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State of Environment Report on Coastal and Marine Environment Gujarat State 2012

Authors:
  • Centre for Environment & Social Concerns
  • Centre for Environment & Social Concerns

Abstract and Figures

The State of Environment (SOE) Report of 2012 provides an overview of the present status and trends in the State’s Environment over a decade. The report is aimed at promoting adequate environmental safeguards and to sensitize stakeholders about the needs for sound environmental management. This sector report covers the coastal and marine component of the SOE.
Content may be subject to copyright.
State of Environment Report on
Coastal and Marine Environment
Gujarat State
[2012]
GujaratEcologyCommission
GovernmentofGujarat
Gandhinagar
Inassociationwith
Centre for Environment & Social Concerns
Ahmedabad
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EDITORIAL
Shri.A.K.Verma,IFS
MemberSecretary,GEC
LEADAUTHORS
Dr.ChandanathilP.Geevan(CESC)andDr.ArunManiDixit(CESC)
PROJECTCOORDINATORS
Mr.NischalJoshi
SeniorManagerProjects,GEC
Ms.KrupaJha
ProjectOfficer,GEC
Dr.AnkurPatel
ProjectOfficer,GEC
RESEARCHTEAM
Ms.BhumikaVaghela(CESC)andMr.VishalPatil(CESC)
December,2012
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Contents
ListofFigures................................................................................................................................viii
ListofTables...................................................................................................................................ix
Acknowledgements.........................................................................................................................xi
Abbreviations................................................................................................................................xiii
Summary........................................................................................................................................xv
1Introduction............................................................................................................................1
2Approach/Method.................................................................................................................5
2.1ScopeofWork..................................................................................................................5
2.2PSIRFramework............................................................................................................6
2.2.1PressuresandDrivers...............................................................................................7
2.2.2States.........................................................................................................................7
2.2.3Impacts......................................................................................................................7
2.2.4Responses.................................................................................................................8
2.3DataandSources..............................................................................................................8
3Pressure................................................................................................................................11
3.1CoastalSettlementandDevelopment...........................................................................11
3.1.1DemographicChanges............................................................................................11
3.1.2Industrialization......................................................................................................12
3.1.3MajorIndustries......................................................................................................13
3.1.4Micro,Small&MediumEnterprises.......................................................................15
3.1.5PowerGeneration...................................................................................................16
3.1.6Oil&GasExploration..............................................................................................16
3.1.7Mining.....................................................................................................................16
3.2PortledDevelopment....................................................................................................17
3.3LikelihoodofOilSpillsandAccidents.............................................................................20
3.4ShipRecycling.................................................................................................................21
3.5CommercialFisheries.....................................................................................................23
3.6SaltProduction...............................................................................................................25
3.7OverexploitationofCoastalAquifers.............................................................................27
3.8Tourism...........................................................................................................................27
4State......................................................................................................................................29
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4.1NaturalHazardsandRisks..............................................................................................30
4.1.1ShorelineVulnerability............................................................................................30
4.1.2Cyclones..................................................................................................................31
4.1.3Tsunami...................................................................................................................32
4.2CoastalGeomorphology...............................................................................................33
4.2.1RiverSystem............................................................................................................33
4.2.2GulfSystems............................................................................................................34
4.2.3Islands.....................................................................................................................36
4.2.4Estuaries..................................................................................................................36
4.3CoastalHabitats.............................................................................................................37
4.3.1CoastalWetlands....................................................................................................38
4.3.2MangroveForest.....................................................................................................40
4.3.3CoralReefs..............................................................................................................43
4.3.4Seagrass..................................................................................................................46
4.3.5MudflatsandMarshyCoast....................................................................................47
4.3.6SandyBeachesandDunes......................................................................................48
