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Principles and Practice of Structural Equation Modeling

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... Subsequently, we tested the overall structural equation model among the whole sample of Latina girls and Latino boys. Finally, to investigate whether generational status moderated the hypothesized relationships, a multiple-group SEM analysis was conducted (Kline, 2005;Byrne, 2012), testing whether path coefficients between latent factors of the hypothesized model (Figure 1) differed across generation status groups. Again, these were conducted separately for girls and boys. ...
... Second, a partially constrained model (M2) in which only the paths that were either significant or non-significant uniformly for all generational status groups in M1 were constrained to be equal across generational status groups. All other paths, including covariances among control variables, were left freely estimated (Kline, 2005). Among girls, the partially constrained model (M2) had a good fit to the data, as shown in Table 3, and the χ 2 difference test comparing the partially constrained model (M2) to the unconstrained model (M1) indicated they were not significantly different: χ 2 (df ) = 34.05 ...
... Generational status differences in specific paths of the model As a final test of significant differences in path coefficients among the generational status groups separately for girls and boys, several additional models were tested in which paths that differed in significance across generational status groups were constrained to be equal across groups (Kline, 2005). Each path was tested individually based on the partially constrained scalar invariant model (M2; Kline, 2005). ...
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Objective This study examined differences and identified developmental predictors of oral, vaginal, and anal intercourse initiation across generational status among Latina/o adolescents of both genders. More specifically, we compare generational status and gender differences in the longitudinal predictions from parent-child sex communication and dating behaviors to sex initiation 5 years later, and how these associations may be mediated by perceived peer norms, intentions, and attitudes regarding sex among Latina/o adolescents. Methods Using prospective longitudinal data from the Healthy Passages™ project collected in Houston and Los Angeles, Latina/o girls ( n = 879) and boys ( n = 885) who were identified as 1st- (18%), 2nd- (58%), or 3rd (24%)-immigrant generational status reported on their dating behaviors and parent-child communication about sex at 5th grade ( M age = 11.12 years), their perceived peer norms and attitudes regarding sex at 7th grade ( M age = 13.11 years), and if they had initiated oral, vaginal, or anal sexual intercourse by 10th grade ( M age = 16.06 years). Results Third-generation Latina girls were more likely than 1st- and 2nd-generation Latinas to have initiated sexual intercourse by 10th grade. More advanced dating behaviors in 5th grade had a positive association with sex initiation for all generational status groups among Latino boys, but only among 1st-generation Latina girls. Moreover, mediating decision-making processes of peer norms and attitudes differed for each group. Conclusion Pre-adolescent dating behaviors are associated with long-term differences in adolescents’ sexual behaviors, which may point to targets for prevention efforts. Acculturation differences may contribute to different ways in which adolescents decide to engage in sexual intercourse based on the previous dating experiences.
... Before verifying the hypotheses, some goodness-of-fit indices had to be considered to evaluate the model fit. According to accommodations and practical applications of previous researchers [34][35][36], this study decided to apply the following indices: the ratio of x2 to its degree of freedom (x2/pdf) (x2 is called CMIN in the maximum likelihood method of Amos) [37], good-of-fit index (GFI), adjusted good-of-fit index (AGFI), normed fit index (NFI), comparative fit index (CFI), incremental fit index (IFI), Tucker-Lewis index (TLI) also called the non-normed fit index (NNFI), and the root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA). ...
... The model was modified through suggested modification indices (MI). At the same time, the covariant relationships of e14↔e15, e8↔e9, and e21↔e22 were built one by one and did not break the rules of the structural equation model [37]. This was completed to ascertain a good fit between the model and the data. ...
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Only one decade since the emergence of the first sports-related mobile app, although there is a large amount of fitness software, the quality is uneven, and some people still have concerns about whether to use fitness software. College students account for a large proportion of the number of people using fitness software; through empirical research on the factors affecting the use of fitness software, it is of great significance to further promote people’s healthy behavior. This study investigates the factors that influence the user behavior of fitness software in college students and then addresses the promotion of better health behaviors among college students. Using a Likert scale, 994 college students (51.3% male, 48.7% female) in five universities (each university accounted for about 20% of students) were given questionnaires. Based on the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT), assumptions were proposed, and a structural equation model (SEM) was constructed. The maximum likelihood method was used to analyze data and verify hypotheses. The results of the study show that social influence, performance expectancy, and effort expectancy significantly affect college students’ behavioral intention. Behavioral intention and gender have a significant positive effect and a moderating effect on user behavior. The development of fitness software should consider the factors mentioned above to enhance the health levels of college students.
... Discriminant validity among the latent variables persists when on-diagonal bold value for each construct is greater than its correlations (off-diagonal values) with other latent variables (Fornell and Larcker, 1981). Table 3 also reports descriptive statistics (mean and SD) for each latent variable along with skewness statistics for confirming the multivariate normality assumption (Kline, 1998). Skewness statistics for each latent . ...
... /fpsyg. . variable are found within the range of −2 and +2 hence inferring that the data hold multivariate normality (Kline, 1998). ...
... Then, the discriminant validity was assessed to estimate whether a construct is different from other constructs. According to [49], the correlation between variables in the model estimation shouldn't be above (0.95) concerning distinguishing validity. Validity was examined depending on the correlation measurement between the constructs and the square root of the average variance developed for a construct [49], [50]. ...
... According to [49], the correlation between variables in the model estimation shouldn't be above (0.95) concerning distinguishing validity. Validity was examined depending on the correlation measurement between the constructs and the square root of the average variance developed for a construct [49], [50]. As demonstrated in Table 3, there was a significant discriminant validity among all constructs, and no values were above the recommended cutoff point of 0.95 [50]. ...
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This study aims to investigate Emotional Exhaustion and Depersonalization and their effect on Perceived Productivity of academic staff in primary schools in Kuwait with the moderating effect of Positivity. To accomplish this aim, some validated and reliable measuring scales were utilized to realize the levels of Emotional Exhaustion, Depersonalization, Productivity, and Positivity among respondents, and consequently to identify the relationship among variables. 379 participants were selected from English departments in primary schools from all educational zones in Kuwait. Stratified random sampling was adopted for the study. SPSS and SmartPLS were used to analyze data. Results proved that Emotional Exhaustion revealed to significantly affect Perceived Productivity of the English academic staff, while Depersonalization proved to have a low effect on Perceived Productivity of the English academic staff in primary schools in Kuwait. Concerning Positivity, it had a partial moderating effect on the relationship between Emotional Exhaustion and Perceived Productivity, while it didn't play a significant moderating effect on the relationship between Depersonalization and Perceived Productivity. Depending on the study findings, theoretical and practical implications were considered to enhance Perceived Productivity and decrease Emotional Exhaustion and Depersonalization. Recommendations for future research along with limitations were also underlined.
... This research is a quantitative correlational study examining the relationship between AAP, OD, and JS. Structural equation modelling (SEM), one of the methods used in correlational research, was used to determine the relationships between variables (Kline, 2010). In this study, AAP with five sub-dimensions, external latent variables, OD with four sub-dimensions, and JS with two sub-dimensions were included in the model as internal latent variables. ...
... While deciding on the estimation method, the multivariate normal distribution of the data set was taken as a basis. It was decided to use the maximum likelihood method, which is commonly used (Kline, 2010) when the data set has a multivariate normal distribution in the literature. Bivariate correlations were calculated for all measured variables to test for multicollinearity. ...
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This study aimed to examine the effect of alienation from the academic profession (AAP) on organizational deviance (OD) and the mediating role of job satisfaction (JS) in this relationship. A quantitative correlational design was employed. Structural equation modeling was used to analyze the data gathered from 257 academics in Turkey. The results show that AAP, directly and indirectly, affected OD. This research indicates that AAP is important in OD. Results also highlighted the direct effect of alienation from academic profession on JS and JS on OD. In addition, JS had a mediator effect between AAP and OD. Consequently, to prevent academics from displaying deviant behaviors, it is important to increase their JS by avoiding the perception of alienation.
... CFA was performed using AMOS V.24 software. The goodness-of-fit of the model was assessed using chi-square indicators (χ 2 ), chi-square ratio to degree of freedom (χ 2 /df ), root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA), root mean square residual (RMR), parsimonious normed fit index (PNFI), parsimony comparative fit index (PCFI), adjusted goodness of fit index (AGFI), goodness of fit index (GFI), parsimony goodness of fit index (PGFI), incremental fit index (IFI), parsimonious normed fit index (PNFI), and comparative fit index (CFI) [38][39][40]. The model was considered to be a good fit if the (χ 2 /df ) < 5, RMSEA and RMR < 0.08, AGFI > 0.8, PCFI, PNFI, and PGFI > 0.5, and other indices (GFI, GFI, IFI) more than 0.9 [38][39][40][41]. ...
