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Hydropower development and policies in India: A case of Himachal Pradesh in the northwestern Himalaya, India

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  • G.B. Pant National Institute of Himalayan Environment

Abstract and Figures

The currently existing three major options for power production in India and elsewhere are hydro, thermal, and nuclear. From the viewpoint of efficient production and low environmental cost, hydropower has become one of the most important clean sources of energy. India is endowed with enormous hydropower potential especially in the Himalayan region. Rainfall from southwest monsoon, northwest winter rains, and heavy snowfall in winter have been the primary sources of water potential in the region. The Indus, the Ganga, and the Brahmaputra, the three major drainage basins in the Himalaya, are huge sources for hydropower potential. Out of the total existing hydropower potential in India, 21% hydropower potential has been harnessed so far, 9.8% potential is under construction, and 69.8% potential is yet to be tapped.
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Hydropower development and policies in India: A case of
Himachal Pradesh in the northwestern Himalaya, India
Sanjeev Sharma
a
and Jagdish Chandra Kuniyal
b
a
Department of General and Applied Geography, School of Applied Sciences, Dr. Harisingh Gour Central University,
Sagar, Madhya Pradesh, India;
b
Environmental Assessment and Management & Environmental Governance and
Policy (EAM & EGP), G.B. Pant Institute of Himalayan Environment and Development, Mohal-Kullu, Himachal
Pradesh, India
ABSTRACT
The currently existing three major options for power production in India and
elsewhere are hydro, thermal, and nuclear. From the viewpoint of efficient
production and low environmental cost, hydropower has become one of the
mostimportantcleansourcesofenergy.Indiaisendowedwithenormous
hydropower potential especially in the Himalayan region. Rainfall from
southwest monsoon, northwest winter rains, and heavy snowfall in winter
have been the primary sources of water potential in the region. The Indus, the
Ganga, and the Brahmaputra, the three major drainage basins in the Himalaya,
are huge sources for hydropower potential. Out of the total existing hydropower
potential in India, 21% hydropower potential has been harnessed so far,
9.8% potential is under construction, and 69.8% potential is yet to be tapped.
KEYWORDS
Energy; hydropower; Indian
Himalayan Region; policies
Introduction
The energy sources have always been playing a major role in shaping cultures and improving living
standards of human beings. Today, there are more than 800 million people (19%) worldwide who
use electricity. Global energy use has increased by 70% since 1971. Looking at the demand from
developed and developing countries, it continues to increase at the rate of about 2% per year (WEC,
2007). The power consumption in the United States of America is more than 10,000 kilowatt hour
(kwh) per capita whereas in India it is less than 500 kwh per person per annum (Khurana, 2006).
Though total installed capacity of the power projects in the country has reached around 114,000
megawatt (MW), yet there is an overall energy shortage by 78% and peak energy demand shortage by
13% of the total supply (Sharma, 2005). The Government of India has planned to supply power to all
households by 2020. For this purpose, the currently existing three major options for power produc-
tion are hydro, thermal, and nuclear in the country. From a viewpoint of efficient production and
low environmental cost, hydropower has become one of the most important clean sources of energy.
The Himalaya has also the largest water tower in the form of glaciers outside the North and South
polar caps having an area coverage of 33,000 km
2
. As a result, the Himalayan region is known as the
third most important water towersof the world after South and North Polar regions. They provide
annually around 8.6 × 10
6
m
3
of water (Dyurgerov and Meier, 1997). Of the total area in the
Himalayan regions, 1020% of the area is covered by glaciers while 3040% remains under seasonal
snow cover stretching from 0.48 ± 0.43 to 2.20 ± 1.25 million km
2
(Bahadur, 2004). In India,
hydropower projects are classified mainly into micro (up to 100 kw), mini (1012000 kw), small
(200125,000 kw), and large (more than 25 MW) projects (Saxena, 2005).
CONTACT Jagdish Chandra Kuniyal jckuniyal@gmail.com Environmental Assessment and Management & Environmental
Governance and Policy (EAM & EGP), G.B. Pant Institute of Himalayan Environment and Development, Himachal Unit, Mohal-Kullu
Pin 175 126, Himachal Pradesh, India.
© 2016 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC
ENERGY SOURCES, PART B: ECONOMICS, PLANNING, AND POLICY
2016, VOL. 11, NO. 4, 377384
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15567249.2011.633593
Hydropower potential at global level
Hydropower is a major developmental activity in most of the parts of the world. In future, the major
scope of new hydropower development would be in Asia, Latin America, and Africa (Bartle, 2002).
In North America, hydropower is the most widely used form of renewable energy. The installed
hydropower accounts for 156 gigawatt (GW), out of which 66 GW exists in Canada, 80 GW in the
United States of America, and 10 GW in Mexico. Hydropower consumption accounts for 60% of the
total electricity consumption in Canada, 8% in the United States of America, and 19% in Mexico
(WEC, 2007).