4.4SpeciesDiversity.............................................................................................................49
4.4.1Invertebrates...........................................................................................................49
4.4.2SeaandShoreBirds................................................................................................50
4.4.3FishDiversity...........................................................................................................53
4.4.4SeaTurtles...............................................................................................................54
4.4.5SeaMammals..........................................................................................................56
4.5EcologicallyImportantSites...........................................................................................59
4.6CommercialFisheries.....................................................................................................63
4.6.1MarineFisheries......................................................................................................63
4.6.2EstuarineFisheries..................................................................................................65
4.7EnvironmentalQuality...................................................................................................66
4.8SalinityIngress................................................................................................................70
5Impacts..................................................................................................................................73
5.1CommercialFisheries.....................................................................................................73
5.2SaltBasedIndustries......................................................................................................75
5.3SalinityIngressintoCoastalAquifers.............................................................................75
6Responses.............................................................................................................................79
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6.1BiodiversityConservation..............................................................................................79
6.1.1ProtectedAreas......................................................................................................79
6.1.2MarineNationalParkandSanctuary......................................................................81
6.1.3WhaleSharkConservation......................................................................................83
6.1.4SeaTurtleHatcheries..............................................................................................85
6.2CoastalZoneManagement:LawsandPolicies..............................................................85
6.3CoastalRegulationandManagement............................................................................86
6.4ImplementationofICZMP..............................................................................................87
6.5PollutionAbatementMeasures.....................................................................................88
6.5.1EffluentTreatmentPlants.......................................................................................88
6.5.2CoastalOceanMonitoringandPredictionSystem(COMAPS)...............................90
6.5.3ActionPlanforCriticallyPollutedAreasinGujarat................................................90
6.6MangrovePlantation......................................................................................................90
6.7CoralReefTransplantation.............................................................................................92
6.8InitiationofNationalCentreforMarineBiodiversity(NCMB).......................................92
6.9Resourceinventoriesanddatabasecreation................................................................92
6.10VesselTraffic&PortManagementSystem................................................................93
6.11HumanDevelopment:SagarKheduSarvangiVikasYojna.........................................93
6.12PromotionofCoastalTourism....................................................................................94
6.13NatureEducation........................................................................................................95
6.14PreventionandControlofSalinityIngress.................................................................95
6.15CivilSocietyinitiatives................................................................................................97
6.16InstitutionsWorkingonCoastalAreaofGujarat.......................................................97
LiteratureCitedorConsulted.....................................................................................................101
Annexures...................................................................................................................................111
1.MineralDistributioninCoastalTalukas..............................................................................111
2.SpecieswiseMarineFishProduction(inkg)between19992000and200708...............112
3.ListofFishLandingCentersalongGujaratCoast................................................................113
4.ListofGIDCEstatesinCoastalRegionofGujarat...............................................................116
5.ListofCommonEffluentTreatmentPlants(CETP)inGujarat(AsonMarch2010)...........117
6.ImportantwaterqualityparametersrecordedatCoastalSamplingSitesunderCOMAPS119
7.DO(DissolvedOxygen,mg/l)ReportedfromGPCBcoastalwatermonitoringsites......127
8.NH3‐N(mg/l)levelsReportedfromGPCBcoastalwatermonitoringsites....................130
9.BOD(mg/l)ReportedfromGPCBcoastalwatermonitoringsites...................................133
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ListofFigures
Figure11:CoastlineofIndiashowingcoastalshelfandotherfeatures.......................................1
Figure12:Gujarat'scontinentalshelf‐detail...............................................................................1
Figure31:Distributionofmajorindustriesalongcoastalregion................................................14
Figure32:GIDCEstates‐distributionalongthecoast................................................................15
Figure33:ShiptrafficthroughGujaratports200001to200708.............................................19
Figure34:AviewofAlangShipBreakingYard...........................................................................22
Figure35:Trendsinshiprecycling,Alang(198283to200809)................................................22
Figure36:Steadyincreaseinthenumberoffishingboats.........................................................24
Figure37:FishLandingCentres...................................................................................................25
Figure38:DistributionofSaltProductionSites..........................................................................26
Figure39:Saltproduction,2000to200809..............................................................................26
Figure310:TouristGrowthinGujaratState...............................................................................28