... The goodness-of-fit of the model was assessed using chi-square indicators (χ 2 ), chi-square ratio to degree of freedom (χ 2 /df ), root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA), root mean square residual (RMR), parsimonious normed fit index (PNFI), parsimony comparative fit index (PCFI), adjusted goodness of fit index (AGFI), goodness of fit index (GFI), parsimony goodness of fit index (PGFI), incremental fit index (IFI), parsimonious normed fit index (PNFI), and comparative fit index (CFI) [38][39][40]. The model was considered to be a good fit if the (χ 2 /df ) < 5, RMSEA and RMR < 0.08, AGFI > 0.8, PCFI, PNFI, and PGFI > 0.5, and other indices (GFI, GFI, IFI) more than 0.9 [38][39][40][41]. ...
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Background The prevalence of depression in society is increasing and there is a need for a suitable tool to assess the health literacy of people in this field. This study was conducted to evaluate the psychometric of the Iranian version of the depression literacy (D-Lit) questionnaire. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted on 845 participants with a proportional stratified sampling method. First, the translation and cultural adaptation of questionnaire was performed. Then, the validity of D-Lit was assessed by face validity, content validity, exploratory factor analysis (EFA), and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). The reliability of D-Lit was assessed by the Cronbach’s alpha coefficient and McDonald omega coefficient. Results Based on the results of EFA, 5 factors emerged with eigenvalues of greater than 1, which accounted for 56.30% of the variance. Based on the results of CFA, one question was deleted and the results of goodness fit indexes confirmed the model. Cronbach’s alpha coefficient and McDonald omega coefficient for D-Lit questionnaire were 0.890 and 0.891, respectively. Finally, D-Lit questionnaire with 21 questions and 5 subscales of Knowledge of the psychological symptoms (5 items), Knowledge about the effectiveness of available treatment methods (4 items), Knowledge about cognitive-behavioral symptoms (6 items), Knowledge about taking medications and their side effects (4 items), and Knowledge of the severity of the disease (2 items) were confirmed. Conclusion The results of this psychometric evaluation confirmed the Persian version of D-Lit questionnaire with 21 questions and 5 subscales is an appropriate tool for measuring people's literacy about depression.
... The model had a significant Chi-square of 15804, df=7, p=.027. The goodness of fit indices (Kline, 2005) There were statistically significant mediator pathways between identity resilience -> internalized homonegativity -> distress SE=.005,p=.002] and between identity resilience -> social support -> distress SE=.006,p=.007]. Identity resilience was negatively associated with internalized homonegativity SE=.04,p<.001] ...
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Two cross-sectional survey studies were conducted to examine the relationships between minority stressors, protective factors and mental health outcomes in lesbian, gay and bisexual people (LGB) in the United Kingdom (UK). A convenience sample of 156 LGB people in the UK participated in Study 1. Multiple regression analyses showed that victimization and sexuality-related identity threat were positively associated with anxiety and that identity resilience, social support and degree of outness were negative correlates; and that rejection was negatively associated with depression while identity resilience and social support were negative correlates. In Study 2, based on a convenience sample of 333 gay men, our structural equation model showed that ethnic minority status, lower identity resilience and higher identity threat were associated with greater distress; ethnic minority status was associated with less social support and more internalized homonegativity; being single was associated with less social support and more internalized homonegativity; identity resilience was positively associated with social support and negatively associated with internalized homonegativity; identity threat was associated with less social support and more internalized homonegativity; internalized homonegativity was negatively associated with social support; and social support was negatively associated with distress while internalized homonegativity was positively associated with distress. Findings show differential effects of particular stressors on particular mental health outcomes in LGB people and the significance of promoting identity resilience, social support and degree of outness as protective factors.
... Table 4 also exhibits the statistics for the mean and SD for the descriptive picture of the latent variable, while skewness statistics are reported to fulfil the assumption of multivariate normality. According to Kline (1998), data tend to be normal when skewness statistics for latent variables range between À1 and +1, which is the case in the present study, thus fulfilling the assumption. ...
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This research attempts to measure the direct and moderated influence of entrepreneurial passion (EP), motivation (EM) and creativity (EC) on intention (EI) while being moderated by entrepreneurship education (EE). This study also instrumentalizes the conditional interaction effect of fear of failure on the moderated paths. A data sample of 1090 business students from five Indian universities was subjected to screening and cleaning before establishing the measurement model and testing the hypotheses using structural equation modelling and Process Macro. EP, EM and EC were found to affect EI directly, while EE also moderated these links. Fear of failure was also found to be conditioning the moderated paths such that the positive moderation effect of EE on direct paths between EP, EM, EC and EI was stronger when students perceived no fear of failure. The study advances the existing literature on the moderating role of entrepreneurship education by recognizing the conditional interaction effect (moderated-moderation) of fear of failure on the moderating effects of entrepreneurship education. The authors also provide valuable suggestions for practice.
... The variance inflation factors (VIFs) for all indicators were below 2.5, indicating that all indicators belonging to the construct were adequately independent. Discriminant validity assessment through heterotraitmonotrait (HTMT) ratio of correlations method also indicated that all HTMT values were lower than the most restrictive threshold (0.85), thus indicating adequate discriminant validity [14]. ...
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Background This study aimed to assess the fertility intentions of young people after the announcement of the three–child policy in China and to determine whether knowledge about reproductive, maternal, newborn, and child health (RMNCH) services or support, childbearing- and childbirth-related anxiety, and parenthood–related anxiety influence fertility intentions. Methods A cross-sectional Internet-based survey was conducted on a nationwide sample of young people aged 18 to 28 years old in education institutions. Factors associated with fertility intentions were analysed using partial least squares structural equation modelling (PLS-SEM). Results Only 4.2% of males and 1.7% of females intended to have three children or more. On the whole, the majority (40.3%) reported the intention to have two children. The mean and standard deviation (SD) for the total knowledge RMNCH support and/or services knowledge score was 9.5 (SD ± 8.9), out of a possible score of 39. The median and interquartile range (IQR) of childbearing– and childbirth-related anxiety score was 8.0 (IQR = 6.0–9.0), out of a possible score of 10. The median and IQR of parenthood–related anxiety score among the males was 6.0 (IQR = 4.0–9.0) and for females was 7.0 (IQR = 5.0–9.0). Results from PLS-SEM revealed that a higher level of knowledge of RMNCH support and/or services is significantly associated with higher fertility intentions. Both childbearing- and childbirth-related anxiety and parenthood–related anxiety were inversely associated with fertility intentions. Conclusion Raising awareness about RMNCH supportive measures and easing birth- and parenting anxiety are imperative to enhance birth rates. Future policies should pay more attention to these determinants to achieve their intended goal of boosting population growth.
... This differs significantly from our context where there was only one scale per station and precludes any comparison. In our case, CFA was performed according to a hypothesis-driven process based on station format, rather than scales, and is likely to provide more meaningful results than an EFA [33]. However, whether this factorial structure underpins different constructs or simply different tasks remains unclear, but it is likely that we are assessing different skills when using different station formats. ...
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Background Multiple mini-interviews (MMI) are used to assess non-academic attributes for selection in medicine and other healthcare professions. It remains unclear if different MMI station formats (discussions, role-plays, collaboration) assess different dimensions. Methods Based on station formats of the 2018 and 2019 Integrated French MMI (IFMMI), which comprised five discussions, three role-plays and two collaboration stations, the authors performed confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) using the lavaan 0.6-5 R package and compared a one-factor solution to a three-factor solution for scores of the 2018 ( n = 1438) and 2019 ( n = 1440) cohorts of the IFMMI across three medical schools in Quebec, Canada. Results The three-factor solution was retained, with discussions, role-plays and collaboration stations all loading adequately with their scores. Furthermore, all three factors had moderate-to-high covariance (range 0.44 to 0.64). The model fit was also excellent with a Comparative fit index (CFI) of 0.983 (good if > 0.9), a Tucker Lewis index of 0.976 (good if > 0.95), a Standardized Root Mean Square Residual of 0.021 (good if < .08) and a Root Mean Square Error of 0.023 (good if < 0.08) for 2018 and similar results for 2019. In comparison, the single factor solution presented a lower fit (CFI = 0.819, TLI = 0.767, SRMR = 0.049 and RMSEA = 0.070). Conclusions The IFMMI assessed three dimensions that were related to stations formats, a finding that was consistent across two cohorts. This suggests that different station formats may be assessing different skills, and has implications for the choice of appropriate reliability metrics and the interpretation of scores. Further studies should try to characterize the underlying constructs associated with each station format and look for differential predictive validity according to these formats.
