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A STUDY ON QUESO BLANCO CHEESE

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Abstract

ABSTRECT Queso BIanco (Latin American white cheesb) was made without starter. To coagulate milk r glacial acetic acid was used in three concentrations (50, L00 ancl 200 ml) /45 kg of mi lk. The suitabi I ity of cow's and buffaloe's milk for Queso Blanco cheese manufacturitrg by using acid lras stud.ied. The best concentration of acid was 0 .2,22% (v/w). Higher concentration of acid. Ied. to inferior cheese with greater fat losses in whey. 'The covr's milk-cheese had better quality than the resultant cheese from buffaloe's mi 1k. The buffaloe's milk-cheese.were more firmT lacked the most desirable slicing properties. This study revealed the suitabili-ty of Queso Blanco cheese (without starter or rennet) for developing countries.
Alex. Sci. Exch. Vol.10 No.1 1989.
A STUDY ON QUESO BLANCO CHEESE
A.Irt. vou"""r lla I-t- Attia.
Asricultura I' Industries Department,
Faculty of Asriculture, Alexandria
University, Alexandria, Egypt.
ABSTRECT
Queso BIanco (Latin American white
cheesb) was made without starter. To
coagulate milk r glacial acetic acid was
used in three concentrations (50, L00 ancl
200 ml ) /45 kg of mi lk. The suitabi I ity
of cow's and buffaloe's milk for Queso
Blanco cheese manufacturitrg by using acid
lras stud.ied. The best concentration of
acid was 0 .2,22% (v/w) . Higher concentra-
tion of acid. Ied. to inferior cheese with
greater fat losses in whey. 'The covr's
milk-cheese had better quality than the
resultant cheese from buffaloe's mi 1k.
The buffaloe's milk-cheese.were more firmT
lacked the most desirable slicing proper-
ties. This study revealed the suitabili-
ty of Queso Blanco cheese (without star-
ter or rennet) for developing countries.
I!$TRODT,CTI(X|
Queso Blanco is an important domestic
white cheese in all parts of latin Ameri-
ca. It is made with an organic acid ,
but without any slarter cultures. GIa*
cial a.cetic acid is the most often used,
as coagulation agent. This cheese is
-89-
t___
normally consumed fresh with fruit or
guava sauce; but" a riPened cheese foru is
iossible (Kosikowski, 1966). Oueso Blanco
can be made from whole or Partially skim-
med milk rithout using of rennet or lac-
tic culturgs, and the Process takes- only
a f ew hours. This distinctive che.Sse
appears to offer a marketing potential aE'
a-ietail product and as an ingrediant in
;.;;;;i- iooe- products (chandan and -Ha-
iiut, 1978; Chandan et a.!. L979 and Par-
neIl-clunies et al., 1985) . Alsor. Queag
Blanco cheese tras several nutritional
ad.vantages.It is relativelv high in mine-
rals and Protein and low in lactose coT
tent. This is esPecially important in
areas of piotein malnutrition and lactose
intolerance (Torres and Chand.l, 1981).
Tl:erefore" it ie suftable for: d'eveloping
countriee "
There is no references about manufac-
turing Oueso BIanco cheese ltg* buffa-
loe's nilk, therefore this study conduc-
ted to E'tudy the technological steps -and
sorte cheoical proPerties during rnanufac-
turing and storing of Queso Bla199 cheese
using c{r!i's oi buffaloe's milk' rith
dif ferent acid concentrations.
mrEallls llID; ilEnIOD$
Preparation of chees€
Rar ailk ras obtained from the mixed
herd of llexandria Univeristy. llean
composition and standard_ devilti-"I: rr9r:
acidity, O-1610:005; -P!^ ' 6-7!A.O7t fat
3.3540;264; - T}{ O-'58J0.015; illS.
-9G-
L?,.42!A .3t5 f or cow' s mi lk. The cores-
eondinE values for buf faloe's milk were
0 . 1fr0 .ALZ: 6 . 6910 . 085 ; 6. 63iO .602;
0 . 6I"+0 . 0L3; L6 .24!O .49L , respect ive ly .