Figure41:GujaratCoastlineclassifiedintofourSections...........................................................29
Figure42:GujaratCycloneHazardRiskMap100yearreturnperiod......................................32
Figure43:TsunamiHazardRiskZonationMapofGujarat..........................................................33
Figure44:MajorEstuariesofGujarat.........................................................................................37
Figure45:YearwiseMangroveCoverofGujarat.......................................................................40
Figure46:CoralReefDistributioninGujarat..............................................................................44
Figure47:ImportantCoastalandMarineBiodiversityAreas(WII2011)...................................60
Figure48:EcologicallyImportantSitesofGujaratCoast............................................................61
Figure49:Fishlandings(199293to200910)............................................................................64
Figure410:Estuarinefisheries‐Trends......................................................................................66
Figure51:Decliningfisheries(199900to200708)...................................................................74
Figure52:Ascendingfisheries(199900to200708)..................................................................74
Figure53:ExpansionofSaltWorkinthecentralpartofSurajbariCreek...................................75
Figure54:Salinityingressalongcoastalareas(sourceCSPC).....................................................76
Figure61:ProtectedAreasinCoastalRegionofGujarat............................................................80
Figure62:LocationofMarineNationalParkandSanctuaryinGoK...........................................82
Figure63:Lifelikerubbermodel,duringoneofthe‘savethewhaleshark’campaigns...........84
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ListofTables
Table11:ListofCoastalDistrictsandTalukasinGujarat..............................................................3
Table12:Goodsandservicesprovidedbycoastalecosystems....................................................3
Table21:Listofkeysecondarydataandsources.........................................................................9
Table31:Domesticwatersupplyandsewagegenerationincoastalcities................................12
Table32:DistributionofSpecialEconomicZonesandSpecialInvestmentRegions(proposed
andupcoming)..................................................................................................................13
Table33:MajorIndustriesinCoastalTalukas‐Groupwise.......................................................14
Table34:FunctioningMicro,Small&MediumEnterprises(200607)inCoastalDistricts........15
Table35:PowerGeneration‐CoastalDistrictsandentirestate................................................16
Table36:NumberofMiningandQuarryLeasesinCoastalDistricts(March2007)...................17
Table37:PortsandJettiesalongGujaratCoast..........................................................................18
Table38:Cargo(MillionMetricTons‐MMT)handledbyportsinGujarat................................18
Table39:Gujarat’sShareofCargoHandling(MillionTons)inIndia...........................................19
Table310:ShipTrafficinGujaratCoast(NumberofShips)........................................................19
Table311:MinorspillageincidentsnearGujaratcoast(1989to2007).....................................21
Table312:TrendsinthenumberoffishingboatsinGujarat‐199697to200708....................23
Table313:Majorfishingharboursandfishlanding200910.....................................................24
Table314:ImportantTouristDestinationsintheCoastalAreas................................................28
Table 3-15: Number of Tourists visiting Marine National Park...........................................28
Table41:Coastalstretchessusceptibletovaryingdegreeofshorelinechanges.......................31
Table42:MajorandsomeimportantminorriversdrainingintoGujaratcoastalwaters..........34
Table43:GulfsofKachchhandKhambhatacomparison........................................................35
Table44:Types&ExtentofCoastalWetlandsinGujarat...........................................................39
Table45:MangrovecoverofGujaratstate‐Changes................................................................42
Table46:CoralreefsalongGulfofKachchh................................................................................45
Table47:CoralSpeciesFoundunderIUCNRedDataList...........................................................46
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Table48:SeagrassbedlocationsinGoK.....................................................................................47
Table49:NumberofReportedSpeciesunderInvertebrateGroupandTaxafromGoK............50
Table410:SeaandShoreBirdSpeciesFoundunderIUCNRedDataList...................................51
Table411:FishesofGujaratcoastlistedinIUCN’sRedDatalist................................................53
Table412:No.ofLionsinandaroundGirProtectedAreas........................................................59
Table413:Sitesofveryhighecologicalandconservationsignificance......................................61
Table414:Fisheriescatchanditsspeciescomposition199900to200708..........................64
Table415:COMAPSReportedValuesDO,BODandNH3N(Surface/Winter/Shore&Near
Shore)indifferentyears...................................................................................................67
Table416:DissolvedOxygen(mg/L)ReportedMinimumValuespertainingtoreceivingwater
bodies:Sea,JettiesandEstuary........................................................................................68
Table417:BOD(mg/L)ReportedMaximumValuespertainingtoreceivingwaterbodies:Sea,
JettiesandEstuary............................................................................................................68
Table418:AmmoniaNitrogen(NH3N,mg/L)ReportedMaximumValuespertainingto
receivingwaterbodies:Sea,JettiesandEstuary..............................................................69
Table419:Waterqualityforfourmajorestuaries......................................................................69
Table51:Numberofcoastalvillagesaffectedbysalinityingressintoaquifers.........................76
Table52:Talukasaffectedbysalinityingressintocoastalaquifers...........................................77
Table61:ProtectedAreasHavingConservationLinkageswithCoastalAreasofGujarat..........81
Table62:HatcheriesforOliveridley,GreenturtleandLeatherbackturtles.............................85
Table63:CETP‐DistrictwiseSummary......................................................................................89
Table64:MangrovePlantationArea(inha)byDifferentAgencies............................................91
Table65:AnnualAllocation(Rs.inCrore)underSagarKheduSarvangiVikasYojna.................94
Table66:ParticipationinNatureEducationEfforts....................................................................95
Table67:SummaryofworkscarriedoutinHLCIandIIreaches(Ason30092011)................96
Table68:KeyinstitutionsandagenciesassociatedwithcoastalregioninGujarat....................98
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Acknowledgements
Our thanks are due to Dr. K.U.Mistry, Chairman GPCB and Mr Hardik Shah (Member Secretary, GPCB)
for extending the cooperation of the Board.