... CFA with ordered categorical indicators using robust weighted least squares estimator (WLSMV) was applied in order to take into account the ordered categorical nature of the scale items [56]. Measurement models were evaluated using the fit indices CFI, TLI, RMSEA, and SRMR based on common cut-off criteria [57]. ...
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Appetitive aggression, i.e., the motivation to obtain rewards through aggressive behaviors, has been suggested as a key driver of cyberbullying. Due to the contextual properties of cyberspace(e.g., anonymity), it is assumed that the negative effects of cyberbullying are masked, leading to a preponderance of its positive outcomes (e.g., thrill). Since cyberbullying occurs predominantly in social media, reward-learning effects may lead to problematic social media use, such as addiction. Anti-cyberbullying inclusive norms might act as a buffering factor to break this chain. However, while inclusive norms are known to reduce cyberbullying in general, their influence on the indirect effect of appetitive aggression via cyberbullying on social media addiction is yet unknown. The present study examined this indirect effect, while taking the moderating role of inclusive norms into account. A total of 1064 adolescents (42.05% male, Mage = 14.07, SD = 2.15) completed questionnaires. Results revealed the indirect effect of appetitive aggression on social media addiction through cyberbullying as expected. Surprisingly, this indirect effect was amplified with increasing anti-cyberbullying inclusive norms. Our findings indicate that appetitive aggression, which manifests in cyberbullying, contributes to the development of social media addiction. The unexpected results and the implications of our findings were discussed.
... Maintain a balance between helping children to explore and facilitating children's independent exploration (example: intervening when the child encounters a difficulty and shows signs of withdrawal). Prior to analyses, the subscale feasibility regarding the child level was examined for the normality of each of the 22 items, revealing that none of the items were higher than the recommended cut-off points-skewness |2.00|and, kurtosis |7.00| (Kline, 1998; Table 2). ...
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Positive teacher-child relationships promote children’s engagement, as children feel more secure to explore and participate in free or oriented activities. For children with disabilities, a context wherein they can receive the support to maintain a positive engagement in different activities is even more relevant. A scarcity of research exists on how to promote ECEC quality, namely, how to facilitate teacher-child interactions in inclusive environments. This study aims to evaluate preschool teachers’ opinions about the desirability and feasibility of a set of empirically validated strategies to improve teacher-child interactions in ECEC classrooms, for the group and children with disabilities. The participants were 89 Portuguese preschool teachers. Based on a non-systematic literature review, a questionnaire composed of 22 strategies to facilitate teacher-child interactions (in 4 dimensions: emotionally responsive interactions, classroom management, attend to children’s perspectives, and scaffolding learning) was developed. Along with the questionnaire, a set of socio-demographic variables was also collected. ECEC teachers scored significantly higher in the desirability subscale compared with the feasibility subscale in all dimensions and at both the child and the group level. This gap between teachers’ perceived desirability and feasibility provides important insights regarding the dimensions which are important to reinforce in ECEC teachers’ education and professional development. The mean difference between the desirability and feasibility subscales registered a higher effect size at the child’s level than at the group’s level, confirming that the inclusion of children with disabilities in preschool settings remains a challenge. Moreover, the effect size was small to moderate in the Emotionally Responsive Interactions dimension for both child and group levels. These results are aligned with previous studies stating that among different self-identified dimensions for improvement, emotional support is the less evoked by ECEC teachers. Across all dimensions, the main reason teachers give for difficulty in feasibility, both at the group and child’s level, is lack of knowledge. Overall, understanding the reasons teachers attribute to the difference between the strategies’ desirability and feasibility informs the assessment of teacher education needs and might be operationalized as a new observation instrument.
... These fit indices may each be influenced by numerous factors, such as sample size, data distribution, and model complexity and specifications. Therefore, we used both liberal and conservative cut-off points for acceptable fit for the CFI, RMSEA, and SRMR: the CFI should be close to or greater than 0.90 (liberal) or 0.95 (conservative), RMSEA should be 0.10 or less (liberal) or 0.06 or less (conservative), and SRMR should be less than 0.10 (liberal) or 0.05 (conservative) [41]. The factor measurement reliability was evaluated with the composite reliability index (CR) and the average variance extracted index (AVE). ...
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Background: Having a valid tool to assess attitudes toward vaccination and identify the concerns that drive vaccine refusal can facilitate population studies and help guide public health interventions. The objective of this study has been to adapt the Vaccination Attitudes Examination (VAX) scale in Colombian university students and to study its psychometric properties in a non-probabilistic sample of 1074 Colombian university students. Methods: A confirmatory factor analysis was used to study the factorial structure. A structural equation model was tested to study concurrent validity and to check whether the factors predicted having received the coronavirus vaccine. Gender-based measurement invariance was also studied for the best model. Results: The results support the structure of four related factors. The composite reliability index was good for all the factors, but the average variance extracted was not as good for the second factor. There was strong measurement invariance by gender, and two factors are good predictors of being vaccinated or not. Conclusions: The VAX has shown construct and concurrent validity and is a reliable tool for evaluating attitudes towards vaccines in university students in Colombia. It may help guide the implementation of actions for the National Vaccination Plan and institutional policies.
... Second, Henseler et al. (2015) illustrated in detail that the assessment heterotrait-montotrait (HTMT) ratio of correlations criteria are a preferred approach for PLS-SEM because HTMT ratios are more sensitive than the Fornell-Larcker criterion. Therefore, the discriminant validity was also evaluated by HTMT ratio, and the requirement could be satisfied if the HTMT value was below 0.85 (Kline, 2015). Since all the HTMT values shown in Table 3 are below the threshold, the discriminant validity was established. ...
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This paper investigates the impact of human capital, social capital, career planning behavior, protean career orientation and core self-evaluations on students’ academic and life satisfaction in China, with the mediation effect of perceived employability and moderation effect of perceived labor market conditions. Data were collected by distributing online questionnaires to 1155 students in three types of universities. All the hypothesized direct paths and the mediation effects were supported. The moderation effect was partially supported. Perceived employability contributes to positive evaluations about life and academic work, and the perception of labor market condition could be enhanced to improve students’ academic evaluations.
... The internal consistency of each scale is acceptable when Cronbach's α ≥ 0.70. We assessed the model fit to the data with several fit indices: the Chi-square statistic, the Chi-square/degree of freedom ratio (χ 2 /df ratio), the comparative fit index (CFI), and the root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA) (Kline, 2015). The values of selected fit indexes demonstrated acceptable overall fit of the model: χ 2 /df = 2 to 3, CFI ≥ 0.90, and RMSEA ≤ 0.10. ...
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Relations between parental stress and children’s behavior problems have been studied, but the role of parenting styles in these relations remains to be clarified. For families of children who are deaf or hard-of-hearing (DHH), exploring the associations among the three factors (i.e., parental stress, parenting styles, and children’s behavior problems) can help provide a more appropriate developmental environment for DHH children. In this study, 100 parents of hearing children and 74 parents of DHH children from Hong Kong and Macau were surveyed to investigate the role of parenting styles in the relations between parental stress and children’s internalizing and externalizing behavior problems. We have several key findings. First, families with DHH children were more likely to engage in permissive parenting, and their children exhibited more externalizing and internalizing behavior problems than their hearing peers. Second, parents who experienced high levels of stress tended to adopt authoritarian and permissive parenting styles, regardless of their children’s hearing status. Third, authoritative parenting was related to fewer externalizing and internalizing problems in DHH children, but such an association was not found in hearing children. However, the relation that authoritarian parenting may contribute to more behavior problems was found in both groups. Implications for family interventions to decrease behavior problems in DHH and hearing children, as well as for future research, are discussed.
... SEM technique consists of two types of models, i.e., the measurement model and the structural model. The measurement model is used to test the latent and composite variables, while the structural model is used to test the dependencies of all hypotheses based on the results of path analysis [72]. ...