Hydropower potential and development in India
In the post-independence era, a number of river valley projects were commissioned mainly to
increase agricultural productivity and to accelerate industrial development. Hydropower generation
in India began in 1897 when the first electricity generating station of 200 kw capacity came into
existence at Sidrapong (Darjeeling) on River Teesta in West Bengal (Mathur, 2003). The first major
hydropower project was constructed in 1902 with installed capacity of 45 MW at Sivasamudram in
Karnataka state (Naidu, 1992). This hydropower project is still working and supplies power to Kolar
gold mines. This major hydro project was followed by another project in 1905 in Jammu and
Kashmir state on River Jhelum with a capacity to generate 4000 kw electricity. As far as Himachal
Pradesh state is concerned in hydropower generation, it was 1932 when a hydro project with 48 MW
capacity came into existence at Jogindernagar (Uhl) with the support of then the Government of
Punjab (Mathur, 2003). Hydropower power grid system in India is divided into five regions, namely
north, west, south, east, and northeast (Naidu, 1992), and the potential for these regions is about
84,044 MW at 60% load factor (LF) whose installed capacity is 148,701 MW. In addition, 6781.81
MW installed capacity comes from small, mini, and micro hydel schemes; while an aggregate
installed capacity is 94,000 MW (CEA, 2007).
India ranks fifth in the world in terms of hydropower potential. Its theoretical hydropower
potential is estimated to be 2638 terawatt hours per year (TWh yr
1
) (WEC, 2007). The existing
hydropower potential in India still remains largely untapped. In the past 65 years, about 27,500 MW
has been harnessed which was 508 MW in 1947 and increased up to 9202 MW in 19912003
(Sharma, 2005). According to reassessment study by Central Electricity Authority (CEA), the
installed capacity comes to be 148,701 MW. Out of this total installed capacity, 53,395 MW exists
in the northern, 8928 MW in the western, 16,458 MW in the southern, 10,949 MW in the eastern,
and 58,971 MW in the northeastern regions. The existing hydropower potential in India is dis-
tributed into six major river basins, i.e., Indus, Ganga, central Indian rivers, west flowing rivers, east
flowing rivers, and Brahmaputra. Of the total existing hydropower potential in India, 21% hydro-
power capacity has been harnessed so far, 9.8% capacity is under construction, and 69.8% capacity is
yet to be tapped (Table 1).
Hydropower potential in the Indian Himalayan Region (IHR)
The IHR is 250300 km wide stretching over 2500 km from Jammu and Kashmir in the northwest to
Arunachal Pradesh in the northeast. It is located between 21°57’–37°5Nand72°40’–97°5E. The IHR
comprises fully/partially twelve states of India, viz., Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand,
Sikkim,ArunachalPradesh,Nagaland,Manipur,Mizoram,Tripura,Meghalaya,hillsofAssam,and
Darjeeling district of West Bengal. This region has a total geographical area of about 533,604 km
2
with
39,628,311 inhabiting population. It represents about 16.2% of total geographical area and 3.86% popula-
tion of the country (Samal et al., 2000). The IHR, based on regional classification, is broadly divided into
the Eastern Himalaya, the Central Himalaya and the Western Himalaya. The glaciers melt in summer and
accumulate in ablation lakes from where it overflows when these get filled with melting water (Fujita et al.,
378 S. SHARMA AND J. C. KUNIYAL
1997). Rainfall from southwest monsoon, northwest winter rains and heavy snowfall in winter have been
the primary sources of water potential in the region. Out of the total identified hydropower potential
capacity assessed in India, more than 76% is identified as the total hydropower potential in the Himalayan
states of India. Out of this potential, 38.4% is harnessed so far, 85.9% is under construction, 53.46% is
going to be developed which is under construction, and 86.6% capacity is yet to be developed. Among the
eleven states, Arunachal Pradesh ranks at top with 50,328 MW capacity followed by Himachal Pradesh
with 18,820 MW. Out of the total available hydropower potential in the Himalayan states, 10.5% has
already been developed, 10.9% is under construction, and 78.6% is to be developed in coming future.
Development of hydropower projects and existing potential in Himachal Pradesh
All the five major river systems which emanate from the northwestern Himalaya, namely the
Beas, Chenab, Ravi, Satluj, and Yamuna, pass through Himachal Pradesh. In Himachal Pradesh,
Table 1. Region/state wise status of hydroelectric potential development in India (in terms of installed capacity: does not include
schemes below 3 MW up to March 2003 and thereafter up to 25 MW).
Region/State
Identified capacity Capacity dev.
Capacity
under construction
Capacity
dev. + under dev. Capacity yet to be dev.
