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Urban and peri-urban horticulture- A perspective

  • ICAR- Ministry of Agriculture & Farmers Welfare


Food, nutritional and livelihood security has been a cause of concern across the globe, and has attracted attention for urban and peri-urban agriculture/ horticulture. In this context , a key challenge is to develop policy, strategies and technical support mechanisms for the sustainable management of urban and peri-urban horticulture, addressing production issues within a broader framework of environmental planning and management. In cities, environmental benefits and synergies can be achieved when horticulture is planned as a part of the urban landscape, including safe recycling of solid waste and water. This book has focus on urban planning, landscape gardening, terrace gardening city waste utilization, vegetable growing in peri-urban environment, and insect-pests and disease management.
Confederation of Horticulture
Associations of India
Urban and Peri- Urban
Horticulture -A Perspective
Urban and Peri- Urban
Horticulture -A Perspective
H P Sumangla
S K Malhotra
P Chowdappa
Confederation of Horticulture Associations of India, New Delhi is the consortium of agricultural professional
committed for the development of agriculture/horticulture by providing solution to the problem utilising the services of
talented experts in the field of agriculture/horticulture and disseminate the knowledge for the development. In the
scenario of increasing hunger, malnutrition and challenges of climate change, technology-led agriculture has assumed
greatest significance for food, nutrition, healthcare and environmental services, and above all, the economic
development. In this context, a forum, which brings scientists, associations, corporate sectors, institutes and
organisations, farmers and various stakeholders together, to work in mission mode with set goals and objectives was felt
essential for addressing the challenges, the CHAI was established in the year, 2010. The CHAI is committed to the
furtherance of agriculture / horticulture research, education and technology-led development.
Goals and Objectives of the CHAI is to play a catalytic role, in addressing the concern of food and nutritional security,
through interventions of technology-led agriculture / horticulture development. The mission is to bring synergy among
different societies/associations, experts and entrepreneurs to encourage effective participation of all the stakeholders for
accelerating the economic growth through technological interventions and human resource development; Main
objectives of the CHAI are the furtherance of agriculture / horticulture through improved cooperation by integrating
scientific study, education and knowledge exchange of biological, ecological, environmental, sociological and economic
issues that affect agriculture / horticulture, to catalyse the efforts of development by creating associations for interaction
among all agriculture / horticulture societies/ associations, growers, entrepreneurs, policy planners and activists through
consultations, organisation of seminars, conferences, meetings, national dialogue and trainings. The CHAI also aims to
establish, promote, run, maintain and support the community for the promotion in advancement of
agriculture/horticulture and to serve as an apex organisation concerned with promotion of agriculture / horticulture,
having linkages with various commodies / input organisations, institutes and Governmental and Non-Governmental
organisations; the confederation is also committed to establish education and training institutions for human resource
development and skill up gradation; It recognises the services of people in horticulture through incentives, awards and
encourage the participation in national and international events; to establish educational and research institutions and
advise (consultancy institution) Government and other for building human resources; and to take up all the activities,
deemed to be fit for achieving economic growth through agriculture / horticulture development.
lCHAI has successfully organised national and international conferences, workshops and national consultation and
has serviced in eduction and providing solutions to the problems
Awards and fellowships is instituted to recognise the contribution of scientists and other stakeholders in the research
and development in the country and also abroad
The Confederation has instituted various awards, which includes “Lifetime Achievement Award; Dr. R.S. Paroda
Award for Excellence; B H Jain Award for technology-led development; Honorary Fellowship; CHAI Fellowship.
CHAI has instituted overseas fellowship for training and participation in conference for meritorious members.
CHAI publishes International Journal of Innovative Horticulture (IJIH) and also publish newsletters and books.
Strength of CHAI
The CHAI has wide spectrum of experts, who are enrolled as fellow to support the technology led development.
The Chairman, having held the position of DDG, ICAR; Vice-Chancellor, RAU, Pusa; Horticulture Commissioner,
is known nationally and internationally in the field of research, education, and development. He has skills in water
management, nutrient management, quality seed and planting material production and above all coordination,
planning and execution of projects of par excellence.
Fellows of CHAI has expertise in various aspects of agriculture / horticulture. Besides, more than 100 experts in
different fields from India and abroad are enrolled.
CHAI has offices in Delhi, Patna, Bangalore and also in Dubai to attend all types of consultancy for business solution
The CHAI is a non-profiting Company thus the organisation has the motto of service.
The network of CHAI, expertise of skilled fellow and standing experts makes the Confederation to offer consultancy
for modernizing agriculture / horticulture and serve the nation
CHAI can be contacted on the following address to develop project, programmes and business solutions.
Chairman, Confederation of Horticulture Associations of India, 249, Sector 18 A, Dwarka, New Delhi – 110075,
India E-mail :
Confederation of Horticulture Associations of India
New Delhi
Urban and Peri- Urban
Horticulture -A Perspective
H P Sumangla
S K Malhotra
P Chowdappa
Confederation of Horticulture Associations of India
New Delhi
Published by
Dr. H. P. Singh
The Founder and Chairman,
Confederation of Horticulture Associations of India
249, Sector 18 A, Dwarka, New Delhi – 110075, India
Email :
Website :
Compiled and Edited by
H P Sumangla
S K Malhotra
P Chowdappa
Correct citation
Sumangla, H.P., Malhotra S.K. and Chowdappa P, (2013) Urban and Peri-urban Horticulture-A
perspective. Confederation of Horticulture Associations of India, New Delhi. pp
All rights are reserved. No part of this book shall be reproduced by transmitting in any form, print, microfilm,
or any other means without prior permission of Confederation of Horticulture Associations of India (CHAI),
New Delhi.The opinion expressed in the book is of the authors, not of the publisher.
Photo courtesy : Dr H P Singh, The Founder and Chairman, CHAI, New Delhi
Print : Jwalamukhi Mudranalaya, Bangalore - 560 004. Ph: 080 - 2661 7243, 2660 8090
The urban population in the world will double in 30 years, leading to the challenges for the
mankind to meet food and nutritional security, besides the problems of environment. The urban population
will increase more in developing countries as a result of the immigration from rural areas, since people
flock to the cities with the expectation of better quality of life in the cities and towns. Looking to
accelerated growth in population of cities and small towns, it could be expected that, by 2050, more
than 60 percent population will live in urban area. Besides the growing demand for food, there is a
rapid increase of poverty, unemployment, hunger and malnutrition in the urban and peri-urban
environment around the world. This has been a cause of concern across the globe, and has attracted
attention for urban and peri-urban agriculture/ horticulture (UPA/UPH) .In this context,a key challenge
is to develop policy, strategies and technical support mechanisms for the sustainable management of
urban and peri-urban horticulture, addressing production issues within a broader framework of
environmental planning and management.In cities, environmental benefits and synergies can be achieved
when horticulture is planned as a part of the urban landscape, including safe recycling of solid waste
and water. Food and Agriculture Organisation of United Nations (FAO) has responded to the needs
for effective development and management of urban and peri-urban agriculture/horticulture systems,
to support the development of policy advice, strategies and technical guidelines within an integrated
approach to the sustainable management of agriculture/horticulture in urban and peri-urban area. Its
design includes an element of urban and peri-urban agriculture, aimed at improving access to food and
advancing the livelihoods of people living in and around cities. FAO is also pursuing opportunities for
joint cooperation with the “Urban Harvest” Initiative of the CG System, the International Society for
Horticultural Science (ISHS) and the Global Horticulture Initiative (GHI) in order to address emerging
researchable issue.
In India people living in urban area will be more than 40% by 2030 and shall be more than 65 %
by 2050. In this context, horticulture in urban and peri-urban area becomes vital to address the challenges
emerging owing to rapid urbanisation of cities and small towns.There have been initiatives by the
Governments and social organisations. The schemes launched by Government of India for peri-urban
vegetable production,which has enhanced vegetable supply and improved income of growers. Working
groups on horticulture for developing 12th plan proposal, constituted by Planning Commission, deliberated
the issues in sub-group on urban and peri-urban horticulture, and has advocated focused attention, not
only for fruits and vegetables, but for environmental services, and also for health care. A National
Dialogue organised jointly by National Horticulture Board (NHB) and Indian Institute of Horticultural
Research (IIHR) also discussed urban and peri-urban horticulture and advocated for zero land utilization,
interior and exterior landscaping, and vertical garden, terrace cultivation of fruits and vegetables and
mushroom culture. Considering the necessity for developing a policy framework to encourage all the
stakeholders for urban and peri-urban agriculture, national dialogue was organized by National Academy
of Agricultural Sciences (NAAS) on 14th April 2012 at NASC, New Delhi, involving which has led to
formation of a policy paper. These initiatives have to be translated into an action by involving all the
stakeholders of urban and peri-urban horticulture. Accordingly, Confederation of Horticulture
Associations of India, a consortium of scientists, associations, corporate sectors, institutes and
organisations, farmers and various stakeholders committed for accelerating the economic growth through
technological interventions and human resource development, organising this National Workshop on
Urban and Peri-urban horticulture with theme - greening cities, meeting needs and servicing the
environment, on 2nd March 2013, at Windsor Manor,Bangalore with an objective to capitalise on
current knowledge and experiences of UPH and foster the initiatives through technological
interventions,human resource development and net working.
The national workshop had experts from diverse fields to discuss all the issues in interdisciplinary
mode to develop action plan and strategies for fostering and developing UPH,which include urban
planning,landscape gardening,terrace gardening city waste utilisation, vegetable growing in peri-urban
environment,and insect-pests and disease management.This publication,Urban and peri-Urban
Horticulture -a perspective is a compilation of the articles contributed by experts in the field. I
compliment Dr H P Sumangla,Dr S K Malhotra and Dr P Chowdappa for their efforts in compiling and
editing the information together on UPH.I am sure,reader will find it informative and useful for reference
on UPH.The CHAI is grateful to all those who contributed for the success of this National Workshop
on Urban and Peri-urban Horticulture.
