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Twelve weeks supplementation with an extended-release caffeine and ATP-enhancing supplement may improve body composition without affecting hematology in resistance-trained men

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Background Increased ATP levels may enhance training-induced muscle accretion and fat loss, and caffeine is a known ergogenic aid. A novel supplement containing ancient peat and apple extracts has reported enhanced mitochondrial ATP production and it has been coupled with an extended-release caffeine. Therefore, the purpose of this investigation was to determine the effects of this supplement on body composition when used in conjunction with 12 weeks of resistance training. Methods Twenty-one resistance-trained subjects (27.2 ± 5.6y; 173.5 ± 5.7 cm; 82.8 ± 12.0 kg) completed this study. Subjects supplemented daily with either 1 serving of the supplement (TRT), which consisted of 150 mg ancient peat and apple extracts, 180 mg blend of caffeine anhydrous and pterostilbene-bound caffeine, and 38 mg B vitamins, or an equal-volume, visually-identical placebo (PLA) 45 min prior to training or at the same time of day on rest days. Supervised resistance training consisted of 8 weeks of daily undulating periodized training followed by a 2-week overreach and a 2-week taper phase. Body composition was assessed using DEXA and ultrasound at weeks 0, 4, 8, 10, and 12. Vital signs and blood markers were assessed at weeks 0, 8, and 12. Results Significant group x time (p < 0.05) interactions were present for cross-sectional area of the rectus femoris, which increased in TRT (+1.07 cm²) versus PLA (−0.08 cm²), as well as muscle thickness (TRT: +0.49 cm; PLA: +0.04 cm). A significant group x time (p < 0.05) interaction existed for creatinine (TRT: +0.00 mg/dL; PLA: +0.15 mg/dL) and estimated glomerular filtration rate (TRT: −0.70 mL/min/1.73; PLA: −14.6 mL/min/1.73), which remained within clinical ranges, but no other significant observations were observed. Conclusions Supplementation with a combination of extended-release caffeine and ancient peat and apple extracts may enhance resistance training-induced skeletal muscle hypertrophy without adversely affecting blood chemistry.
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R E S E A R C H A R T I C L E Open Access
Twelve weeks supplementation with an
extended-release caffeine and ATP-
enhancing supplement may improve body
composition without affecting hematology
in resistance-trained men
Jordan M. Joy
1*
, Roxanne M. Vogel
1
, Jordan R. Moon
2
, Paul H. Falcone
3
, Matt M. Mosman
4
and Michael P. Kim
3
Abstract
Background: Increased ATP levels may enhance training-induced muscle accretion and fat loss, and caffeine is a
known ergogenic aid. A novel supplement containing ancient peat and apple extracts has reported enhanced
mitochondrial ATP production and it has been coupled with an extended-release caffeine. Therefore, the purpose
of this investigation was to determine the effects of this supplement on body composition when used in conjunction
with 12 weeks of resistance training.
Methods: Twenty-one resistance-trained subjects (27.2 ± 5.6y; 173.5 ± 5.7 cm; 82.8 ± 12.0 kg) completed this study.
Subjects supplemented daily with either 1 serving of the supplement (TRT), which consisted of 150 mg ancient
peat and apple extracts, 180 mg blend of caffeine anhydrous and pterostilbene-bound caffeine, and 38 mg B
vitamins, or an equal-volume, visually-identical placebo (PLA) 45 min prior to training or at the same time of day
on rest days. Supervised resistance training consisted of 8 weeks of daily undulating periodized training followed
by a 2-week overreach and a 2-week taper phase. Body composition was assessed using DEXA and ultrasound at
weeks 0, 4, 8, 10, and 12. Vital signs and blood markers were assessed at weeks 0, 8, and 12.
Results: Significant group x time (p< 0.05) interactions were present for cross-sectional area of the rectus femoris,
which increased in TRT (+1.07 cm
2
)versusPLA(0.08 cm
2
), as well as muscle thickness (TRT: +0.49 cm; PLA: +0.04 cm).
A significant group x time (p< 0.05) interaction existed for creatinine (TRT: +0.00 mg/dL; PLA: +0.15 mg/dL) and
estimated glomerular filtration rate (TRT: 0.70 mL/min/1.73; PLA: 14.6 mL/min/1.73), which remained within
clinical ranges, but no other significant observations were observed.
Conclusions: Supplementation with a combination of extended-release caffeine and ancient peat and apple
extracts may enhance resistance training-induced skeletal muscle hypertrophy without adversely affecting
blood chemistry.
Keywords: Ergogenic aid, Hypertrophy, Safety, Elevatp, Purenergy
* Correspondence: jmjoyx@gmail.com
1
Department of Nutrition and Food Sciences, Texas Womans University, 401
AME Drive #7101, Denton, TX 76207, USA
Full list of author information is available at the end of the article
© 2016 The Author(s). Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0
International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and
reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to
the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver
(http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.
Joy et al. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition (2016) 13:25
DOI 10.1186/s12970-016-0136-9
Background
Adenosine-5-triphosphate (ATP) and ATP metabolites
are involved in a myriad of biological processes includ-
ing cardiac function, neurotransmission, blood flow, and
muscle contraction [2, 26], and it is strongly suggested
that increased ATP levels correlate with improved health
and performance [18, 23, 40]. Direct supplementation
with ATP seems to be effective for increasing ATP when
measured in whole blood [23], but there have been
mixed results [4, 11]. Therefore, an indirect approach for
increasing ATP levels may be desirable. Previously, Reyes-
Izquierdo and colleagues determined that a 150 mg dose
of a blend of ancient peat and apple extracts significantly
increased blood ATP compared to placebo in 18 [31] and
20 [32] subjects. In the latter research, blood ATP in-
creased by 40 % at 60 min following ingestion, which
dropped to 28 % at 120 min following ingestion. A muscle
biopsy was conducted in one subject, and ATP levels were
observed to increase in muscle tissue by 281 % at 60 min
and 433 % at 120 min following ingestion [32]. Prelimin-
ary reports from this laboratory also support an increase
in blood ATP levels, and suggest this occurs without an
increase in reactive oxygen species, which may be associ-
ated with increased ATP production [12]. In fact, ancient
peat and apple extracts may actually decrease reactive
oxygen species [31], possibly blunting the increase caused
by resistance training [3].
Previous reports on indirect ATP enhancement are
sparse. However, the beneficial effects of ancient peat
and apple extracts have recently been shown to posi-
tively enhance muscle mass [24]. Moreover, direct ATP
supplementation may be efficacious for positively aug-
menting performance [23, 30, 44] and body composition
[44]. Wilson et al. reported increases in whole-body lean
mass as well as quadriceps muscle thickness in the ATP-
supplemented group compared to placebo following a
12-week resistance training protocol.
There are a multitude of studies on the ergogenic proper-
ties of caffeine, which has been demonstrated to improve
endurance [14], high-intensity sport [36], strength [8], and
cognitive [27] performance. Moreover, caffeine may en-
hancebodycompositionbywayofincreasedmetabolism.
Caffeine has been demonstrated to increase fatty acid oxi-
dation, energy expenditure, and thermogenesis [5, 17, 37],
possibly via increased epinephrine, which can up-regulate
both lipolysis and glycogenolysis, and is consistent with
reports on caffeine supplementation and high-intensity
exercise [21]. Astrup et al. has reported that caffeine sup-
plementation increases vascular smooth muscle tone, an-
other paralleled effect of epinephrine. These researchers
also observed an increase in energy expenditure that corre-
lated with plasma triglyceride levels [5]. Increased
utilization of free fatty acids with caffeine supplementation
has been reported in both overweight and normal weight
individuals [1]. Furthermore, caffeine supplementation has
been confirmed to reduce body weight and body fat in
obese rats [39]. However, the chronic effects of caffeine
supplementation on body fat in healthy humans are poorly
understood.
While direct and indirect ATP supplementation may be
capable of augmenting resistance training induced
changes in body composition, minimal research exists on
this topic. Even less is known when ancient peat and apple
extracts are coupled with other ingredients. In addition,
caffeine has been noted to increase metabolism as well as
acute exercise performance. When used in conjunction
with elevated ATP levels, it may be possible to simultan-
eously increase lean muscle mass, while reducing adipos-
ity. Therefore, the primary purpose of this study was to
assess the effects of a proprietary blend of ancient peat
and apple extracts coupled with an extended-release caf-
feine on changes in body composition following 12 weeks
of resistance training. The secondary purpose of this study
was to assess the safety of the two ingredients. It was hy-
pothesized that the supplement will aid increases in lean
muscle mass and muscle hypertrophy and decrements in
body fat without changing hematological safety markers.