(MW) (MW) % MW % MW % MW %
Northern
Jammu and Kashmir 14,146 1864.2 13.2 899.0 6.4 2763.2 19.5 11382.9 80.5
Himachal 18,820 6085.5 32.3 4435.0 23.6 10520.5 55.9 8299.6 44.1
Punjab 971 1297.7 100.0 0.0 0.0 1297.7 133.6 0.0 0.0
Haryana 64 62.4 97.5 0.0 0.0 62.4 97.5 1.6 2.5
Rajasthan 496 430.0 86.7 0.0 0.0 430.0 86.7 66.0 13.3
Uttarakhand 18,175 2752.1 15.1 2154.0 11.9 4906.1 27.0 13269.0 73.0
Uttar Pradesh 723 510.2 70.6 0.0 0.0 510.2 70.6 212.8 29.4
Subtotal 53,395 13002.1 24.4 7488.0 14.0 20490.1 38.4 33231.9 62.2
Western
Madhya Pradesh 2243 2243.5 100.0 595.0 26.5 2838.5 126.5 0.0 0.0
Chattisgarh 2242 137 6.1 0.0 0.0 137.0 6.1 2105.0 93.9
Gujrat 619 555 89.7 0.0 0.0 555.0 89.7 64.0 10.3
Maharashtra 3769 2653.3 70.4 0.0 0.0 2653.3 70.4 1115.7 29.6
Goa 55 0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 55.0 100.0
Subtotal 8928 5588.8 62.6 595.0 6.7 6183.8 69.3 3339.7 37.4
Southern
Andhra Pradesh 4424 2017.5 45.6 404.0 9.1 2421.5 54.7 2002.5 45.3
Karnataka 6602 3448.3 52.2 230.0 3.5 3678.3 55.7 2923.7 44.3
Kerla 3514 1838.5 52.3 323.0 9.2 2161.5 61.5 1352.5 38.5
Tamilnadu 1918 1757.5 91.6 60.0 3.1 1817.5 94.8 100.6 5.2
Subtotal 16,458 9061.8 55.1 1017.0 6.2 10078.8 61.2 6379.3 38.8
Eastern
Jharkhand 753 237.2 31.5 0.0 0.0 237.2 31.5 515.8 68.5
Bihar 70 44.9 64.1 0.0 0.0 44.9 64.1 25.1 35.9
Orissa 2999 1861.5 62.1 150.0 5.0 2011.5 67.1 987.5 32.9
West Bengal 2841 156.5 5.5 292.0 10.3 448.5 15.8 2392.5 84.2
Sikkim 4286 84.0 2.0 2309.0 53.9 2393.0 55.8 1893.0 44.2
Subtotal 10,949 2384.1 21.8 2751.0 25.1 5135.1 46.9 5813.9 53.1
North Eastern
Meghalaya 2394 185.2 7.7 84.0 3.5 269.2 11.2 2124.8 88.8
Tripura 15 15 100.0 0.0 0.0 15.0 100.0 0.0 0.0
Manipur 1784 105 5.9 0.0 0.0 105.0 5.9 1679.0 94.1
Assam 680 375 55.1 0.0 0.0 375.0 55.1 305.0 44.9
Nagaland 1574 99 6.3 0.0 0.0 99.0 6.3 1475.0 93.7
Arunachal 50,328 423.5 0.8 2600.0 5.2 3023.5 6.0 47304.5 94.0
Mizoram 2196 0 0.0 - 0.0 0.0 0.0 2196.0 100.0
Subtotal 58,971 1202.7 2.0 2,684.0 4.6 3886.7 6.6 55084.3 93.4
All India 148,701 31239.5 21.0 14535.0 9.8 45774.5 30.8 103,849 69.8
Source: CEA (2007).
ENERGY SOURCES, PART B: ECONOMICS, PLANNING, AND POLICY 379
the hydropower development started way back in 1912 with the commissioning of first power
plant at Chabba near Shimla to meet the power requirement of Shimla town which was then the
summer capital of British India (Bansal, 2005). In the beginning, the development of power
sector was with the Public Works Department of Government of Himachal Pradesh. Later on,
this branch was named as Department of Multi-Purpose Projects and Power (MPPP) in order to
plan activities of power generation, transmission, distribution, and power potential investigation.
After reorganization of the state in 1966 and with the grant of statehood in the year 1971,
Electricity Board was created on September 1, 1971. This board was restructured and given more
power and responsibility on April 1, 1972, and was named as Himachal Pradesh State Electricity
Board (HPSEB) (Bansal, 2006). It had only threepowerhousesin1948inthestateatUhl
(Jogindernagar), Chabba (Shimla), and Bhuri Singh (Chamba) which in total generate power
about 49.950 MW (Bansal, 2006). With a view to expeditiously harness the power potential, the
state government decided to adopt multi-strategy for its development through private, state,
central, and joint sectors. Now the state sells surplus power especially in summer months (April
to October) to neighboring states. The State has a total identified hydel potential of 20670.12
MW, out of which 6067 MW is harnessed by the various agencies in the state including HPSEB
in the state sector, Central Public Sector Undertakings (CPSUs) like Bhakra Beas Management
Board (BBMB), National Hydropower Corporation (NHPC) in central sector, Satluj Jal Vidut
Nigam Limited (SJVNL) in joint sector, and Independent Power Producers (IPP) in the private
sector. In Himachal Pradesh, the Satluj (9866.55 MW), the Beas (4527.90 MW), the Chenab
(2723.0 MW), the Ravi (2226.75 MW), and the Yamuna (602.52 MW) have total identified
hydropower potential with 20670.12 MW under different stages of development in different
sectors (Figure 1; Table 2). At present, 6370.12 MW hydropower is under operation in the state
and 5744 MW is under planning for commissioning during 11th plan. As much as 7832.5 MW
hydropower generation is planned for commissioning during 12th plan. In addition, 723.40 MW
is also to be harnessed from small size projects with capacity up to 5 MW under HIMURJA.