Dr. H. P. Singh
The Founder and Chairman
Confederation of Horticulture Associations of India
New Delhi
Abraham Verghese
Division of Entomology and Nematology,
Indian Institute of Horticultural Research,
Hessaraghatta Lake PO, Bangalore.-560089
Balaji S. Kulkarni.
Department of Floriculture and Landscaping
KRC College of Horticulture
UHS Bagalkot, Arabhavi.
Chowdappa P.
Division of Plant Pathology
Indian Institute of Horticultural Research
Hessaraghatta, Bangalore 560 089
Geeta Venkatapur
Department of Floriculture and Landscaping
KRC College of Horticulture
UHS Bagalkot, Arabhavi.
Hanumashetti S.I.
KRC College of Horticulture
UHS Bagalkot, Arabhavi.
Hebbar S.S.
Division of Vegetable Crops
Indian Institute of Horticultural Research
Hessaraghatta, Bangalore 560 089
Hegde M. R.
Research and Management Coordination Unit.
Indian Institute of Horticultural Research,
Hessaraghatta Lake PO, Bangalore -560089,
Janakiram T.
Division of Floriculture and Landscaping,
Indian Agricultural Research Institute
New Delhi
Jawaharlal M.
Department of Floriculture and Landscaping
HC & RI, TNAU, Coimbatore
Krishnamurthy P. N.
Division of Entomology and Nematology
Indian Institute Of Horticultural Research
Hessaraghatta, Bangalore 560 089
Malhotra S.K .
Principal Scientist
Nair A.K.
Division of Vegetable Crops
Indian Institute of Horticultural Research
Hessaraghatta, Bangalore 560 089
Neelima Garg
Division of Post Harvest Technology
Central Institute for Subtropical Horticulture
Lucknow (U.P.) India
Prabhakar M.
Division of Vegetable Crops
Indian Institute of Horticultural Research
Hessaraghatta, Bangalore 560 089
Rao M. S.
Division of Entomology and Nematology
Indian Institute of Horticultural Research
Hessaraghatta, Bangalore 560 089
Robert Fernandes
AVP – Landscape & Horticulture Dept,
K. Raheja Corp .Mumbai.
Sathyanarayana B.N.
Department of Horticulture,
GKVK, University of Agricultural Sciences,
Singh H. P.
Confederation of Horticulture Associations of India
249,Sector 18A,Dwarka,
New Delhi 110075, India
Sidhu A.S.
Indian Institute of Horticultural Research,
Hessaraghatta, Bangalore 560 089
Shivananda T. N.
Agriculture Technology Information Center (ATIC)
Indian Institute of Horticultural Research
Hessaraghatta Lake PO, Bangalore -560089
Srinivasa Rao N.K.
Division of Physiology and Biochemistry
Indian Institute of Horticultural Research
Sridhar V.
Division of Entomology and Nematology
Indian Institute of Horticultural Research
Bangalore 560 089
Subesh Ranjith Kumar C.
Department of Floriculture and Landscaping,
HC & RI, TNAU, Coimbatore
Sumangala H.P.
Division of Ornamental Crops
Indian Institute of Horticultural Research
Hessaraghatta, Bangalore 560 089
Rakshitha Mouly
Division of Entomology and Nematology,
Indian Institute of Horticultural Research,
Hessaraghatta Lake PO
Bangalore -560089
Division of Floriculture and Landscaping,
Indian Agricultural Research Institute
New Delhi
Vishwanath S.
Biome Environmental
Vasantha Kumar .T
Section of Medicinal Crops, Indian Institute of
Horticultural Research,
Hessaraghatta Lake Post, Bangalore-560 089
E mail-
Hima Bindu .K
Section of Medicinal Crops, Indian Institute of
Horticultural Research,
Hessaraghatta Lake Post, Bangalore-560 089
Sukanya DH
Section of Medicinal Crops, Indian Institute of
Horticultural Research,
Hessaraghatta Lake Post, Bangalore-560 089
Suryanarayana M.A.
Section of Medicinal Crops, Indian Institute of
Horticultural Research,
Hessaraghatta Lake Post, Bangalore-560 089
1. Urban And Peri Urban Horticulture for Greening the cities utilizing waste, 1
meeting the needs and servicing the environment
Dr.H.P.Singh and Dr.S.K.Malhotra
2. Environmental challenges and emerging Landscape solutions 11
Mr.Robert Fernadis
3. Innovations in Roof top and Terrace Gardening 12
Dr. M. Jawaharlal and Dr. C. Subesh Ranjith Kumar
4. Innovations in Interior and Exterior Landscaping 16
Dr.Janakiram and Usha
5. Water recycling and management in Urban Area 21
Mr. Viswanath
6. Landscape gardening for environmental Services 23
7. Innovations in urban and Peri Urban Vegetable cultivation 27
Dr.A.S.Sidhu and M.Prabhakar
8. Disease management in Urban Horticulture 35
9. Pest management in Urban Horticulture 43
Abraham Verghese, Rakshitha Mouly , T.N. Shivananda and M R Hegde
10. Pest management in Urabn and Peri Urban vegetables and ornamentals 51
P. N. Krishnamurthy, M. S. Rao and V. Sridhar
11. Waste management for urban horticulture 61
Dr.Neelima Garg
12. Environmental concerns of cities and Management in relation to Climate change 68
N.K.Srinivasa Rao
13. Theme Gradens for Bangalore 74
14. Landscape Gardening –Retrospect and Prospect 76
H.P.Singh and H.P.Sumangala
15. Green space in Cities – importance and Scope 84
16. Vertical garden – A boon for limited space 89
S.I. Hanamashetti, Balaji S.Kulkarni and Geeta Venkatapur
17. Medicinal and Aromatic plants as key components in Urban 92
and Periurban Horticulture (UPH)-
T. Vasantha Kumar, K. Hima Bindu, D.H. Sukanya and M.A. Suryanarayana
BBMP – Bruhat Bangalore Mahanagara Paalike
CSA -community supported agriculture
CFC - Chlorofluorocarbons
CFL - Compact Fluorescent Light bulbs
CGIAR -Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research
CH4 – Methane
CII- Confederation of Industry
Co- Carbon monoxide
CODEX- Codex Alimentarius Commission.
EfW –Energy from waste
FAO – Food and Agriculture Organization
GDP - Gross domestic product
GHG – Green House Gas
HACCP- Hazard analysis Critical Control Point
HFC - Hydro fluorocarbons
ICAR- Indian Council of Agricultural Research
IEA - International Energy Agency
IIHR- Indian Institute of Horticultural Research
IIM- Indian Institute of Management
IPM –Integrated Nutrient management
IWM – Integrated water management
KNHPI - Kumarappa National Handmade Paper Institute
LED – Light Emitting Diodes
NAAS- National Academy of Agricultural Sciences
NASA – National Aeronautics and Space Administration
NHB- National Horticulture Board
Nox – Nitrogen oxides
PFC- Per fluorocarbons
PIL - Public Interest Litigation
PUVF - Periurban vegetable farming
RH- Relative Humidity
SUDS- Sustainable urban drainage systems
Sox – Sulphur oxides.
UHIE - urban heat island effect
UN - United Nations
UNCED - United Nations Conference on Environment and Development
UNCHS- United Nations Centre for Human Settlements
UPH - Urban and Peri Urban horticulture.
VOCs- volatile organic compounds
WHO- World Health Organization
WtE –Waste to energy
Confederation of Horticulture
Associations of India
There has been a rapid stride in urbanisation with
the increase in world population, expected to double in
30 years. According to an estimate, India’s total
population will be more than 1.5 billion, the largest in
the world, with the urban population of around 600
million, by 2030. There is a shift of population from
rural to urban areas in search of jobs due to growth in
services and manufacturing sector. The spectrum of
various components in the urban and peri-urban
ecosystem is also changing continuously. Ensuring
adequate food supply, environmental pollution reduction,
employment and income generation are some of the
important facets of urban and peri-urban horticulture.
In the current scenario changing dietary habits with
increasing income and heath consciousness,there is a
rapid shifts from cereal based diet to nutritious diet
where horticultural products become important.
Resultantly, there is a growing demand for horticultural
produce with growing population. The urbanisation is
expected to continue to increase which is a challenge
not only to increased demand for fruits, vegetables and
flowers but also to various facets including the
environment. In this context, horticulture has to play a
pivotal role.
Horticulture as food and nutrition
Horticultural crops (fruits, vegetables, potato, tuber
crops, mushroom, spices and plantation crops) are rich
source of vitamins, minerals, proteins, and
carbohydrates etc. are referred to as protective foods
and assume great importance as nutritional security of
the people. There are instances that the supply of these
produces has not commensurated with the demand
resulting in crisis which has been felt by the
government from time to time. This has attracted the
attention to promote peri-urban and urban horticulture
for food, nutrition and environmental services. A
spontaneous shift thus to urban horticulture including
landscape gardening is also taking place. Urban green
space comprised with natural, semi-natural and
artificial habitats,development of adequate green space
is essential to mitigate different environmental
challenges. Planned landscape and urban horticulture
will ensure better urban ecosystem and would help for
sustainable livelihood even of resource poor people.
