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Los alfareros golondrinos: Productores itinerantes en los Andes

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Abstract

Los alfareros golondrinos salen regularmente de sus pueblos base para producir vasijas de cerámica en sus pueblos destino. Estos artesanos itinerantes han sido etnográficamente registrados en territorio peruano desde fines del siglo XIX. Sin embargo, los arqueólogos e historiadores del arte suelen ignorarlos en sus explicaciones sobre cultura material andina, insistiendo en una imagen estática del pasado remoto. Las grandes líneas interpretativas del munso precolonial andino se sustentan en la cerámica decorada y en un modelo "tradicional" de alfarero: aquel que solo trabaja en su pueblo base. Las explicaciones efectivamente comprensivas de la historia andina deben incorporar la ceramica no decorada y los diversos tipos de alfarero. En esta perspectiva, caracterizaremos a los golondrinos para proponer una lectura dinámica de la evidencia cerámica andina. [en el anexo "Linked data" puede encontrar el pdf de dos capítulos del libro]
... Estudios previos sugieren que, en su mayoría, las vasijas de cerámica domésticas fueron hechas con arcillas no locales y, por lo tanto, se asume que han sido obtenidas mediante otros mecanismos, posiblemente por procesos redistributivos o por intercambio directo con otras poblaciones contemporáneas que las producían. Esto último parecería ser el modelo más plausible en vista de los trabajos recientes sobre la etnografía de alfareros productores de vasijas domésticas en los Andes Centrales [5,6]. Si es que esto último es aceptado, una de las preguntas de investigación que tenemos es ¿Qué tan cerca o lejos fueron producidas estas vasijas de cerámica domésticas y cómo se obtuvieron?. ...
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This paper presents the results of the study of archaeological materials (ceramic fragments) from the Pampa La Cruz site and geological samples from the Moche and Virú valley (north coast of Peru), with the aim of characterizing the structure of the crystallographic components that make up the matrix of said materials, using the techniques of X-ray fluorescence by dispersive energy and X-ray diffraction by the powder method. The diffraction profiles were evaluated using the Rietveld method to quantify the mineralogical composition of the materials. From the analysis of the ceramic fragments, the presence of quartz and various clays was determined. These same phases were identified in the geological samples, suggesting that the ceramics would have come from these geological materials. Based on these results, a proposal is presented to contrast the mineralogical composition of geological samples with those of archaeological samples. Considering that the investigated region has proven to be one of the settlements with one of the oldest uses of ceramic vessels in the northern Peruvian coast, the results of the present study, together with other complementary studies, could be transcendental, since they can help to understand the dynamics of the ancient settlers in the obtaining of raw materials and production of their ceramic vessels, vital for their food and other ceremonial purposes. This, in turn, could be linked to the economic model currently applied in the region for pre-Hispanic times. Keywords Ceramics; clay; X-ray fluorescence by dispersive energy; X-ray diffraction; Rietveld method
... Esto incluye, además, una reevaluación de la producción e intercambio de bienes, considerando la configuración de los espacios y la distribución de recursos, así como nuevas investigaciones sobre las formas y direcciones en las que se desplazaron las diferentes expresiones de cultura material de los pueblos establecidos en este escenario geográfico. En este sentido, la limitada información disponible actualmente sobre el tema, sugiere que la organización y distribución de algunos bienes manufacturados como cerámica podría haber sido bastante móvil e itinerante, de tipo «golondrino», como ha sido demostrado para el caso de la región norte del Perú (Ramón, 2013). ...
... En paralelo se desarrolló una enorme producción de vasijas no vidriadas de uso doméstico en Los Andes. La tradición indígena local perdura en el tiempo extendiéndose en algunas regiones de Piura y Ancash en Perú hasta la actualidad, siendo en muchos casos difícil o imposible distinguir las piezas actuales de las antiguas (Druc 2005;Ramón 2013). Según Gabriel Ramón (2016) la producción colonial se corresponde con las necesidades de vasijas a nivel doméstico -cocina y consumo-, pero sobre todo con los mayores volúmenes de piezas que requirió la industria de aceite y vino, y de otro tipo de bebidas como la chicha (Ots et al. 2010;Rice 2010). ...