The milk was strained through cheese
cloth, heated in a water bath to 82 C
with continous stirring , prepared gIa-
cial acetic acid (c.p. ) was added. imme-
diately. A ten fold dilution of acid
before use apparently removes the corro-
sive' elements (Kosikowski, 1966) . Follo-
ring rapid. coagulation , the mixture
(curd and whey) were stirred for five
minutes,then the whey was drained through
cheese cloth. The hot curd was salted to
2% concentration. The curd was stirred
during adding salt until all salt incor-
porated. The curd was ladeled into the
cheese cloth and pressed over night at
room temperature. The cheese was cut
into suitable blocks (about 0.25 ks) ,
then packaged and sealed in polyethlene
pouches. The packaged cheese was stored
at 4 C for six days
lnalyrl; Uchtodc
Acid.ity, pH, fat , total nitrogen and
total sol ids of mi lk were ' deterrnined
according to Lingr (1963), cheese samples
were analyzed. at t and 6 (tays (at 4 "C) .
Hoisture was determined according to the
B.S. I . (1952) , whi |e acidity accordine to
Lingr (1963) , pH values were deterotined
by using PYE pH meter model 79, fat con-
tent was determined according to Gerber
uethod (8.S. I., 1955). For determination
of salt Volhard's method modified by
Kosikowski (1966) was used. For total
nitrogen estimation the semi-micro Kjel-
dahl method, (lins , 1963) was used.
-91 -
I
tj
Scnsory evaluation
Fresh and stored s.rmples of cheese
!,rere subjected to sengory evaluation by a
panel of trained judges, the maximrrm
attribute score being , flavour 45, body
and texture 35, finish & appearance 15
and colour 10.
gtattrtieal .nalyrir
The aEtained results rf,ere statistica--
Ily analysed according to Snedecor
( r.956) .
ntrilrf,Ts xE) DrscrrsstoNt
The influence of various acid concen-
trations -upon the acidity, pH, fat and
total nitrogen of resultant whey is sulk-
marized jn table (1). As expected by
increasing acid concentration the acidity
of whey increased and the pH values were
decreased. The high acid concentration
leads to increased losses of protein and
fat in whey. Simi.lar observation gtas
reported by $iapantas and Kosikowski
(L967) , also, they attributed i,his loss
to the for-mation of fine coagrulum during
heating (1973).
Ttre fat losses to the whey resulting
from cow's milk-eheese (O.8-1.4t) were
Iower than those values (1.5-2.48) ob-
tained during manuf,acturing cheese frorn
buffaloe's milk. The values of total
nitrogen for whey resulted, d,uring manufa-
cturing cheese frm corr's mitk were frm
-92 -
0.1L0 to O.2O3%. The corresponding va-
lues for whey resulted from using buffa-
loe's mi Ik were from 0. 1.03 to O. 156%.
Siapantas and Kosikowski (L967 ) found
that whey of Queso Blanco cheese
manuf act,ured f rom cow' s mi Ik g% f at
contained from 1 .9 to L .2:t f at and 0.086
to 0.118 totai nitrogen as influenced. by
glacial acetic acid.
Table 12) i I lustrates the fresh
cheese yield. The yields were calculated,
at 50ts moisture for all cheese. The
observed yield varied from L2.A2 to L4.52
for cow's milk-cheese and ranged from
L7.6A to 23.80 for buffalo€'s mitrk-
cheese. depend.ins upon the concentration
of acid. The higher yield appears to
results from incoiporuiior, or wirev pro-
teins into the cheese curd. The acid
concentration had a more clear effect on
the yield of cheese made.from buffaloe's
mi Ik than the cheese mad.e f rom cow, s
milk. Also, the yield'of cow's milk-
cheese were }ower than that of buffaloe's
mi lk-cheese. This increase is due mainly
to the hisher fat and protein contents of
buffaloes milk. The maximum yields were
obtained when a glacial acet.ie acid con-
centration 0 .22296 (v/w) was used. Lower
(0.111%) and higher (0.444f) acetic acid
concentrations resulted in increase fat
and protein losses .in the whey. .Siapan-
tas and Kosikowski (tg67) found tfrii- ine
yiel,ds (calculated at 50X moisture) of
Queso Blanco cheese made from cow;s milk
(3ts fat) were ransed from 9.05 to ll..5
depending upon acetic acid concentration.