Methods
Participants
Twenty-one healthy, resistance-trained, male subjects
(27.2 ± 5.6y; 173.5 ± 5.7 cm; 82.8 ± 12.0 kg) completed the
current investigation. Thirty-three subjects were recruited,
and 3 subjects did not complete the study due to schedul-
ing conflicts, 3 were not compliant with protocols, and 2
sustained injuries during the study unrelated to training
or supplementation. Each subject was required to be cap-
able of lifting 1.5 times their bodyweight in the squat and
deadlift and 1 times bodyweight in the bench press. At
baseline, the placebo (PLA) group was able to squat 1.71
± 0.21, bench press 1.45 ± 0.19, and deadlift 2.17 ± 0.25
times their bodyweight, and the treatment (TRT) group
was able to squat 1.58 ± 0.20, bench press 1.33 ± 0.20, and
deadlift 1.97 ± 0.26 times their bodyweight. Approval for
research with human subjects was obtained from the
MusclePharm Sports Science Institute IRB, and subjects
provided written informed consent documents prior to
participation in the study.
Experimental design
The precise methods of the present study have previously
been published with the exception of a difference in treat-
ment [24]. Subjects were randomly assigned to either the
PLA (n=11) or TRT (n= 10) groups. They were
instructed to consume 1 serving (2 mL) of either PLA or
TRT (150 mg ElevATP, FutureCeuticals Inc., Momence,
IL; 180 mg blend of caffeine anhydrous and PurEnergy,
Chromadex Inc., Irvine, CA; and 38 mg B vitamins)
Joy et al. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition (2016) 13:25 Page 2 of 11
45 min prior to training on training days or at a similar
time of day on rest days. For a detailed composition of
ElevATP, composed of ancient peat and apple extracts,
see [31]. The PurEnergyingredient is composed of 43 %
caffeine and 57 % pterostilbene. Total caffeine content per
serving was ~129 mg. Supplement vials were weighed to
ensure compliance. Subjects were resistance trained under
the guidance of a certified strength and conditioning spe-
cialist 3 days per week for 8 weeks followed by a 2-week
overreach and 2-week taper phase corresponding to weeks
910 and 1112, respectively. A eucaloric diet consisting
of 50 % calories from carbohydrates, 25 % from protein,
and 25 % from fat was prescribed to all subjects at the on-
set of the study, and diets were tracked weekly via 3-day
food logs. Total calories were determined for each individ-
ual based on the Mifflin St. Jeor equation adjusted for ac-
tivity level. Subjects were measured at weeks 0, 4, 8, 10,
and 12 for all body composition variables. Blood draws
and vital sign measurements were conducted at weeks 0,
8, and 12. Body composition variables collected consisted
of DEXA, which determined lean soft tissue (LST), fat
mass (FM), and body fat percentage (% Fat), and ultra-
sound, which determined cross-sectional area (CSA),
muscle thickness (MT), and fat thickness (FT).
Resistance training program
Weeks 18 consisted of one muscle hypertrophy-oriented
workout, one power workout, and one strength-oriented
workout each week. The hypertrophy session consisted of
barbell back squat, bench press, deadlift, incline bench
press, hammer strength power squat machine, hammer
strength isolateral bench press, leg press, leg extension, leg
curl, and triceps extension performed for 3 sets of 612
repetition at 60-80 % 1RM intensity. The power session
consisted of barbell back squat, bench press, and deadlift
exercises performed for 5 sets of 25 repetitions with a goal
of high velocity of movement with 40-60 % 1RM intensity.
After performing the main exercises on the power day, sub-
jects performed bent over row, pulldown, dumbbell row,
shoulder press, lateral raise, and bicep curl exercises for the
goal of muscle hypertrophy as described for chest and leg
exercises. The strength session consisted of barbell back
squat, bench press, deadlift, shoulder press, and pulldown
exercises performed for 3 sets of 15 repetitions at 85
100 % 1RM intentisty. Following the resistance exercises on
the strength day, participants performed 26setsof1030s
Wingates on a cycle ergometer with 24 min rest. Partici-
pants rested 4872 h between each training day, and 30
120 s between sets on the hypertrophy day or 2-5 min be-
tween sets on the power and strength days. All exercises
were completed within 60120 min. During the overreach
phase, participants performed high-volume workouts, simi-
lar to the hypertrophy-oriented workouts performed during
weeks 18, on Monday through Thursday, with a strength-
oriented workout or performance testing conducted on
Friday for weeks 9 and 10, respectively. The taper weeks
consisted of one power session on Mondays. On Wednes-
days and Fridays, participants performed 13 heavy sets for
25 repetitions of the back squat, bench press, and deadlift,
and each heavy exercise was immediately followed by the
same exercise for 3 power-oriented sets, as previously de-
scribed, before progressing to the next exercise.
Measurements
Urine specific gravity was determined on each body
composition testing day to ensure measurements were
conducted in a euhydrated state. On 3 occasions, a
participant was required to drink water until another
urine sample could be submitted and verified for ad-
equate hydration status. Body weight was determined
using a calibrated column scale (SECA, Chino, CA).
Body composition was analyzed for whole-body and
segmental LST, FM, and % Fat using DEXA (Lunar
Prodigy Primo, General Electric, Fairfield, CN) with
enCORE software (Version 15, Madison, WN). Test-
retest reliability for DEXA LST, % Fat, and FM, as
measured using 15 subjects, resulted in an average
ICC of >0.99. CSA, MT, and FT were determined
using ultrasound (Logiq e, General Electric, Fairfield,
CN). The minimum differences [43] needed to be con-
sidered a true change are 0.107 cm
2
and 0.038 cm for
CSA and MT, respectively. Ultrasonography deter-
minedCSAwasmeasuredat75%femurlength,asde-
fined as the distance from the anterior superior iliac
spine to the superior aspect of the patella. MT of the
quadriceps was measured at 50 % femur length, de-
fined as the distance from the greater trochanter of
the femur to the lateral epicondyle of the femur. MT
was defined as the combined thickness of the vastus
lateralis and vastus intermedius. The distance from
the superficial aspect the femur to the deep aspect of
the superficial fascia of the vastus lateralis was mea-
sured. FT was measured at the same site as MT, and it
was defined as the distance from the superficial aspect
of the vastus lateralis fascial layer to the deep aspect
of the hypodermis. For MT, FT, and CSA, ICC was 0.99,
0.99, and 0.97, respectively. Vital signs were determined
using an automated, digital sphygmomanometer (Omron
Corporation, Kyoto, Japan). Blood draws were performed
via venipuncture by a trained phlebotomist. Following a
10-h fast, all subjects submitted a blood sample for ana-
lysis in the morning to control for diurnal variations.
Blood variables consisted of white blood cell count
(WBC), red blood cell count (RBC), hemoglobin,
hematocrit, mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean
corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), mean corpuscular
hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), red blood cell distri-
bution width (RDW), platelets (absolute), neutrophils
Joy et al. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition (2016) 13:25 Page 3 of 11
(percent and absolute), lymphocytes (percent and absolute),
monocytes (percent and absolute), eosinophils (percent and
absolute), basophils (percent and absolute), serum glucose,
blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine, estimated glomeru-
lar filtration rate (eGFR), BUN:creatinine, sodium, potas-
sium, chloride, carbon dioxide, calcium, protein, albumin,
globulin, albumin:globulin (A/G), bilirubin, alkaline phos-
phatase, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine amino-
transferase (ALT), total cholesterol, triglycerides, high
density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, very low density
lipoprotein (VLDL), and low density lipoprotein (LDL)
cholesterol. Blood variables were analyzed by a third party
(Laboratory Corporation of America, Denver, CO). Inter-
test reliability results from 12 men and women measured
up to one week apart at the aforementioned laboratory re-
sulted in no significant differences from day-to-day (p>
0.05) and an average inter-test Coefficient of Variation of
6.9 % for all tests.
Statistical analyses
Repeated measures ANOVAs were performed to assess
group, time, and group by time interactions with a sig-
nificant p-value considered as 0.05. A Bonferroni post-
hoc analysis was used to locate differences. Independent
T-tests were conducted on the delta values for each time
point. Dependent T-tests were conducted to determine
within group differences for all body composition and
hematology data with a significant interaction. Statistica
Fig. 1 aChanges in CSA. Delta values between corresponding weeks are presented as mean± standard deviation. * indicates significantly different
from PLA. Significance was determined by Independent T-tests. indicates a significant (p< 0.05) within-group difference. bChanges in MT. Delta
values between corresponding weeks are presented as mean± standard deviation. * indicates significantly different from PLA. Significance was
determined by Independent T-tests. indicates a significant (p< 0.05) within-group difference
Joy et al. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition (2016) 13:25 Page 4 of 11
(Version 10, Statsoft, Tulsa, OK) was used for all statis-
tical analyses.
Results
Significant time and group by time (p< 0.05) interactions
were present for CSA (Fig. 1a, Fig. 2, and Table 1). CSA
was greater in TRT versus PLA at weeks 8, 10, and 12.
Moreover, CSA increased in TRT compared to PLA be-
tween all time points except for between weeks 0 and 4
using independent T-tests (p< 0.05). There were signifi-
cant time and group by time (p< 0.05) interactions ob-
served for MT (Fig. 1b, Table 1). MT increased to a
greater extent in TRT than PLA from pre to weeks 8,
10, and 12. There was a significant group by time (p<
0.05) interaction for both left and right leg FM and %
Fat, which decreased in TRT versus PLA (Table 2).