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Social media has become a very commonplace way for many people to have social interactions. The role of social media has changed from what was originally only a way to bridge social interactions, to becoming a business tool in various industries, one of which is the tourism industry. The interaction between social media users can create new ways to increase public awareness of existing tourist objects. One way to achieve that goal is by utilizing social media influencers. This study aims to identify the factors that influence the intention of the followers to follow the travel recommendations given by the influencer. This study uses the theory of follower-influencer experience and the theory of emotional dimensions, as well as their effect on the level of commitment and intention to follow the recommendation. This research was conducted by distributing surveys through social media and we managed to obtain a total of 203 valid respondents. The results of the study were analyzed using structural equation modeling (SEM), which showed that information experience and homophily experience had a significant effect on pleasure, arousal, and dominance. Pleasure and dominance have a significant effect on commitment, and commitment has a significant effect on the intention to follow the recommendation.
... In the subsequent analysis, 250 questionnaires with complete responses were analyzed, i.e., 62.5% of the total sample, a very good response rate compared to previous investigations [61,62] and an acceptable number of responses for statistical purposes [63,64]. Although the sample is rather small compared to what is normally desirable when using covariance-based structural equation modeling (CB-SEM), it is still larger than that used in previous research [62,65,66]. This paper complies with the 10-fold rule [64], which indicates that when using PLS-SEM, the sample size should be at least equal to 10 times the largest number of structural paths directed to a particular construct in the structural model. ...
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Innovation capabilities are among the main driving sources of export performance; however, the literature on how exploration and exploitation innovation influence export performance in the context of emerging economies is scarce. As such, the purpose of this paper is to assess the relationship between innovation capabilities and export performance, mediated by exploration and exploitation innovation. For that, an online questionnaire was implemented surveying 250 Mozambican Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) in the agro-industry, agro-processing, and fishing sectors. Based on a Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Model (PLS-SEM) relating innovation capabilities, exploitation, and exploration innovation to export performance, it is possible to state that innovation capabilities influence the export performance of SMEs in this emerging country. Moreover, exploration and exploitation innovation exert important mediation effects, the latter being more prevalent than the former. The results constitute a major contribution as it is possible to claim that, in the context of emerging economies, Mozambican SMEs have managed to enhance their export performance, based on innovation capabilities, but, also, to master their ambidexterity with exploiting capabilities, normally linked to their current technological trajectories, being more prevalent that exploitation capabilities, which are focused on the pursuit of radical innovation.
... Moreover, we checked the correlations among constructs, and the correlation results met the requirements that correlations among constructs should be lower than .85 (Kline, 2015). Considering that high correlations may cause multi-collinearity problems, we also examined the Variance Inflation Factor (VIF) values. ...
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Recently, mobile learning has become a potential approach in education due to its use inside and/or outside the classroom. Considering that the majority of mobile device users are 18-29 years old higher education students and English is the predominant language of the internet, this study aimed to predict the continuance intention of users toward mobile-assisted language learning (MALL) after fourteen weeks experience on a mobile application, namely Duolingo. To do this, we used the Technology Acceptance Model, Theory of Planned Behavior and Expectation Confirmation Model. The participants were 379 students taking the course English I. This cross-sectional survey study revealed that perceived behavioral control, attitude, subjective norms, satisfaction, and perceived usefulness have a significant effect on the university students' continuance intention to use MALL. In turn, it validated our proposed model on the continuance intention to use MALL. Based on the results of this study, some practical and theoretical implications were discussed.
... Posteriormente, se ha evaluado el modelo estructural (ver Figura II), a través de criterios establecidos por Hair et al. (2014): La estimación de la significancia estadística e importancia de las hipótesis por medio del procedimiento Boostrapping (ver Tabla 6), esperando valores del estadístico T superiores a 1.96 (Kerlinger y Lee, 2002;Schumacker y Lomax, 2004;Kline, 2011;Ullman, 2013;Hair et al., 2014;Henseler, 2017). Se señala que la descripción de los reactivos que conformaron finalmente cada variable latente (CH, AO, y DO), ha sido expuesta en las Tablas 2, 3 y 4 de este apartado. ...
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El objetivo del estudio es analizar la relación entre capital humano, aprendizaje organizacional y desempeño organizacional, en instituciones de educación media superior en Tamaulipas, México. El tipo de investigación es cuantitativa, con diseño no experimental y alcance causal. Se diseñó y aplicó, online, un cuestionario con escala tipo Likert de cinco niveles de respuesta, a una muestra probabilística de 505 docentes activos en la cátedra y en las academias escolares, además, que contaban con resultados adecuados en su evaluación de desempeño. El análisis factorial exploratorio permitió identificar la estructura subyacente de cada variable latente, obteniendo coeficientes de Cronbach y fiabilidad compuesta favorables, con resultados iguales o superiores a 0.70. Para la validación de las hipótesis se aplicó el modelado de ecuaciones estructurales. Los resultados mostraron que el capital humano y el aprendizaje organizacional influyen positivamente en el desempeño organizacional, lo que representa para la gerencia educativa, la oportunidad de gestionar uno de los capitales intangibles más importantes. Se concluye, que la formación, habilidades, valores y aprendizaje del personal docente, son prácticas que se estiman valiosas, puesto que contribuyen a mejorar los procesos, servicios, imagen, entre otros indicadores, relacionados con el desempeño de las instituciones educativas del sector público.
... A good model fit in CFA provides evidence that the items of the latent construct sufficiently reflect the latent construct. As suggested by Kline (2005), the model fit indices used included chi-square (χ 2 : best if p > 0.05), root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA: best if < 0.08), comparative fit index (CFI: best if > 0.90), goodness of fit index (GFI: best if > 0.95), and Tucker-Lewis index (TLI: best > 0.90). Additionally, Akaike's information criterion (AIC, lower values indicate better fit), which is generally used for model comparisons, was included. ...
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Professional identity has been linked to organizational outcomes such as job performance and commitment, as well as health and well-being indices such as burnout and depression. Professional identity is a powerful mechanism that can be affected by social and environmental factors. It is therefore important to establish a reliable and valid measurement of professional identity that is useful in different contexts. The current study examines the psychometric properties of Brown’s Professional Identification Scale (PIS) using three different but complementary approaches: classical test theory, Mokken analysis, and Rasch analysis. The study participants ( N = 355), school teachers recruited from all over South Africa, completed the PIS, the Satisfaction with Life Scale, and the Teacher Satisfaction Scale. The reliability and validity of a reduced 8-item version of the PIS was confirmed. Mokken and Rasch analyses indicated that the scale consists of more than one dimension, and classical test theory (exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis) supported a two-factor structure. Ancillary bifactor indices indicated that professional pride and professional discontent explained a sufficient amount of the variance over and above that explained by the professional identity as a total scale. Overall, the findings support an 8-item PIS for use in a South African teacher population.
... The validity of the questionnaire can be divided into convergent validity and discriminant validity (69). Convergent validity refers to the similarity of measurement results when different measurement methods are used to measure the same characteristics (70). ...
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Objective COVID-19 has caused great loss of human life and livelihoods. The dissemination of health information in online social networks increased during the pandemic's quarantine. Older people are the most vulnerable group in sudden public health emergencies, and they have the disadvantage of infection rates and online search for health information. This study explores the relationship between the health risk perception and health information search behavior of older people in social networks, to help them make better use of the positive role of social networks in public health emergencies. Method Based on the Risk Information Search and Processing model, and in the specific context of COVID-19, this study redefines health risk perception as a second-order construct of four first-order factors (perceived probability, perceived severity, perceived controllability, and perceived familiarity), and constructs a research model of the health risk perception and health information search behavior of older people. An online survey of people over 55 years old was conducted through convenience sampling in China from February 2020 to March 2020. Results A total of 646 older adults completed the survey. The structural equation model showed that health risk perception is a second-order factor (H1), that health risk perception has significant positive effects on health information search behavior (H2: β = 0.470, T = 11.577, P < 0.001), and that health risk perception has significant positive effects on affective response (H3: β = 0.536, T = 17.356, P < 0.001). In addition, affective response has a significant positive mediating effect on information sufficiency (H4: β = 0.435, T = 12.231, P < 0.001), and information sufficiency has a significant positive mediating effect on health information search behavior (H5: β = 0.136, T = 3.081, P = 0.002). Conclusion The study results indicate that the health risk perception of older people during the COVID-19 outbreak not only directly affected their health information search behavior, but also had an indirect impact on their health information search behavior by affecting affective response and information sufficiency.