Chand,an g! al. (Lg7g) found that the
yield l.ras LZ.L% for cheese made from
-91 -
tabls (1) r Certqir cbeu:Lc*I ana$sis
cheese nanrdacturingr. of resuLtaut uhey durrqg
Ac1d coac-
entratlon
y./v" fic:aity
7PE rat rryr
o.lL]'
o"22
o.4r#l
o.11I
o.?22
o.4J*
o?4r 3 o?u+
(O.11n O.5O)
o.80!0.(n6
(0167" Qffi)
o?gr! g.qz
(O..$O- I.OL)
coils Eilk--choeso
5.58!0.l?L A.9r!0.125
ci.8o-5.+o) (o.8o-r.ro)
5.?5.10.160 r.or!0.096
(5.+O-5.1O) (O.9O-1.1O)
5.AL!O.W L.2r2o.u1
(4.&)- 5.20) (I.OO- 1.4O)
&rff aloe Ds nLlk-cheese
o.r?lolqaz 5.18! O.W5 L.TZ!O|U' (}.109!O.Oo,i
(o;5+- o.r9) (5:1o:5.1o) (I.5o-2.oo) (o.Lgl- o.lt2)
O.66t O.g5 +r95 ! 0.129 I'8Ot 0'215 O'IL,! O'00?
(O.@-O.?O) (!.lO-4.8O) (1.6O-2.1O) (O.IOr-O.l2O)
o,sto.lz? +.?L ! 0.144 2.1030.216 O.1+1t O.Cl2
(o,91-L18) (+.ao':4.5o) (1.9o-2.4o) (o.1zl'0.156)
o:12O3O,O1O
(&uo-o.1r5)
o.rrot o.o07
(o.w- 0.1qo)
o.uoto.(P5..
(0.146- O.2Or)
r Results portirn to fou ttlaLs and are errlFss3sil ia t€rEs d
av€ra€€ t stedard dewlatl-oa ard rango ia pareathesls.
Sablo (4r 1&s :rXelals d freeL $roso Blnaco chooso
cryrs or tuffaloers EiLk udth diffore$ rde frou 7
acid coae-
satiatloneE
Acld
:conceatratloal
' r (v./,r.) Corls olLk-cheoso Btf,faloe. s riLX-chsase
o.]'lr
0.",24
o-11n
12.9' ! o.r90
(12.6r - 14.01)
1r.4{, t 0.816
(12.65 - 14.12)
ri.eA ! o.ry
(I2rO2 - Lrrr?)
19.6 ! L9L8
(r8.oo - 2t.gr)
20.16 t 2.510
(t8.4o - 11.eo1
L1.r' ! Lr20
(u.6o - a).+0)
r ILelds caknlatoil at ,qF uoLsturo.
-: fto$rltg pertala to four trials srd aro o4rresseo !1 tern's
of ave*ge t staqOara devlatloa aad ral5o i^a pareathosi's.
-94-
whole cow's milk, whereas ParnelI-Clunies
et al. (1985) found that the yietd of
cheese from raw milk (fat : protein 0.96)
was L5.2O% (moisture of cheese was
s2.34%) .
Concernins the effect of acid concen-
tration and storage at 4+L C on the aci-
dity, pH, fat," total sol ids and total
Protein of Queso Bianco cheese made from
cows or buffaloe's milk, nesults are
represented in Tables (3,4) respectively.
The acidity % of fresh cheese mad,e from
cow's mi lk with 0. 11L , O .222 and. O .444%
(v,/w) acid concentrations were 1.02, T.4Z
and 1.89 , respectively. The correspon-
dins values for fresh cheese made from
buf f aloe's rni lk were 0. 93 , t .tZ and L.ZA .