Urban and Peri-Urban ecosystem accentuate the
head for the quality and nutritious food all thorough
the year. Parallel demand for the processed horticulture
products, flowers, off season vegetables and safe food
will increase. Purchasing power with large middle-class
will be a feature of urban landscape.There is crucial
need to formulate some programs to ensure sufficient
food supply (Fruits and Vegetables) and clean and green
environment to overcome the increasing urban food
insecurity, malnutrition and related environmental
concerns in order to safe guard the sustainability. UPH
includes all horticultural crops grown for human
consumption and ornamental use within and in the
peripheral regions of cities. The products of peri-urban
horticulture include a large variety of fruits, vegetables,
flowers, ornamental trees, aromatic plants and
mushrooms. These calls for selection of appropriate
crops/varieties particularly with short cycle. New
production techniques and their adoption are needed
in urban and peri-urban areas to tackle the land
restrictions. These include horticultural production on
built up areas by using various substrates, water saving
in highly populated areas, organic vegetable and fruit
production. Organic fruit and vegetable production is
gaining importance for the production of pesticide free
horticultural produce with no content of heavy metals
and harmful pathogens.
Internal diallogue for urban and
peri-urban horticulture
Urban and per-urban agriculture has been a
matter of international dialogue. FAO organized
workshop on Urban agriculture in 2002, which was
the first initiative, and identified a bunch of activities.
The workshop also stated that the scope of urban and
peri-urban food production varies from continent to
continent, which is derived from many factors, e.g.,
the economic status of the country and the households
Urban and Peri-urban Horticulture for Greening the Cities, Utilising the
Waste, Meeting the Needs and Servicing the Environment
H.P. Singh and S.K. Malhotra
Urban and Peri- Urban
Horticulture -A Perspective
(which determine their needs). The household itself is
determined by it’s size, labour force, assets etc. Cultural
aspects, which partly determine the kind of crops
grown, the infrastructure and availability of fossil
energy and inputs,which determine transportation
capacities, availability of seeds and fertilisers, climate,
soils and water. Urban agriculture is practiced on small
to medium size areas within the city for growing annual
and tree crops, raising small livestock and fish for home
consumption or sale. The peri-urban agriculture is
aimed to meet the demand of urban population by
profitable utilisation of land. Globally, urban and peri-
urban agriculture is gaining attention from governments,
and many international organisations like the United
Nations Conference on Environment and Development
(UNCED), United Nations Centre for Human
Settlements (UNCHS), the FAO, and the Consultative
Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR)
are bringing focus to urban and peri-urban agriculture.
Today, about 200 million people worldwide are
associated with urban and peri-urban agriculture
including horticulture, but there is no reliable statistics
about urban and peri-urban agriculture in India.
The Regional Office of FAO compiled a report
in state for urban and peri-urban agriculture in India
through consultations and discussion. Report in Indian
context states that practice of urban and peri-urban
farming is gaining prominence. The report also focuses
on solid waste management besides growing of fruits,
vegetables and flowers. At the same time, it is noted
that UPA has a number of advantages, such as
improving livelihoods, making available fresh fruits and
vegetables in urban areas, and helping to manage solid
wastes, but there are also a number of concerns related
to its promotion notably environmental and health
related-threats, highlighted by an absence of awareness
and systems to monitor . To underscore the problem,
members referred to Mumbai where 20% of the leafy
vegetables in the city come from fields, adjacent to
railway tracks where farmers use domestic sewage,
contaminated with heavy metals and nitrates for
irrigation. Consumption of these vegetables can lead
to amoebic dysentery and Methemoglobemia (linked
with breathing problems). Moreover, the Science and
Technology Policy Research along with several other
institutions recently conducted a study in Uttar Pradesh
that assessed the adverse impact of wastewater
irrigation on food safety in peri-urban areas. Final
suggestions which emerged are: Training, Motivation
and Use of technology, encouragement for terrace
garden in cooperative housing management, linkages
between cities and policy for UPH.
India initiatives for urban and peri-urban
In India people living in urban area will be more
than 40% by 2030 and shall be more than 65 % by
2050. In this context, horticulture in urban and peri-
urban area becomes vital to address the need of fruits,
vegetable, flowers, tubers and medicinal and aromatic
plants. Recognising the needs for fresh fruits and
vegetables, a schemes of Government of India has
been launched for peri-urban vegetable production.
Working groups on horticulture for 12th Plan,
constituted by Planning Commission, deliberated the
issues in sub-group on urban and peri-urban
horticulture, and has advocated focused attention, not
only for fruits and vegetables production, but for
environmental services, and also for health care. A
National Dialogue organised jointly by National
Horticulture Board (NHB) and Indian Institute of
Horticultural Research (IIHR) also discussed urban
and peri-urban horticulture and advocated for zero land
utilization, interior and exterior landscaping, and vertical
garden, terrace cultivation of fruits and vegetables and
mushroom culture. Considering the necessity and
urgency, and developing a policy framework to
encourage all the stakeholders for urban and peri-urban
agriculture, national dialogue was organised by
National Academy of Agricultural Sciences (NAAS)
on 14th April 2012 at NASC Complex, under the
chairmanship of Dr Dr H P Singh,then the DDG
(Hort),ICAR,which has developed a policy paper
which identifies issues and provides recommendations.
Outcome recommendations of national
The group recognised that there is a growing
urbanisation coupled with dietary change, which
demands more fresh fruits, vegetables and other
products such as milk, fish and poultry,and meeting
the requirement of urban population, which is growing
at accelerated rate, for fresh products and also create
a balance for the water needs, management of city
waste and taking care of environment are the questions
Confederation of Horticulture
Associations of India
before all the growing countries.Urban and peri-urban
agriculture needs integration between the various
ministries dealing with various aspects like Ministry of
Urban Development, Ministry of Environment and
Forests, Ministry of Agriculture, Ministry of Food
Processing. This should need definitely policy of the
governance for effective implementation of the
While horticultural crops appear quite compatible
in densely populated urban set up but livestock farming
including aquaculture may have certain adverse effects.
The use of waste water for irrigation without careful
treatment and monitoring can result in the spread of
diseases among the population. Besides, cultivation
on contaminated land also represents a health hazard
for the consumers. Therefore, public health safety
is essential to ensure that any of the activities of UPA
do not cause unacceptable risks to public health and
negate its potential economic and nutritional benefits.
This needs to be kept in mind while framing policy
of technological models. Input production and supply
mechanism for UPA is weak. Support for availability
of logistics at affordable cost to growers including
that of drip irrigation is not available. Professional
skills among urban youth for growing indoor plants,
avenue plantation and landscape planning, for
environmental services are some of the issues.
Considering that urban and peri-urban agriculture shall
be highly technology driven, integrated approach, skill
up-gradation, technology generation and application
shall be essential.
Urban planning has so far addressed access to
affordable housing, ease of public transportation,
employment, and health, but few urban planners
adequately consider food security or acknowledge the
importance of having a percentage of the city’s
population capable of growing food. Thus, there is a
need of land use policy with context to UPA for
effective implementation. Contract farming in peri-
urban needs encouragement with concept of
technology- led development with policy, which allows
the farmers and investors to adopt contract farming.
Enforcement of law and standards for safe utilisation
of sewage waters, sewage sludge and urban compost
in UPA is essential. Waste water of cities need to be
recycled after pre-treatment for use in urban & peri-
urban horticulture.
There is a need to clearly establish the role and
nature of government policy as it deals with urban
agriculture. This requires political decisions and
strategies to make best use of city space and water
resources for local production and consumption. Urban
agriculture saves energy consumed in transporting food
from rural to urban areas and can help in price
stabilisation for both producers and consumers. A
system of quality control for both inputs and produce
would be essentially needed. Marketing hubs for
perishables and information for strengthening of
marketing system needs to be created on priority by
developmental agencies. Community centres and
gardens should educate the community to see
agriculture as an integral part of urban life. Since data
base for various inputs of UPA is lacking, there is need
for baseline survey for information on space in the
urban and pre-urban areas which shall further help to
know that how much area of it shall be available for
UPA. Since technological models for growing of fruits,
vegetables, flowers, plants, mushroom, birds, fish and
livestock will be different, there is a need for strong
research base for providing technological
solutions.Technology to grow vegetables, ornamental
plants and herbs in pots, shade, tray and hydroponics
is required to be developed and validated. A suitable
small scale protected cultivation structures for roof top
gardening as well a peri-urban production of fruits,
vegetables and flowers need to be developed.
Livestock and poultry are major components of
peri-urban agriculture and face a number of constraints.
A weak infrastructural base and poor support services
have been repeatedly shown to adversely affect output
and economic returns of urban livestock and poultry
units. Therefore, technologies are required to be
developed for livestock, poultry and aquaculture, which
can suit to urban and peri-urban area and may not
have adverse effect on human health.Understanding
the dynamics of diseases spread from livestock to
humans in peri-urban areas would be essential before
livestocks are allowed as a part of UPA in populated
urban and peri-urban area.
Providing specialised guidance on food safety to
urban and peri-urban farmers, food handlers and food
processors would be essential. This would need
development of safety standards for inputs like water,
manures and pesticides and finally its monitoring. There
Urban and Peri- Urban
Horticulture -A Perspective
is a need to integrate this aspect with urban landscaping
to make the urban areas richer in biodiversity.
Aesthetically planned surroundings are not a luxury
anymore but form one of the basic necessities of life
due to its environmental benefits. Thus landscaping
deserves due importance in research priorities and
policy planning for providing better living conditions to
the urban people. Development of good agricultural
practices for UPA which can be scaled up for meeting
bio-safety and food safety concerns is essentially
needed. Technologies for use and reuse of waste water
for aquaculture and horticulture may require utmost
attention. Identification of bacterial strains for treatment
of water for reuse and cultivation of vegetables in
aquaponics for growing leafy vegetables, tomato etc
shall be needed for promotion of UPA. There is a need
to work out the various components related to
horticultural production and supplies to urban centres,
from planting material to marketing at retail level, which
shall give a holistic picture of entire supply chain.
