Chapter

Milk Fat/Rancidity

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Abstract

Milk fat constitutes up to 30% of the milk dry weight, carries 50% of the energy and contains essential water-insoluble vitamins. It is solubilized in the milk in complex fat globules. The majority of milk fat consists of fatty acids esterified to triglycerides. There is a considerable plasticity of ruminant milk fatty acid composition. Special attention will be given to fatty acids that play an important role in human health. These include saturated fatty acids, oleic acid (18:1 n-9), n-6, or n-3 types of C18:2 to C22 polyunsaturated fatty acids, trans isomers of C18:1 and C18:2, and isomers of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA). Milk and dairy products are a major source of 12:0, 14:0, 16:0, and trans fatty acids in the human diet. Consequently, there is considerable interest in the altering process of milk fatty acid composition with the overall aim of improving the long-term health of consumers. Important targets include the decrease of certain medium-chain saturated cis fatty acids to reduce cardiovascular risks. Furthermore, an increase of defined trans fatty acids which have been shown to exert anti-carcinogenic properties in a range of human cell lines and animal models are desired. Manipulation of milk fat content, and its fatty acid composition, through breeding and nutrition strategies have been important targets for the dairy industry in many parts of the world. Despite the advanced research on the effects of dietary factors on the sensorial quality of milk and diary products, more research is needed to evaluate in more detail how different feeding strategies lead to a change of the nutritional, sensorial, and technological aspects of milk fat quality.

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This study examined whether higher intakes of milk and other calcium-rich foods during adult years can reduce the risk of osteoporotic fractures. This was a 12-year prospective study among 77761 women, aged 34 through 59 years in 1980, who had never used calcium supplements. Dietary intake was assessed with a food-frequency questionnaire in 1980, 1984, and 1986. Fractures of the proximal femur (n = 133) and distal radius (n = 1046) from low or moderate trauma were self-reported on biennial questionnaires. We found no evidence that higher intakes of milk or calcium from food sources reduce fracture incidence. Women who drank two or more glasses of milk per day had relative risks of 1.45 for hip fracture (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.87, 2.43) and 1.05 for forearm fracture (95% CI = 0.88, 1.25) when compared with women consuming one glass or less per week. Likewise, higher intakes of total dietary calcium or calcium from dairy foods were not associated with decreased risk of hip or forearm fracture. These data do not support the hypothesis that higher consumption of milk or other food sources of calcium by adult women protects against hip or forearm fractures.
Article
The predominant fatty acids in milk are the long-chain fatty acids myristic, palmitic and stearic. These saturated fatty acids account for 75% of the total fatty acids, with a further 21% occurring as monounsaturated fatty acids of which the most prevalent is oleic acid. Only 4 g/100 g of the milk fatty acids are polyunsaturated, occurring mainly as linoleic and linolenic acids. All milk fatty acids are derived, almost equally, from either de novo synthesis or directly from preformed fatty acids in the diet. There are four main dietary sources of fatty acids: forages, oilseeds, fish oil and fat supplements. The digestive tract exerts a profound influence on the fate of dietary fatty acids. The short-chain saturated free fatty acids are absorbed through the walls of the rumen or abomasum into the bloodstream. The medium- and longer-chain saturated fatty acids pass into the small intestine, diffuse across the membrane wall where they are incorporated into lipoproteins and enter the bloodstream via the lymphatic system. The majority of unsaturated fatty acids are extensively hydrogenated in the rumen. However, recent work has shown that the levels of certain saturated fatty acids can be reduced and the levels of oleic, linoleic and linolenic fatty acids increased by feeding oilseeds rich in mono- or polyunsaturated fatty acids. In addition, work reported here has confirmed that eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids can be transferred to milk when a diet containing fish oil is fed, but the transfer efficiencies are low.