The pH values ranged from 5.60 to 4.9
depending upon the acid concentration and
the type of the miik. Siapantas and
Kosikowski {L967) found. that the pH of
the resulting fresh cow's mi lk-cheese
ranged from 5.8 to 4.7, 'depending upon
amount of acetic acid add.ed. For fresh
cow's milk-cheese the fat in dry rnatter
ranged from 42.77 to 45.33% ; iotal so-
lids from 47.56 to 5O.64%; salt from 1,.92
to 2.07% and total protein form ZO.i+- 'to
22.30%. The corresponding values - for
fresh cheese made from br-tffaloe,s milk
r+ere 46.?4 to 50.08% ; j2.43 to 5S.6Sts ;
Z.AL to 2.LL8 and !1.45 to 23.23%:, resper
ctively. Siapantas and Kosikowski (L}TA)
reported that the averagre composition of
Latin American cheese is 50% moisture,
24.996 tota I protein and, 1.9 . 0% fat . Ho?rever,
Davis (,L975) reported that the moisture
in fresh cheese ranges from 40 to 44%.
Chandan et aI . (Lg7g) found that citric,
trataric and glacial acetic acid Eave a
typical composition for Latin American
cheese (moisture" 51 .5 lo 6O.Z%, fat in
dry matter 37.0 to 47.lt).
-95-
[aUb (1)r Effeot of aQld corcontration ad storage (at 4 1 t'C)
oa tho acidl,trr pt, fat, total solidsr sa1.t aod total
protei.nofQpesoBl.aqcocboosgnadefroqcorrsmillF.
Aal.A coac€E-
i"iii""-i*r.r tr'resh 5 dayg
PE
&lnltt
Fat f (nr)=
Iotal solt.als F
SalE F
lotal protela F
2r.94 ! a.D, 2.a, ! tr.412
&.ra ! I.26 ?2.87 g 1.2!B
N.2+ ! 0.525 zJ-.q I CSrr
o.11r
o.22
o.44.+
o.11.1
o.u
O.ttll4
o.1].L
o.22
o.t1t
o.111
o.2?2
O,4rtt
o.111
o.222
o.rPlll
O.ILI
O.D?
o.t4+
1.o2 ! o.z?L
tr.44 t 0.165
1.89 ! O.r5o
5.5O J 0.196
,.r4 ! 0.048
5.er g o.l.1o
+5.+' ! 2.Or2
+r.11 t r.L9?
t+2.?7 ! t.772
49.14 3 2.085
50.611 3 1.271
+?.56 ! l.oro
L.yl ! o.1I2
z.Cl g 0.068
2.W t 0.19+
1.O1 t o.2r8
L+5 3 O.rfi
1.8O ! O.r21
5.59 ! O.z(E
5.r, ! O.0t5+
5.tO g o.14o
4?.]s ! 1.9+,
{q.81 ! ":r5?
44.66 g 1.61'
50.99 ! L.4r2
5Lr?O ! l.1ra
+9.4? ! 0.569
e.ffi ! o.o91
e.i+ ! o.(5o
2.1J. g o.15?
* ReEults pertaia to f,oq'r tr:lalg ad aro e4rressed' i'B tstEs oE
avorage t elanilard 'larrtc'bic'
: D[l r IbY natterr
-96-
table (4)r Effect cf acld coacentration ard. stonage (at 4 I f"C;
on the acidlty, pI[, fat, tota]. soLids, saLt ard totaL
Broteil of queso Blarrco cheesc nado f,rom buf,faloors,
DiuI.
Acid concee
tration (ilY) fi Frosh 6 days
I
t
t;
lcldity F
Eat F (Ui)rt!
Total soU.ils F
Salt f
o.11r
4.22?
o.t+t*
o.Ilt
o.?22
o.1fi
o.lll
o.?2?
o.q4rr
o.Lu.
o"2e
O.'l rl't
o.11I
o.22A
o.rt4,t[
o.9, ! o.25+ o"go t o.2rg
1.r2 J O.4eO 1.04 g 0,440
t.?8 ! o.2?, L.6g ! C.28t
pE 5."5 ! O.V8
5.12 ! O.q6
+.9O J 0.08e
55rO1 ! 0.762
5r.65 *2.%g
,2.4' ! ]..OgO
2.O1 g O.Or7
e.oa t 0.056
z.IL t O.Or5
5.ro 3 o.o8L
,.28 t O.r5O
5.LO J 0.082
57"10 t o.9a9
5?.?6 3 t.819
55.8 t I.816
2.O8 t 0.056
2.o9 t 0,026
2.1? t 0.088
49.11 J t.oa6 5o.8? ! ?.6??
5O:S ! t.OZ1 5?.t:.,1! L.g4?