Hydropower development policies in India
The share of hydropower when compared to other sources has been declining steadily since 1963. It
has declined from 44% in 1970 to 25% in 1998. With a slight improvement, it stands now at 26%
(Singh, 2005). The ideal hydrothermal mix should be in the ratio of 40:60. To increase an efficiency
of the power sector in the country, the Government of India has framed new hydropower policy.
National power policy on the development of hydropower projects
Some of the pragmatic features of the National Power Policy are as under:
New hydropower projects take initiatives especially in the thrust areas of small hydro
projectsintheremoteandhillyareas.PrivateinvestmentthroughIPPsandjointventures
wouldbeencouragedinthecomingyearsforproduction and investment in transmission
sector.
The policy emphasizes the optimum use of information technology (IT) tools in consumer
services, trading of electricity, plugging the transmission and distribution losses, and commer-
cial operations. It also proposes adequate use of solar based technologies for heating water and
rooms during the lean period of water supply in winter.
Tackling the issues like environmental protection, human resource development, and training
of the employees are also included within the policy. At the same time, protecting the interests
of the consumers and maintaining quality standards have also been emphasized within the new
hydropower policy.
380 S. SHARMA AND J. C. KUNIYAL
Himachal Pradesh state government policy on hydropower project development
Hydropower policy in Himachal Pradesh was reformulated on January 2, 2007, and it became the
first state in India to frame such policy in the country (GoHP, 2006).
The salient features of power policy are:
Small hydropower projects up to 2 MW shall be exclusively reserved for the natives of
Himachal state and cooperative societies. Projects with capacity ranging from 5 MW to 100
MW are to be awarded through Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) giving preference to
natives of the state. Projects above 100 MW are to be awarded through competitive bidding
routes, and above 100 MW through equity participation up to 49% on selective basis by the
state government.
The government will constitute Local Area Development Committee (LADC) for projects being
implemented with representative from the government official.
In order to minimize adverse socioeconomic impacts due to execution of the projects on the local
community, 1.5% of the total capital cost in the Detailed Project Report (DPR) is to be spent on
Rehabilitation and Resettlement (R&R) Scheme and Catchment Area Treatment (CAT).
Figure 1. Location of hydropower projects under different stages of development in Himachal Pradesh.
ENERGY SOURCES, PART B: ECONOMICS, PLANNING, AND POLICY 381
To maintain ecology and water availability in the downstream of the diversion structures, 15%
water release is mandatory during operation stage. The IPPs shall give an undertaking to the
Fisheries Department of the local area stating that wherever feasible, rearing of fish shall be
promoted in the project area at the time of implementation.
The project authorities and contractors engaged by them for the project will provide 70%
employment on priority basis to the native people of the state. In case of direct recruitment of
executive positions other things being equal in terms of eligibility criteria, give preference to the
candidates who are well conversant with traditions, customs, culture, language, and dialect of
the state.
Employment should be provided to member of the displaced families or adversely affected
during construction of the project. Engagement in the petty contracts like road work, retaining
walls, building construction, carriage of construction material, running of canteens/mess, and
security personnel through ex-servicemen shall be awarded to the natives.
Above 50 MW capacity, the project authorities will open Corporate Offices, a police station,
and a labor office within state and for less than 50 MW, the project proponents shall inform
the local police stations and the labor offices about the details of the laborers and other
work force.
The project developers will provide royalty as free power to the government of Himachal
Pradesh in lieu of surrendering potential site @ 12% of the deliverable energy of the project.
This incorporates the first generating unit for a period of 18 years of the project royalty @ 18%
deliverable energy. Thereafter, 30% of the deliverable energy for the balance agreement period
will be applied beyond 30 years. At the end of 40 years, these shall stand transferred free of cost
to the Government of Himachal Pradesh.
The land, powerhouse building, and switchyard will be based on lease, whose rates will be
approved by the government for the agreement period. The government shall acquire the land
for the permanent structures by invoking the compulsory clause under the Land Acquisition
Act, 1894, in order to expedite the execution of the projects.