We acknowledge the support and cooperation provided by various the officials of Gujarat Pollution
Control Board, Gandhinagar; Fisheries Department, Gandhinagar; Central Pollution Control Board,
Vadodara; Gujarat State Forest Department; Marine National Park, Jamnagar; Gujarat Maritime Board,
Gandhinagar; Commissionerate of Industries, Gandhinagar; Commissionerate of Geology and Mining,
Gandhinagar; Central Water Commission, Gandhinagar; Narmada and Water Resource Department,
Gandhinagar; Sardar Sarovar Narmada Nigam Ltd, Gandhinagar, Coastal Salinity Prevention Cell,
Ahmedabad and Commissionerate of Salt, Ahmedabad.
We thank all persons who shared their knowledge and understanding about the various aspects of the
subject and thus helped in many ways. Following are specially thanked for the help, cooperation and
inputs:Mr C.N. Pandey, Addl. PCCF, Gandhinagar; Mr Bharat J.Pathak (Director, GEER Foundation);
Mr Atul Sharma (Gujarat Maritime Board); Dr B.R. Naidu (Zonal Office in-charge, CPCB, Vadodara);
Mr S.D. Chaudhary (Dep. Industry Commissioner); Mr R.D.Kamboj (MNPS, Jamnagar); Mr D.K.Sharma
(CCF, Kachchh Circle); Mr Devang Thakar (Senior Engineer, GPCB); Mr P.H. Satha (Former DCF,
MNPS, Jamnagar); Mr L.N. Jadeja (DCF, Kachchh East); Mr P.A. Vihol (DCF, Kachchh West); Mr C.B.
Bhimani (ACF, MNPS); Dr P.C. Mankodi (Zoology Dept., MSU); Dr Kavresh Vachhrajani (Zoology
Dept, MSU); Mr Mahesh Pandya (Paryavaran Mitra, Ahmedabad); Dr Bharat Jethva (consultant); Dr
Chandresh Dave (MNP, Jamnagar); Mr Dishant Parasharya (GEER Foundation); Mr Sujit Kumar; Mr
Uday Gayakwad (CSPC); Mr Dhiren Joshi (WTI, Ahmedabad); Dr Wesley Sunderraj (Green Foundation,
Bhuj); Dr G.A. Thivakaran (Scientist, Gujarat Institute of Desert Ecology); Dr Jugal Kishor Tiwari
(Director, Centre for Desert and Ocean); Dr Pankaj Joshi (Sahjeevan, Bhuj); Dr Indra Gadhvi (Head of
Dept., Marine Biology, Bhavnagar University); Dr V. Vijaykumar (Director-in-charge, Gujarat Institute
of Desert Ecology); Dr Deepa Gawli (Dep. Director, Gujarat Ecology Society, Vadodara); Mr V. S. Soni
(GPCB, Jamnagar) andMr Jignesh Trivedi (Zoology Dept, MSU).
C. H. Pandya
Director
Gujarat Ecology Commission
Gandhinagar
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Abbreviations
AIS:AutomaticIdentificationSystem
BOD:BiologicalOxygenDemand
CAGR:CompoundedAnnualGrowthRate
CETP:CommonEffluentTreatmentPlant
CITES:ConventiononInternationalTradeinEndangeredSpecies
CMS:ConventiononMigratorySpecies
COMAPS:CoastalOceanMonitoringandPredictionSystem
CPCB:CentralPollutionControlBoard
CRZ:CoastalRegulationZone
CSMCRI:CentralMarineFisheriesResearchInstitute
CSMCRI:CentralSaltandMarineChemicalsResearchInstitute
CSPC:CoastalSalinityPreventionCell
CWC:CentralWaterCommission
CZM:CoastalZoneManagement
DO:DissolvedOxygen
DWT:DeadweightTonnage
EEZ:ExclusiveEconomicZone
EIA:EnvironmentalImpactAssessment
FSI:ForestSurveyofIndia
GANDHI:GreenActionforNationalDandiHeritageInitiative
GDP:GrossDomesticProduct
GEC:GujaratEcologyCommission
GEER:GujaratEcologicalEducationandResearchFoundation
GEER:GujaratEcologicalEducationResearchFoundation
GIDC:GujaratIndustrialDevelopmentCorporation
GMB:GujaratMaritimeBoard
GoK:GulfofKachchh
GPCB:GujaratPollutionControlBoard
GSDMA:GujaratDisasterManagementAuthority
GTS:GreatTrigonometricSurvey
GWRDC:GujaratWaterResourceDevelopmentCorporation
ha:Hectare
HLC:HighLevelCommittee
IBA:ImportantBirdArea
ICED:IndoCanadaEnvironmentFacility
ICG:IndianCoastGuards
ICMAM:IntegratedCoastalandMarineAreaManagement
