Article

Benefits of pedestrianization and warrants to pedestrianize an area

Authors:
  • Ministry of Urban Development, India
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Abstract

With the rapid increase in numbers of private vehicles on the road, many transportation related issues like congestion, crashes and injuries, pollution, noise etc. have grown very rapidly. Urban settlements like core CBD and heritage town, which were planned for NMT and pedestrians, are worst affected. Environment, in such areas, has degraded to the extent that people do not wish to visit these areas anymore. On another hand, these areas have very significant role in economy and identity of the city. Due to unavailability of space and socio-economic system, only feasible way to upgrade mobility and environment in such special areas is to pedestrianize them. Pedestrianization of the congested street is a very effective, low-cost and sustainable solution. Other than congestion reduction, Pedestrianization has numerous benefits. These list of benefits can be used to advocate Pedestrianization of any street. It can also help in estimating the cost to benefit ratio of such schemes. The first part of this paper summarize various benefits of Pedestrianization from the experience of Pedestrianization scheme around the globe and various researches conducted on its impact. These Benefits can be separated in various categories based on impacts on Transportation, Society, Environment, Economics, and Health. The second part of the paper list down various warrants that can be used as the indicators for the need of Pedestrianization in an area. These warrants can also be used as justification to pedestrianize an area. This paper will help various urban policy makers, land-use and transportation planner, environmentalists and citizens etc. in decision making to solve various urban issues related to transportation.

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... The advantages of pedestrianisation are various and can be listed in four main categories: health, social, environmental, and economic (Sinnett, Williams, Chatterjee, & Cavill, 2011, p. 12-19). In a recent study, Soni and Soni (2016) systematically analysed these benefits under five main headings, adding transportation as the fifth category (See Table 1). ...
... Environmental benefits can be listed as a reduction in air and noise pollution, land and fuel saving, micro-climate improvement, greenery and landscaping provisions, and a decrease in the levels of environmental degradation (Soni & Soni, 2016;European Commission, 2014;Chiquetto, 1997), as well as a reduction in hydrocarbon use, and the emergence of 'pedestrian pockets' (Iranmesh, 2008). ...
... According to Wooller et al. (2012, p. 13) a well-developed pedestrianisation scheme is expected to 'improve economic performance, and encourage high-end retail options'. The creation of environmentally-pleasant pedestrianised areas leads to increases in the volume of pedestrian presence and retail turnover (Soni & Soni, 2016;Hon-Yip, 2014). In the city centre of Exeter (UK), after the implementation of a pedestrianisation scheme, pedestrian footfall increased 20%, accompanied by a £5 increase per square foot in rental prices (Sinnett et al., 2011, p. 18). ...
Article
Through the implementation of pedestrianisation projects, it is possible to create economically competitive and liveable urban areas, while the security and attractiveness of city centres are significantly increased by the improved accessibility provided by these schemes. After pedestrianisation, likely increases in property values can be interpreted positively; on the other hand, pedestrianisation, if necessary precautions are not taken, can also produce unwelcome consequences. When a pedestrianisation scheme achieves success, property prices rise, and small businesses (if they are tenants rather than owners) may fail to keep up with the inevitable rental increases. Despite increased sales, small businesses, many of whom supply distinctive goods or services, may have to leave the area because they cannot afford these increased costs. In this context, the aim of this article is to analyse the economic effects of a pedestrianisation scheme located on the Asian side of Istanbul, in Kadıköy historic centre and retail zone, by focusing on changes in retail structure during the post-pedestrianisation period. The project began in 2004 and was completed in 2009. Research in the area was conducted in 2014, and has a tripartite structure: a before and after land-use analysis to identify changes resulting from the pedestrianisation project, a survey involving pedestrians and shopkeepers, and interviews with the Association of the Retailers of the Kadıköy Historic Centre. Our research has shown that in the case of Kadıköy historic centre, the success of the pedestrianisation scheme has created a dilemma, namely the replacement of many smaller older businesses with domestic and international chain-stores or eating/drinking facilities as a result of increased shop rents, which entail particular problems for the majority of shopkeepers, who are tenants. Consequently, this has begun to introduce homogeneity into a richly diverse mixture of shops. The current situation might become a major problem if those existing shops which maintain the image and identity of the area are substantially displaced by ‘outside’ retailers who can afford the increased rents. This development is not however an immediate consequence of pedestrianisation, but rather a side-effect of improvements in the local physical environment, and increased economic activity. Awareness of this potential outcome of the pedestrianisation process should therefore oblige planning authorities to take preventive measures to protect the diversity of small individual shops, and hence save the image (and long-term economic future) of the pedestrianised area.