Seed production of improved varieties and hybrids
of special traits including resistant / tolerant to diseases
and insect pests, suitable for urban and peri-urban
horticulture (UPH) needs to be strengthened with
support of National Seed Corporation and National
Horticulture Board (NHB) with close collaboration with
several public sector institutes. The provision of seeds/
planting material & availability of different horticultural
crops to the end users at affordable cost should be
made by opening public sector seed shops in rural peri-
urban areas. Emphasis needs to be given for increased
and quality production of horticultural produce under
protected cultivation for year round supply of fruits,
vegetables and flowers.Ensuring availability of logistics
for these produces at affordable cost to farmers
including hi-tech nursery production become essential.
For home scale production of horticultural crops, the
concept of nutrition gardening / terrace gardening /
container gardening / turf gardening / roof gardening
need to be popularised along with technical know-how.
Emphasis should be given in development of
professional skills among urban youth for growing
indoor plants especially those help in sequestrating
carbon dioxide or other gases, interior and exterior
landscape in the light of climate change. Avenue
plantation and landscape planning for turf grass
management is essential especially for corporates,
airports, railway stations, malls and golf course.
Respective State Agricultural Departments, Municipal
Corporations and Urban Development Agencies have
to play a significant role in UPA as agriculture is the
state subject.
Challenges in changing scenario and UPH
Climate change issue is posing the question, “Will
it be possible to provide food and nutrition to growing
population having changing life style in scenario of
declining land and water? In spite of the fact, those
efforts to reverse the urbanisation trend of growth,
urban population continues to increase and is much
higher than expected. Prediction is there that more
than 65 per cent of people will live in urban area by
2050, which will not only demand more food and water,
but there could be associated problems including CO2
and methane enrichment, accumulation of waste and
employment opportunities. How to address these
problems have been discussed and debated on various
forum, and to mitigate the problem, intensive urban
and peri-urban horticulture is advocated, which should
address employment, availability of fresh produce,
utilisation of zero-land, solid waste utilisation, city water
treatment and its use, and above all, environmental
services. This will need science-led development
backed by policy environment. There is need to
understand the current status of UPH based on the
experiences and analyse its likely role in marketing
food, nutrition, livelihood and environmental services;
capitalise on current knowledge and experiences and
foster the UPH initiatives through technical
backstopping and trained human resources; analyze
UPH in context of climate change and initiative for
concept of green cities having harmony with nature
and provide foundation for developing policy
framework to promote UPH.
Urbanisation in India- a challenge
According to United Nations, India has the highest
rate of change of the urban population among the BRIC
nations, which will remain above 2% annually for the
next three decades. At this rate, an estimated 854
million people will live in Indian cities by 2050. Even
in the coming decade (2011-2020), India will add 95
million people to its already dense urban fabric, nearly
one-fourth of its current urban population. In last
decades 2,800 towns were added that have a municipal
administration of some sort, or as places that have a
Confederation of Horticulture
Associations of India
population of at least 5,000, where the main occupation
for adult males is not farming. In terms of urban
population, the top three states are Maharashtra with
50.8 million, Uttar Pradesh with 44.4 million and Tamil
Nadu with 34.9 million. The expansions of cities are
driven by economic growth and or by migration from
rural to urban and peri-urban area as agriculture and
rural employment opportunities lag behind cities.
The cities in India are rapidly growing and the
manifestation of urban crisis in a variety of areas viz.,
environment, food, energy etc. can be directly traced
to the unbridled growth of cities. Urban and peri-urban
land use patterns are changing dramatically due to the
pressure of population and the role of urban fringe in
supplying food, fuel, forage and industrial forest
products, has declined considerably. The environmental
crisis of the urban region has become acute and
interlinked in complex ways to urban energy, land use
and the political economy of urban development.
Cities will continue to need resources such as food,
fibre, clean water, nature, biodiversity, and recreational
space, as well as the people and communities that
produce and provide these urban necessities and
desires. Hence, key questions for the next decades
are how, where and by whom these urban necessities
and desires will be produced and provided, and how
this can be done in manner that is considered to be
socially, economically and ecologically sustainable and
ethically sound.
Urban and peri-urban horticulture
(UPH)-a way forward
Urban and Peri urban horticulture opportunities
are emerging in urban area for horticulture as demand
for fresh fruits, vegetables are increasing resulting in
various activities. Roof and terrace gardening is finding
now place to get fresh fruits, vegetables and flowers,
and also for environmental services. Vegetable
production, has expanded in and around cities in many
developing countries as an informal activity practiced
by poor and landless city dwellers. The broad diversity
of horticultural crop species allows year-round
production,improved employment and income.
Growers have realised that intensive horticulture can
be practiced on small plots, making efficient use of
limited water and land resources. Horticultural crops,
as opposed to other food crops, have a considerable
yield potential and can provide up to 50 kg of fresh
produce per m² per year depending upon the technology
applied. In addition, due to their short cycle they provide
a quick to emergency needs for food. Leafy vegetables
provide a quick return to meet a family’s daily cash
requirements for purchasing food. Leafy vegetables
are particularly perishable and post-harvest losses can
be reduced significantly when production is located
close to consumers. Mushroom centres, which do not
need land can be a most promising activities in cities
and peri-urban area. Evidently,there is an accelerated
production of mushroom production around Delhi.There
are new practices to grow cucurbits on the arches
created on the pathways,utilising the zero-land for
additional production.
Cultivation of fruits, vegetables and
India is fortunate to be endowed with a variety
of agro-climatic zones and has a tradition of growing a
wide range of horticultural crops. Among the
horticulture produce, fruits and vegetables together
have the largest share of production (78 %). Fruits
and Vegetables not only contribute to the food basket
of the country but are also a highly remunerative crops
demanded more in urban area, where they form the
most important component of a balanced diet.
Production of crops and profitability of farmers can
be enhanced by encouraging ‘off-season’ production
under protected cultivation in green houses, shade net
houses. etc for generating income round the year. Fruit
crops such as papaya, strawberry annual fruit crops
and aonla, pomegranate, bael etc. can be grown with
minimum available water conditions in peri-urban
areas. Availability of fruits and vegetables, particularly
Urban and Peri- Urban
Horticulture -A Perspective
to the urban population, presents many challenges.
Issues such as assured availability of safe and good
quality vegetables at affordable prices continue to be
a major challenge. Addressing this concern calls for
concerted action on several fronts viz. production,
logistics covering post-harvest handling, storage,
transportation, marketing, distribution and policy reform.
In this background, a special initiative for the
development of vegetables has been mooted with 100%
central assistance under the Rashtriya Krishi Vikas
Yojana which is called as Vegetable Initiative for Urban
Clusters for implementation of a Vegetable Initiative
to set in motion a virtuous cycle of production and
income for the farmers and assured supply for
consumers. To begin with, this programme has been
launched around major cities.
Considering that mushrooms require no land, no
light and can utilize vertical space, and thus are
important option in UPH. Varieties of mushrooms are
available for different seasons and can fit in the UPH
very well to meet the nutritional demand. The
increasing trend towards consumption of fresh
mushrooms and the short shelf-life of mushrooms
which is a major bottleneck in marketing, justifies their
cultivation in and around cities. Several models have
been developed where production of compost and
spawn run bags based on the local agricultural waste
and their marketing through stores and other outlets
were proposed. There is need for popularizing the
nutraceutical value of mushrooms and preparing ready-
to-use kits for children for popularizing the mushrooms.
Roof garden in UPH
Roof garden is one of popular alternatives in urban
and peri-urban areas, because of the limited available
space in the grounds of a house. Particularly in the big
cities and towns, the only space left for garden
enthusiasts is the roof of the house and the balcony.
To ensure the success of a roof garden, there is a
need to assess the capability of the site. Competent
builders should be consulted in order to know about
the strength of the roof structure and waterproofing
of the flat roof. With hundreds of pots, boxes and tones
of soil, the roof becomes very heavy. Moreover, with
the constant need to water the growing plants,
untreated roofs get damaged in not time. If expense is
no object, and the structure of the building is strong
enough, the whole area may be paved with 30 cm
square tiles. These are easy to clean and handsome in
appearance. However, in roof gardening, the cost of
maintenance of the garden, depth of soil, watering
schedule, frequent replenishment of plant material and
selection of plants must get proper
consideration.Generally, roofs are utilized for growing
potted plants like cacti and succulents, chrysanthemums,
dahlias, orchids, bougainvillea, roses, seasonal flowers
and several kinds of shrubs and herbs. Besides, the
vegetable crops such as tomato, brinjal, chillies, beans,
leafy vegetables and gourds can also be grown. In a
strong roof structure with waterproofing system, the
area can be laid out with lawns and herbaceous borders
which require at least 30 to 45 cm soil depth. Such
planting can be done by placing the soil between the
outer wall or the parapet and the wall built on the inner
side of the roof. To prevent seepage of water, the roof
is to be treated with a bitumen compound or fitted with
moisture-proof wood shutters. Polythene sheets may
also be sued for this purpose. It is a good idea to have
some other colour of the roof than the traditional off-
black on the surface. Colours like green, brown or soft
Venetian red are suggested. If considered desirable,
the whole of the wall area can be treated with
‘Snowcem’ or any other durable exterior paint. Some
framework or screening devices will enhance the
beauty of the garden. Hence, free-standing trellis or
wall-attached trellis may be introduced for supporting
plants. While fixing the trellis to the walls, it is better to
leave a gap to minimize the seepage of water to a
vulnerable patch.