... The discriminant validity of a model can be assessed by comparing the AVE of each dimension with its shared variance (Fornell and Larcker, 1981;Kline, 2015). As seen in Table 6, the AVE value is above the shared variance, indicating sufficient discriminant validity (Fornell and Larcker, 1981). ...
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China apparel customization brands (CACBs) have been recently growing in massive quantities despite being in their infancy stages of brand value building. Although scholars have proven brand value’s importance in sustainable brand growth, studies on the specific context of CACBs are still limited. This research proposes a conceptual framework of CACBs’ brand value measured dimension based on previous studies and divides brand value into both general and specific dimensions. Accordingly, qualitative (semi-structured interviews) and quantitative (online survey) studies were conducted from the perspectives of practitioners and consumers. Ultimately, a scale of 30 items with nine dimensions was generated. Results reveal that brand association in the general dimensions and brand service in the special dimensions were the largest promoters of CACB brand value. Hence, practitioners should pay more attention to dimensions of cognitive conflicts. Practical suggestions for apparel customization marketers are proposed to build and enhance brand value.
... Descriptive statistics and bivariate correlation were calculated for variables under analysis. The hypothesized model was test with AMOS v.27 based on a two-step maximum likelihood approach, as suggested by Kline [74]. The first step was a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) to analyze the psychometric properties of the model. ...
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Background and Objectives: Fibromyalgia are heterogeneous and differ from patient to patient ; however, the most reported are general myalgia and at specific points associated with fatigue and certain psychological adversities. Physical activity can mitigate the effects of the symptoms. However, the associations between fibromyalgia-related fatigue, self-esteem, anxiety, depression, satisfaction with life and physical activity are unclear. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to understand the associations between these symptoms and whether there are differences between these associations across two distinct cultures. Materials and Methods: A total of 473 women aged between 28 and 75 years (M = 49.27 ± SD8.28) completed five questionnaires about fibromyalgia-related fatigue, physical activity, anxiety, depression, self-esteem, and satisfaction with life. Results: Fibromyalgia-related fatigue was positively associated with depression and anxiety, depression and anxiety were negatively associated with self-esteem, self-esteem was positively associated with satisfaction with life, satisfaction with life was positively associated with physical activity and there were no differences in terms of the perceptions and associations of these variables between Portu-guese and Brazilian patients. Conclusion: Our results showed the significant role of associations between these variables and a similarity in the perception and relationship of the variables between the two cultures.
... We initially recruited 275 nurses from five referral hospitals. While there is no consensus about the sample size of studies intended to perform path analysis, several researchers recommended minimum sample size of 200 participants [51].The inclusion criteria were as follow: [1] Being a licensed nurse; [2] having a minimum working experience of one year; [3] directly providing care to patients with COVID-19. The exclusion criterion was having a psychological disorders background [based on participants' self-report]. ...
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Background COVID-19 has created significant and unprecedented psychological distress on nurses working with COVID-19 patients. Nurses dealing with such psychological distress are prone to burnout. This study examined the mediating role of sleep disturbance and rumination in the association between psychological distress and work-related burnout of nurses treating COVID-19 patients. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted from 26th February to 16th March 2021, on a sample of 250 nurses who were actively working during the COVID-19 pandemic in five referral hospitals in Tehran, Iran. The Oldenburg Burnout Inventory, Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K10), Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, and Ruminative Responses Scale were used to collect data. Data analysis was based on pearson’ correlation analysis and path analysis. Results Psychological distress has a significant effect on job burnout. When sleep disturbances were modeled as a mediator, path coefficients of psychological distress showed a significant effect on job burnout. Also, according to the findings, rumination poses a significant mediating effect on the association between psychological distress and job burnout. Conclusion This study demonstrated the importance of designing psychological interventions intended to reduce sleep disturbances and rumination when experiencing stressful events to avoid job burnout among nurses.
... Model fit was assessed using a series of indices, according to best practice [31]. A non-significant chi square goodness of fit test is indicative of a well-fitting model and was considered but is sensitive to sample size [28]. ...
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Background Death literacy includes the knowledge and skills that people need to gain access to, understand, and make informed choices about end of life and death care options. The Death Literacy Index (DLI) can be used to determine levels of death literacy across multiple contexts, including at a community/national level, and to evaluate the outcome of public health interventions. As the first measure of death literacy, the DLI has potential to significantly advance public health approaches to palliative care. The current study aimed to provide the first assessment of the psychometric properties of the DLI in the UK, alongside population-level benchmarks. Methods A large nationally representative sample of 399 participants, stratified by age, gender and ethnicity, were prospectively recruited via an online panel. The factor structure of the 29-item DLI was investigated using confirmatory factor analysis. Internal consistency of subscales was assessed alongside interpretability. Hypothesised associations with theoretically related/unrelated constructs were examined to assess convergent and discriminant validity. Descriptive statistics were used to provide scaled mean scores on the DLI. Results Confirmatory factor analysis supported the original higher-order 8 factor structure, with the best fitting model including one substituted item developed specifically for UK respondents. The subscales reported high internal consistency. Good convergent and discriminant validity was evidenced in relation to objective knowledge of the death system, death competency, actions relating to death and dying in the community and loneliness. Good known-groups validity was achieved with respondents with professional/lived experience of end-of-life care reporting higher levels of death literacy. There was little socio-demographic variability in DLI scores. Scaled population-level mean scores were near the mid-point of DLI subscale/total, with comparatively high levels of experiential knowledge and the ability to talk about death and dying. Conclusions Psychometric evaluations suggest the DLI is a reliable and valid measure of death literacy for use in the UK, with population level benchmarks suggesting the UK population could strengthen capacity in factual knowledge and accessing help. International validation of the DLI represents a significant advancement in outcome measurement for public health approaches to palliative care. Pre-registration https://osf.io/fwxkh/
... Aşağıdaki tabloda DFA analizinden elde edilen uyum iyilik değerleri verilmiştir. Yukarıdaki Tablo 5 incelendiğinde uyum iyilik değerlerinin kabul edilebilir düzeyde oldukları ifade edilebilir (Hu ve Bentler 1999;Kline, 2015). Faktörler arasındaki korelasyonlara ilişkin tablo aşağıda sunulmuştur. ...
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Knowledge and comprehension of cultural differences are vital for life quality and sociocultural well-being since it allows people from different cultures to contribute to the development of the community from a perspective of understanding and acceptance through intercultural dialogue. One of the skills to develop this understanding is intercultural sensitivity. This study aims to conduct validity and reliability studies for adapting the intercultural sensitivity scale to The Turkish language. Data were collected from 375 university students for factor analysis and reliability studies. In the studies, a six-factor structure consisting of 35 items was obtained. The internal consistency coefficient of the adapted measurement tool was calculated as .82 for the whole scale. It is seen that the reliability values of the subscales of the full scale varied between .50 and .69. Although high values for reliability did not emerge, it can be stated that the reliability values for the subscales were within acceptable limits. In other words, it can be said that the items in the scale are related (homogeneous) and measure the same structure. In addition, the goodness of fit values (CFI, TLI, RMSA, SRMR) obtained from the confirmatory factor analysis showed that the adapted scale could also be used in the Turkish language context in this structure.
... Table 1 shows that the composite reliability of all constructs ranges from 0.82 to 0.91 and the average variance extracted (AVE) ranges from 0.61 to 0.74, confirming the reliability of all constructs (Hair et al., 2010). All standardized loadings of the items on their respective constructs are above 0.50 and significant at p < 0.001, showing convergent validity (Kline, 2016). Table 2 shows that the AVE for each construct is greater than the squared correlation between that construct and all other constructs in the model, indicating support for discriminant validity (Farrell, 2010). ...