Left and right leg % Fat did not reach significance in
the post hoc analysis, yet independent T-tests con-
ducted on the delta values revealed a significant dif-
ference between week 0 and weeks 4, 8, and 10
(Table 2). A significant main effect for time (p< 0.05)
was found for body weight, LST, and LST of the
arms, legs, and trunk, but no significant group by
time interactions existed for these variables (Table 1).
Moreover, a significant main effect for time (p< 0.05)
was observed for FT, FM, and % Fat, yet no signifi-
cant group by time interactions were observed for
FM or % Fat of the arms or trunk (Table 2). No dif-
ferences were observed for average daily calories, car-
bohydrates, fats, or proteins consumed each week
throughout the study (p>0.05).
No changes were observed for systolic or diastolic
blood pressure or heart rate. A significant group by
time (p< 0.05) interaction was present for creatinine,
which increased in PLA from pre to week 12 (TRT:
0.00; PLA: +0.15 mg/dL) and from week 8 to week
12 (TRT: 0.05; PLA: +0.09 mg/dL). There was a sig-
nificant group by time (p< 0.05) interaction present
for eGFR, which decreased in PLA from pre to week
12 (TRT: 0.70; PLA: 14.6 mL/min/1.73) and from
week 8 to week 12 (TRT: +5.10; PLA: 7.73 mL/
min/1.73). No other significant interactions were ob-
served for any safety markers, and each marker
remained within the physiological reference range
(Tables3,4,and5).
Discussion
The results of this study support the hypotheses. Al-
though no interactions were observed for any DEXA-
based measurements of LST between groups, both
ultrasound-based measurements of CSA and MT in-
creased while lower body measures of FM and % Fat
decreased. No abnormal changes in vital signs or
blood markers were detected. Creatinine and eGFR
Table 1 Lean Body Composition Data. Data are presented as mean ± standard deviation
Variable Group Pre Week 4 Week 8 Week 10 Post p
CSA (cm
2
) PLA 3.60 ± 1.57 3.85 ± 1.49
a
3.73 ± 1.32 3.61 ± 1.27 3.52 ± 1.39
bc
<0.001
TRT 3.75 ± 1.15 4.13 ± 1.14
a
4.31 ± 1.16*
a
4.56 ± 1.09*
abc
4.82 ± 1.10*
abcd
MT (cm) PLA 5.50 ± 0.72 5.47 ± 0.50 5.53 ± 0.74 5.43 ± 0.66
c
5.55 ± 0.68
d
<0.001
TRT 5.33 ± 0.63 5.54 ± 0.73 5.75 ± 0.64*
a
5.77 ± 0.61*
ab
5.82 ± 0.54*
ab
LST (kg) PLA 65.3 ± 8.1 65.2 ± 6.5 65.7 ± 6.6 66.2 ± 6.8 65.5 ± 6.9 0.62
TRT 62.3 ± 8.5 63.3 ± 8.7 63.5 ± 8.7 64.1 ± 8.4 63.4 ± 8.5
Body Weight (kg) PLA 83.7 ± 10.5 86.3 ± 10.6 86.1 ± 11.5 87.3 ± 12.1 86.4 ± 11.7 1.00
TRT 81.8 ± 14.0 84.0 ± 13.7 84.1 ± 15.0 84.9 ± 15.5 84.6 ± 16.4
R Leg LST (kg) PLA 10.6 ± 1.7 10.9 ± 1.9 10.9 ± 1.5 11.2 ± 1.7 10.9 ± 1.3 0.39
TRT 10.3 ± 1.5 10.5 ± 1.6 10.6 ± 1.5 10.6 ± 1.6 10.8 ± 1.7
L Leg LST (kg) PLA 10.5 ± 1.5 10.8 ± 1.7 10.8 ± 1.4 11.1 ± 1.6 10.7 ± 1.1 0.35
TRT 10.2 ± 1.4 10.6 ± 1.5 10.8 ± 1.6 10.7 ± 1.6 10.7 ± 1.7
R Arm LST (kg) PLA 4.7 ± 0.6 4.5 ± 0.5 4.3 ± 0.5 4.2 ± 0.5 4.1 ± 0.5 0.84
TRT 4.4 ± 0.8 4.2 ± 0.7 3.9 ± 0.5 3.8 ± 0.5 3.7 ± 0.5
L Arm LST (kg) PLA 4.5 ± 0.5 4.5 ± 0.4 4.1 ± 0.5 4.0 ± 0.4 4.0 ± 0.5 0.61
TRT 4.3 ± 0.7 4.1 ± 0.6 3.8 ± 0.5 3.7 ± 0.5 3.7 ± 0.4
Trunk LST (kg) PLA 30.8 ± 4.3 30.2 ± 2.9 31.2 ± 3.4 31.5 ± 3.5 31.6 ± 4.6 0.27
TRT 29.2 ± 5.6 29.9 ± 4.9 30.3 ± 4.8 31.3 ± 4.6 30.5 ± 4.6
*indicates significantly different from PLA at the corresponding time point. The p-value is derived from an ANOVA and representative of a main effect for group
by time. Significant within-group time differences are indicated by
a
(different from pre),
b
(different from week 4),
c
(different from week 8), and
d
(different from
week 10) for variables with a significant group x time interaction
Joy et al. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition (2016) 13:25 Page 5 of 11
changed to a greater extent in PLA compared to
TRT, indicating a normal variation in these markers.
Furthermore, every blood marker remained within the
accepted physiological range. With these consider-
ations, it is unlikely that these changes were produced
by supplementation.
Previous reports on direct and indirect ATP supple-
mentation are in agreement with the present results.
While there were no significant interactions reported
for measures of body fat, Wilson et al. [44] observed
significant increases in quadriceps muscle thickness in
ATP-supplemented participants versus placebo follow-
ing 12 weeks of periodized resistance training. There
was also a significant increase in whole-body lean
mass between groups over time, which only increased
over time in the present study. Moreover, the present
results concerning muscle mass are consistent with
the observations of supplementation with ancient peat
and apple extracts without caffeine [24]. Wilson et al.
[44] reported no interactions for all measured blood
markers, while the present study observed a possible
effect for creatinine and eGFR, yet the relevance of
these observations may be undue. This is also in
agreement with Coolen and colleagues [13] who ob-
served no changes in blood markers following 4 weeks
direct supplementation with 5 g/day of ATP. Further-
more, multi-ingredient products containing caffeine
have previously been reported to be safe for human
consumption as determined by changes in hematology
and hemodynamics, but these studies were of rela-
tively short duration (24 weeks) compared to the
present study [16, 42].