ICMBA:ImportantCoastalandMarineBiodiversityAreas
ICZMP:IntegratedCoastalZoneManagementProgram
Km(KM):Kilometre
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LDT:LightDisplacementTonnage
m:Meter
MCM:MillionCubicMeter
MCS:MasterControlStation
mg/L:Milligramsperlitre
MINARS:MonitoringofIndianAquaticResources
MLDormld:MillionLitreDay
MMT:MillionMetricTons
MMTPA:MillionMetricTonsperAnnum
MNP&S:MarineNationalPark&Sanctuary
MoEF:MinistryofEnvironmentandForests
MPA:MarineProtectedArea
MPEDA:MarineProductsExportsDevelopmentAuthority
MSL:MeanSeaLevel
MSME:Micro,Small&MediumEnterprises
MSP:MarineShipbuildingParks
MSY:MaximumSustainableYield
MW:MegaWatts
NA:NotAvailable
NCMB:NationalCentreforMarineBiodiversity
NIO:NationalInstituteofOceanography
ONGC:OilandNaturalGasCommission
PA:ProtectedArea
POL:Petroleum,OilandLubricants
ppm:Partspermillion
PPP:PublicPrivatePartnership
ppt:Partspertrillion
RTI:RighttoInformation
SAC:SpaceApplicationCentre
SEZ:SpecialEconomicZone
SICOM:SocietyofIntegratedCoastalManagement
SIPC:SalinityIngressPreventionCell
SIR:SpecialInvestmentRegion
SOER:StateofEnvironmentReport
Sqkm(sqkm):Squarekilometre
TDS:TotalDissolvedSolids
TSS:TotalSuspendedSolids
VGGIS:VibrantGujaratGlobalInvestorSummit
VHF:VeryHighFrequency
VTPMS:VesselTraffic&PortManagementSystem
WII:WildlifeInstituteofIndia
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Summary
TheStateofEnvironment(SOE)Reportprovidesanoverviewofthepresentstatusandtrendsin
theState’sEnvironmentoveradecade.Thereportisaimedatpromotingadequate
environmentalsafeguardsandtosensitizestakeholdersabouttheneedsforsound
environmentalmanagement.ThisreportcoversthecoastalandmarinecomponentoftheSOE.
ThecoastalareasofGujarat,inmanyways,havebecomepivotaltothedevelopmentgoalsof
thestate,atleastinthenearandmidterm.Thepeculiaritiesofasomewhatheterogeneous
coastalsystemandtheimpactsoffastpaceddevelopmentposesenvironmentalchallenges
thatneedstobebetterunderstood.Thesechallengesemergenotonlyfromthedevelopment
strategiesofthestate,butalsofromgloballinkages.Giventhefactthatthestatehasthe
longestcoastlineandthelargestcontinentalshelfamongallIndianstates,globalclimate
changeimpactsareparticularlyworrisomeforthestate.
Thetermcoastalenvironmentisusedheretocovertheregionwherelandwardandseaward
environmentalconcernsalongthecoastalregionoverlap.Themarineenvironment,forthe
purposethisreport,coversseawardsidebeyondtheintertidalcoastalwaters.Theapproach
usedisbasedonthePressureStateImpactsResponses(PSIR)frameworkusuallyemployed
inthepreparationofSOEReports.ThePSIRisanattempttocaptureawebofcausallinks
startingwith'drivingforces'(economicsectors,humanactivities)through'pressures'
(emissions,waste)to'states'(physical,chemicalandbiological)and'impacts'onecosystems,
humanhealthandfunctions,eventuallyleadingtopolitical'responses'(prioritisation,target
setting,indicators).Describingthecausalchainfromdrivingforcesandpressurestoimpacts
andresponsesisacomplextask.Theframeworkassumescauseeffectrelationshipsbetween
interactingcomponentsofsocial,economic,andenvironmentalsystems.Thelineof
demarcationbetweenthedomainof“Drivers”and“Pressures”isdiffusedandinthisreportthe
discussiondoesnotattempttomakeadistinctionbetweenthetwo.
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Pressures
CoastalSettlementsandIndustrialization
Thepopulationincoastaltalukasincreasedbynearly18.3percentfrom2001,onthebasisof
districtleveldecadalgrowthratesreportedinNationalCensus2011.Theurbanpopulation
increasedbyabout34percentinthesixmajorcoastaldistricts,i.e.,districtswith