... The AQI assessment in relation to the urban design of walkable spaces is approached differently by various authors, using both qualitative and quantitative methods. With qualitative approaches, Soni & Soni summarize the benefits and warrants for "pedestrianization" [51]. Although that work utilizes a point-scale for particular factors (such as AQI for India or level of service (LOS) for pedestrians), the overall summary for benefits and warrants for "pedestrianization" has a qualitative character [51]. ...
... With qualitative approaches, Soni & Soni summarize the benefits and warrants for "pedestrianization" [51]. Although that work utilizes a point-scale for particular factors (such as AQI for India or level of service (LOS) for pedestrians), the overall summary for benefits and warrants for "pedestrianization" has a qualitative character [51]. Samet qualitatively analyzes the relation of air pollution to health risks in urban design and describes cases related to improving air quality as performed by city governments in London and in Bogota [52]. ...
... Overall Air Quality in Korea.Overall Air Quality for South KoreaAir Quality, EPI Results, 2016 (Out of 100) Score 45.51 (Out of 180) Rank 173Source:[73], Authors (2017). ...
Article
Environmental protection issues and the monitoring of pollution, especially for the largest cities in Asia, are becoming increasingly prominent factors for inclusive urban planning of public open spaces. Recently, a walkability concept was implemented in many cities, and in 2016 it became a campaign direction for development in Seoul. This paper considers conditions of implementation for the walkability concept, using examples of pedestrian walkway-making initiatives, and regeneration of existing walkways along water streams in urban case studies in Seoul, South Korea. The role of nature-based solutions was considered in relation to aesthetics, and social and environmental characteristics (e.g., air pollution, oxygenation through greenery) obtained through literature reviews for the case studies. Considering the complexity of the situation, with factors such as Air Quality Index (AQI) warning conditions, and the general positive impact of walkability on enhancing a healthy life style and social interaction and on reducing congestion, this study contributes to the discussion on walkability, and the importance of nature-based urban regeneration projects for densely populated areas in cities. The results of particular cases in this paper suggest the need for careful monitoring and consideration of various factors for urban regeneration walkable design projects.
... Bölgeye araçların ulaşımını minimum seviyeye indirmek için, caddelerde park alanları mevcut değildir. Fakat, yükleme ve boşaltma amaçlarıyla, yükleme bölmeleri sağlanmıştır ( Iranmanesh, 2008: 3;Soni & Soni, 2016: 140). c) Trafik sakinleştirme: Yaya kaldırımları normal olarak genişletilmiş ve araç park alanları mümkün olabildiğince azaltılmıştır. ...
... Alana araçların girişi için kısıtlama yoktur. Fakat, hız tabelaları, kaldırım inşası, keskin köşeler, daralan yollar, geçitler gibi trafik sakinleştirme kullanımlarıyla araçlar yavaşlatılmıştır ( Soni & Soni, 2016: 140). Araçların ulaşımı için herhangi bir kısıtlama yoktur fakat yaya kaldırımları genişletilmiş ve park alanları azaltılmıştır. ...
Article
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Günümüzde gelişen teknolojiyle beraber sayısı artan motorlu araçlar kent hayatını giderek olumsuz etkilemektedir. Bu soruna çözüm bulmak için yerel yönetimler yıllardır kent planlarında, trafik kurallarında ve ulaşım sistemlerinde birçok düzenlemeler yapmışlardır. Bunların en önemlilerinden birisi olan yayalaştırma, giderek daha fazla önem kazanmaktadır. Fakat, kentlerde yıllardan beri var olan yapısal düzeni değiştirmek çok kolay olmadığından yayalaştırmanın uygulanması da kolay değildir. Bu çalışmada yayalaştırma yaparken hangi faktörlerin göz önünde bulundurulması gerektiği incelenmiştir ve bu faktörlerden hangilerinin yayalaştırmanın yapıldığı bölgedeki işyeri sahiplerinin yayalaştırmaya verdiği desteği etkilediği ortaya çıkarılmıştır. Öncelikle yayalaştırmayla ilgili literatür taranmış ve farklı yayalaştırma türleri incelenmiştir. Buradan yola çıkılarak bir kuramsal çerçeve ve araştırma modeli oluşturulmuştur. Modeli test etmek üzere, Likert ölçeğiyle hazırlanmış bir anket kullanılmıştır. Anket odak (focal) örneklem metoduyla seçilen A161 katılımcıya uygulanmıştır. Test edilen toplam 6 hipotezden 3'ü kabul edilirken, 3'ü kabul edilmemiştir. Daha önce yayalaştırmayla ilgili yapılan araştırmalar incelendiğinde, çevresel gelişmişliği yeterli düzeyde olan bölgelerdeki yerel yönetimlerin, yayalaştırma uygulamasını en fazla yapan yerler olduğu görülmektedir. Bu doğrultuda çevresel gelişmişliğe olan inanç arttıkça, yayalaştırmaya verilen desteğin de artacağı düşünülmekteydi. Fakat bu çalışmada işyeri sahiplerinin, bulundukları bölgenin çevresel gelişmişlik açısından yeterli düzeyde olduğuna inandığı takdirde, tam zamanlı yayalaştırma uygulamasına destek vermediği ortaya konmuştur. Çalışma, kentlerde yayalaştırmayla ilgili yeni projeler yapılırken nelere dikkat edilmesi gerektiğini ortaya çıkarmıştır. Dolayısıyla bu uygulamayı yapacak yerel yöneticiler için de yön gösterici olması açısından önemlidir.