The blend of ancient peat and apple extracts may be
capable of promoting skeletal muscle hypertrophy by
Table 2 Adipose Body Composition Data. Data are presented as mean ± standard deviation
Variable Group Pre Week 4 Week 8 Week 10 Post p
FT (cm) PLA 0.52 ± 0.20 0.49 ± 0.19 0.53 ± 0.19 0.48 ± 0.18 0.53 ± 0.16 0.96
TRT 0.64 ± 0.43 0.63 ± 0.46 0.66 ± 0.43 0.62 ± 0.39 0.64 ± 0.43
FM (kg) PLA 16.7± 5.6 18.6 ± 6.3 18.4 ± 6.6 18.5 ± 6.9 18.5 ± 6.5 0.17
TRT 17.4 ± 9.4 17.8 ± 9.3 18.3 ± 10.5 18.0 ± 10.4 18.8 ± 10.9
% Fat PLA 20.1 ± 5.4 21.8 ± 5.5 21.4 ± 5.8 21.3 ± 5.9 21.6 ± 5.7 0.14
TRT 21.0 ± 8.8 21.2 ± 8.5 21.4 ± 9.4 20.9 ± 8.9 21.7 ± 9.3
R Leg FM (kg) PLA 2.5 ± 0.7 2.8 ± 0.9
a
2.8 ± 0.9
a
2.8 ± 0.9
a
2.7 ± 0.8
a
0.003
TRT 2.8 ± 1.5 2.8 ± 1.4* 2.8 ± 1.5* 2.6 ± 1.3* 2.9 ± 1.5
d
L Leg FM (kg) PLA 2.4 ± 0.7 2.8 ± 0.9
a
2.7 ± 0.9
a
2.7 ± 0.9
a
2.7 ± 0.8
a
0.01
TRT 2.8 ± 1.5 2.8 ± 1.4* 2.8 ± 1.5* 2.7 ± 1.4* 2.9 ± 1.5
d
R Arm FM (kg) PLA 0.66 ± 0.21 0.70 ± 0.22 0.61 ± 0.18 0.61 ± 0.20 0.61 ± 0.19 0.30
TRT 0.72 ± 0.43 0.71 ± 0.39 0.62 ± 0.42 0.57 ± 0.34 0.59 ± 0.37
L Arm FM (kg) PLA 0.64 ± 0.21 0.70 ± 0.22 0.58 ± 0.18 0.59 ± 0.20 0.60 ± 0.19 0.18
TRT 0.71 ± 0.42 0.71 ± 0.39 0.62 ± 0.42 0.56 ± 0.33 0.58 ± 0.37
Trunk FM (kg) PLA 9.9 ± 4.2 11.0 ± 4.2 11.2 ± 4.7 11.3 ± 4.8 11.4 ± 4.9 0.62
TRT 9.8 ± 5.4 10.2 ± 5.6 10.8 ± 6.5 11.0 ± 7.0 11.3 ± 7.1
R Leg % Fat PLA 18.8 ± 4.2 20.2 ± 4.6
a
19.9 ± 4.7 19.4 ± 4.5 19.7 ± 4.6 0.03
TRT 20.6 ± 8.1 20.4 ± 7.8
20.2 ± 8.2
19.4 ± 7.5
ab
20.3 ± 7.7
d
L Leg % Fat PLA 18.8 ± 4.2 20.2 ± 4.6
a
19.9 ± 4.7 19.4 ± 4.6 19.7 ± 4.6 0.03
TRT 20.6 ± 8.1 20.3 ± 7.8
20.1 ± 8.2
19.4 ± 7.5
a
20.3 ± 7.7
d
R Arm % Fat PLA 12.3 ± 3.6 13.2 ± 3.3 12.3 ± 3.0 12.5 ± 3.5 12.9 ± 3.4 0.37
TRT 14.1 ± 7.6 14.5 ± 7.7 13.6 ± 7.9 13.2 ± 7.6 13.5 ± 8.0
L Arm % Fat PLA 12.3± 3.6 13.3 ± 3.3 12.3 ± 2.9 12.5 ± 3.5 12.9 ± 3.4 0.35
TRT 14.1 ± 7.7 14.6 ± 7.7 13.6 ± 7.9 13.1 ± 7.6 13.5 ± 8.0
Trunk % Fat PLA 23.8 ± 7.4 26.1 ± 7.5 25.5 ± 7.8 25.5 ± 8.0 25.5 ± 7.5 0.18
TRT 24.1 ± 10.1 24.3 ± 9.6 24.9 ± 11.0 24.4 ± 10.4 25.2 ± 11.0
*indicates significantly different from PLA at the corresponding time point. The p-value is derived from an ANOVA and representative of a main effect for group
by time. indicates significantly different from PLA at week 0 as determined by independent T-tests of the delta values. Significant within-group time differences
are indicated by
a
(different from pre),
b
(different from week 4),
c
(different from week 8), and
d
(different from week 10) for variables with a significant group x time
interaction
Joy et al. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition (2016) 13:25 Page 6 of 11
increasing whole-blood ATP levels [31, 32] with a subse-
quent augmentation of blood flow. ATP and adenosine
have been known to induce vasodilation following re-
lease from the erythrocytes via production of nitric oxide
and prostacyclin [29, 38], and it has been recently dem-
onstrated that exogenous ATP supplementation is cap-
able of increasing exercise-induced blood flow [22].
Improved blood flow may increase nutrient delivery.
Thus, there is a possibility for a greater effect of circulat-
ing amino acids [9, 28], glucose [6, 7], and oxygen [10],
which may enhance anabolic signaling and/or acute ex-
ercise performance, leading to amplified chronic adapta-
tions [10, 35].
The observed changes in FM and % Fat were likely
due to the extended-release caffeine. While an extended-
release caffeine is yet to be researched, studies have been
conducted on caffeine anhydrous and naturally-
occurring caffeine. Caffeine has previously been reported
to increase fat oxidation in both lean [25] and over-
weight individuals [5]. Despite caffeines effects on me-
tabolism, few studies have investigated the chronic
effects of caffeine on body weight and body fat. Sugiura
et al. [39] supplemented rats for 4 weeks with caffeine
and found caffeine reduced intraperitoneal adipose tissue
weights by over 50 % compared to control without a dif-
ference in food intake. However, long-term, placebo-
controlled human clinical trials do not seem to confirm
these results [41] without the addition of tea polyphenols
[20], ephedra [41], or a combination of other ingredients
[34]. It is also possible that caffeine had an effect on
training. Duncan and Oxford have previously reported
caffeine increases repetitions performed to failure while
reducing perceptions of fatigue [15]. However, in the
present study, there were no significant changes in vol-
ume performed between groups over time (data not pre-
sented). The present study cannot dismiss the potential
for caffeine and a blend of ancient peat and apple ex-
tracts to have an effect similar to caffeine and tea poly-
phenols, as phenolic compounds are contained within
the ancient peat and apple extracts ingredient blend,
though in small amounts (<1 % efficacious dose) [31],
and the combination of caffeine and tea polyphenols
have previously been reported to produce reductions in
body fat [19, 39]. Therefore, it may be the combination
of caffeine and polyphenols rather than caffeine alone
producing this effect, yet it is unlikely at this dose of
polyphenols. Finally, the caffeine used in the present
study has an extended-release effect due to its binding
with pterostilbene, and pterostilbene has been previously
reported to reduce BMI in overweight individuals [33].
The primary limitation of this study was the use of
several effective ingredients simultaneously. The sup-
plement studied was a multi-ingredient product con-
taining ancient peat, apple extracts, B-vitamins, and
an extended-release caffeine containing both caffeine
anhydrous and pterostilbene, and while it is possible
to speculate on the contributions of each of these in-
gredients, their individual contributions to the ob-
served effects cannot be definitively interpreted. The
present findings are thought to be due, at least in
Table 3 Vital Signs and Blood Lipid Data
Variable Treatment PRE Week 8 POST Reference Interval p
Systolic BP (mm Hg) PLA 127 ± 12.0 126.0 ± 12.2 127.0 ± 12.2 90120 0.93
TRT 127.6 ± 12.8 127.7 ± 8.7 128.0 ± 10.4
Diastolic BP (mm Hg) PLA 76.1 ± 9.4 77.0 ± 8.0 76.4 ± 9.4 6080 0.20
TRT 76.6 ± 8.1 74.2 ± 9.4 78.2 ± 8.6
Heart Rate (BPM) PLA 68.9 ± 10.6 70.1 ± 10.1 70.0 ± 7.7 <100 0.43
TRT 58.9 ± 12.0 62.1 ± 9.7 64.9 ± 9.4
Total Cholesterol (mg/dL) PLA 175.9 ± 41.9 175.1 ± 43.2 172.8 ± 41.0 100199 0.39
TRT 161.2 ± 19.4 173.1 ± 22.3 164.2 ± 29.3
Triglycerides (mg/dL) PLA 109.7 ± 53.0 81.4 ± 37.9 89.5 ± 33.3 0149 0.055
TRT 65.9 ± 22.2 74.5 ± 33.4 69.3 ± 36.5
High Density Lipoprotein (mg/dL) PLA 50.1 ± 13.3 47.6 ± 12.6 48.5 ± 11.2 >39 0.38
TRT 53.8 ± 6.4 54.2 ± 10.2 50.8 ± 8.2
Very Low Density Lipoprotein (mg/dL) PLA 21.9 ± 10.5 16.3 ± 7.6 18.0 ± 6.8 540 0.06
TRT 13.3 ± 4.5 15.0 ± 6.8 13.8 ± 7.3
Low Density Lipoprotein (mg/dL) PLA 103.9 ± 31.7 111.2 ± 31.2 106.4 ± 31.0 099 0.89
TRT 94.1 ± 18.8 103.9 ± 19.9 99.7 ± 24.4
Data are presented as mean ± standard deviation. The p-value is derived from an ANOVA and representative of a main effect for group by time
Joy et al. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition (2016) 13:25 Page 7 of 11
part, to the elevation of whole-blood or intramuscular
ATP levels based on the results reported by Reyes-
Izquierdo et al. on acute administration of the propri-
etary blend of ancient peat and apple extracts [31,
32]. However, this effect may not persist in a chronic
setting, and the present study did not measure whole-
blood or intramuscular ATP levels at any time point.
The current study also did not feature a non-
exercising control group, so the effects of the training
program are unable to be determined.