Article
Dietary assessment of individual fatty acid intake is difficult due to a number of limitations. Information regarding the type, quantity and brand-name of fat used in cooking and at the table is required. In addition, margarine manufacturers may change the component oils used for reasons of cost, which changes the fatty acid composition of their products from season-to-season. Independent markers of fatty acid intake are required, therefore, to compensate for these limitations. Adipose tissue concentrations have been used as a measure of habitual intake of fatty acid groups and individual fatty acids in numerous studies. Saturated (SFA) and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) are generally poorly correlated with adipose tissue concentrations, which can be explained partly by endogenous synthesis. In general, adipose tissue concentrations of exogenously-produced fatty acids (n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA)) are well correlated with estimates of habitual intake. Correlations between dietary trans unsaturated fatty acids (TUFA) and adipose tissue concentrations vary between countries, which may be due to differences in dietary sources. Correlations may be affected by differences in bioavailability or selective retention of fatty acids in certain tissue lipids.
Article
Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is a collective term for positional and geometric isomers of octadecadienoic acid in which the double bonds are conjugated, i.e. contiguous. CLA was identified as a component of milk and dairy products over 20 years ago. It is formed as an intermediate in the course of the conversion of linoleic acid to oleic acid in the rumen. The predominant naturally occurring isomer is the cis-9, trans-11 modification. Treatment of linoleic acid-rich oils such as safflower oil, soybean oil, or maize oil with base and heat will result in the formation of CLA. Two isomers predominate in the synthetic preparation, c9,t11 and t10,c12. CLA has been shown to inhibit chemically-induced skin, stomach, mammary or colon tumours in mice and rats. The inhibition of mammary tumours in rats is effective regardless of type of carcinogen or type or amount of dietary fat. CLA has also been shown to inhibit cholesterol-induced atherosclerosis in rabbits. When young animals (mice, pigs) are placed on CLA-containing diets after weaning they accumulate more body protein and less fat. Since CLA is derived from the milk of ruminant animals and is found primarily in their meat and in products derived from their milk there is a concerted world-wide effort to increase CLA content of milk by dietary means. Its effect on growth (less fat, more protein) is also a subject of active research. The mechanisms underlying the effects of CLA are still moot.
Article
Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) are conjugated isomers of linoleic acid, which may promote health with regard to cancer, heart disease, diabetes, bone formation, growth modulation and immunity. The c9,t11 isomer of CLA, rumenic acid (RA), is the major isomer present in the diet. However, dietary intakes of CLA and RA by humans have not been examined rigorously, nor has the relationship between dietary CLA or RA and health (e.g., body composition). Three-day dietary records (DR) were collected from adult men (n = 46) and women (n = 47) and analyzed using a nutrient database modified to contain total CLA and RA. Simultaneously, 3-d food duplicates (FD) were collected to determine analytically individual fatty acid intakes, including those of total CLA and RA. Chronic total CLA and RA intakes were estimated using a semiquantitative food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Body composition was estimated using body mass index and percentage of body fat. Total CLA intake was estimated from FD to be 212 +/- 14 and 151 +/- 14 mg/d (mean +/- SEM) for men and women, respectively; RA intake was estimated to be 193 +/- 13 and 140 +/- 14 mg/d for men and women, respectively. In general, CLA and RA intakes estimated by DR and FFQ were significantly lower than those estimated by FD. Body composition was not significantly related to dietary total CLA or RA intake. In conclusion, results suggest that DR and FFQ methodologies are not reliable estimators of individual total CLA and RA intakes and may underestimate total CLA and RA intakes of groups. Intake of total CLA and RA was found to be significantly lower than that suggested previously by others.