The project proponents through the reputed companies shall carry out the environmental
impact assessment studies for the proposed projects. The places such as watermills and water
and irrigation channels will be debarred to construct hydropower projects. Under this case, the
IPPs may identify sites in upstream/downstream areas.
Table 2. Basin wise hydropower potential (MW) in Himachal Pradesh.
A. Projects under operation
Satluj Beas Yamuna Ravi Chenab Total
State Sector 150.25 226.50 79.95 10.25 0.00 466.95
Central/Joint Sector 2825.00 1496.00 131.57 1038.00 0.00 5490.57
Private Sector 300.00 86.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 386.00
HIMURJA 1.30 21.30 4.00 0.00 0.00 26.60
Total-A 3276.55 1829.80 215.52 1048.25 0.00 6370.12
B. Projects planned for commissioning during 11th plan
State Sector 659.50 206.60 267.00 122.00 0.00 1255.10
Central/Joint Sector 1212.00 1320.00 0.00 231.00 0.00 2763.00
Private Sector 1208.00 374.00 74.00 70.00 0.00 1726.00
Total-B 3079.50 1900.60 341.00 423.00 0.00 5744.10
C. Projects planned for commissioning during 12th and subsequent years
State Sector 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
Central/Joint Sector 1596.00 750.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 2346.00
Private Sector 1914.50 47.50 46.00 755.50 2723.00 5486.50
Total 3510.50 797.50 46.00 755.50 2723.00 7832.50
HIMURJA SHP (up to 5.00 MW) (Total-harnessed 750 26.60 = 723.40 MW) 723.40
Grand Total (A + B + C) 9866.55 4527.90 602.52 2226.75 2723.00 20670.12
Source: CEA (2007).
382 S. SHARMA AND J. C. KUNIYAL
The project proponents will submit a DPR within 18 months for the project up to 50 MW and
24 months above 50 MW. The project proponent will have to deposit a security deposit of
either a sum of Rs. 4 lakh per MW in case the deposit is made in the form of Bank Guarantee
or a sum equivalent to Rs. 2 lakh per MW where the deposit is to be made by cash/bank draft.
Conclusions
In energy sector, hydropower stands as one of the major sources of clean energy which in turn
contributes significantly in growing Indian economy. These projects fulfill the state as well as
national interests and improve living standards of the natives. The Himalayan areas are yet to
exploit their full hydropower potential to meet the ever growing demand of energy. Nowadays,
hydropower is the main source of economy in Himachal Pradesh after horticulture, agriculture, and
tourism sector. This state indeed is rightly termed as Power Bowlof India that has progressed
significantly with the development of its hydropower resources. It will also help in fulfilling the
dream of Himachal Pradesh to become as one of the most developed states in the country in the
years to come. For promoting sustainable development, wise use of water resources and increase in
efficiency of the power sector, the national and state governments have framed a new hydropower
policy. This study would therefore be among a pioneering one in a sense to focus on hydropower
potential and development in a state recently declared as a power state.The hydropower project
development is, therefore, among such activities that require intensive, cohesive, and holistic
approach to make it fully sustainable in the mountain environment.
Acknowledgments
The authors are grateful to the Director, G.B. Pant Institute of Himalayan Environment & Development, Kosi-Katarmal,
Almora, Uttarakhand, for providing necessary facilities in Himachal Unit of the Institute to conduct this work.
The authors would also like to thank Dr. Anu Sabhlok, Astt. Professor, IISER, Mohali, Chandigarh, for her valuable
suggestions and inputs in preparing this manuscript.
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384 S. SHARMA AND J. C. KUNIYAL
... In the hilly states of Himalaya such as Himachal Pradesh, based on similarities in morphometric features of habitations and anthropogenic practices, three major habitation landuses namely urban, peri-urban and rural can be identified (Fig. 1). These land-uses differ with respect to their characteristics and exposure to levels of pollution (Sharma and Kuniyal 2016). As opposed to lowland areas where industries are the major source of soil pollution, here developmental activities, land clearing, dumping of waste, farm operations, vehicular traffic and congestion are prime sources of pollution (Sharma and Uniyal 2016). ...
... Owing to heavy influx of tourists, widening of roads around urban locales of the study area is being carried out (Sharma et al. 2011). It has been documented that tunneling and widening of roads by heavy mechanized machinery can add significant Cd and Cr in terrestrial surface soils (Sharma and Kuniyal 2016). Further, anthropogenic pressures associated with mountain expeditions such as Raid de Himalaya (Kuniyal 2007) might be continuously adding Cd and Cr in urban environment(s). ...