Table 4 Hematology Data
Variable Treatment PRE Week 8 POST Reference Interval p
WBC (x10E3/uL) PLA 5.7 ± 1.5 5.7 ± 1.0 5.7 ± 1.2 3.410.8 0.52
TRT 5.9 ± 1.8 5.9 ± 0.7 6.4 ± 1.4
RBC (x10E6/uL) PLA 5.3 ± 0.3 5.4 ± 0.4 5.4 ± 0.3 4.145.80 0.17
TRT 5.3 ± 0.3 5.4 ± 0.3 5.3 ± 0.2
Hemoglobin (g/dL) PLA 16.2 ± 1.2 16.4 ± 1.3 16.4 ± 1.0 12.617.7 0.15
TRT 16.0 ± 1.7 16.0 ± 2.1 15.6 ± 1.8
Hematocrit (%) PLA 47.7 ± 3.0 48.5 ± 3.3 48.6 ± 2.7 37.551.0 0.31
TRT 46.6 ± 3.6 47.5 ± 4.9 46.6 ± 4.3
MCV (fL) PLA 89.7 ± 3.1 89.7 ± 2.7 89.6 ± 2.7 7997 0.54
TRT 87.5 ± 7.0 87.9 ± 7.7 88.3 ± 8.7
MCH (pg) PLA 30.5 ± 1.1 30.3 ± 1.0 30.2 ± 0.9 26.633.0 0.77
TRT 29.9 ± 3.2 29.6 ± 3.5 29.6 ± 3.5
MCHC (g/dL) PLA 34.0 ± 1.0 33.8 ± 0.6 33.7 ± 0.7 31.535.7 0.63
TRT 34.2 ± 1.6 33.6 ± 1.6 33.5 ± 1.1
RDW (%) PLA 13.6 ± 0.5 13.4 ± 0.4 13.4 ± 0.4 12.315.4 0.06
TRT 13.6 ± 1.2 13.9 ± 1.8 13.7 ± 1.7
Platelets (x10E3/uL) PLA 236.7 ± 29.1 239.4 ± 45.4 241.6 ± 31.6 155379 0.61
TRT 274.5 ± 61.0 286.4 ± 77.6 273.7 ± 79.5
Neutrophils (%) PLA 53.5 ± 8.3 49.0 ± 6.7 49.5 ± 9.1 4074 0.23
TRT 52.6 ± 12.2 50.4 ± 10.7 55.5 ± 10.9
Lymphs (%) PLA 35.1 ± 6.9 38.9 ± 6.5 38.2 ± 8.3 1446 0.15
TRT 34.3 ± 10.6 35.9 ± 9.0 30.8 ± 8.9
Monocytes (%) PLA 8.7 ± 1.8 9.4 ± 2.1 9.4 ± 2.4 412 0.77
TRT 9.7 ± 2.0 10.0 ± 1.9 10.8 ± 3.6
Eos (%) PLA 2.1 ± 1.2 2.4 ± 2.4 2.5 ± 2.3 05 0.27
TRT 2.8 ± 2.4 3.0 ± 2.4 2.3 ± 1.6
Basos (%) PLA 0.6 ± 0.7 0.4 ± 0.7 0.4 ± 0.7 03 0.43
TRT 0.6 ± 0.7 0.7 ± 0.7 0.5 ± 0.7
Neutrophils (Absolute) (x10E3/uL) PLA 3.1 ± 1.4 2.8 ± 0.8 2.9 ± 1.0 1.47.0 0.41
TRT 3.2 ± 1.6 3.0 ± 0.7 3.6 ± 1.4
Lymphs (Absolute) (x10E3/uL) PLA 1.9 ± 0.1 2.2 ± 0.3 2.1 ± 0.4 0.73.1 0.33
TRT 1.9 ± 0.3 2.1 ± 0.5 1.9 ± 0.5
Monocytes (Absolute) (x10E3/uL) PLA 0.5 ± 0.2 0.5 ± 0.1 0.5 ± 0.2 0.10.9 0.52
TRT 0.6 ± 0.2 0.6 ± 0.1 0.7 ± 0.2
Eos (Absolute) (x10E3/uL) PLA 0.1 ± 0.1 0.1 ± 0.1 0.1 ± 0.1 0.00.4 0.65
TRT 0.2 ± 0.1 0.2 ± 0.1 0.2 ± 0.1
Baso (Absolute) (x10E3/uL) PLA 0.0 ± 0.0 0.0 ± 0.0 0.0 ± 0.0 0.00.2 0.10
TRT 0.0 ± 0.1 0.0 ± 0.0 0.0 ± 0.0
Data are presented as mean ± standard deviation. The p-value is derived from an ANOVA and representative of a main effect for group by time
Joy et al. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition (2016) 13:25 Page 8 of 11
Conclusions
This is the first study to examine the effects of an ATP-
enhancing supplement combined with an extended-
release caffeine on body composition. There have been
no previously published investigations regarding an
extended-release caffeine, and there is a paucity of stud-
ies conducted on the long-term effects of caffeine on
body composition without additional tea polyphenols.
The combination of these ingredients appear to benefi-
cially augment body composition when consumed
Table 5 Blood Chemistry Data. Data are presented as mean ± standard deviation
Variable Treatment PRE Week 8 POST Reference Interval p
Serum Glucose (mg/dL) PLA 90.5 ± 11.0 89.3 ± 3.6 90.2 ± 5.4 6599 0.84
TRT 88.8 ± 6.1 89.6 ± 7.0 90.0 ± 6.8
BUN (mg/dL) PLA 17.3 ± 4.9 17.8 ± 3.9 17.5 ± 4.2 620 0.98
TRT 15.1 ± 3.2 15.7 ± 3.1 15.7 ± 3.5
Serum Creatinine (mg/dL) PLA 0.97 ± 0.12 1.04 ± 0.12
a
1.13 ± 0.17*
ab
0.761.27 0.001
TRT 1.05 ± 0.15 1.10 ± 0.11 1.05 ± 0.12*
eGFR (mL/min/1.73) PLA 105.6 ± 12.9 98.7 ± 12.5
a
91.0 ± 14.9
a
>59 0.01
TRT 101.0 ± 15.8 95.2 ± 11.1 100.3 ± 12.9*
BUN/Creatinine Ratio PLA 18.0 ± 5.9 17.3 ± 4.0 15.8 ± 4.4 819 0.33
TRT 14.4 ± 3.1 14.3 ± 1.8 15.0 ± 3.7
Serum Sodium (mmol/L) PLA 138.8 ± 1.8 139.6 ± 1.3 140.4 ± 2.1 134144 0.43
TRT 138.9 ± 1.7 138.7 ± 1.3 140.4 ± 1.3
Serum Potassium (mmol/L) PLA 4.4 ± 0.4 4.5 ± 0.5 4.3 ± 0.3 3.55.2 0.06
TRT 4.4 ± 0.3 4.4 ± 0.3 4.6 ± 0.3
Serum Chloride (mmol/L) PLA 102.1 ± 1.6 101.0 ± 1.4 102.4 ± 2.2 97108 0.92
TRT 101.7 ± 1.8 100.7 ± 2.1 102.3 ± 1.6
Carbon Dioxide (mmol/L) PLA 23.6 ± 2.4 22.1 ± 1.5 22.5 ± 1.5 1928 0.24
TRT 23.1 ± 2.4 21.0 ± 1.2 22.8 ± 1.4
Serum Calcium (mg/dL) PLA 9.4 ± 0.4 9.4 ± 0.3 9.3 ± 0.3 8.710.2 0.45
TRT 9.6 ± 0.4 9.5 ± 0.3 9.4 ± 0.4
Serum Protein (g/dL) PLA 7.1 ± 0.3 6.9 ± 0.3 6.9 ± 0.3 6.08.5 0.58
TRT 7.2 ± 0.3 6.9 ± 0.2 6.9 ± 0.3
Serum Albumin (g/dL) PLA 4.4 ± 0.3 4.6 ± 0.2 4.6 ± 0.2 3.55.5 0.65
TRT 4.5 ± 0.2 4.6 ± 0.2 4.6 ± 0.2
Globulin (g/dL) PLA 2.6 ± 0.2 2.3 ± 0.2 2.3 ± 0.2 1.54.5 0.83
TRT 2.7 ± 0.2 2.3 ± 0.3 2.3 ± 0.3
Albumin:Globulin Ratio PLA 1.7 ± 0.2 2.0 ± 0.2 2.0 ± 0.3 1.12.5 0.76
TRT 1.7 ± 0.2 2.0 ± 0.3 2.1 ± 0.3
Bilirubin (mg/dl) PLA 0.6 ± 0.2 0.6 ± 0.2 0.6 ± 0.2 0.01.2 0.06
TRT 0.6 ± 0.3 0.7 ± 0.4 0.5 ± 0.2
Alkaline Phosphatase (IU/L) PLA 76.4 ± 13.8 81.3 ± 14.6 79.9 ± 16.1 39117 0.53
TRT 70.5 ± 20.8 79.5 ± 27.2 77.8 ± 23.4
AST (IU/L) PLA 25.5 ± 7.8 26.9 ± 7.4 25.8 ± 8.9 040 0.81
TRT 25.1 ± 7.5 28.9 ± 11.6 27.2 ± 12.7
ALT (IU/L) PLA 23.7 ± 4.9 24.3 ± 7.0 22.5 ± 6.3 044 0.48
TRT 23.5 ± 11.1 23.3 ± 8.6 26.5 ± 12.2
*indicates significantly different from PLA at the corresponding time point. indicates significantly different from PLA at week 8. The p-value is derived from an
ANOVA and representative of a main effect for group by time. Significant within-group time differences are indicated by
a
(different from pre) and
b
(different from
week 8) for variables with a significant group x time interaction
Joy et al. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition (2016) 13:25 Page 9 of 11
during a periodized resistance training protocol. In-
creases in measures of muscle mass were likely produced
by the blend of ancient peat and apple extracts, and the
small reduction of body fat observed in the TRT group,
versus an increase in the PLA group, is presumably due
to the caffeine, although, a synergistic effect of these
ingredients cannot be entirely dismissed from the
present investigation. Athletes who benefit from in-
creased muscle mass but not fat mass, such as body-
builders and skill-position football players, as well as
recreational athletes seeking improved body compos-
ition may benefit from the use of the present supple-
ment combination. Future research should examine
the extended-release caffeine used in the present study
as a standalone supplement in conjunction with an ex-
ercise protocol designed for body fat reduction to de-
termine its potential for reducing or maintaining body
fat. Moreover, future research may be interested in ex-
ploring the effects of ancient peat and apple extracts in
an endurance setting.