Article
The long-term relations between specific types of dietary fat and risk of type 2 diabetes remain unclear. Our objective was to examine the relations between dietary fat intakes and the risk of type 2 diabetes. We prospectively followed 84204 women aged 34-59 y with no diabetes, cardiovascular disease, or cancer in 1980. Detailed dietary information was assessed at baseline and updated in 1984, 1986, and 1990 by using validated questionnaires. Relative risks of type 2 diabetes were obtained from pooled logistic models adjusted for nondietary and dietary covariates. During 14 y of follow-up, 2507 incident cases of type 2 diabetes were documented. Total fat intake, compared with equivalent energy intake from carbohydrates, was not associated with risk of type 2 diabetes; for a 5% increase in total energy from fat, the relative risk (RR) was 0.98 (95% CI: 0.94, 1.02). Intakes of saturated or monounsaturated fatty acids were also not significantly associated with the risk of diabetes. However, for a 5% increase in energy from polyunsaturated fat, the RR was 0.63 (0.53, 0.76; P < 0.0001) and for a 2% increase in energy from trans fatty acids the RR was 1.39 (1.15, 1.67; P = 0.0006). We estimated that replacing 2% of energy from trans fatty acids isoenergetically with polyunsaturated fat would lead to a 40% lower risk (RR: 0.60; 95% CI: 0.48, 0.75). These data suggest that total fat and saturated and monounsaturated fatty acid intakes are not associated with risk of type 2 diabetes in women, but that trans fatty acids increase and polyunsaturated fatty acids reduce risk. Substituting nonhydrogenated polyunsaturated fatty acids for trans fatty acids would likely reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes substantially.
Article
Most of the lipids in milk are triacylglycerols that occur in globules surrounded by a membrane derived from cellular membranes. This membrane, the milk-fat or milk-lipid globule membrane (MLGM), surrounds globules during the process of their secretion from the cell. The nature and cellular origin of the milk lipid globule membrane has been the subject of a considerable amount of research. Milk lipid globules originate as very small lipid droplets formed on or in the endoplasmic reticulum followed by release into the cytosol. These droplets consist of a triacylglycerol-rich core coated with a layer of proteins and polar lipids. How these droplets are formed, how they can grow in volume, how they move through the cell, and how they are secreted are questions that have been the basis for a number of investigations. While the general outlines of droplet formation, growth, movement, and secretion are known, virtually no molecular details of any of these processes have been elucidated. In this article I have presented a brief historical account of research on milk fat globules, their surrounding membrane, and on aspects of the intracellular origin, growth, and secretion of milk lipid globules. I have also attempted to call attention to those areas where further research is needed to gain a better understanding of the processes involved.
Article
Data from recent publications on bovine milk lipids are presented and discussed. This includes extraction of lipids, triacylglycerols, phospholipids, other complex lipids, sterols, isoflavones, and fatty acids. Improved gas-liquid and high performance liquid chromatography were used. Data on the trans and cis isomers of fatty acid and of conjugated linoleic acids are given, and the analyses are described. Papers about the lipids in milks and dairy products from the United States are few; where with the exception of trans-fatty acid isomers and conjugated linoleic acids, almost no research has been reported.
Article
This is a review of our present understanding of the mechanism by which the n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in fish oils prevent fatal ventricular arrhythmias in animals and cultured heart cells. A brief review of three clinical trials that suggest that these PUFAs prevent sudden cardiac death is also included in order to emphasize the potential importance of these fatty acids in human nutrition. The PUFAs act by stabilizing electrically every cardiac myocyte by modulating conductance of ion channels in the sarcolemma, particularly the fast, voltage-dependent sodium current and the L-type calcium currents, though other ion currents are also affected. Work in progress suggests that the primary site of action of the PUFAs may be on the phospholipid bilayer of the heart cells in the microdomains through which the ion channels penetrate the membrane bilayer in juxtaposition with the ion channels rather than directly on the channel protein itself. These PUFAs then allosterically alter the conformation and conductance of the channels. Both potential benefits and possible adverse effects of the PUFAs in man will be discussed. Knowing that the ion channels have been structurally conserved among all excitable tissues, we tested their effects on the electrophysiology of rat hippocampal CA1 neurons and found that the sodium and calcium ion channels in these neurons were also affected by PUFAs. An attempt to show the place of the PUFAs in human nutrition during the 2-4 million years of our evolution will conclude the review.