According to the availability of sunlight during
different periods of the day, sheltered sports, shady
locations and depth of soil, there may be a wide choice
of plant material. The roof garden needs a few large
Confederation of Horticulture
Associations of India
permanent shrubs and climbers. Tubs and boxes of
different sizes and shapes will be helpful in growing
such plants. Along the main tubs and boxes, smaller
pots and boxes can be arranged comfortably along with
hanging basket. Ornamental stones, sculptures and
other decorative pieces may be suitably arranged in
the roof garden as it is easier to protect these materials
from theft. As it is laborious to carry soil to the roof
garden, extra care must be taken to prepare a rich
compost comprising loamy soil, well rotted cowdung
manure, sharp sand and leaf mould mixed with
Terrace gardening in UPH
Terrace gardening usually refer to the area in the
immediate vicinity of a building. This is a raised ground
space constructed around a dwelling house or on the
sides of a hill. The terrace forms a link between the
house and the rest of the outdoor living space and must,
therefore, be designed in harmony with the plan of the
house. Gardening in terraces provide privacy and leisure
time pursuits. If the house is built on sloping ground, it
will appear to slide downhill; hence, a flat area around
the building has an immediate stabilising effect. Planting
on the terrace adds to this effect. The size of the
terrace is important, but shape and treatment also need
careful consideration. Terrace gardening is highly
specialised job for landscape gardeners and civil
engineers. It involves land raising and construction of
steps, ramps, walls and paved paths as well as planting
of lawn grasses and other plants. It is desirable to have
plants on the terrace but it should be restricted to the
edges so that the middle is left open for circulation.
Since such gardens are mainly for relaxation, they
should provide both sunny and shady areas. Sheltered,
paved terraces invite dining outdoors, lounging,
entertaining and children’s activities. It must offer a
fine year-round view of the entire garden. Addition of
sculptured rocs, a small lily pond with a fountain and
water plants will lend visual enrichment.
Landscape gardening for environmental
Plants offer environmental and ecological
services along with aesthetic values. Trees and other
ornamental plants are crucial to the sequestration of
carbon form atmosphere and play an important role in
reducing carbon foot print. As such, trees and other
landscape plants serve as an important tool in improving
air quality in cities and mitigating potential health effects
on human inhabitants. In recent days landscaping
concepts have gained popularity into different
perspective by introducing ideas like green buildings,
greenbelt, green roofs and energy conserving landscape
and using ideal plants for air, sound and water, soil
pollution mitigation. Parks and urban green spaces
impact people’s health by providing them with an
inexpensive setting for recreation. Urbanisation is
believed to imply environmental degradation in the
present scenario. Action is needed now to steer urban
development towards green cities that contribute to
environmental security, and clean environment for urban
Landscape gardening -a potential
industry in UPH
Landscape gardening which includes growing and
utilisation of garden flowers, turf grass, bedding plants,
potted plants, hedges, edges, water garden, rock garden
etc. has made appreciable growth in the last two
decades as commercial venture. The use of floricultural
produce is no longer confined to religious purposes
alone, but floriculture has become a part of modern
lifestyle and floral products are being utilised in floral
decorations, floral craft, interior-scaping and
beautifying commercial premises. Thus, the lifestyle
floriculture represents business and activities involving
production of ornamental plants, cut flowers, turf,
foliage and delivers a range of services for such
projects. The business has transformed to landscape
design, contracting and maintenance services, whole
sale and retail sales, development of parks and leisure
places, gardens, besides providing technical advices.
Resultantly, development of landscape gardening has
Urban and Peri- Urban
Horticulture -A Perspective
provided not only opportunities for floriculture farming
but also for improving livelihood compared to other
crops. The development of landscape gardening also
provides very good business opportunities in other allied
sectors like specialised transport services and supply
of allied products, nursery bags, pots, potting media,
tools, plant protection and other equipments. This has
happened due to the vision of policy planners who were
involved with various stakeholders in floriculture
sector and provided the required direction that has
resulted in appropriate growth in ornamental horticulture
According to use and requirement of people,
landscaping is in demand for public offices like courts,
private offices, government offices, corporate houses,
cinemas, hotels; educational institutes like school,
colleges, university campus; factories; places of
historical importance; places of worship like temple,
mosque, church; cemeteries and burial grounds etc.
Besides this, landscaping of public places like highways
(either national or state), railway stations, railway lines,
bus terminus, airports, etc. is also very important.
Commercial outdoor landscaping includes the golf
industry, lawns for cricket grounds and pitches etc.
The intelligent landscape management can reduce
water and air pollution, mitigate health risks for people
and wildlife, and threats to the environment and species
diversity. By implementing sound landscaping principles
by accommodating plant diversity suitably, one can also
reduce landscape maintenance costs, reduce costs for
heating and cooling of buildings, decrease time spent
on chores such as mowing, and improve the health of
both humans and the planet.
Use of wastewater in UPH
Increasing competition for limited water
resources has resulted in a tendency for farming
communities in peri-urban areas to use untreated
wastewater for irrigation. Farmers often find it cheaper
to exploit wastewater than to incur capital and recurring
costs in pumping groundwater to irrigate crops. The
re-use of wastewater for irrigation is likely to be most
prevalent in areas where water from other sources is
scarce for part or all of the year. High content of
nutrients in wastewater, particularly nitrogen and
phosphorus, which can increase the productivity of
farming and thus contribute to the livelihoods of peri-
urban communities, provides another strong incentive
for agricultural re-use. There has also been an
increased emphasis on a more holistic approach to
waste disposal that stresses the benefits of reducing
the strength or quantity of waste at source and, where
possible, recycling or re-using it close to the point where
it is produced. To prevent potential negative impacts
on human health and the environment, the importance
of wastewater reuse in urban and peri-urban agriculture
has to be recognised and clear policy guidelines for
reuse need to be established. The most serious problem
of using partially treated wastewater, including human
and animal wastes, is transmission of gastrointestinal
disease. Another potential problem of urban
wastewater reuse is heavy metals and other toxic
constituents contained in the urban wastewater. This
is exacerbated if a workable countermeasure is not
taken against solid waste problems. Both water
quantity and nutrients contained in urban and peri-urban
wastewaters make them attractive alternative water
source for agriculture and aquaculture. Treated
wastewater from off-site treatment plants can be
reused for irrigation of parks and gardens, agriculture
and horticulture, tree plantation and aquaculture, if these
exist or can be established not far from the wastewater
treatment plants.
Post harvest processing industry and
Processing is a fast growing sector in the world
economy. Therefore to make UPH a viable enterprise,
processing and value addition are important components
in horticulture. Harvest indices, grading, packaging,
storage techniques have been developed/standardized
for major horticultural crops. The demand for some of
the processed fruits and vegetables has grown
enormously in country. Value addition through
dehydration of fruits and vegetables including freeze
drying, dried and processed fruits, vegetables and
spices and fermented products play an important role
in horticultural crops. Development of new products
like juice punches, banana chips and fingers, mango
nectar and fruit kernel derived cocoa substitute,
essential oils from citrus, fruit wines, dehydrated
products from grape, pomegranate, mango, apricot and
coconut, grape and fruit wines, value-added coconut
Confederation of Horticulture
Associations of India
products like snowball tender coconut, coconut milk
powder and pouched tender coconut water (Cocojal)
etc. are getting popular day by day. Improved blending/
packaging of tea and coffee have opened new
As food consumption patterns are changing
towards more convenient foods, the demand for
products like pre-packed salads, frozen vegetables etc.
are increasing. Consumer friendly products like frozen
green peas, ready to use salad mixes, vegetable
sprouts, ready-to-cook fresh cut vegetables are major
retail items, which have already started peeping out of
retail windows. In order to reduce dependence on
refrigerated storage, low cost eco-friendly cool
chamber for on farm storage of fruits and vegetables
has been developed. For preventing the post harvest
losses proper storage, cold preservation, packaging and
transport methods with Hazard analysis Critical Control
Point (HACCP) norms have to be given more thrust.
The future research areas may be oriented towards
developing varieties with prolonged shelf life with better
processing qualities, standardization of Modified
Atmosphere Packaging and Storage systems with
greater emphasis on safety (pesticide free), nutrition
and quality (CODEX standards).
Isssues in urban and peri-urban
When UPH is carried out properly under safe
conditions, it can contribute to increase in food and
nutritional security by providing direct access to home-
produced horticultural food to households and to the
informal market. Much UPH is for own consumption
with occasional surpluses sold into the local market.
Even for people who have little or no land part-time
farming of vegetables can provide food and income.
Simple, popular hydroponics or substrate culture in beds
can produce high value and nutritious vegetables on
surfaces as small as one metre. UPH also appears to
enhance food security during times of crisis and severe
UPH enhances the freshness of perishable fruits
and vegetables reaching urban consumers, increasing
overall variety and the nutritional value. An important
reason appears to be that food produced by consumers
or in close proximity to them is often fresher than food
that travels long distance to markets. Urban agriculture
is often carried out on a part-time basis by women,
who can combine food production activity with child
care and other household responsibilities. But on the
other side basic resources (water, soil) needed for
agricultural production are in competition with other
priority urban needs (drinking and industrial water use,
infrastructure construction, etc.). Therefore, optimal
management of urban and peri-urban resources
requires land use planning which views agriculture as
an integral component of the urban natural resources
system and balances the competitive and synergistic
interactions among the users of the natural resources
(water, land, air, wastes). The risks from agricultural
production systems in urban and peri-urban areas to
health and environment arise from the inappropriate
or excessive use of agricultural inputs (pesticides,
nitrogen, phosphorus, raw organic matter containing
undesireable residues such as heavy metals) which
may leach or runoff into drinking water sources;
microbial contamination of soil and water, including by
pathogens; air pollution (e.g. carbon dioxide and
methane from organic matter, ammonia, nitrous oxide
and nitrogen oxide from nitrates); and odour nuisance.
In particular, produce (especially leafy vegetables) can
be contaminated through overuse of chemical sprays.