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The study investigated spatial distribution of heavy metals in soils of urban, peri-urban and rural habitation land-uses, and the ecological risks associated with them in the Indian Himalayan state of Himachal Pradesh. Soils of undisturbed forest were taken as control. A total of 72 soil samples were collected and assayed by atomic absorption spectrophotometer for cadmium, chromium, lead, manganese, nickel and zinc. Positive correlations were observed between cadmium–chromium, cadmium–manganese, cadmium–nickel, chromium–manganese, chromium–nickel and manganese–nickel. Higher concentrations (mg/kg) of cadmium (4.956 ± 0.031), chromium (17.299 ± 0.567), manganese (76.473 ± 0.031) and nickel (82.225 ± 7.342) were recorded in urban land-use soils. Lead (44.882 ± 3.202) and zinc (192.613 ± 34.180) reported maximum values in peri-urban and rural land-use soils, respectively. Peri-urban and urban land-use soils were extremely polluted with loads of lead and cadmium, respectively. However, control site was contamination-free. High values of contamination factor and geo-accumulation index in urban and peri-urban land-use indicated contamination in order of cadmium > nickel and > zinc. Degree of contamination and associated ecological risk index were also high in urban and peri-urban as compared to rural and control soils.
... As the rst downstream nation (Fig. 5), India has around 48.22 million people living in the basin, accounting for 55% of the total basin population (Mahanta, 2014). The water resources potential of the Brahmaputra River is the highest among all river systems in India and accounts for 30% of Indian's total fresh water and 44% of India's total hydropower potential (Sharma & Kuniyal, 2016;Singh et al., 2004). All the provisioning, regulatory, supporting and cultural services from regulating the Brahmaputra River are extremely important for India (Table 4) ...
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Transboundary sharing of river water is not just an international problem, and it also cascades down to regional, state and local levels. Water cooperation in the Brahmaputra River basin among China, India, Bhutan and Bangladesh has long been contested. Better transboundary management of Brahmaputra requires a new direction from the current situation of fragmented cooperation, conflicts and disputes in the region and increasing threats of climate change. However, it is unclear how the four countries can cooperate and what the cornerstones for their cooperation might be. To explore possible consensus, we conducted an advocacy coalition assessment of the four countries based on the heterogeneous ecosystem services valued by each nation. While China and India are focused on politics, Bangladesh and Bhutan are primarily concerned about the basin in physical terms. Although each nation values the Brahmaputra in different ways, it is possible to initiate strong collaboration based on shared beliefs. We find that developing hydropower sustainably meets the needs and expectations of all nations, especially under the threats of climate change. A sustainable hydropower coalition can help to reduce carbon emissions, acquire green energy, irrigate land in dry seasons, and manage disasters and increasing runoffs from melting glaciers. We conclude our paper with insights for each nation and hydropower development as a whole that might help the nations to manage the Brahmaputra River more sustainably by overcoming their unmatched or mismatched values and interest, and achieving a win-win solution to manage the Brahmaputra River more sustainably.
... The maximum numbers of landslides were noticed along the River Satluj and their validation was done through the GPS survey. Steep slopes, high relief, number of structural discontinuities and underlying geology were combined with anthropogenic activities which decrease the stability of slope [18]. Steep and vertical slopes have high degree of landslides. ...
... 20,670.12 MW under different stages of development and under different sectors(HPSEB, 2007;Sharma and Kuniyal, 2016; table 5). ...
... The Indian Himalayan Region (IHR) constitutes 67% of total Himalayan region and approximately 18% of India's total geographical area [1]. It is located between 21°57'-37°5' N and 72°40'-97°5'E and has a total geographical area of about 533,604 km 2 with 39,628,311 inhabiting population [2]. The IHR comprises fully/partially twelve States of India ( Figure 1) stretching over 2500 km from Jammu and Kashmir in the northwest to Arunachal Pradesh in the northeast. ...
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The Indian Power Sector(IPS) is under gradual transition from over-reliant fossil fuel (62%) to Sustainable Energy Source(SES), primarily to achieve targets of SDGs and the Paris Agreement to base 40% of the total power generation capacity on non-fossil fuel resources by 2030. In this context, the solar power generation is on the fast-track whereas, hydropower development is lagging behind due to various reasons causing time and cost escalation, hence the sustainability of IPS in terms of flexibility and reliability in integration with other Renewable Energy Source will remain a challenge. With this concern, the focus of this study is to (i) analyze and prioritize the hydropower potential (HPP) in the Indian Himalayan Region, (ii) identify the prime constraints in the way of hydropower development and (iii) discuss the way-forward for sustainable planning of hydropower development whilst appropriately managing time & cost overruns including socio-environmental concerns. The methodology involves literature review and analysis of secondary data about IPS, hydropower resources and project-specific risks prevalent in ongoing HEPs in India. The result shows that the Indian Himalayan Region has enough (73%) balance HPP in 12 different States; sustainable harnessing of which requires proper addressing of the prime constraints viz., multiple public consultations in clearance process, litigations, high investment, socio-political and contractual issues, mainly through procedural reforms by the State Governments which have constitutional right over land and water in the federal structure of India. The finding of study will be useful for planning process of entrepreneurs, investors and policy makers in the direction to achieve the target of SES beyond India's Nationally Determined Contribution.