1t6.7+ ! 2.8g1 t+9.?, ! 2.cclo
o.111
fotal proto!-n F O.&2
o. +r|r+
2r.49 ! 0.471 e4.61 ! 0.526
2r.?, ! L.Lt+6 ?4.40 ! t.+r5
2L.45 ! O,87O ?2.5g g 1.06,
I Rosults pertaia to f,oux trtifls aqd aro orpreocod l.n torll5 of,
averags j standaro. deviatiot.
= II I Iby natter.
-97 -,
Also, it can be seen that (Tables
3,q cheese after storing for 6 days at
4+X. C, showed small changes in acidity or
pH values. Tlhile, fat , salt and total
protein percentages lrere increased as
result of losses some moisture during
storage. Davis (L976) reported that
drier cheese (stored for a week) has 35
to 39t moisture.
Chcer-georlng
Fresh or stored cow's milk-cheese
samples ranked higher than buffaloe's
milk-cheese. Also, the stored cheese
ranked lower than fresh cheese. There
were small appreceable differences in
organoleptic proPerties between fresh and
stored cheese samPles.
Fresh corr's milk-cheese obtained. 73,
80 and 69 points whereas fresh buffaloe's
milk-che€se gained 69, 75 and 62 points
by usins 0.111, 0 -222 ano A.444fr (vlal
concentrations of acid. The corresPon-
dingr values for stored cheese (6 davs at
411 C) were 68, 75 and 63; 62, 69 and. 55,
respectively. Chanden et al . _, {1979}
stated that flavour, texture, slicing and
frying characteristics were excellent in
Latin American white cheese containing 48
to SOs moisture , 2l to 22% fat, 2O to 2L*
protein and a pH of 5.O. Parnell-Ctunies
et al. (1985) found that Queso Blanco
with less than 5O* rcisture had desilabl€
flavor but was too fitm and crumbly-
Davis (L976) reported that Latin lmerican
white cheese is usually sold within a
week. For shelf life extinsion, extra
salt or chemical Preservatives By be
used {Torres and Chandan, 1981).
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British Standards Institute (1952). Che-
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London.
British Standards Institute (L955). Me-
thods of chemical analYsis of
cheese. No. 696 Part 2. London.
Chandan, R.C. and H. Marian (1978). Ma-
nufacture and aPPlications of
Latin Amerocam white cheese. 20th
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Chandan, R.C.; H.Marian; K.R. Nakrani and
Hary D. Zehner (L979). Produc-
tion and Consumer AccePtanee of
' Latin Arnerican white cheese. J.
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Manufacturing methods. EIsevier,
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-99 -
"Siapantas, L.G. ,and F.V. Kosikowgki(1967)
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glacial acetic acid.. J. - -Oaifu
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-100-
u.a.'l+, I O-+.Jl dt-irl iJF. r!:, J. JSJ)L.J'-J"arl C*
. i--r..:*:)LJ1 r<*-l # t-r-'l9 l_1t r.'.1 o.r,.g:;-.Jl
ri-.rj.:-l ._i.+i' -rI t19Jt-? f l Ji:-t ir.,9a., U JL, *S
t I tlll )urXJl el =. [*ll LFJs,:ra r:l 3,+S;,2!:
I oAf itlf, io.-r.r9 ( a.i, / e*'/,.tltt , .rTf T
O-.+!l J €Fi'.Jl O-+Ul dr. JS drt O-^LJl ry t'
1.;';;'l.;-Jl
/..rlll Jh-. Lr-i-L-tl ,:r- i#* Jliit ol y:r'.ri _,
JEt o-. sl'rt *;.t-a-Jl #* -lr-*j+ J' , J)th*
#;Ji u, ljir-Jl irr&ll irf ,r, iJt*J f ii,*
Cri.+.t:l O.J e-:L'-ll O'..+'+Jl qclf-t Ot -G.y r ,<
. ''fl+Jt J-.-ut o-- n-L+l g- .!+rf s.,-LJt
g,.,r .i',r 11 | q-J i*-L+ I-irl i-lJ.r.rl rs.o -r<&; 9
.i:.rl--LJ,l Olll+Jl 1,,{i o.r+:..al i}*+Jl
*y)t o{i-l^rl
-9S-:L.-9;-5S.tl Cr*f ,Jr ir-l;"1
i.