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Purpose-Although skilled migrants have a high capacity for integration, many report experiences of exclusion which impacts their ability to contribute fully to the host country. This experience of exclusion, which can diminish their self-efficacy at work, is especially acute for skilled migrants from non-English speaking backgrounds when functioning in a new or exclusionary environment. In this paper, we explore the relationship between workplace inclusion and self-efficacy and identify factors that contribute to perceived inclusion for skilled migrant workers. Design/methodology/approach-Participants were recruited through social network groups representing migrant workers via LinkedIn. Through snowball sampling, participants were asked to recommend recent (3-5 years) skilled migrants to participate. A total of 210 skilled migrant workers to Australia completed the survey. Structural equation modelling (SEM) is used to test our model on the relationship between inclusion and self-efficacy. Findings-Migrants' perceptions of inclusion at work are related to their self-efficacy at work. We also find that some dimensions of inclusion are more important than others in enhancing self-efficacy for skilled migrants. Meaningful exchanges with supervisors, a sense of belonging at work and workgroup cohesion (being accepted by co-workers) are more important than senior management support or getting involved in organizational social activities as determinants of perceived inclusion. Social implications-Although skilled migrants are often assumed to be a self-select group of highly motivated, high achieving workers, many experience poor adjustment and feel excluded after arriving in the host country. Public policies have limited effects in promoting inclusion of skilled migrant workers in organizations. These policies may be supplemented with an inclusive organizational climate to improve migrant worker success. Organizations and employers are thus critical partners in fostering migrant workers' sense of inclusion and supporting the career outcomes of skilled migrant workers in the host country. Originality/value-This study supports the link between perceived inclusion and self-efficacy among skilled migrant workers. It also sharpens the evidence of organizational-level factors that contribute to perceived inclusion for migrant workers.
... The high required positioning and low actual positioning of listening and speaking made the large discrepancy between them, which was one of the origins of students' demotivation. (Doll et al., 1994) AGFI 0.870 >0.80 (Doll et al., 1994;Arpaci and Baloğlu, 2016) CFI 0.949 >0.90 (Kline, 2015) RMSEA 0.098 <0.10 (Kenny et al., 2015) Frontiers in Psychology 09 frontiersin.org ...
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Demotivation is one of the important factors causing students’ failure in learning a language. To explore the psychological and cognitive factors causing college students’ demotivation to learn English in China’s universities and to investigate the relations among these internal factors, this study constructed a shopping cart model by applying grounded theory method and tested the model by using structural equation modeling. This study found three paths underlying students’ demotivation to learn English, originating from large discrepancy between students’ actual and required positioning of English learning, low required positioning of English learning and low value of English learning in students’ minds. Based on these findings, this study gave some pedagogical implications for English teaching.
... Aşağıdaki tabloda DFA analizinden elde edilen uyum iyilik değerleri verilmiştir. Yukarıdaki Tablo 5 incelendiğinde uyum iyilik değerlerinin kabul edilebilir düzeyde oldukları ifade edilebilir (Hu ve Bentler 1999;Kline, 2015). Faktörler arasındaki korelasyonlara ilişkin tablo aşağıda sunulmuştur. ...
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ÖZ Kültürel farklılıkları bilme ve anlama, yaşam kalitesi ve sosyal kültürel iyi oluş hali için çok önemlidir. Çünkü bu süreç farklı kültürlerden insanların kültürlerarası diyalog vasıtası ile toplumsal anlama ve kabul perspektifinin gelişimine katkıda bulunmalarına yardımcı olur. Bu kültürlerarası anlamayı geliştirmek için gerekli olan becerilerden birisi de kültürlerarası duyarlılıktır. Bu çalışmanın amacı kültürlerarası duyarlılık ölçeğinin Türkçe diline uyarlamasına yönelik geçerlilik ve güvenirlilik çalışmalarını gerçekleştirmektir. Faktör analizi ve güvenirlik çalışmaları için 375 üniversite öğrencisinden veri toplanmıştır. Yapılan çalışmalarda 35 maddeden oluşan altı faktörlü bir yapı elde edilmiştir. Uyarlanan ölçme aracının iç tutarlılık katsayısı tüm ölçek için .82 olarak hesaplanmıştır. Ölçeğin alt faktörlerine ilişkin güvenirlik değerlerinin .50 ve .69 arasında değiştiği görülmektedir. Güvenirlilikle ilgili çok yüksek değerler ortaya çıkmamasına rağmen ölçeğin alt faktörlerine ilişkin güvenirlilik değerlerin kabul edilebilir sınırlarda olduğu ifade edilebilir. Başka bir deyişle ölçekteki maddelerin birbirleriyle ilişkili (homojen) olduğu ve aynı yapıyı ölçtüğü söylenebilir. Bunun yanında yapılan doğrulayıcı faktör analizinden elde edilen uyum iyilik değerleri (CFI, TLI, RMSA, SRMR) uyarlanan ölçeğin bu yapıda Türkçe dili kontekstinde de kullanılabileceğini göstermiştir. ABSTRACT Knowledge and comprehension of cultural differences are vital for life quality and sociocultural well-being since it allows people from different cultures to contribute to the development of the community from a perspective of understanding and acceptance through intercultural dialogue. One of the skills to develop this understanding is intercultural sensitivity. This study aims to conduct validity and reliability studies for adapting the intercultural sensitivity scale to The Turkish language. Data were collected from 375 university students for factor analysis and reliability studies. In the studies, a six-factor structure consisting of 35 items was obtained. The internal consistency coefficient of the adapted measurement tool was calculated as .82 for the whole scale. It is seen that the reliability values of the subscales of the full scale varied between .50 and .69. Although high values for reliability did not emerge, it can be stated that the reliability values for the subscales were within acceptable limits. In other words, it can be said that the items in the scale are related (homogeneous) and measure the same structure. In addition, the goodness of fit values (CFI, TLI, RMSA, SRMR) obtained from the confirmatory factor analysis showed that the adapted scale could also be used in the Turkish language context in this structure.
... These fit indices may each be influenced by numerous factors, such as sample size, data distribution, and model complexity and specifications. Therefore, we used both liberal and conservative cut-off points for acceptable fit for the CFI, RMSEA, and SRMR: the CFI should be close to or greater than 0.90 (liberal) or 0.95 (conservative), RMSEA should be 0.10 or less (liberal) or 0.06 or less (conservative), and SRMR should be less than 0.10 (liberal) or 0.05 (conservative) [41]. The factor measurement reliability was evaluated with the composite reliability index (CR) and the average variance extracted index (AVE). ...
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Citation: Espejo, B.; Martín-Carbonell, M.; Romero-Acosta, K.C.; Fernández-Daza, M.; Paternina, Y. (2022). Journal of Clinical Medicine, 11(16), 4682; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11164682 Having a valid tool to assess attitudes toward vaccination and identify the concerns that drive vaccine refusal can facilitate population studies and help guide public health interventions. The objective of this study has been to adapt the Vaccination Attitudes Examination (VAX) scale in Colombian university students and to study its psychometric properties in a non-probabilistic sample of 1074 Colombian university students. Methods: A confirmatory factor analysis was used to study the factorial structure. A structural equation model was tested to study concurrent validity and to check whether the factors predicted having received the coronavirus vaccine. Gender-based measurement invariance was also studied for the best model. Results: The results support the structure of four related factors. The composite reliability index was good for all the factors, but the average variance extracted was not as good for the second factor. There was strong measurement invariance by gender, and two factors are good predictors of being vaccinated or not. Conclusions: The VAX has shown construct and concurrent validity and is a reliable tool for evaluating attitudes towards vaccines in university students in Colombia. It may help guide the implementation of actions for the National Vaccination Plan and institutional policies.
... The overidentified model was then analyzed with a maximum likelihood minimization function. Given that the proposed model did not have a good fit based on Kline's (2015) criteria, we removed six items that had low factor loadings (below .3), which negatively influenced the global fit. ...
Article
The popularity of Instagram among young adults has raised concerns about the excessive use of Instagram. Is it the kind of problematic media use that takes over one’s life or just habitual ritualized use characterized by mindless scrolling? How can we differentiate between the two based on the use of Instagram features and perceived gratifications from the technology itself? Drawing on the theoretical framework of Uses and Gratifications (U&G) and U&G 2.0, we conducted a survey study ( N = 482) to answer these questions. Our findings show that habitual Instagram use is positively related to the use of lurking- and connection-related features and the gratification of play. By contrast, problematic Instagram use is positively correlated with the use of broadcasting-related features and the gratification of novelty. Theoretical implications for differentiating problematic from habitual Instagram use and practical implications for designing ethical interfaces, which consider the digital well-being of users, are discussed.
... Bu değerler veri setinin normal dağılımla ilişkili bir probleminin olmadığını göstermiştir. Ölçeğin yapı geçerliliği için altı faktörlü ikincil düzey doğrulayıcı faktör analizi (DFA) gerçekleştirilmiştir. Yukarıdaki Tablo 5 incelendiğinde uyum iyilik değerlerinin kabul edilebilir düzeyde oldukları ifade edilebilir (Hu ve Bentler 1999;Kline, 2015). Faktörler arasındaki korelasyonlara ilişkin tablo aşağıda sunulmuştur. ...