Article
The present study was designed to examine the effects of increasing dietary levels of vaccenic acid (VA) and cis-9, trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on chemically induced mammary carcinogenesis in rats. Both fatty acids were provided as a natural component in butter fat. The conversion of VA to CLA by delta9-desaturase was documented previously in several species, including rats and humans. Specifically, our objective was to determine the relative contribution of dietary VA and CLA to the tissue concentration of CLA and its ability to inhibit the development of mammary carcinomas. A total of 7 diets were formulated with varying levels of CLA and VA. The overall dietary treatment scheme was designed to evaluate the modulation of mammary cancer risk by 1). small increases of CLA in the presence of a low level of VA and 2). more substantial increases of VA against a background of low levels of CLA. As expected, small increases in dietary CLA at the low end of the CLA dose-response range did not reduce tumorigenesis. In contrast, there was a distinct and marked inhibitory response to VA that was dose dependent. The effect of VA was magnified in this experiment because the dose range of VA tested was much broader than that of CLA. Fatty acid analysis showed that the conversion of dietary VA to CLA resulted in a dose-dependent increase in the accumulation of CLA in the mammary fat pad, which was accompanied by a parallel decrease in tumor formation in the mammary gland. The finding confirms that the conversion of VA to CLA is as important for cancer prevention as the dietary supply of CLA. Thus, VA is also anticarcinogenic, and VA and CLA represent functional food components that are present in ruminant fat.
Article
SUMMARY Microbial hydrolysis of triglycerides was observed when these were incubated anaerobically at 37" with sheep rumen contents. The extent of hydrolysis was variable, but was often considerable ( > 90 yo) when linseed oil was used as substrate. The free fatty acids liberated were analysed by gas chromatography and, as com- pared with the acids present initially in glyceride combination, they were less un- saturated because of microbial hydrogenation. Linolenic acid was particularly effectively hydrogenated. No synthesis of long-chain fatty acids took place during the incubations and, apart from the possibility that in some experiments a limited conversion of stearic acid to palmitic acid took place, there was no evidence of significant degradation of long-chain acids. Glycerol liberated during the hydrolysis was completely metabolized, in part to volatile fatty acids, largely propionic acid. No mono- or diglycerides were detected as intermediates in the lipolysis of triglycerides. Analysis of the contents of the rumen, abomasum and small intestine of each of two slaughtered sheep, one of which had previously been fed on a diet rich in linseed oil, showed that most of the total higher fatty acids present in each of these three portions of the alimentary tract was in the form of free acids. It is concluded that microbial lipolysis results in the pre-digestion of much of the lipids ingested by the sheep as part of its feed.
Article
In addition to being used in the food and animal feed industry, fish oils have also been used traditionally as dietary supplements. Due to the presence of long-chain n-3 fatty acids, fish oils have therapeutic benefits in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular, immunological, and arthritic diseases, as well as childhood deficiency diseases such as rickets, because of a high content of vitamin D. However, fish oils are also susceptible to contamination with lipophilic organic chemicals that are now ubiquitous contaminants of marine ecosystems. Many vegetable oils are sources of the shorter chain precursor forms of n-3 fatty acids, and in recent years the specialist dietary supplement market has expanded to include these oils in a variety of different formulations. This paper reports analytical results of selected contaminants, including polychlorinated biphenyls, organochlorine pesticides, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers, for a range of commercially available n-3 fatty acid rich fish and vegetable oil dietary supplements. Using principal component analysis, the values are compared with historic samples to elucidate time trends in contamination profiles. Levels of contaminants are discussed in relation to the nutritional benefits to the consumer of long- and short-chain forms of n-3 fatty acids.
Article
The analysis of conjugated linoleic acids (LCA) and trans-18:1 isomers in dairy fats by using a combination of Gas chromatography, Silver-Ion thin layer/gas chromatography and Silver-Ion liquid chromatography was discussed. It was shown that CLA and trans-18:1 isomers were produced by isomerize and biohydrogenate dietary linoleic acid, linolenic acids and other polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA). It was found that the Infrared analysis of the CLA shows a characteristic doublet at 948 and 982 cm -1. Results shows that number of unrecognised trans- and cis-18:1 and CLA isomers were correlated with the MFD.