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El rol de la producción especializada en contextos imperiales: la producción de vajilla como ejemplo de los periodos Inka y virreinal hispano en los Andes centrales y centro-sur Resumen Este artículo presenta un panorama general de la producción de cultura material durante la imposición del Tawantinsuyu y la del imperio español en los Andes, poniendo acento en la comparación entre actividades especializadas. En ambos momentos de imposición imperial las actividades más controladas fueron aquéllas que produjeron servicios, bienes y/o materias primas vitales para la ejecución de ceremonias políticas, religiosas y administrativas. En dichos contextos es que el imperio muestra una estética particular que aporta en su propia legitimación dentro de la nueva sociedad colonial. En consecuencia, en tanto agentes de la reproducción del sistema colonial, estos oficios y actividades fueron foco estratégico de fiscalización. Es así como los especialistas fueron obligados a concentrarse en centros administrativos y pueblos de servicio cercanos a la condiciones y materias primas, y a los focos de consumo en contextos ceremoniales, religiosos y/o políticos. Las principales diferencias entre los sistemas productivos en el Tawantinsuyu y el virreinato están en concordancia con las lógicas culturales subyacentes a cada entidad imperial. Un buen ejemplo de lo antes descrito es la producción alfarera, cuyas transformaciones de uso y de distribución manifiestan algunos de los aspectos señalados. Abstract This article presents an overview of the production of material culture during Tawantinsuyu rule and that of the Spanish Empire in the Andes, emphasizing the comparison between specialized activities. In both moments of imperial rule, the most controlled activities were those that produced services, goods and / or vital raw materials for the development of political, religious and administrative ceremonies. In these contexts, each empire shows a particular aesthetic that contributes with its own legitimization within the new colonial society. Consequently, as agents of the reproduction of the colonial system, these trades and activities were a strategic focus of governmental (or colonial) control. Therefore, specialists were forced to concentrate on administrative centers and service villages close to the conditions and raw materials, and the sources of consumption in ceremonial, religious and / or political contexts. The main differences
... Algunos alfareros producen en su pueblo base solo para su consumo familiar, a veces solo para su comunidad, en ocasiones producen para intermediarios, asimismo los alfareros o sus familiares pueden llevar las vasijas a otras localidades donde las intercambian y/o venden en ferias, mercados o yendo casa por casa ( Figura 12) ( Bell 2017, Sillar 2000). Si bien se ha asumido que la producción en el pueblo base es la más común, hace un tiempo se está documentando en detalle otra modalidad: la producción itinerante ( Ramón 2013). ...
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Chapter
This chapter presents the concepts, background information, and methods used to study the livelihoods and exchange practices of the potters of San Bartolomé de los Olleros . It draws on theory, concepts, and advances from the two broad fields of Andean Studies and Development Studies. In Andean Studies, it particularly considers the themes of ecological complementarity and exchange. From Development Studies, it engages with concepts of diversification of livelihoods and nonagricultural or off-farm rural livelihood activities. This study is also placed in the context of studies of pottery production in the Andes more generally. Specifically, it stems from a larger survey of pottery production in the Northern Peruvian Andes (see especially Ramón 2008; Ramón and Bell 2013), which provides important background information about regional practices. This chapter also includes a basic introduction to pottery production in Olleros , and explains the relationship between pottery and other livelihood activities. Finally, the chapter concludes with a presentation of the research and analytic methods used in this study.
Chapter
This chapter describes the pottery distribution methods used in San Bartolomé de los Olleros . The most important ways that pots are distributed are: (1) trading trips to other communities to barter pots for the products of those communities; (2) sale/barter of pots to customers who visit potters’ homes, including: customers within the community (community-based exchange ), customers purchasing for their own use (ad hoc trade ) and bulk purchases by middlemen and women who take the pots to other communities to redistribute. The methods employed less frequently are annual fairs , itinerant production, and markets (weekly and daily). Maps of each trade method are presented and specific trade routes are explained.
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Thesis
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The abstract for this document is available on CSA Illumina.To view the Abstract, click the Abstract button above the document title.
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Tese (Doutorado) - University of California.
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The potter's art of pre–Columbian Peru has long received high acclaim, and the antiquity and technical perfection of the several Andean ceramic styles is generally acknowledged. Scarcely a year passes but what new pottery types are recognized by archaeologists, and the descriptions of these fill many volumes. It is altogether incredible, therefore, that for the entire 400–year period that has elapsed since the coming of the Spaniards, there exists no detailed and systematic account of the techniques of pottery manufacture employed by any group in the Andean area. With reference to the Conquest period, Rowe states that “the chroniclers say little about Inca pottery,” while Linné, who combed the literature for data concerning Andean ceramic technology, concluded that “ … from the time of the discovery of Peru no descriptions exist as to pottery–making.“
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The paper describes an operational sequence of production for the ‘household ceramic industry’ of the Luo people of Kenya, indicating the variations in technical and design choices at various stages which characterize the traditions of manufacture and the resultant micro‐styles of different potter communities. Examination of the technology of production among the Luo calls into question the basic premises of the functional definition of style proposed under the ‘information exchange’ hypothesis of M. Wobst. Rather, in agreement with the approaches of P. Lemonnier and J. Sackett, ceramic style is seen to originate in the patterns of choice inherent in all production operations, and neither communication functions nor information targets can be inferred from a consideration of the costs of stylistic behavior.
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Esta obra estudia la relación entre la fabricación de cerámica y los procesos culturales del hombre. La cerámica es uno de los productos más tangibles de las culturas antiguas, y por lo tanto, su análisis constituye una de las herramientas más importantes de la arqueología. El autor centra su estudio en los casos de México, Guatemala y Perú.
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