Another major challenge to the viability of UPH
is availability of sufficient land. UPH is influenced by
rapidly changing land rights, uses, and values. High
population densities give rise to competition and
conflicts over land and natural resources through
conversion of land from agricultural to residential and
business uses, and agricultural intensification on the
scarce spaces available for cultivation. Urban and peri-
urban agriculture present complex interactions of social,
economic, and environmental phenomena in locations
that are undergoing extremely fast change, often with
inadequate financial means to respond. Officially the
choice of whether to allocate urban and peri-urban
lands to horticulture crops, parks, or other uses is
fundamentally a policy decision dependent upon
priorities and political interests. Unofficially it also
depends on where the city’s immigrants and poor
residents choose to settle. The future habitability,
competitiveness, and viability of the cities in developing
nations will depend on whether decision makers and
urban planners develop and adhere to coherent policies
for managing their urban and peri-urban areas.
Urban and Peri- Urban
Horticulture -A Perspective
Ensuring adequate food supply, environmental
pollution reduction, employment and income generation
are some of the important facets of urban and peri-
urban horticulture(UPH). In the current scenario of
changing dietary habits with increasing income, there
is a growing demand for horticultural produce. At the
same time population pressure in urban and peri-urban
area is increasing at accelerated rate with estimate
that more than 65 percent people will live in cities and
towns by 2050. This is a great challenge and needs
attention for optimal management of urban and peri-
urban resources require land use which views
agriculture/horticulture as an integral component of the
urban natural resources system and balances the
competitive and synergistic interactions among the
users of the natural resources (water, land, air, wastes).
Benefits of appropriate management include improved
hydrological functioning through soil and water
conservation, micro-climate improvements, avoided
costs of disposal of the recycled urban wastes
(wastewater and solid waste), improved biodiversity,
and greater recreational and aesthetic values of green
space. When we look back, it is evident that urban
and peri-urban activities for gardening interior and
exterior landscaping, terrace garden by amateurs,
parks, landscapes in water body and growing of
vegetable and flowers adjacent to cities have been
practiced but need scientific approaches. Interest in
UPH is increasing not only to utilise the space but also
for social and economic reason and there is international
consultation for the promotion of UPH.With awareness
for UPH it could be a reality to address the challenges
which is posed by accelerated urbanisation which is
taking place globally especially in developing nations.
Confederation of Horticulture
Associations of India
Urbanization is one of the key drivers of global
environmental change which directly impacts urban life.
The expansion of a city often leads to the relocations
and cutting of trees to create the space needed for urban
development. Proliferation of underground utilities, roads,
bridges, dams and new integrated townships have fuelled
the competiton for usable space and have precluded
planting in many places. Thus, cities are increasingly
developing into catalysts for the problems of global
warming, scarcity of resources, water shortage and
consequently the pollution affecting accelerated climate
Ignoring urbanisation, however would be the wrong
approach to these problems. The influx of growth in the
cities have impacted the infrastructure and unless this is
addressed with great caution and in pace with growth
there will be a bottle neck affecting sustenance.
Worldwide, many examples show how the interests of
economy, society and environment can be brought
together to enable both urban growth and sustainability.
In many city and county, tree ordinances require
tree planting, most commonly to replace trees that have
been removed or damaged during site development and/
or construction. In some cases, tree planting may be
required to meet overall tree canopy cover or density
standards in areas that have little or no natural tree cover.
If it is not possible to plant all of the required trees on the
parcel,that triggers the planting requirement, some type
of off-site mitigation may be required.
This off site mitigation technique more commonly
called “Tree Banks” is one of the emerging Landscape
Solution for India.Trees to be transplanted can be
removed with a tree spade or in some other method,
Environmental Changes and Emerging Landscape Solutions
Robert Fernandes
stored in a nearby area ( “banked”) temporarily, and
subsequently replanted either at the same site or
elsewhere. This technique could be used to help
conserve locally-adapted native trees or locally rare
trees. This could a way to bring the native tree back
to its locality along with the ecosystem involved along
with it. K. Raheja Corp has been successful in tree
transplanting large trees with the help of a hydraulic
machine. This spade attachment is attached to any
system such as Hydra, JCB or any other hydraulic
The transplantation process is very simple.
Once the tree is identified for relocation, stones are
removed and the area near the root zone is irrigated
to soften the area near the root ball. The tree is
gently rocked back and forth with the spade
attachment , removing the tree with an intact root
ball. The tree is then lifted with the help of this
hydraulic machine along with its root ball, wrapped
and moistened with a jute bag /agro net and stored
in this area called as a tree bank where it settles
well before it is transported to its new location if it
nearby or Banked at another site for future use.
If this system can be introduced in every
Municipality, large townships, new mining areas and
with every Government body having large scale
development then with this tree spade is one of the
emerging landscape solutions to a new India where
the focus will be more on conservation of the
environment so that we as a nation can be a more
responsible nation on the economic, social, political
and environmental front for a sustainable future.
Urban and Peri- Urban
Horticulture -A Perspective
The race of 24 x 7 hours busy life style in metro
cities and emerging cities of India is an output of
globalization and revolution in information technology.
Everywhere new creative ideas are flooding in this
corporate and digital era. Yes, innovative ideas are the
basic mantra for any revolution, irrespective of the field
and the field “landscape gardening”, is not an exception.
The modern and contemporary generation have life
style, their living and ideas that are something
phenomenal where. a paradigm shift is observed in
every domain of their life when compare with earlier
decade. Inspite of that, one good thing which is never
changed and will not get changed is the love for plants,
birds, butterflies and nature. But as a horticulturist and
a landscapist we feel our duty to derive something
innovative with plants to meet out the needs of plant
As an Indian, we all should agree that real India
is in villages,where the greenery and scenaric beauty
is a visual treat, which the present generation in urban
life are missing largely. Perhaps even now, the family
of man today is getting involved more and more in
religious and garden activities than even before. In the
modern trend of life, where the home garden is
restricted due to smaller places at homes as a result of
multistoried flats/ terraces. Thus an innovation is
required to make the people always with nature. Not
only that, the boom in real estate business, sky rise
corporate buildings, western look out malls, star hotels,
garden suburbs have paved the way to bring new
landscape solutions in recent times. Roof top and
terrace garden which are mushrooming in a gargantuan
manner matching the modern life trend, is one such
new initiations. Albeit the design phenomena is
challenging for a landscapist, the positive recipe is
aesthetics, utility, pollution control and global warming
Urban roof top and terrace gardening
What is the new in roof top and terrace
gardening? Why it is innovative? Is it worth to have or
Innovation in Roof Top and Terrace Gardening
M. Jawaharlal and C. Subesh Ranjith Kumar
suggest a roof / terrace garden in India? Cost factor
involving in roof garden design? Obviously more and
more questions jiggle us. Roof gardens has its genesis
from Babylonian kings and it was in historic times.
Further, the invasions of Mughals, French, English
people had brought a better perspective in Indian
garden art. The spiritual Zen scripture also added a
poetic touch of Japanese garden style in modern India.
Yet now, the dominating garden styles and the concepts
of Singapore, western Europe and US are really
mesmerizing. A recent outreach about Singapore city
is “city in the garden” not the garden in the city”. Such
a kind of systematic garden display and innovative
concepts in urban garden design are really a living
model for our country in meeting out the climatic
change pattern, and now slowly being introduced to
Indian landscape industry too.
Innovative roof top gardening
The strength of Indian roof / terrace garden is
the kitchen garden concept. And even now we could
witness aesthetic and unused containers for growing
vegetables, herbs, flowers and fruits in the name of
roof gardens. Most of the enthusiastic gardeners and
home makers in almost all the metros and cities have
now switched over to organic roof garden development.
But having an aesthetic garden with lush lawn, shrubs
and flowers to change the aerial view of black tar and
gravel balloted roof tops in the urban areas is still a big
dream for many. Issues in water stagnation, drainage,
structural load bearing, root penetration, water shortage,
space restriction, building architectural design, roof
gradient and high cost might be the reasons behind
that. The innovation developed in modern roof garden
is having answer for that. Interestingly the property
developers and real estate tycoons, corporate sectors,
star hotel owners have started adopting the modern
day roof top and terrace gardens to lure the people
to their respective target and as a result now the metros
of India are also crowned with skyline garden.
Confederation of Horticulture
Associations of India
Essentials roof top gardening
Modern day roof / terrace gardens have totally
replaced the container garden and kitchen garden on
roof and posed the usage of new innovative concepts
and techniques as listed below.
Green roof :Green roof are functional aesthetically
appearing, energy efficient structures adding plant life
in populated areas. A green roof or living roof is a roof
of a building that is partially or completely covered
with vegetation and a growing medium, planted over a
water proofing membrane. It may also include proper
drainage, irrigation systems and a combination of
different components which are discussed below.
Green roofs are divided into extensive roofs, intensive
roofs and multifunctional use roofs depending on the
depth of planting and usage.
a. Extensive roofs :It covered a light layer of
vegetation with shallow rooted plants which requires
low maintenance. The international standard denoted
that upto 7-23 kg of weight could be increased per
square foot. Decorative grasses, edge plants, herbs
can be grown in extensive roofs.
b. Intensive roofs :It is almost an elevated park like
in the roof with easy access. It includes from lawn to
small trees, walk ways, benches with complex
structural support, irrigation, drainage and root
protection layers. The international standards denoted
upto 36-70 kg could be increased depends on the
structural strength of the building. The real estate value
is rocketing because of the inclusion of intensive roof
concept in apartments and villas.
c. Multifunctional use roof : Multifunctional use roof
comprised of foot paths, play facilities, gathering spot,
vehicle parking, etc. This is now widely adopted in
corporate buildings, IT parks and shopping malls. Here
the creative design, choice of plants and other
amenities are to be finalized at the designing stage of
the buildings itself and the provisions for greenery are
to be made accordingly.
Drainage cells : Non - biodegradable eco friendly
plastic drainage cells are laid beneath the growing
media to allow water retention and drainage.