Article
This review summarises the known effects of dietary factors on bovine and caprine milk fatty acid composition, as well as the regulation of cow and goat mammary lipid secretion. Special attention is given to fatty acids that could play a role for human health, such as saturated fatty acids, oleic acid, n-6- or n-3-C18 to C22 polyunsaturated fatty acids, trans isomers of C18:1 and C18:2, and isomers of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA). The main dietary factors taken into account are the nature of forages, including pasture, the forage:concentrate ratio and diet starch content, and the supplementation of dairy rations with crude or processed vegetable oils or oilseeds, and vitamin E. A particular emphasis is given to studies on interactions between these dietary factors, which show that there is a considerable plasticity of ruminant milk fatty acid composition. Despite the existence of several studies on the effects of dietary factors on the sensorial quality of milk and dairy products, there is a need to evaluate more deeply how the different feeding strategies could change the nutritional, sensorial and technological aspects of milk fat quality.
Article
There is increased consumer awareness that foods contain microcomponents that may have beneficial effects on health maintenance and disease prevention. In milk fat these functional food components include EPA, DHA, and CLA. The opportunity to enhance the content of these FA in milk has improved as a result of recent advances that have better defined the interrelationships between rumen fermentation, lipid metabolism, and milk fat synthesis. Dietary lipids undergo extensive hydrolysis and biohydrogenation in the rumen. Milk fat is predominantly TG, and de novo FA synthesis and the uptake of circulating FA contribute nearly equal amounts (molar basis) to the FA in milk fat. Transfer of dietary EPA and DHA to milk fat is very low (<4%); this is, to a large extent, related to their extensive biohydrogenation in the rumen, and also partly due to the fact that they are not transported in the plasma lipid fractions that serve as major mammary sources of FA uptake (TG and nonesterified FA). Milk contains over 20 isomers of CLA but the predominant one is cis-9,trans-11 (75-90% of total CLA). Biomedical studies with animal models have shown that this isomer has anticarcinogenic and anti-atherogenic activities. cis-9,trans-11-CLA is produced as an intermediate in the rumen biohydrogenation of linoleic acid but not of linolenic acid. However, it is only a transient intermediate, and the major source of milk fat CLA is from endogenous synthesis. Vaccenic acid, produced as a rumen biohydrogenation intermediate from both linoleic acid and linolenic acid, is the substrate, and delta9-desaturase in the mammary gland and other tissues catalyzes the reaction. Diet can markedly affect milk fat CLA content, and there are also substantial differences among individual cows. Thus, strategies to enhance milk fat CLA involve increasing rumen outflow of vaccenic acid and increasing delta9-desaturase activity, and through these, several-fold increases in the content of CLA in milk fat can be routinely achieved. Overall, concentrations of CLA, and to a lesser extent EPA and DHA, can be significantly enhanced through the use of diet formulation and nutritional management of dairy cows.
Article
This chapter discusses the biosynthesis of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in ruminants and humans. Conjugated linoleic acid is a mixture of positional and geometric isomers of linoleic acid with a conjugated double-bond system. Because of its potential to improve human health, there is great interest to increase the amount of CLA in the human food supply. This has caused great effort to be expended toward increasing the concentration of CLA, and more specifically rumenic acid (RA), in the milk and tissues of ruminant foods because these are the predominant source of CLA in human diets. RA is the predominant CLA isomer present in ruminant products, and the major source of its occurrence is endogenous synthesis via desaturation of vaccenic acid (VA) by ∆-9-desaturase. The chapter focuses on improving the understanding of biohydrogenation in the rumen and examining milk and tissue CLA responses to a range of diets. The diversity of various BH intermediates in digesta, milk, and tissues indicates the complexity of the BH processes as a whole and the population dynamics of the ruminal bacteria involved. Predicting the outcome of changes in the diet is complicated by the interactions of the ruminal environment, substrate supply and forms of dietary lipids, all of which influence the BH process simultaneously.