Abbreviations
% Fat, percent fat; A/G, albumin to globulin ratio; ALT, alanine aminotransferase
; ANOVA, analysis of variance; AST, aspartate aminotransferase; ATP, adenosine
triphosphate; BUN, blood urea nitrogen; CSA, cross-sectional area; DEXA, dual
emissions x-ray absorptiometry; eGFR, estimated glomerular filtration rate; FM,
fat mass; FT, fat thickness; HDL, high-density lipoprotein; LDL, low density
lipoprotein; LST, lean soft tissue; MCH, mean corpuscular hemoglobin; MCHC,
mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration; MCV, mean corpuscular volume;
MT, muscle thickness; PLA, placebo; RBC, red blood cell count; RDW, red blood
cell distribution width; TRT, treatment; VLDL, very low density lipoprotein; WBC,
white blood cell count
Acknowledgements
The authors thank Aaron Tribby, Schyler Tabor, Dylan Lefever, Chadwick
Hughes, and J. Daniel Griffin for their assistance in monitoring study
participantscompliance.
Funding
The authors would like to thank VDF FutureCeuticals Inc. for funding this
investigation.
Availability of data and materials
Raw data is presently unavailable for sharing due to the agreement between
the researching parties and funding organizations.
Authorscontributions
All authors contributed to the conception of the experimental design and
drafting of the manuscript. JJ, RV, PF, and MM participated in data collection.
Data were analyzed by JJ and JM. All authors have read and approved the
final version of the manuscript.
Competing interests
This research took place at the MusclePharm Sports Science Institute. JJ, RV,
JM, PF, MM, and MK were employees of MusclePharm Corporation at the
time of the investigation, which has since included at least one of these
ingredients in a product. JJ, RV, JM, and MM were not affiliated with MusclePharm
Corporation during the drafting of the manuscript. Additionally, this manuscript
should not be viewed as endorsement by the investigators, Texas Womans
University, Maximum Mobile Fitness, the American Public University, or
MusclePharm Corporation.
Author details
1
Department of Nutrition and Food Sciences, Texas Womans University, 401
AME Drive #7101, Denton, TX 76207, USA.
2
American Public University
System, School of Health Sciences, Charles Town, WV, USA.
3
MusclePharm
Sports Science Institute, MusclePharm Corp., Denver, CO, USA.
4
Maximum
Mobile Fitness, Spearfish, SD, USA.
Received: 22 March 2016 Accepted: 1 June 2016
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J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2015;12:12.
43. Weir JP. Quantifying test-retest reliability using the intraclass correlation
coefficient and the SEM. J Strength Cond Res. 2005;19:23140.
44. Wilson JM, Joy JM, Lowery RP, Roberts MD, Lockwood CM, Manninen AH,
Fuller JC, De Souza EO, Baier SM, Wilson SM, Rathmacher JA. Effects of oral
adenosine-5'-triphosphate supplementation on athletic performance,
skeletal muscle hypertrophy and recovery in resistance-trained men. Nutr
Metab (Lond). 2013;10:57.
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Joy et al. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition (2016) 13:25 Page 11 of 11
... Joy et al. believe that increased ATP levels can promote exercise-induced muscle proliferation and fat loss, and caffeine is a known energy supplement. A new supplement containing ancient peat and apple extracts has been reported to enhance mitochondrial ATP production, and it is combined with the slow-release effect of caffeine [3]. The aim of Jagim et al.'s study was to determine whether short-term intake of multicomponent preexercise supplements (MIPs) affects strength performance and anaerobic running ability [4]. ...
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Sports can cause the consumption of energy materials in the body. The rational use of nutritional supplements can maintain the homeostasis of the organism, which plays a very important role in improving the competitive performance of sports athletes. The purpose of this study is to explore the effect of nutritional supplements on basketball sports fatigue. The method of this study is as follows: first of all, 15 basketball players in our city were selected as the experimental objects, and they were randomly divided into the experimental group and the control group. The members of the experimental group took nutrients. After the training, 6 days a week, 3 hours in the morning and 3 hours in the afternoon, and the rest was adjusted on Sunday. Before training, four weeks and eight weeks of training, the blood routine indexes and body functions of athletes were tested. The results showed that the number of red blood cells, hemoglobin concentration, and average hemoglobin concentration of ligustilide supplement of the athletes were at the level of 0.05 after 4 weeks and 8 weeks, and the difference was significant (P<0.05). The nutritional supplements were used in sprint (3.4 s less), long-distance running (12.8 s less), and weight lifting (6.2 kg more) to a certain extent. Nutritional supplements are used as an auxiliary means of diet to supplement the amino acids, trace elements, vitamins, minerals, etc. required by the human body. The conclusion is that nutrition supplement can effectively improve the indexes of athletes’ body in about four weeks, but the effect is not obvious after a long time. This study provides a certain method for the research of nutritional supplements in the field of sports.
... The combination was safe in a 12-week study and showed no adverse events. [8] Twelve male golfers participated in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover design to determine the effect of a caffeine-containing supplement on golf-specific performance and fatigue. They were randomly assigned to consume 155 mg caffeine-containing supplement (raw caffeine and PURENERGY™ in a multi-ingredient proprietary blend) or placebo. ...
... In addition, coffee and tea leaves contain caffeine, which is known as a sports supplement. Caffeine can stimulate fat oxidation, thermogenesis and energy expenditure subsequently, which reduces body weight (Joy et al., 2016). The result of observational studies have indicated that there are associations between coffee drinking and total body weight; the subjects who drink coffee routinely have lower BMI than subjects who never drink coffee (Icken et al., 2016). ...
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We conducted a meta-analysis to assess the effect of green tea, caffeine and capsaicin supplements on the an-thropometric indices in adults. PubMed/Medline, Scopus, Cochran and Web of Science databases were searched up to March 2017. Green tea significantly reduced weight by −0.65 kg (−1.10 to −0.20, P = 0.005), body mass index (BMI) by −0.26 kg/m 2 (−0.43 to −0.10, P = 0.002) and waist circumference by −1.11 cm (−1.99 to −0.23, P = 0.01) but not percent of body fat (PBF) (−1.42%, 95% CI: −3.02 to 0.18, P = 0.08). Caffeine supplement had no effect on weight (−2.99 kg, 95% CI: −7.83 to 1.41, P = 0.18). We observed a significant weight loss after capsaicin supplement (−0.50 kg; 95% CI: −0.90 to −0.11, P = 0.01) but PBF did not change significantly from baseline (0.11%, 95% CI: −0.22 to 0.43, P = 0.51). Green tea and capsaicin supplements have a significant mild weight-lowering effect. On the contrary, it seems caffeine had no effect on weight.
... There is concomitant elevation of both adenosine and glutamate in response to cerebral ischaemia (Dai et al., 2010) and adenosine neuro-modulation via A2A receptor stimulates glutamate outflow from neurons and glial cells, thereby contributing to glutamate excitotoxicity (Wardas, 2002;Marchi et al., 2002;and Pedata, 2008). Caffeine (1, 3, 7-trimethylxanthine) exerts its physiological effects in the central nervous system (CNS) through antagonism of A1 and A2A adenosine receptors (Nehlig, 2002), and increase in sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity by stimulating α and β-adrenoreceptors (Belza et al., 2009;Joy et al., 2016). Caffeine has been well established to offer neuro-protection via A1 and A2A adenosine receptors antagonism to intervene glutamate excitotoxicity in ischaemic stroke model (Rudolphi et al., 1989;Bona et al., 1995;Alexander et al., 2013). ...
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Caffeine is known to confer neuro-protection via A1 and A2A adenosine receptor antagonism in which adenosine neuro-modulates excitotoxic release of glutamate. Currently, it is unclear whether caffeine modulates inflammation in ischaemic stroke model. The present study examined effects of caffeine following ischaemia-reperfusion injury on neuro-inflammatory tumour necrosis alpha (TNF-α), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), as well as effect of caffeine against brain ischaemic damage on histology. Thirty three adult male Wistar rats (180-300 g) were used in this study. They were randomly divided into four groups (n=5 each): Group I (Control) that received neither the operation nor any treatment; Group II (Sham/Water) received a pseudo-ischaemic-reperfusion and 1ml water for injection; Group III (BCCO/Water) that received complete bilateral common carotid occlusion (BCCO) and 1ml water for injection; Group IV (BCCO/Caffeine) that received complete BCCO and caffeine solution intraperitoneally at a dose of 50% LD50 value (144mg/kg); and thirteen rats were used for LD50 assessment. Sensory and motor functions significantly (p<0.05) decreased in the rat following ischaemia-reperfusion injury when compared to pre-injury state on Garcia neurological score. Caffeine reduced brain ischaemic injury and significantly reduced (p<0.05) TNF-α activity. While no significant effects (p>0.05) of caffeine was observed on LDH activity. This study has shown neuro-protective roles of caffeine against ischaemia-reperfusion damage to brain tissue, inflammatory TNF-α activity, but not on LDH activity.