... Ölçeklere ilişkin analiz sonuçları Tablo 2'de özetlenmiştir. Elde edilen sonuçlar, ölçeklerin bu çalışma için kullanılabileceğini göstermektedir(Kline, 2011).Tablo 2. Ölçeklere İlişkin DFA ve Cranbach Alpha Değerleri ...
... Ölçeklerin güvenirliğinin belirlenmesinde Cronbach Alfa değeri incelenmektedir. (1 Kline, 2011;2Hooper, Coughlan ve Mullen, 2008;Simon vd., 2010) DFA neticesinde müşteri vatandaşlık davranışı ölçeğinin 3. ifadesinin standardize edilmiş parametre değeri 0,50'nin altında yer aldığından analizden çıkarılmıştır (Hair vd., 2014: 70). Müşteri vatandaşlık davranışı ölçeğinin yüksek düzeyde hata değeri veren 10. ifadesi analiz dışı bırakılmıştır (Hau ve Thuy, 2011). ...
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Bu araştırmada, müşteri etkileşimi ve müşteri sadakati arasındaki ilişkide müşteri vatandaşlık davranışının aracı rolünün incelenmesi amaçlanmaktadır. Bu doğrultuda, araştırmanın verisi e-ticaret pazaryeri sitelerinden alışveriş yapan 313 müşteriden çevrimiçi anket yöntemi ile toplanmış ve analizlerde SPSS Process makro kullanılmıştır. Araştırmanın sonuçlarına göre, müşteri etkileşiminin, müşteri vatandaşlık davranışı ve müşteri sadakati üzerinde olumlu etkisi bulunmaktadır. Bunun yanı sıra, müşteri etkileşimi ile müşteri sadakati arasındaki ilişkide müşteri vatandaşlık davranışının tamamlayıcı aracı rolünün bulunduğu tespit edilmiştir. Bu araştırma, müşteri etkileşiminin sonuçlarını incelemesi yönüyle literatüre katkı sağlamaktadır. Aynı zamanda, müşteri vatandaşlık davranışı ile sadakat arasındaki ilişkiyi ampirik olarak ele alan çalışmalara katkıda bulunmaktadır. This study aims to investigate the mediating role of customer citizenship behavior in the relationship between customer engagement and customer loyalty. In this vein, data from a sample of 313 customers of e-commerce marketplaces were collected by using online survey method and analyzed using SPSS Process macro. The findings support that customer engagement affects customer citizenship behavior and customer loyalty positively. The findings also suggest that customer citizenship behavior has a complementary mediating role in the relationship between customer engagement and customer loyalty. This study contributes to literature in terms of investigating the consequences of customer engagement. Besides, this study contributes to research that empirically examine the relationship between customer citizenship behavior and customer loyalty.
... The constrained multigroup model with equal structural coefficients and error variance showed close fit for all fit statistics except for the χ 2 test. However, χ 2 /df was 2.1 which is near to or under recommended thresholds [41,42]. ...
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Background Work-related stress is significantly higher among healthcare workers (HCWs) than in the general population. Elevated occupational stress has been linked to burnout syndrome and depression. Moreover, medical professionals working during infectious disease outbreaks are at especially high risk for these problems. The aim of the present study was to examine the mental health status of HCWs and possible predictors of mental health status related to the COVID-19 outbreak utilizing a complex comprehensive model. Methods In a countrywide cross-sectional survey among HCWs (N = 2087), work-related stress, COVID-19 -related objective work factors (displacement, frontline working) and subjective work factors (insecurity, unpredictability, workload), perceived stress, work-related stress, burnout and depression were assessed between the second and third wave of COVID-19 pandemic in Hungary. Results COVID-19-related objective factors did not predict directly stress, burnout, and depression, whereas feelings of insecurity and unpredictability in relation to the COVID-19 situation at work had a significant medium-sized total effect (also considering the indirect effect via stress) on burnout and depression. Conclusions In order to prevent subsequent mental health problems during crisis situations, such as the COVID-19 pandemic, healthcare management should create a more predictable work environment and a safer work experience for healthcare workers and provide mental health support.
... DFA'da modelin minimum ki-kare değerinin (x2=248,427; sd=84 p=0.00) anlamlı olduğu ve model uyumuna yönelik x2/sd değerinin 2,53 olduğu görülmüştür. Ki-kare/sd değerinin 3'ten küçük olması kabul edilebilir düzeyde bir uyum olduğunu ifade etmektedir (Kline, 2011). Uyum indeksi değerleri ise RMSEA= 0,066, CFI=0,97, GFI=0,92 olarak bulunmuştur. ...
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Bu araştırmanın amacı, Bunn (1994) tarafından geliştirilen örgütsel satın alma davranışı ölçeğinin Türkçe'ye uyarlanarak geçerliğinin ve güvenirliğinin ortaya konmasıdır. Ölçeğin Türkçe'ye çevrilmesinde ileri çeviri tekniği kulla-nılmıştır. Araştırmanın örneklemini imalat sektöründe faaliyet gösteren firma yöneticileri oluşturmaktadır. 358 firma yöneticisinden elde edilen ve-riler keşfedici faktör analizi ve doğrulayıcı faktör analizine tabi tutulmuştur. Analizler neticesinde ölçeğin dört faktörlü (yöntem kontrolü, geleceğe odak-lanma, bilgi araştırma, analiz tekniklerini kullanma) yapısının model uyum değerlerinin iyi düzeyde olduğu ve bu yapının doğrulandığı tespit edilmiştir. Ölçeğin iç tutarlılık katsayısı Cronbach alfa 0,89 olarak bulunmuştur. Bu bul-gular ışığında, uyarlanan örgütsel satın alma davranışı ölçeğinin geçerli ve güvenilir bir ölçüm aracı olduğu ortaya konmuştur. Abstract The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the validity and reliability of Bunn's (1994) organizational buying behavior scale by adapting it to Turkish. Advanced translation technique was used in the translation of the scale into Turkish. The sample of the study consists of firm managers from manufacturing sector. Data obtained from 358 firm managers were subjected to exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis. Results revealed that the model fit indices were satisfactory and four factor (procedural control, proac-tive focus, search for information, use of analysis techniques) construct was confirmed. The internal consistency coefficient Cronbach Alpha was calculated as 0,89. In that sense, it can be stated that the adapted organizational buying behavior scale is a valid and reliable measurement tool.
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While various studies have focused on the significance of computational thinking (CT) for the future career paths of individuals in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM), few studies have focused on computational thinking for non-STEM college students. This study explores the relationship between computational thinking and learning satisfaction for non-STEM-major college students. A conceptual model is proposed to examine the structural relationships among computational thinking, self-efficacy, self-exploration, enjoyment and learning satisfaction in an AppInventor-based liberal education course. Collecting data from 190 undergraduate students from Taiwan and analyzing the data by using partial least squares (PLS) methods, the research framework confirms the six proposed hypotheses. These results show that both computational thinking and enjoyment play significant roles in both self-exploration and digital self-efficacy. Moreover, digital self-efficacy and self-exploration also have a significant positive influence on learning satisfaction. These findings have implications for influencing the learning outcomes of non-STEM-major college students, computational thinking course instructors, and computational thinking relevant policies.
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We are very happy to publish this issue of the International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research. The International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research is a peer-reviewed open-access journal committed to publishing high-quality articles in the field of education. Submissions may include full-length articles, case studies and innovative solutions to problems faced by students, educators and directors of educational organisations. To learn more about this journal, please visit the website http://www.ijlter.org. We are grateful to the editor-in-chief, members of the Editorial Board and the reviewers for accepting only high quality articles in this issue. We seize this opportunity to thank them for their great collaboration. The Editorial Board is composed of renowned people from across the world. Each paper is reviewed by at least two blind reviewers. We will endeavour to ensure the reputation and quality of this journal with this issue.
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The aim of this study was to present and introduce the scale of the Participant Role Scales in bullying with the psychometric properties of this scale in students. Method of research is descriptive of correlation type. The statistical population of the second-grade students was Lorestan province in the year 2017-2018. Sample size of 617 students (324 males and 293 females) who were selected by multi stage cluster sampling and responded to the questionnaire. The reliability of the Persian version of the 4-factor model and 3 factors of the Participant Role Scales through the internal consistency method (Cronbach's alpha) were examined. The range of Subscales Cronbach's alpha coefficients varied from 0.8 to 0.91, and the Cronbach's alpha coefficient of the whole scale was 0.90. The factor structure of the 4-factor and 3-factor model scale was explored through exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis. The results of the exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis of the model 3 had a more acceptable fit. According to the results, Persian version of the 3-factor model of the Participant Role Scales has good psychometric properties and is a valid Instruments for use in research positions.