Polystyrene core with a non-woven polypropylene filter
fabric on the top and the bottom sides of the drainage
cells prevent passage of particles in the drainage core
and with facilitate easy drainage. It is used in the roof
garden as an alternative to the drainage gravel.
Moisture retention mat:It is a punched, recycled
synthetic fiber designed material to retain moisture in
roof gardens and available in rolls. This is a very handy
innovative concept for high temperature location.
Water proof technique:Water proof with self
adhesive vapour screen and under layer is an useful
innovation to restrict the dampness of the excess water
and rain water in the roof.
Water retention technique and storm water
management: The excess water which is drained and
the excess rain water could be retained and used
meticulously. By that the storm water runoff can be
reduced with this technique. The excess water can
also be converted into an aesthetic shallow water pond
in the roof.
Hydrogel polymers: Hydrogels are cross linked poly
acrylamide polymers and it can be tried for the water
scarcity areas. The science behind the hydrogel is, it
absorbs water through the process of osmosis upto
500 times their weight in water. When the surroundings
begin to dry out because of lack of water or water
scarcity it gradually dispense upto 95% of their stored
water and when they expose to water again, it will
rehydrate and repeat the process of storing water.
Using of hydrogel in roof garden for water
conservation and moisture retention would be a useful
innovation especially for lawn maintenance where
sufficient water is mandatory.
Protection fabric: To restrict soil chemicals and soil
bacteria non-bio degradable polypropylene non-woven
needle punched fabric is used as a protection fabric in
the modern dayroof garden. Selection of containers
and placement of protection fabric should be compatible
enough for growing plants.
Root barrier:Non reinforced poly propylene sheets
which are used in treescape techniques had
applications in roof gardens for shallow rooted trees.
The root barrier restricts the spread and penetration
of root in the floor and wall.
Urban and Peri- Urban
Horticulture -A Perspective
Acoustic insulators: The vast green spread over the
roof can improve the building acoustic value and provide
a overall sound proofing of the building. Provision for
placement of lawn and garden plants in root top should
be designed along with the building design to have an
efficient acoustic system.
Recycle materials for decking :Waste wood pieces
and plastic can be effectively utilized as a deck on for
any arrangement along with plants as a hardscape
Fire resistant graphite technology: By this
innovation, the supply of oxygen will cut off during
any fire and the spread will be arrested. Green roofs
and turf pavement establishment are now have this
fire resistant graphite technology as a mandatory safety
Renewable energy: For the effective maintenance
of roof garden, the power consumption can be met out
by using photo voltaic panels. Attachment of film photo
voltaic panels saves the energy consumption and the
renewable energy generated could be used for roof
top lighting, irrigation system and maintenance. Through
this year-round energy efficiency is assured in modern
day green house.
Soilless culture and hydroponics: Obviously the soil
substrate used for growing plants will create an extra
load in roof gardens. To overcome the issue, that
scientific soilless culture and hydroponics are now
adopted in roof / terrace gardens. Substrates like
cocopeat, perlite, sphagnum moss, compost etc., are
now being widely used in roof garden of India as it
also envisages apt water retention capacity. However
hydroponics is not widely adopted, yet it is also a best
innovation for modern day roof garden.
Vertical garden: Green facade (with flowering and
foliage climbers) and living walls are the new
innovations in vertical garden. Assessing the wind
velocity in roof top, a perfect vertical garden element
can be set up in roofs. Vertical garden is boon to
corporate, IT parks and shopping malls.
Skyrise gardening:‘Super tree’ a new innovative
vertical skyrise garden was created in Singapore where
different amenities like hotels, malls, amusement
theatre etc. were created inside. The lushy green patch
with micro climate control is a marvel with plants. The
idea of skyrise garden as a tourist destination can be
introduced to our country with a theme of global
warming control.
Biodiverse roofs: Bringing a greenery on roof with
colourful flowers, it is possible to bring the beneficial
insects and butterflies even in the urban heat island
and to develop natural eco system. The choice of
plants in the garden plays a major role in converting
the roof garden into biodiverse roof garden.
Therapeutic roof garden: Healing garden, meditation
garden, garden for physically challenged people, elders,
children as a stress relief medicine can be introduced
in roof garden concept. Taking the advantages of open
sun light lotus garden, cacti corner, turf chairs, flowering
array etc. can be introduced to develop a therapeutic
valued roof garden. Even further more innovation can
be blended in the roof garden both for functional and
aesthetic use.
Suggested plants for roof gardening
Adenium obesum (Desert Rose), Brunfelsia
americana (Lady of the Night), Cordyline terminalis,
Duranta repens (Golden Dewdrop), Codiaeum
variegatum, Galphimia glauca, Ixora species,
Jasminum nitidum, Lantana camara, Murraya
paniculata, Nelumbium sp., Tecoma stans (Yellow
Bells), Tecomaria capensis (Cape Honeysuckle),
Epipremnum aureum (Money Plant), Ficus pumila
(Creeping Fig), Rhoeo spathacea (Dwarf variety),
Tradescantia pallida ‘Purpurea’ (Purple Heart),
Wedelia trilobata (Creeping Daisy), Agave
americana (Century Plant), Ananas comosus
‘Variegata’ (Variegated Pineapple), Epiphyllum
oxypetalum (Dutchman’s Pipe Cactus), Euphorbia
milii (Crown of Thorns), Hylocereus undatus
(Dragon’s fruit), Kalanchoe pinnata (Life Plant),
Nolina recurvata (Pony Tail), Pedilanthus
tithymaloides, Sansevieria species (Devil’s Tongue),
Small ornamental and fruit trees, Zoysia grass species,
Ornamental bamboos and palms like Phoenix
sylvestris, P. roebelenii, Woedyia bifurcate, Rhapis
excels, Chrysalidocarpus lutescens, Cycas revolute
and Caryota mitis.
Confederation of Horticulture
Associations of India
In general roof garden should meet the
objectives of air quality improvement in cities, effective
control of global warming, energy saving, natural
insulation, environmental safety and eco-friendly
garden designs. The CII-Sohrabji Godrej Green
Business Centre, Hyderabad and IIM, Guwahati are
the very good examples of green buildings in India
having the modern roof garden innovation concepts.
Landscape architects in India are now keen in using
the innovation concepts of roof garden to increase the
property value. Grownup ornamental plants can be
easily sourced out to develop an instant roof garden is
an added advantage also. However the need of the
hour is to have cost effective and sustainable roof
garden using this latest innovations. For this a sound
scientific research program should be initiated at the
Agricultural and Horticultural Universities of India so
that these innovative roof garden technologies could
be perpetuated in the length and breadth of our country.
As a landscapists, it is our prime duty to start work in
this line at the earliest to make our country green.
Urban and Peri- Urban
Horticulture -A Perspective
Throughout our evolutionary history, humanity has
depended on vegetation for food, fuel and shelter. Our
very existence depends on being among plants. That
dependence is so ingrained in our make-up that
biologists now give the subconscious desire to be among
vegetation a name: biophilia. By using combinations of
plants and art (and even fragrances, sound and light
effects), we believe that we will be able to improve
the health and well-being of ourselves and improve
our productivity. We know from countless studies that
having plants in work places and other commercial
buildings brings many benefits, and we also know that
many of those benefits are psychological and
behavioral rather than physical.
People are looking for ways to add
significance, peace of mind, a quality experience, and
to escape from the “rat-race” in their lives. Stated
differently, people want to add depth and meaning to
their lives. One way to accomplish this, it is asserted,
is to surround you among plants. Landscaping can make
dull and solid areas pleasing to the eyes. It is responsible
for making ordinary homes into spectacular ones and
office buildings into warm, livable spaces. Landscaping
is both science and art, and requires good observation
and design skills. A good landscaper understands the
elements of nature and construction and blends them
Well-planned, healthy, and well-maintained
landscaping dramatically enhances the market value
of the property also. Irrespective of whether the
property has a commercial or a residential use, a room
that overlooks a beautiful, rich, green, landscape usually
gets the most takers and is quite conducive
commercially. Ornamentals planted indoors or outdoors,
they not only beautify the place but also gift you with
its endless benefits.
Interior landscaping- bringing greening
Interior landscaping is the practice of designing,
arranging, and caring for living plants in enclosed
New New Initiatives in Interior and Exterior Landscaping
T. Janakiram and Usha
‘The tranquility of nature can provide us peace in our caverns of concrete and steel.’’
environments. Interior landscaping is an appropriate
term because indoor environments contain plains,
angles, and horizons that are softened, accentuated or
altered by the addition of plants and planters-thus
landscaping the interior. Similar to outdoor landscapes,
interior landscapes provide spaces with ornament, color,
sculptural elements, focal points, and an overall pleasant
environment. In the trade, interior landscaping is also
known as plantscaping and interiorscaping. Interior
landscaping can be designed in a way to draw the eye
beyond the window into the outside world.
Benefits of Well-designed interior landscaping:
With tropical plants and greenery, it revitalize dark
corners, bring colour to empty walls, and provide
fresh sights, sounds and smells for your business
With high quality replica plants, it brightens dark
corners with plants that will always look their best,
however low the natural light levels are.
Specialization is needed in selecting
plants, containers and accessories to fit the space,
lighting and ambience of every office or home to
create stunning interior landscapes that will stand
the test of time.
Sick building syndromes
As far back as 1984, the World Health
Organization published a report which claimed that as
many as 30% of new or refurbished buildings caused
occupants to suffer symptoms that became known as
“Sick Building Syndrome” - a term used to describe
situations when people experience acute ailments and
discomfort, which seem to be linked to time spent in a
particular building. Plants have proven to be important
life supporters in that they remove carbon dioxide from
the air and release oxygen through the process of
photosynthesis. The NASA studies found that plants
also work in a symbiotic relationship to remove air
pollutants produced by other plants, people and industry.