... (Takashi Abe et al., 2000) (Cribb, Williams, Carey, & Hayes, 2006) (Joy et al., 2016) (Naclerio, Seijo-Bujia, Larumbe-Zabala, & Earnest, 2017) (Taylor et al., 2011) (T. Abe, K. Kojima, C. F. Kearns, H. Yohena, & J. Fukuda, 2003) (Cribb, Williams, Stathis, Carey, & Hayes, 2007) (Kalman, Feldman, Martinez, Krieger, & Tallon, 2007) (Noonan, Berg, Latin, Wagner, & Reimers, 1998) (Juha P. Ahtiainen et al., 2011) ( ...
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We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to study all published clinical trial interventions, determined the magnitude of whole-body hypertrophy in humans (healthy males) and observed the individual responsibility of each variable in muscle growth after resistance training (RT). Searches were conducted in PubMed, Web of Science and the Cochrane Library from database inception until 10 May 2018 for original articles assessing the effects of RT on muscle size after interventions of more than 2 weeks of duration. Specifically, we obtain the variables fat-free mass (FMM), lean muscle mass (LMM) and skeletal muscle mass (SMM). The effects on outcomes were expressed as mean differences (MD) and a random-effects meta-analysis and meta-regressions determined covariates (age, weight, height, durations in weeks…) to explore the moderate effect related to the participants and characteristics of training. One hundred and eleven studies (158 groups, 1927 participants) reported on the effects of RT for muscle mass. RT significantly increased muscle mass (FFM+LMM+SMM; Δ1.53 kg; 95% CI [1.30, 1.76], p < 0.001; I2 = 0%, p = 1.00). Considering the overall effects of the meta-regression, and taking into account the participants' characteristics, none of the studied covariates explained any effect on changes in muscle mass. Regarding the training characteristics, the only significant variable that explained the variance of the hypertrophy was the sets per workout, showing a significant negative interaction (MD; estimate: 1.85, 95% CI [1.45, 2.25], p < 0.001; moderator: -0.03 95% CI [−0.05, −0.001] p = 0.04). In conclusion, RT has a significant effect on the improvement of hypertrophy (~1.5 kg). The excessive sets per workout affects negatively the muscle mass gain.
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Adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP) is primarily known as a cellular source of energy. Increased ATP levels may have the potential to enhance body composition. A novel, proprietary blend of ancient peat and apple extracts has been reported to increase ATP levels, potentially by enhancing mitochondrial ATP production. Therefore, the purpose of this investigation was to determine the supplement's effects on body composition when consumed during 12 weeks of resistance training. Twenty-five healthy, resistance-trained, male subjects (age, 27.7 ± 4.8 years; height, 176.0 ± 6.5 cm; body mass, 83.2 ± 12.1 kg) completed this study. Subjects supplemented once daily with either 1 serving (150 mg) of a proprietary blend of ancient peat and apple extracts (TRT) or placebo (PLA). Supervised resistance training consisted of 8 weeks of daily undulating periodized training followed by a 2-week overreach and a 2-week taper phase. Body composition was assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and ultrasound at weeks 0, 4, 8, 10, and 12. Vital signs and blood markers were assessed at weeks 0, 8, and 12. Significant group × time (p < 0.05) interactions were present for ultrasound-determined cross-sectional area, which increased in TRT (+0.91 cm(2)) versus PLA (-0.08 cm(2)), as well as muscle thickness (TRT: +0.46; PLA: +0.04 cm). A significant group × time (p < 0.05) interaction existed for creatinine (TRT: +0.06; PLA: +0.15 mg/dL), triglycerides (TRT: +24.1; PLA: -20.2 mg/dL), and very-low-density lipoprotein (TRT: +4.9; PLA: -3.9 mg/dL), which remained within clinical ranges. Supplementation with a proprietary blend of ancient peat and apple extracts may enhance resistance training-induced skeletal muscle hypertrophy without affecting fat mass or blood chemistry in healthy males.
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Pre-workout supplements (PWS) have increased in popularity among athletic populations for their purported ergogenic benefits. Most PWS contain a "proprietary blend" of several ingredients, such as caffeine, beta-alanine, and nitrate in undisclosed dosages. Currently, little research exists on the safety and potential side effects of chronic consumption of PWS, and even less so involving female populations. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to examine the safety of consuming a dose-escalated PWS over a 28-day period among active adult females. 34 recreationally active, adult females (27.1 ± 5.4 years, 165.2 ± 5.7 cm, 68.2 ± 16.0 kg) participated in this study. Participants were randomly assigned to consume either 1 (G1) or 2 (G2) servings of a PWS daily or remain unsupplemented (CRL) for a period of 28 days. All were instructed to maintain their habitual dietary and exercise routines for the duration of the study. Fasting blood samples, as well as resting blood pressure and heart rate, were taken prior to and following the supplementation period. Samples were analyzed for hematological and clinical chemistry panels, including lipids. Significant (p < 0.05) group by time interactions were present for absolute monocytes (CRL -0.10 ± 0.10; G1 + 0.03 ± 0.13; G2 + 0.01 ± 0.12×10E3/uL), MCH (CRL -0.13 ± 0.46; G1 + 0.36 ± 0.52; G2 -0.19 ± 0.39 pg), creatinine (CRL 0.00 ± 0.05; G1 -0.06 ± 0.13; G2 -0.14 ± 0.08 mg/dL), eGFR (CRL -0.69 ± 5.97; G1 + 6.10 ± 15.89; G2 + 14.63 ± 7.11 mL/min/1.73), and total cholesterol (CRL -2.44 ± 13.63; G1 + 14.40 ± 27.32; G2 -10.38 ± 15.39 mg/dL). Each of these variables remained within the accepted physiological range. No other variables had significant interactions. The present study confirms the hypothesis that a PWS containing caffeine, beta-alanine, and nitrate will not cause abnormal changes in hematological markers or resting vital signs among adult females. Although there were statistically significant (p < 0.05) group by time interactions for absolute monocytes, MCH, creatinine, eGFR, and total cholesterol, all of the results remained well within accepted physiological ranges and were not clinically significant. In sum, it appears as though daily supplementation with up to 2 servings of the PWS under investigation, over an interval of 28 days, did not adversely affect markers of clinical safety among active adult females.
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Introduction. The purpose of this trial was to evaluate the effect of pterostilbene on metabolic parameters. Methods. A prospective, randomized, double-blind, and placebo-controlled study that enrolled 80 patients with a total cholesterol ≥200 mg/dL and/or LDL ≥ 100 mg/dL. Subjects were divided into four groups: (1) pterostilbene 125 mg twice daily; (2) pterostilbene 50 mg twice daily; (3) pterostilbene 50 mg + grape extract (GE) 100 mg twice daily; (4) matching placebo twice daily for 6-8 weeks. Endpoints included lipids, blood pressure, and weight. Linear mixed models were used to examine and compare changes in parameters over time. Models were adjusted for age, gender, and race. Results. LDL increased with pterostilbene monotherapy (17.1 mg/dL; P = 0.001) which was not seen with GE combination (P = 0.47). Presence of a baseline cholesterol medication appeared to attenuate LDL effects. Both systolic (-7.8 mmHg; P < 0.01) and diastolic blood pressure (-7.3 mmHg; P < 0.001) were reduced with high dose pterostilbene. Patients not on cholesterol medication (n = 51) exhibited minor weight loss with pterostilbene (-0.62 kg/m(2); P = 0.012). Conclusion. Pterostilbene increases LDL and reduces blood pressure in adults. This trial is registered with Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01267227.