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There are great economic benefits and qualities of life when a country invests in the development of professionals in STEM areas. Unfortunately, there is a gender gap, as women are lagging behind their peers, as well as minority groups such as Hispanics, who are grossly underrepresented in these careers. Therefore, it is a priority to generate assessing instruments that are adapted to the cultural context of Latino students in their language to attract a more diverse population to STEM areas. This study presents a thorough validation process of the adaptation of the Self-Efficacy Survey (MSES) to the Spanish language and Mexican engineering context. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were conducted with data collected from 683 Mexican engineering students to analyze its validity. The results highlight that the original three dimensions of the MSES still show a sound structure to assess math self-efficacy, and the confirmatory factor analysis eliminated items that were outdated and out of the context of this specific population. As a result, this study presents a 12-item adaptation that could help Latino researchers to collect reliable math self-efficacy data to better understand how their students feel when they learn and practice mathematics.
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Background and purpose: Identifying the nature of social anxiety through its causative factors
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Beihai wetland is a special type of alpine marsh in the southeast of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, with plants like a blanket floating on the water surface permanently. Long-term datasets with eddy covariance (EC) technique of evapotranspiration (ET) from the wetland ecosystem are still not too much. Based on EC measurements from 2016 to 2020, we investigated the variations of ET and its controlling factors over the Beihai wetland. Our results showed that ET was mostly influenced by the net radiation (Rn) from half-hourly to monthly timescales as a result of sufficient water supply at the observation site. In addition, the cloudiness was also a key factor controlling ET on daily scale by regulating radiation. On overcast and cloudy days, cloudiness suppressed ET primarily due to the decrease in the direct radiation (Rdir). While under sunny conditions, the increased diffuse radiation (Rdif) by cloudiness was conductive to increasing the canopy conductance (Gs) and therefore ET. On annual scale, the annual ET ranged from 762.3 to 990.5 mm, and the annual precipitation was 1,210.4-1,780.2 mm during 2016-2020. The annual ET changed by around 30%, while the annual precipitation changed by 47%. There was a significant negative relationship between the annual ET and the annual precipitation. More annual precipitation in 2016 with more precipitation days and greater precipitation intensity than that in other four years resulted in less annual ET. Furthermore, the fraction of water surface was another factor controlling year-to-year variation of ET. There was a larger fraction of water cover in current site (37.3-38.4% in 2017-2020) than that in the original site (29.7% in 2016). Annual ET tended to increase as the fraction of water cover increased.
Article
The aim of this research is to develop a valid and reliable measurement tool that can measure the collaboration between stakeholders in schools. In the study, data were collected from two different groups for exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) to determine the construct validity of the scale. There are 600 teachers in the first study group and 960 teachers in the second study group. Participating teachers were selected by simple random sampling from those working at public primary school, secondary school and high school levels. The content validity of the research was provided in line with expert opinions. As a result of the analysis, a structure was obtained where the scale consisted of 38 items, explained 71.78% of the total variance, and the fit indices were at an acceptable level. Since the scale focuses on the level of collaboration between stakeholders in schools, the dimensions are named as "school principal-stakeholder collaboration", "teacher-colleague collaboration", "parent-teacher collaboration" and "school guidance service-stakeholder collaboration". The rotated factor load values of the items in the School Collaboration Scale ranged between .61 and .85. The item-total correlations ranged between .48 and .86. Cronbach's Alpha internal consistency coefficient for the 1st dimension is .96, the 2nd dimension is .95, the 3rd dimension is .94, and the 4th dimension is .95. The total Cronbach's Alpha value of the scale is .97. As a result of the analysis, it was concluded that the school collaboration scale developed is a valid and reliable measurement tool that can be used to measure the level of collaboration at all school levels.
Article
Green human resource management practices and sustainability have recently attained increased attention both in academia as well as practitioners worldwide. This paper endeavours to investigate the effect of green human resource management activities on the sustainable competitive advantage of green-office certified companies of Pakistan. The study capitalizes on the resource-based view theory which provides the basis to achieve sustainable competitiveness. The study adopted a quota sampling technique, whereby 634 managerial staff in different levels of management structure was the targeted sample surveyed across Pakistan. Descriptive analysis was carried out by using SPSS 20 whereas inferential statistical analysis was conducted by applying Smart PLS Software 3 which is a variance-based structural equation modelling approach. The results of the study showed that green recruitment and selection, green training and development, and green performance management have a direct positive and significant association with a sustainable competitive advantage. The current study is restricted to green-certified companies across Pakistan. As green-certified companies display sober attitudes and readiness regarding the GHRM practices in their premises, it is suggested to the practitioners and managers that they ensure the GHRM practices in their routine business activities to get sustainable competitiveness. The scope of the current study is limited to green-certified companies across Pakistan so the future researcher may study it comparatively between green and non-green certified companies in Pakistan.
Article
El objetivo del presente estudio fue analizar los efectos de factores psicológicos (ansiedad, regulación emocional deficiente, impulsividad y perfeccionismo desadaptativo) sobre la alimentación emocional y la composición corporal de estudiantes universitarios a través de un modelo empírico. Participaron 584 jóvenes (X̅ = 19.92, DE = 3.93), quienes completaron una encuesta sociodemográfica, una batería de pruebas psicológicas para medir la alimentación emocional y el resto de variables mencionadas; además, se obtuvo el índice de masa corporal y el porcentaje de grasa con un estadímetro y analizador por bioimpedancia. De acuerdo con los hallazgos, se comprobó el rol mediador de la alimentación emocional entre los factores psicológicos y la composición corporal (χ2 = 37.38, g.l = 26 [p > .05], NFI, TLI, CFI y GFI ≥ 0.95, SRMR = .03 y RMSEA < .06; β = .23, p < .05). Específicamente, la impulsividad (β = .56, p < .05) mostró un efecto destacado sobre una mayor alimentación emocional. Se evidencia la pertinencia de entrenar a los jóvenes en habilidades de gestión de impulsos y regulación emocional, con la finalidad de reducir el uso de la alimentación como estrategia de afrontamiento.
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A large body of studies examine the role of parents in shaping children’s environmental literacy and affinity towards sustainable development. Yet, the intergenerational influence that adolescents can have on adults in return is much less well understood. Utilizing a household reverse socialization framework, this study investigates how different types of parent–child interaction may be channels for intergenerational transmission of pro-environmental content from children to their parents. The empirical analysis leverages representative child–parent matched samples from South Korea and Macau SAR, in the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2018 dataset, and estimates structural equation models to discern how parent–child interaction mediates reverse socialization of environmental literacy within the household. Most strikingly, findings indicate that parent–child interaction is an important channel through which children’s pro-environmental knowledge, attitude, and behavior positively affect that of adults. In addition, results reveal that the majority of child-to-parent transmission occurs through household educational interactions, implying that young generations are effective agents for positive change at home, and that there are less visible yet critical household reverse socialization spillover effects of pro-environmental education programs.
Article
Based on tourist expenditure, food and beverages are a crucial market and healthy beverages are a dominant product developed to serve customer needs. At present, elderly tourist groups emerge with purchasing power in the tourism industry and related businesses. However, market and academic research on healthy beverages still need further knowledge and only a few decision support models exist. The objectives of this research are (1) to investigate major influential factors of consumer behavior (CB) of elderly Chinese tourists on healthy beverages; and (2) to structure a decision support system for CB. The research methodology employs qualitative and quantitative approaches. In-depth interviews are conducted by including 120 experts with 410 survey samples collected from Chinese tourists. Content analysis and structural equation modelling (SEM) are employed to analyze the data, including the sensitivity analysis for testing model robustness. The results show that marketing stimuli affect CB and product innovation at a significant level of 0.05. On the other hand, product innovation slightly affects CB at a significant level. The sensitivity analysis reveals that decreasing price and trial usage are influential CB. Also, the increasing and decreasing of attitude, relative advantage, and compatibility affect CB. This research aims to design an applicable decision support system of CB for Chinese tourists, which can identify influential factors of CB on healthy beverages when an entrepreneur launches a new product and be a guideline for SMEs to assess customer satisfaction by responding directly to customer needs. Moreover, the DSS model can also enable sustainable development and engage the right business strategies that resonate with customer needs.
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