. While shared leadership has received increased research attention during the past decade, it has not been applied to ERP implementation teams and therefore that is the purpose of this article. Toward this end, we describe issues related to ERP and HRMS implementation, teams, and the concept of shared leadership, review theoretical and empirical literature, present an integrative framework, and describe the application of shared leadership to ERP and HRMS implementation.
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This study examines how CEO empowering leadership shapes top management team (TMT) behavioral integration and potency, thereby enhancing firm performance. Using a sample of 82 TMTs, structural equation modeling supports a mediation model in which CEO empowering leadership is positively related to TMT behavioral integration, and, in turn, it enhances TMT potency and firm performance. The effect of TMT potency on firm performance is stronger when the TMT members perceive high environmental uncertainty. We discuss both theoretical and practical implications of the paper for research on Upper Echelons Theory and TMTs.
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In this study, we inquired about patterns of leadership distribution, as well as which leadership functions were performed by whom, the characteristics of nonadministrative leaders, and the factors promoting and inhibiting the distribution of leadership functions. We consider our account of distributed leadership in this district to be a probable example of “best practice” at the present time—not perfect, but likely more mature than average by a significant degree. The most noteworthy detail to emerge from our study was the critical part played by formal school and district leaders in helping to foster apparently productive forms of distributed leadership.
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To investigate the controversy between universal and contingent approaches to corporate change, a study was undertaken of 13 service sector organizations. The study used the Dunphy/Stace contingency model of organizational change strategies, developing measures to place the organizations within the model. Results indicate that universal models of change management are inadequate to describe the diversity of approaches actually used by these organizations. In particular, the traditional Organizational Development model is unrepresentative of how change in many contemporary organizations is actually made. The traditional OD model prescribes incremental change combined with a participative management style but most organizations in the study made rapid transformative change using a directive leadership style. The OD model is also inadequate as a prescriptive model because very different change strategies, some dramatically different from OD, resulted in successful financial performance. Four case studies are presented to illustrate how each of the major contingencies in the model can operate to create effective organizational performance.
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Recent attempts to incorporate time to the study of groups reveal temporal factors can impact group functioning. However, studies of group diversity to date are largely cross-sectional and capture the relationship between diversity and its outcomes at one point in time. The present research attempts to overcome this shortcoming by analyzing the interplay between diversity and emotional conflict across time. At the same time, the current study aims to establish an empirical basis for the commonly stated assertion in intergroup relations research that the basis of categorization shifts from surface-level attributes to deep-level attributes as groups mature. Finally, by incorporating shared leadership, this study aims to suggest a contextual lever that can help groups avoid potential disadvantages of diversity. In a longitudinal study of 301 individuals from 81 groups, the present study found that surface-level diversity was negatively linked to emotional conflict in the beginning and the end of groups' interaction whereas deep-level diversity was positively linked to emotional conflict in the middle of groups' interaction. Shared leadership was found to moderate the relationship between diversity and emotional conflict. Implications for human resource management are discussed.
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How are the capabilities of knowledge workers best harnessed? Traditionally, organizations have focused on a top-heavy, heroic model of leadership in order to extract work-product from their employees. We believe this model is a myth. It is becoming ever more difficult for any one person to be an expert on all aspects of the work that needs to be done, and this is true in a wide variety of contexts ranging from the research and development (R&D) lab to the executive suite. Recent research indicates that two alternative sources of leadership - self leadership and shared leadership - hold considerable promise for enhancing the performance of knowledge workers. In fact, research indicates that poor performing teams tend to be dominated by the team leader, while high performing teams display more dispersed leadership patterns, i.e., self- and shared leadership. This is not to suggest that leadership from above is unnecessary. On the contrary, the role of the designated leader is critical to the ongoing success of self- and shared leadership in knowledge work. This article examines the mythology of the top-heavy, heroic model of leadership; the key leadership challenges of today and tomorrow; the concepts of self- and shared leadership; the circumstances that call for the encouragement of self- and shared leadership; and how self- and shared leadership can be developed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
this general theory [Jaques' general theory of bureaucracy] has quite significant implications concerning the nature of leadership within the total organization, and for the development of capacity to exercise leadership at the various levels of such an organization / this paper will briefly outline the theory and its implications / present the results of two research efforts which seem to provide substantial support for the theory itself theoretical structure [leadership definition, organizational structure] assessment of managerial potential / interviews of military executives (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Customer demands and an increasingly complex environment can make team selling critical to strategy implementation, profitability, and competitive advantage. The increased use of selling teams has not been matched by an increased understanding of how to foster enhanced selling team effectiveness. In this article the authors define empowered selling teams and the shared leadership process within such teams. They develop a limited model of selling team effectiveness where team member characteristics and vertical leadership influence shared leadership. In turn, shared leadership indirectly and directly influence selling team effectiveness. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Edwin Locke contributed a chapter to the critique section of Craig Pearce and Jay Conger's edited book, Shared Leadership: Reframing the Hows and Whys of Leadership (Sage, 2003a). In this letter exchange, they continue their dialogue on this important topic. They focus in particular on clarifying what each means by “shared leadership” and on what shared leadership can and should look like at the top of organizations.