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Introduction Extracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) stimulates vasodilation by binding to endothelial ATP-selective P2Y2 receptors; a phenomenon, which is posited to be accelerated during exercise. Herein, we used a rat model to examine how different dosages of acute oral ATP administration affected the femoral blood flow response prior to, during, and after an exercise bout. In addition, we performed a single dose chronic administration pilot study in resistance trained athletes. Methods Animal study: Male Wistar rats were gavage-fed the body surface area, species adjusted human equivalent dose (HED) of either 100 mg (n=4), 400 mg (n=4), 1,000 mg (n=5) or 1,600 mg (n=5) of oral ATP as a disodium salt (Peak ATP(R), TSI, Missoula, MT). Rats that were not gavage-fed were used as controls (CTL, n=5). Blood flow was monitored continuously: a) 60 min prior to, b) during and c) 90 min following an electrically-evoked leg-kicking exercise. Human Study: In a pilot study, 12 college-aged resistance-trained subjects were given 400 mg of ATP (Peak ATP(R), TSI, Missoula, MT) daily for 12 weeks, and prior to an acute arm exercise bout at weeks 1, 4, 8, and 12. Ultrasonography-determined volumetric blood flow and vessel dilation in the brachial artery was measured at rest, at rest 30 minutes after supplementation, and then at 0, 3, and 6 minutes after the exercise. Results Animal Study: Rats fed 1,000 mg HED demonstrated significantly greater recovery blood flow (p < 0.01) and total blood flow AUC values (p < 0.05) compared to CTL rats. Specifically, blood flow was elevated in rats fed 1,000 mg HED versus CTL rats at 20 to 90 min post exercise when examining 10-min blood flow intervals (p < 0.05). When examining within-group differences relative to baseline values, rats fed the 1,000 mg and 1,600 mg HED exhibited the most robust increases in blood flow during exercise and into the recovery period. Human study: At weeks 1, 8, and 12, ATP supplementation significantly increased blood flow, along with significant elevations in brachial dilation. Conclusions Oral ATP administration can increase post-exercise blood flow, and may be particularly effective during exercise recovery.
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Purpose: elevATP™, a supplement containing plant-derived inorganic microelements and apple polyphenols, was previously shown to increase endogenous whole blood ATP levels in healthy human subjects. In this report, we tested the supplement in a larger cohort and assessed the effect of the supplement in muscle. Methods: Twenty healthy, fasted, and resting adult human subjects participated in this acute, placebo-controlled, single-dose crossover clinical study. Oral placebo was administered on the first day of testing followed by a single, 150 mg dose of elevATP™ on the second day. Blood was collected immediately prior to treatment, 60 and 120 minutes after ingestion. Whole blood ATP, plasma ATP, hemoglobin, blood lactate, and blood glucose levels were collected. A muscle biopsy was performed on one resting study subject before, and 60 and 120 minutes after, a single dose of elevATP™. Results: elevATP™ increased whole blood levels of ATP by 40% after 60 minutes (p<0.0001) and by 28% after 120 min (p=0.0009) versus baseline, pre-supplementation levels. ATP plasma levels did not increase after elevATP™ administration under these experimental conditions. Intramuscular ATP levels from biopsy of one patient increased significantly at 60 and 120 minutes after ingestion of elevATP™ and reached higher levels than ATP measured in whole blood. Conclusions: These results indicate that elevATP™ increases intracellular ATP in blood cells, confirming results from a previous study, and suggest that it may increase ATP in muscle tissue. Further clinical testing is needed to confirm tissue- and organ-specific changes in ATP levels following ingestion of elevATP™.
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Currently, there is a lack of studies examining the effects of adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP) supplementation utilizing a long-term, periodized resistance-training program (RT) in resistance-trained populations. Therefore, we investigated the effects of 12 weeks of 400 mg per day of oral ATP on muscular adaptations in trained individuals. We also sought to determine the effects of ATP on muscle protein breakdown, cortisol, and performance during an overreaching cycle. The study was a 3-phase randomized, double-blind, and placebo- and diet-controlled intervention. Phase 1 was a periodized resistance-training program. Phase 2 consisted of a two week overreaching cycle in which volume and frequency were increased followed by a 2-week taper (Phase 3). Muscle mass, strength, and power were examined at weeks 0, 4, 8, and 12 to assess the chronic effects of ATP; assessment performance variables also occurred at the end of weeks 9 and 10, corresponding to the mid and endpoints of the overreaching cycle. There were time (p<0.001), and group x time effects for increased total body strength (+55.3 ± 6.0 kg ATP vs. + 22.4 ± 7.1 kg placebo, p<0.001); increased vertical jump power (+ 796 ± 75 ATP vs. 614 ± 52 watts placebo, p<0.001); and greater ultrasound determined muscle thickness (+4.9 ± 1.0 ATP vs. (2.5 ± 0.6 mm placebo, p<0.02) with ATP supplementation. During the overreaching cycle, there were group x time effects for strength and power, which decreased to a greater extent in the placebo group. Protein breakdown was also lower in the ATP group. Our results suggest oral ATP supplementation may enhance muscular adaptations following 12-weeks of resistance training, and prevent decrements in performance following overreaching. No statistically or clinically significant changes in blood chemistry or hematology were observed. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01508338.
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1,3-dimethylamylamine (a constituent of geranium), alone and in combination with caffeine, is widely used within dietary supplements. We have recently determined the hemodynamic effects of 1,3-dimethylamylamine and caffeine alone and in combination, using a single ingestion study. However, no study has determined the hemodynamic effects of these ingredients following chronic use. Moreover, no study has determined the effects of these ingredients on bloodborne variables related to health and safety. Therefore, the purpose of this investigation was to assess the hemodynamic and hematologic profile of two different dietary supplements containing 1,3-dimethylamylamine and caffeine (in addition to other ingredients), before and after two weeks of daily intake. 7 men (24.9 ± 4.2 yrs) ingested the dietary supplement Jack3d™, while 4 men and 2 women (22.5 ± 1.8 yrs) ingested the dietary supplement OxyELITE Pro™ once per day for two weeks. On days 1 and 15, resting heart rate (HR), systolic (SBP), and diastolic (DBP) blood pressure were measured and rate pressure product (RPP) was calculated. Fasting blood samples were analyzed for complete blood counts, comprehensive metabolic panel, and lipid panel. These tests were done prior to ingestion of supplement. On days 1 and 15 following blood collection, subjects ingested the assigned supplement (2 servings) and HR, SBP, DBP, and RPP were recorded at 30, 60, 90, and 120 minutes post-ingestion. After 14 days of treatment, resting HR, SBP, DBP, and RPP were not increased (P > 0.05). No significant changes were noted in any measured bloodborne variable, with the exception of an increase in fasting blood glucose with ingestion of Jack3d™ (P = 0.02). In response to acute intake of the supplements, HR, DBP, and RPP were not increased statistically (P > 0.05). SBP was increased with OxyELITE Pro™ (P = 0.03), but not with Jack3d™ (P = 0.09). Compared to pre-ingestion and in general, both supplements resulted in an increase in SBP, DBP, and RPP from 5%-15%, with a peak occurring at the 60 or 90 minute post-ingestion time. Acute ingestion of OxyELITE Pro™, but not Jack3d™, results in an increase in SBP. Chronic intake of two servings per day of OxyELITE Pro™ or Jack3d™ over a 14 day period does not result in an elevation in resting HR, SBP, DBP, or RPP. No significant changes are noted in any measured bloodborne variable following 14 days of ingestion, with the exception of blood glucose with Jack3d™. Longer term intervention studies inclusive of larger sample sizes are needed to extend these findings.
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Background: 1,3-dimethylamylamine (a constituent of geranium), alone and in combination with caffeine, is widely used within dietary supplements. We have recently determined the hemodynamic effects of 1,3-dimethylamylamine and caffeine alone and in combination, using a single ingestion study. However, no study has determined the hemodynamic effects of these ingredients following chronic use. Moreover, no study has determined the effects of these ingredients on bloodborne variables related to health and safety. Therefore, the purpose of this investigation was to assess the hemodynamic and hematologic profile of two different dietary supplements containing 1,3-dimethylamylamine and caffeine (in addition to other ingredients), before and after two weeks of daily intake. Methods: 7 men (24.9 ± 4.2 yrs) ingested the dietary supplement Jack3d™, while 4 men and 2 women (22.5 ± 1.8 yrs) ingested the dietary supplement OxyELITE Pro™ once per day for two weeks. On days 1 and 15, resting heart rate (HR), systolic (SBP), and dia-stolic (DBP) blood pressure were measured and rate pressure product (RPP) was calculated. Fasting blood samples were analyzed for complete blood counts, comprehensive metabolic panel, and lipid panel. These tests were done prior to ingestion of supplement. On days 1 and 15 following blood collection, subjects ingested the assigned supplement (2 servings) and HR, SBP, DBP, and RPP were recorded at 30, 60, 90, and 120 minutes post-ingestion. Results: After 14 days of treatment, resting HR, SBP, DBP, and RPP were not increased (P . 0.05). No significant changes were noted in any measured bloodborne variable, with the exception of an increase in fasting blood glucose with ingestion of Jack3d™ (P = 0.02). In response to acute intake of the supplements, HR, DBP, and RPP were not increased statistically (P . 0.05). SBP was increased with OxyELITE Pro™ (P = 0.03), but not with Jack3d™ (P = 0.09). Compared to pre-ingestion and in general, both supplements resulted in an increase in SBP, DBP, and RPP from 5%–15%, with a peak occurring at the 60 or 90 minute post-ingestion time. Conclusion: Acute ingestion of OxyELITE Pro™, but not Jack3d™, results in an increase in SBP. Chronic intake of two servings per day of OxyELITE Pro™ or Jack3d™ over a 14 day period does not result in an elevation in resting HR, SBP, DBP, or RPP. No signifi-cant changes are noted in any measured bloodborne variable following 14 days of ingestion, with the exception of blood glucose with Jack3d™. Longer term intervention studies inclusive of larger sample sizes are needed to extend these findings.