... 20,670.12 MW under different stages of development and under different sectors(HPSEB, 2007;Sharma and Kuniyal, 2016; table 5). ...
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Himachal Pradesh (HP) is one of the most progressive mountain states in India that has transformed regional development perspective in the country. HP performs better than several Indian states which score high on socio-economic indicators despite its harsh climatic condition. In recent times, however, HP is witnessing a slowdown in several sectors because of its traditional development approach leading to high fiscal deficit. This study aims to identify factors which promote or restrict sustainable development in HP using expert interview and discussion. Results show that, current sustainability challenges in HP require innovation and home-grown policies. Recommendations have been made on critical issues which can enable HP to redesign its development trajectory while maintaining its traditional hill culture and environmental leadership. The findings of this study are expected to add new dimensions and highlight emerging sustainability issues in mountain regions. This will aid policymakers, national and sub-national governments in India, countries in the Hindu Kush Himalayan region and elsewhere in the world, which can benefit from HP’s dynamic story of development and realign or replan their development strategies for a sustainable future.
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This chapter examines the climate-change mitigation law and policy of four major developing countries: Brazil, Russia, India, and China (i.e., the BRICs). It will first analyze the case of Brazil, then India, then China and lastly Russia. The chapter explores the main causes of Brazil's contribution to global climate change (namely deforestation, cattle ranching, agricultural expansion, and energy production). It then offers mitigation strategies for the case of India and makes the case for investing in cities, solar energy, hydropower, and electric vehicles. The chapter then explores China's position in the mitigation of climate change by analyzing key policies such as carbon pricing, energy efficiency, renewable energy, and fossil fuels. Finally, the chapter turns to Russia to examine its domestic policies to reduce carbon emissions.
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The use of hydropower has expanded in recent years in southwest China, playing a key role in the success of China's West-to-East energy strategy. Although installed hydropower capacity has reached a record high, the problem of abandoned water has intensified and has been gradually highlighted by researchers. Abandoned water has resulted in a significant waste of carbon-free and inexpensive renewable energy, which is not conducive to China's goals to reduce emissions to save energy. This waste has seriously affected the development of China's hydropower industry. Therefore, now is the time to analyze the main reasons for the abandoned water problem and to identify the crux of the problem. In this paper, we collected the actual operation data of all the power stations in the case area and established the mathematical model according to the quantity of abandoned water as well as the actual and the theoretical output curve of the power station to quantify the abandoned water into energy loss. We then classified the abandoned water according to three groups of causes, namely, generation-side, line-side, and market-side causes. In 2016, the total energy loss of abandoned water of Sichuan Province was 28.73 × 10⁹ kW h, of which the generation-, line-, and market-side causes account for 7.76%, 11.68%, and 80.56% of the energy loss, respectively. Therefore, the market-side causes are the main cause for the abandoned water problem. Such market-side causes primarily include the imbalance between electricity supply and demand, the provincial barriers of the local government system and its mechanisms, and the hysteresis congestion of the transmission lines. Seizing the favorable opportunity presented by new power system reforms in China, this study proposes several market-oriented measures to improve hydropower consumption capacity.
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Glaciological investigations were carried out in 1994 on the glaciers in Hidden Valley, Mukut Himal, Nepal Himalayas, in order to make a comparison with observations made in 1974. Most of the glaciers were found to have retreated by 30-60 m in terminus elevation over the 20 years between the two studies. Rikha Samba Glacier, the longest glacier in the valley, has retreated by about 200 m. The areal average of the amount of surface lowering and the volume loss of the glacier wa estimated to be 12.6 m ice equivalent and 13% of the obtained as an average for 20 years, which is one of the largest negative values amongst small glaciers of the world.
Article
Glaciological investigations were carried out in 1994 on the glaciers in Hidden Valley, Mukut Himal, Nepal Himalayas, in order to make a comparison with observations made in 1974. Most of the glaciers were found to have retreated by 30–60 m in terminus elevation over the 20 years between the two studies. Rikha Samba Glacier, the longest glacier in the valley, has retreated by about 200m. The areal average of the amount of surface lowering and the volume loss of the glacier was estimated to be 12.6 m ice equivalent and 13% of the total mass, respectively. The annual mass balance of −0.35 m a−1 water equivalent was obtained as an average for 20 years, which is one of the largest negative values amongst small glaciers of the world.
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The Indian republic contains a large number of tribal communities with varied cultures. Efforts to develop these communities by the government of India and the provincial governments continue to be important in the post-independence planning era, and perceptible development has occurred in the socioeconomic and demographic areas. However, expected goals have not been achieved and differing socioeconomic and demographic developments are still found in tribal communities, even within the same ecosystem. In this paper, an effort is made to characterize the differential trends of socio-economic and demographic development among two mountain tribes — the Jaunsaries and the Bhotias — inhabiting the Indian Central Himalayan region. With the exception of altitudinal variation, the Central Himalayan region of India is governed by a set of more or less similar geophysical and environmental conditions. However, discernible differences in socioeconomic and demographic developments are found in these tribal communities, and are affected by the economy and culture of the tribal communities. The findings suggest that economic and cultural advantages and limitations should be appropriately integrated in planning to make development efforts more meaningful and sustainable.