Article
Milkfat is a remarkable source of energy, fat-soluble nutrients and bioactive lipids for mammals. The composition and content of lipids in milkfat vary widely among mammalian species. Milkfat is not only a source of bioactive lipid components, it also serves as an important delivery medium for nutrients, including the fat-soluble vitamins. Bioactive lipids in milk include triacylglycerides, diacylglycerides, saturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids, and phospholipids. Beneficial activities of milk lipids include anticancer, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and immunosuppression properties. The major mammalian milk that is consumed by humans as a food commodity is that from bovine whose milkfat composition is distinct due to their diet and the presence of a rumen. As a result of these factors bovine milkfat is lower in polyunsaturated fatty acids and higher in saturated fatty acids than human milk, and the consequences of these differences are still being researched. The physical properties of bovine milkfat that result from its composition including its plasticity, make it a highly desirable commodity (butter) and food ingredient. Among the 12 major milk fatty acids, only three (lauric, myristic, and palmitic) have been associated with raising total cholesterol levels in plasma, but their individual effects are variable-both towards raising low-density lipoproteins and raising the level of beneficial high-density lipoproteins. The cholesterol-modifying response of individuals to consuming saturated fats is also variable, and therefore the composition, functions and biological properties of milkfat will need to be re-evaluated as the food marketplace moves increasingly towards more personalized diets.
Article
A number of major scientific advances have been realized in the last 25 yr in determining the opportunities and limitations of altering milk composition through nutritional manipulation. Because of the greater sensitivity of milk fat to dietary manipulation than either protein or lactose, nutritional control of milk fat content and fatty acid composition received a great deal of attention. New information emerged linking ruminal production of trans fatty acid isomers with milk fat depression. As a result, research on fatty acid biohydrogenation intensified yielding new insight on the origin of specific trans fatty acid isomers originating from ruminal biohydrogenation and how these isomers were modified by the action of mammary enzymes. The discovery of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) as a potent anticarcinogen also led to extensive work on enhancing its concentration in milk through nutritional manipulation and discovering the physiological effects of specific CLA isomers. New protected fats were developed in recent years that were designed to resist biohydrogenation and enhance the concentration of unsaturated fatty acids in milk. The nutritional factors receiving the most attention during the last 25 yr for their influence on milk protein content were forage-to-concentrate ratio, the amount and source of dietary protein, and the amount and source of dietary fat. New insights were tested on modes of action whereby fat supplements caused a decline in protein concentration. Changes in milk lactose concentration occur only in extreme and unusual feeding situations, but the basic biology of lactose synthesis and regulation are still being explored using modern molecular techniques. This paper highlights the major advances in controlling milk composition by dietary manipulation and how it influences the entire animal system from practical feeding studies to basic cellular work on mammary tissue metabolism.
Article
Forty Holstein dairy cows were used to determine the effectiveness of linoleic or linolenic-rich oils to enhance C18:2 cis-9, trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and C18:1 trans-11 (vaccenic acid; VA) in milk. The experimental design was a complete randomized design for 9 wk with measurements made during the last 6 wk. Cows were fed a basal diet containing 59% forage (control) or a basal diet supplemented with either 4% soybean oil (SO), 4% flaxseed oil (FO), or 2% soybean oil plus 2% flaxseed oil (SFO) on a dry matter basis. Total fatty acids in the diet were 3.27, 7.47, 7.61, and 7.50 g/100 g in control, SO, FO, and SFO diets, respectively. Feed intake, energy-corrected milk (ECM) yield, and ECM produced/kg of feed intake were similar among treatments. The proportions of VA were increased by 318, 105, and 206% in milk fat from cows in the SO, FO, and SFO groups compared with cows in the control group. Similar increases in C18:2 cis-9, trans-11 CLA were 273, 150, and 183% in SO, FO, and SFO treatments, respectively. Under similar feeding conditions, oils rich in linoleic acid (soybean oil) were more effective in enhancing VA and C18:2 cis-9, trans-11 CLA in milk fat than oils containing linolenic acid (flaxseed oil) in dairy cows fed high-forage diets (59% forage). The effects of mixing linoleic and linolenic acids (50:50) on enhancing VA and C18:2 cis-9, trans-11 CLA were additive, but not greater than when fed separately. Increasing the proportion of healthy fatty acids (VA and CLA) by feeding soybean or flaxseed oil would result in milk with higher nutritive and therapeutic value.
