Evil is not to be attributed to God, as Job had done, nor to humans, as the three friends had insisted; there are independent evil forces, symbolized by the undomesticated animals of the wilderness, but they are held in a balanced check (Hebrew letter tetHebrew letter peHebrew letter šinHebrew letter mem) by YHWH, though not annihilated. By divine command, the Assyrian king might actively dominate these forces in royal ritual (mēlultu), as in the royal lion hunt, wherein the lion symbolizes chaos and the wild in all its forms. However, Job can only stand by and marvel as the untamed animals of the wilderness "sport" (Hebrew letter qopHebrew letter hetHebrew letter šin). YHWH does not invite Job to Hebrew letter heHebrew letter daletHebrew letter dalet and Hebrew letter šinHebrew letter betHebrew letter bet as he had Hebrew letter memHebrew letter kapHebrew letter 'alepHebrew letter he in Gen 1:26-27. M. Tsevat, whose article "The Meaning of the Book of Job" (1966) is among the most insightful, argued: But the Book of Job does more than demythologize the world; it also "demoralizes" it, which is to say, makes it amoral. It completes the process whose first phase is known to the reader of the Bible from the opening pages of Genesis the removal from the conceptual world of an order of superhuman beings independent of the Deity. And it extends it by the denial of the realization of moral values - values deriving from the Deity, to be sure - other than realization effected by man. This new world is as harsh as it is simple, for in it man is deprived of the protection he enjoyed in a world saturated with myth and morality and populated with powers to which he might turn with a view to rendering them favorable to his well-being, foremost by his leading of a meritorious life. This position, however, goes too far - almost in the direction of Epicurean ethics, in which the deity is not only transcendent but removed. The position of YHWH in the book of Job seems rather between the mythology of the Neo-Assyrian lion hunt, in which the king, at the divine command, expanded control over the wilderness with its animals, enemies, and demons, and that of Epicurean ethics, in which God has withdrawn from human ethics. Job's YHWH, may cede to humans neither knowledge nor control over the wilderness; his wilderness may contain violence and predation (38:23, 39-41; 39:16, 23-25, 30); and the very mythic symbols of chaos, Leviathan and Behemoth, may remain untamable by humans. Nonetheless, the wilderness remains a source of joy and birth (see especially 38:8-11), and God's restraining holds all in balance. God's rains descend on a land where no human lives, on the desert that is empty of humans (38:26), and this is creative and re-creative. In response to YHWH'S speeches, Job can only withdraw his legal case: Therefore being but dust and ashes, I withdraw and retract my case. (42:6).