Article
The goals of this article are (1) to combine published and unpublished mass balance measured data on more than 200 glaciers, check the quality of the data, digitize, and compile these for the period from the end of World War LI (1945) to 1993 (with emphasis on the 1961-1990 period), and (2) to perform a review and analysis of this compilation. A simple global average mass balance for this period is -164 mm yr(-1) (totaling -4.9 m) in water equivalent, not including iceberg calving. There are only about 40 glaciers with continuous mass balance measurements for more than 20 yr, but more than 100 with 1 to 5 yr of mass balance records. The glaciers under mass balance study differ in size from very small mountain cirque glaciers (less than I km?) to large valley glaciers (several hundred square kilometers) and subpolar ice caps with an area of several thousand square kilometers. Continuous and long-term mass balance measurements have been carried out mostly on middle-size glaciers with several exceptions. There are no longterm mass balance measurements in the following size classes: from 2(-6) to 2(-3) km(2); 2(8) to 2(10); and above 2(12) km(2). The area of these unmeasured size classes of glaciers is about 200 x 10(3) km(2), or about 29% of the global glacier area. The glacier area of mountain and subpolar glaciers (including local glaciers around Greenland and Antarctica ice sheets) is taken to be about 680 X 10(3) km(2). The reduction in global glacier area due to retreat is calculated as 6-8 X 10(3) km(2) from 1961-1990.
Article
The people inhabiting the mountains of the Central Himalayan region of India are heavily dependent on their immediate natural resources for their survival. However, this resource-poor mountain ecosystem is gradually becoming unable to provide a minimum standard of living to its continually growing population. In this ecosystem, human population is doubling every 27–30 years, against the declining resource base, particularly forests. Forest are disappearing both quantitatively and qualitatively. Against the requirement of 18 ha of forest land to maintain production in 1 ha of cultivated land, the ratio of forests to cultivated land is only 1.33: 1. The present production from grasslands supports 8 units of livestock, against the ideal 2 units, and the gap between the demand and deficit of fodder is more than 5-fold. Loss of vegetative cover is resulting in drying up of water resources, compelling the women to walk longer distances to collect water. This ecological deterioration, apart from human growth and interference, is compounded by mountain specificities such as inaccessibility, fragility, marginality, diversity, niche and adaptability. The specificities manifest in isolation, distance, poor communication, limited mobility, etc., resulting in limited external linkages and replication of external experiences, and slow pace of development. They, therefore, restrict options for economic growth, effecting poverty and affecting the quality of life of the people of the region. Poverty, in this mountain ecosystem cannot be understood and assessed independent of ecological wealth and would better be termed as ecological poverty. The development efforts to be effective in alleviating poverty here, should take into account mountain specificities and incorporate options which have larger human dimensions, such as mechanisms for population control, socio-economic and cultural conditioning, indigenous knowledge systems of the local people and simple technologies that are already in practice or have potential and are based on least external inputs.
Article
Technically feasible hydropower potential estimated at nearly 15 000 TW h/yr still exists in the world today, mostly in countries where increased power supplies from clean and renewable sources are most urgently needed to progress social and economic development. While it is not realistic to assume that all of this potential will be developed in the short or even medium term, it is clear that hydro has a substantial role to play in world energy supply. It can also offer a number of environmental and technical advantages, in terms of avoided generation based on fossil fuels. This paper reviews the current role hydropower is playing in the world, along with some its inherent benefits, and then looks at the remaining potential, and some specific development plans in various regions of the world. Attention is drawn to the advantages of developing hydropower as part of a multipurpose water resources scheme, often enabling it to subsidize other valuable functions of a reservoir or river system.It is shown that while the future major new hydro-developments will be in Asia, Latin America and Africa, there is also substantial scope for adding hydro-capacity at existing hydraulic schemes worldwide.
Exploitation of hydropower potential of Himachal Pradesh-Vision 2020 and beyond. In: Proc. of Development of hydropower projects – A prospective challenge
  • D K Sharma
Sharma, D. K. 2005. Exploitation of hydropower potential of Himachal Pradesh-Vision 2020 and beyond. In: Proc. of Development of hydropower projects – A prospective challenge, Mathur et al. (Eds.), 20–22 April, 2005. Shimla: Central Board of Irrigation and Power and HPSEB, pp. 19–24.
Hydropower development in the state -A road to prosperity. Energy India
  • P S Khurana
Khurana, P. S. 2006. Hydropower development in the state -A road to prosperity. Energy India January-March 2006. Energy India 11(1):73-74.