'"
t^
i.
r"
- 101' ,-
ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any citations for this publication.
Chapter
Cheese is subjected to chemical analysis for a variety of reasons, such as to ascertain its composition for nutritional purposes, to ensure its compliance with standards of identity, to assess the efficiency of production or as an index of quality (see Ref. 1). Chemical analyses are of critical importance to the dairy scientist involved in cheese research, to analysts working on quality assurance and for regulation of the production process. This chapter will review the principal methods available for the chemical analysis of cheese, with particular reference to the ripening process and to techniques used in research. As far as we are aware, the methodology used to monitor the biochemistry of cheese ripening has not been comprehensively reviewed, although some aspects have been, e.g. proteolysis.2–5
Article
Factors affecting the properties and com- position of Latin American white cheese, or Queso Blanco, were studied, using con- centrations of gmeiat ace;ic acid of from 50 to 200 ml per 45.5 kg milk. This native cheese, made without starter cultures, re- sults from the acid precipitation of milk at high temperatures. Latin-American white cheese made from cows' milk containing 39~ fat, showed best flavor and texture qualities and highest yields when a glacial acetic acid concentra- tion of 110 to 130 ml per 45.5 kg milk was used. The average composition at this optimmu range was 50% moisture, 24.9% total protein, and 19% fat. Lower and higher concentrations of aeetie acid led to inferior cheese with greater fat losses to the whey. Excessive time taken to stir curds also resulted in higher fat losses. Homogenization of cheese milk decreased whey fat losses, but the resulting cheese was soft and lacked the most desirable slic- ing properties.
Cheese and ferraented milk foods. The Author A text book of, dairv chemistry-Practical' 4th Ed
  • F V Kosikowski
Kosikowski, F.V. (1966). Cheese and ferraented milk foods. The Author, N.Y., USA tins, E.R. (1963). A text book of, dairv chemistry-Practical' 4th Ed. Vol. II. Chapman and HaI1 Ltd., London.
Cheese. Vol . I I I, Manufacturing methods
  • J G Davis
Davis, J.G. (1976). Cheese. Vol. I I I, Manufacturing methods. EIsevier, New York, USA.
Manufacture and aPPlications of Latin Amerocam white cheese
  • R C Chandan
  • H Marian
Chandan, R.C. and H. Marian (1978). Manufacture and aPPlications of Latin Amerocam white cheese. 20th
Production and Consumer AccePtanee of ' Latin Arnerican white cheese
  • K R Nakrani
  • D Hary
K.R. Nakrani and Hary D. Zehner (L979). Production and Consumer AccePtanee of ' Latin Arnerican white cheese. J. Dairy Sci. 62 ; 69.
Composition and, yield studies for Queso Elanco made in pitot Plant and co[mercial Trials with dilute acidulant solutions
  • D U Irvine
  • . D H Bullock
  • L G Siapantas
  • F V Kosikowgki
D.U. Irvine and. D.H. Bullock (1985). Composition and, yield studies for Queso Elanco made in pitot Plant and co[mercial Trials with dilute acidulant solutions. J. Dairy Sci. 68 : 3095. -99 -"Siapantas, L.G.,and F.V. Kosikowgki(1967) Properties of Latin lrerican white cheese as influenced Uv glacial acetic acid.. J. --Oaifu Sci. 50 : 1589.
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  • L G Siapantas
  • F V Kosikorrski
Siapantas, L. G. and F. V. Kosikorrski (1973) -lrlanufacutre of cieaned bri4e.d and renneted Oueso Blanco ctreese-J. Dairry Sci. 56 : 63i---
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