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Drawing from recent theory and research on empowerment and resistance, data on leader behaviors and follower responses were collected from superior–subordinate dyads in 179 public high schools. Structural equation modeling revealed that empowering leadership was associated with higher employee performance and satisfaction, as well as reduced dysfunctional resistance. Also, employee dysfunctional resistance partially mediated the relationship of empowering leadership with (a) employee performance and (b) employee satisfaction. These results are interpreted as supportive of a perspective that endorses the utility of empowering leadership at the dyadic level within a hierarchical power structure.
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Scholars hold different perspectives about leadership which are not limited to a formally appointed leader. Of the abundance of terms used to describe this phenomenon, shared and distributed are the most prevalent. These terms are often used interchangeably, resulting in confusion in the way that shared and distributed leadership is conceptualized and investigated. This paper provides a historical development of this field, challenges existing conceptions and reveals inconsistencies and contradictions that are seldom acknowledged. Four distinct approaches to the study of shared and distributed leadership are identified in the literature, each embracing different ontological views and leadership epistemologies. Individually, the four approaches offer valuable – yet partial – understanding. Comparing and contrasting the assumptions and insights from the four approaches raises fundamental issues about how we think about leadership in terms of research, practice and development.
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Entrepreneurial ventures are often established, controlled and led through the commitment of individuals. This article problematizes the nature of the form of leadership relevant for the small business as it matures. In this way, it explores the temporal dimension to the appropriateness of distributed leadership in the context of the entrepreneurial business. The authors critique the opportunity that distributed leadership can bring to the maturing business. They illuminate a dilemma for entrepreneurs as to whether they should give up control for a broader distributed process of leading or continue a practice of leading that resonates with their essence of being entrepreneurial – independent, controlling responsive and opportunity driven. This dilemma is addressed by suggesting the contextualization of distributed leadership may offer the maturing business. The article concludes by reviewing development approaches that contextualize intervention and suggests a research agenda to contribute to a greater understanding of how leadership can become distributed in the maturing business.
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This study examined the relationship of entrepreneur leadership behavior (empowering and directive), top management team heterogeneity (functional, educational specialty, educational level, and skill) and industry environmental dynamism (rate of unpredicted change in number of industry establishments, number of industry employees, industry revenue, and industry research and development intensity) on new venture performance (revenue growth and employment growth) using two different samples—the Inc. 500 list of America's fastest growing startups and a national (United States) random sample of new ventures. In dynamic industry environments, startups with heterogeneous top management teams were found to perform best when led by directive leaders and those with homogenous top management teams performed best when led by empowering leaders. Conversely in stable industry environments, startups with heterogeneous top management teams were found to perform best when led by empowering leaders and those with homogenous top management teams performed best when led by directive leaders. These findings were consistent across both samples and demonstrate the value in a contextual approach to leadership, which considers adjusting leadership behavior in accordance to factors that are both internal and external to the firm. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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La théorie socio-cognitive adopte une perspective d’action pour ce qui est du développement, de l’adaptation et du changement humains. Cette théorie distingue trois types d’action: l’action personnelle exercée individuellement, l’action par procuration où l’on s’assure de bénéfices désirés en incitant autrui a intervenir en sa faveur, et l’action collective où les gens agissent ensemble pour construire leur avenir. Des dichotomies conflictuelles parsèment notre domaine, opposant l’autonomie et l’interdépendance, l’individualisme et le collectivisme. Les déterminants et les doses d’action individuelle, par procuration et collective varient culturellement. Mais tous les modes d’action sont nécessaires pour parvenir á ses fins quel que soit le contexte culturel. Les cultures sont diverses et dynamiques, ce ne sont pas des monolithes statiques. La diversité intraculturelle et les écarts dans les orientations psychosociales mettent en évidence la dynamique aux multiples facettes des cultures. La globalisation croissante, la pluralité des sociétés et l’immersion dans un monde virtuel qui se joue du temps, des distances, des lieux et des frontières incitent àélargir la portée des études interculturelles. Les préoccupations se focalisent sur la façon dont les forces nationales et globales interagissent dans la création de la vie culturelle.
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To date, the dominant approach to leadership research assumes that all aspects of the leadership role within a team are embodied by a single individual. In the real world, however, this is rarely the case. Rather, multiple individuals within the team may serve as leaders in both formal and informal capacities, and the shifting of leadership responsibilities is often rooted in which individual's expertise is most relevant to the given problem. In the present effort, we add to the rapidly growing body of work that focuses on the distribution of the leadership role among multiple individuals. We have reviewed relevant extant literature and proposed an integrated framework for understanding the collective leadership process. Also, in developing this framework we have taken an information and expertise-based approach such that we propose that collective leadership, or the distribution of the leadership role, is a function of selectively utilizing the information or specialized expertise that individuals within the network possess. In reviewing the framework, 55 propositions with regard to the collective leadership process are outlined and suggestions for future research are provided.
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In this paper, we take a behavioral integration perspective [Strategy Leadersh. 25 (1997) 24] in articulating the process through which new venture performance may be explained. In so doing, we integrate concepts from entrepreneurship, top management teams (TMT), group process, and leadership research and propose an input–process–output model for examining new venture TMT (NVTMT) and new venture performance. More specifically, shared leadership is conceptualized as an important antecedent of our process variables—cohesion and collective vision—which in turn are conceptualized as being positively and reciprocally related and important antecedents of new venture performance. Our model also proposes several moderators that may change the relationships in the model.
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