Article
In the last years an increased incidence of diabetes was observed in the whole world. It was estimated that in the year 2030 there will be around 300 million patients with diabetes. Diabetes, especially not adequately treated, develops serious chronic complications. The main aim of the therapy in diabetes is, as we know, to achieve a stable normoglycemia, normal levels of HbA1c, the prevention or inhibition of the progression of late consequences of diabetes. In the paper the authors discuss new more perfect insulins which enable a better imitation of the physiological rhythm of insulin secretion, the therapy with personal insulin pumps, the more perfect equipment for the appreciation and monitoring of the metabolic control. The authors present also the actual data about the transplantation of the pancreas, the islets and recently the beta cells alone. They enumerate also the inclusion and exclusion criteria for transplantation. The gene therapy is mentioned. The present possibilities of the therapy of type 2 diabetes are presented. It is stressed that in the year 2006 for the first time an expert crew was appointed to elaborate a prevention and therapeutical program for diabetes in Poland. The program was accepted by the Ministry of Health for realisation in the years 2006-2008. The authors conclude that in the recent years an enormous progress in the prevention, diagnostics and therapy in diabetes has been achieved. However, the time which should elapse to the moment when the complete success would be achieved is dependent on the further scientific progress the intensity of investigations in the whole world.
Article
Recent advances in chromatographic identification of CLA isomers, combined with interest in their possible properties in promoting human health (e.g., cancer prevention, decreased atherosclerosis, improved immune response) and animal performance (e.g., body composition, regulation of milk fat synthesis, milk production), has renewed interest in biohydrogenation and its regulation in the rumen. Conventional pathways of biohydrogenation traditionally ignored minor fatty acid intermediates, which led to the persistence of oversimplified pathways over the decades. Recent work is now being directed toward accounting for all possible trans-18:1 and CLA products formed, including the discovery of novel bioactive intermediates. Modern microbial genetics and molecular phylogenetic techniques for identifying and classifying microorganisms by their small-subunit rRNA gene sequences have advanced knowledge of the role and contribution of specific microbial species in the process of biohydrogenation. With new insights into the pathways of biohydrogenation now available, several attempts have been made at modeling the pathway to predict ruminal flows of unsaturated fatty acids and biohydrogenation intermediates across a range of ruminal conditions. After a brief historical account of major past accomplishments documenting biohydrogenation, this review summarizes recent advances in 4 major areas of biohydrogenation: the microorganisms involved, identification of intermediates, the biochemistry of key enzymes, and the development and testing of mathematical models to predict biohydrogenation outcomes.
Article
Changes in protein structures as a result of riboflavin-induced photo-oxidation were studied for six milk proteins: alpha-casein, beta-casein, kappa-casein, lactoferrin, alpha-lactalbumin, and beta-lactoglobulin. The milk proteins showed significant variability in sensitivity to photo-oxidation. After photo-oxidation, an increase in carbonyl content because of oxidation of tryptophan, histidine, and methionine, as well as formation of dityrosine, was observed for all proteins studied, although at very different levels. Generally, the increment was highest for alpha- and beta-casein and was lowest for lactoferrin. Loss of tryptophan because of photo-oxidation was well-correlated with the formation of the tryptophan oxidation products, N-formylkynurenine and kynurenine. Changes at the tertiary protein structure level were observed after photo-oxidation of the globular proteins, where tryptophan fluorescence emission indicated unfolding of alpha-lactalbumin and beta-lactoglobulin, whereas lactoferrin achieved a more compact tertiary structure. Changes in secondary structure were observed for alpha-lactalbumin and beta-lactoglobulin, whereas the secondary structure of lactoferrin did not change. Polymerization of alpha- and beta-casein and of lactoferrin was observed, whereas kappa-casein, alpha-lactalbumin, and beta-lactoglobulin showed little tendency to polymerize after photo-oxidation. Lability toward photo-oxidation is discussed according to the structural stabilities of the globular proteins.