Confederation of Horticulture
Associations of India
Indoor plants have the proven ability to:
Plants enhance indoor environment quality
Improve workplace efficiency
Improve visitor perceptions
Reduce dust levels
Noise Reduction and Energy Conservation
Increase customer spend
Plants filter the air in the indoor environment
Plants can help to reduce absenteeism and make
your workforce more productive
Plants increase humidity in the workplace
The NASA studies generated the
recommendation that you use 15 to 18 good-sized
houseplants in 6 to 8-inch diameter containers to
improve air quality in an average 1,800 square foot
house. The more vigorously they grow the better job
they’ll do for you.
Best plants listed by NASA for improving indoor air
Hedera helix English ivy
Chlorophytum comosum spider plant
Epipiremnum aureum golden pothos
Spathiphyllum ‘Mauna Loa’ peace lily
Aglaonema modestum Chinese evergreen
Chamaedorea sefritzii bamboo or reed
Sansevieria trifasciata snake plant
Philodendron selloum selloum
Philodendron domesticum elephant ear
Dracaena marginata red-edged
Dracaena fragrans
‘Massangeana’ cornstalk dracaena
Ficus benjamina weeping fig
Roof gardens
A garden always provides a space to relax but
the limitation of space in big cities and towns has
already set the door for enjoying the beauty at home.
It is therefore, the need of the hour to earmark some
area on the roof top for raising various plants so as to
bring the real magic of nature to your home with some
previous planning and thoughts.
A roof garden is any garden on the roof of
a building. Besides the decorative benefit, roof plantings
may provide food, temperature control, hydrological
benefits, architectural enhancement, habitats or
corridors for wildlife, and recreational opportunities. The
practice of cultivating food on the rooftop of buildings
is sometimes referred to as rooftop farming. Rooftop
farming is usually done using green roof, hydroponics,
aeroponics or air-dynaponics systems or container
gardens. You need to make sure that the roof on which
the gardening is to be done, should be strong enough
to carry the weight of the garden.
Green roofs range from extensive to intensive
design types. Extensive designs are mass plantings of
low profile/low maintenance plants. Intensive
designs have a greater planting depth that allows for
more plant variety and overall aesthetically
pleasing environments. Both styles help counter the
negative environmental effects of typical impermeable,
asphalt roof surfaces by:
Absorbing rainfall water which helps reduce
runoff into our sewer systems
Cleaning water runoff of pollutants
Filtering the air that circulates near your roof and
enters your ventilation system
Cooling the air
Bonsai is a Japanese art form using miniature
trees grown in containers. They are great for small
apartments or offices that need a bit of a green touch
but don’t have much room for plants. Plants adopted
for extreme dwarfing are juniper, pine, elm, maple,
cypress are suitable for bonsai culture. In Tropical
place like India the tree species like sapota, bassia,
tamarind and Ficus spp etc. are well suited. In order
to create a good bonsai, horticultural aspects, should
be incorporated into the composition by using the
principles of design.
Window gardens
Picture the classic eye-catcher: a narrow box
painted perfectly to match the house trim, abundantly
spilling forth ivy, geraniums, pansies, and petunias.
Urban and Peri- Urban
Horticulture -A Perspective
Window boxes, of course, are just containers attached
to the house. They’re easy to plant. Choosing a
container and a location is a fine start for window box
gardening, but picking the right plants really makes the
difference in your growing success. Generally, select
a mixture of trailers, compact upright plants that grow
tall enough to be seen without blocking the
window, filler plants, and bulbs. Some of the best suited
plants are seasonal annuals like petunias, pansies,
sweet alyssum etc., permanent plants like geraniums,
miniature roses, dwarf bulbous plants (cyclamen,
daffodils, hyacinth etc.), English ivy and list goes on.
Your landscaping should be an enhancement of
your exterior home. Choose plants that compliment or
contrast the colors in your home as well as the
architectural time period of your home.
Exterior landscaping
Exterior landscaping enhances the look of any
building whether it is acres of landscaped grounds or a
few exterior planters or window boxes. Areas
considered for exterior landscaping may include
corporate head offices, large private gardens,
residential complexes etc. There are many ways of
beautifying your outdoors; lawns, container planting,
vertical gardens, terrace gardens, kitchen gardens,
backyard gardens, hanging baskets etc. are going to
add into it.
Lawns are truly known as heart of the garden;
they are truly the most attractive feature of any
landscape. A well tended, neatly trimmed, well planned
and preserved lawn can do wonders, and, has a
favorable effect on the economy, environment and our
lifestyles. A lawn is an area of aesthetic and
recreational land planted with grasses or other durable
plants. Lawns are a common feature of
private gardens, public landscapes and parks in many
parts of the world. They are created for aesthetic
pleasure, as well as for sports or other outdoor
recreational use. Lawns need not be, and have not
always been, made up of grasses alone. Other plants
for lawn-like usable garden areas are sedges,
low herbs and wildflowers, and ground covers that can
be walked upon.
A good landscaping with a lush lawn can have
economic, environmental and lifestyle
benefits. Environmentally, apart from being visually
appealing, a good landscaping turf controls soil erosion
and prevents nutrients from leaching into the water
supply. Along with other plants, turfs also help to
enhance the quality of air that we breathe by filtering
pollutants and making healthier air available to our
Container plantings
Patios are ideal for landscaping with container
plantings. They are easy to maintain and you can
change out the plants for to extend the bloom time
from spring well into the fall. All that’s required is that
you choose plants that are well suited to your area and
give them plenty of room in big pots to thrive.
Strategically placed containers can also be used to
delineate the different areas on your patio. A pair of
urns flanking the walkway leading to the patio marks
the entrance and guides visitors where to walk to
access the patio. Containers placed at the edges of
the living area or dining area visually separate these
spaces making them feel cozy and intimate. Annuals
are the perfect choice for patio containers. They are
long bloomers providing color throughout the growing
season. Perennials also work well in containers. They
if taken care of will return year after year to provide
seasonal blooms during the growing season.
Living walls
Vertical gardens not only look great but they are
extremely good for the environment, especially when
they are installed in built up urban areas. Vertical
gardens are also referred as Green wall, Living wall
or Bio walls. A green wall is a wall, either free-standing
or part of a building that is partially or completely
covered with vegetation and, in some cases, soil or an
inorganic growing medium. Extending the plants or
greenery onto the building façade has shown potential
in improving air quality and reducing surface
temperature in the built environment. The breathing
wall with vegetated façade tends to focus to develop
the building as an ecologically complex and stable plant,
microbial and human community that helps to improve
the air quality in an interface between natural processes
and the build’s structure environmental system.
Confederation of Horticulture
Associations of India
Hanging baskets
Hanging baskets with trailing or cascading plants
are suited for indoors as well as outdoors. These
baskets make a big difference to the look and feel of
your premises. These can be hanged at the entrance
of the house or can be placed in the hall or drawing
room beside a well-lit window or even they decorate
kitchen walls. Out of doors, hanging baskets can be
suspended from trees, electric poles, fences etc.
Hanging baskets are suitable for the all seasons.
Whether planted for summer or winter interest, hanging
baskets provide valuable colour at eye level. Choose
vibrant bedding plants for a short-term show or herbs,
shrubs and evergreens for a long-lasting display.
Ornamentals like petunias, pansies, ivy, salvia,
pelargonium, geraniums etc. look wonderful in hanging
Standing baskets
Standing baskets are a new addition to exterior
planting range. They offer the perfect solution for areas
in your garden and grounds that are unable to support
wall hanging baskets. Standing baskets can be placed
almost anywhere, and can be used as an addition to
your external planting theme, give your premises extra
colour and bloom whilst complementing your existing
hanging basket arrangements.
Kitchen garden
The traditional kitchen garden, also known as
a potager, is a space separate from the rest of the
residential garden – the ornamental
plants and lawn areas. The kitchen garden may serve
as the central feature of an ornamental, all-
season landscape, or it may be little more than a
humble vegetable plot. It is a source of herbs,
vegetables and fruits, but it is often also a structured
garden space with a design based on repetitive
geometric patterns. The kitchen garden has year-round
visual appeal and can incorporate
permanent perennials or woody shrub plantings around
(or among) the annuals. A well-designed potager can
provide food, as well as cut flowers and herbs for the
home with very little maintenance.
Kitchen gardening can inspire you to take an
interest in the origins of your food and make better
choices about what you put on your plate. When you
grow your own food, you savor it more because of the
effort it took to get to the table. Growing your own
food has many health benefits:
It helps you eat more fresh fruits and vegetables.
You decide what kinds of fertilizers and pesticides
come in contact with your food.
It lets you control when to harvest your food.
Vegetables that ripen in the garden have more
nutrients than some store-bought vegetables that
must be picked early.
Herb garden
The herb garden is often a separate space in the
garden, devoted to growing a specific group of plants
known as herbs. Herb gardens may be purely functional
or they may include a blend of functional and
ornamental plants. The herbs are usually used to flavour
food in cooking, though they may also be used in other
ways, such as discouraging pests, providing pleasant
scents, or serving medicinal purposes (such as a physic
garden), among others. Herbs often have multiple uses.
For example, mint may be used for cooking, tea, and
pest control. Examples of herbs and their uses (not
intended to be complete):
Annual culinary herbs: basil, dill, summer
Perennial culinary herbs: mint, rosemary,
thyme, tarragon
Herbs used for potpourri: lavender, lemon
Herbs used for tea: mint, lemon verbena,
chamomile, bergamot, hibiscus
Herbs used for other purposes: stevia for
sweetening, feverfew for pest control in the
Meditation gardens
A meditation garden can be an escape from the
stress of real life, no matter if you are in the city or in