... Second, part -time pedestrianization, where the street is partially pedestrianized, and vehicular access is only allowed during certain times, with no on-street parking [11]. An intermittent car-free commercial street is the application of the second type. ...
Article
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The continuous decline of the quality of the Egyptian public spaces is evident in congested cities such as Cairo. This is identified in commercial streets that mostly function as traffic conduits due to high congestion rather than act as livable spaces that could be comfortably shared by all users. The paper suggests the applicability of pedestrianization schemes in commercial streets in order to enhance the quality of life and promote walk-ability and cycling over vehicular use. Hence, this research investigates the concept of reclaiming streets as public spaces for people by promoting pedestrianization schemes in commercial streets. Firstly, it attempts to identify the benefits of street pedestrianization. secondly, to relate the concept to the interventions in Cairo's downtown commercial streets. The research is conducted by adopting participant observation, surveys, questionnaires, and interviews with the local community and different shop owners. A theoretical framework regarding the concept of street as space and street pedestrianization is developed in order to conclude a comprehensive criteria that evaluate the level of success of pedestrianizing urban streets. The findings set some key design concepts to identify characteristics of successful, livable, and sociable commercial streets.
... Los beneficios que conllevan las peatonalizaciones y el calmado o la limitación del tráfico motorizado, fueron reivindicados ya desde la década de los años setenta (Gehl, 1971;Appleyard y Lintell, 1972;Monheim, 1975;Peters, 1979). Este tipo de transformaciones urbanas suelen suponer numerosas mejoras, no sólo en el funcionamiento de la movilidad y la accesibilidad, sino también en la calidad ambiental y la salud pública, además de reportar beneficios en términos sociales -por favorecer las interacciones personales, espacios públicos más activos y, por tanto, también más seguros-, y económicos, pues son garantía de un mayor éxito comercial y turístico (Zuckerman, 1992;Hass-Klau, 1993Sanz, 2008;Pozueta, Lamíquiz y Porto, 2009;Litman, 2018;Machín, 2015;Soni y Soni, 2016). ...
Article
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Resumen Los proyectos de transformación urbana que fomentan la prioridad peatonal suponen notables mejoras en la calidad del espacio público y la movilidad sostenible, y por tanto, en condiciones ambientales, sociales y económicas. Sin embargo, si no se toman las precauciones necesarias en su implementación, también pueden terminar generando indeseables consecuencias, como la expulsión y el desplazamiento del pequeño comercio tradicional, sustituido por franquicias y multinacionales, debido principalmente al incremento de valor inmobiliario del área transformada. Este modelo consolida, inevitablemente, procesos de exclusión, gentrificación y segregación socioespacial, que impulsan la pérdida de diversidad, identidad y complejidad en los centros urbanos. Ante la inexistencia de estudios que precisen estos impactos en la ciudad de Madrid, surge esta investigación, con el fin de cuantificar y cualificar los efectos generados por las priorizaciones peatonales sobre comercio y servicios a pie de calle en los principales ejes comerciales de la ciudad. Para ello, se registran y analizan, sincrónica y diacrónicamente, las actividades económicas del zócalo comercial de nueve ejes madrileños durante el período 2008-2018. Se termina verificando que dichas transformaciones han sido determinantes en la desaparición del comercio tradicional, principalmente en condiciones de mayor centralidad y de peatonalizaciones completas. Abstract Urban transformation projects encouraging pedestrian priority represent improvements in the quality of public spaces and sustainable mobility, and therefore, in environmental, social and economic conditions. However, if preventive measures are not taken in its implementation, they end up generating undesirable results, like the expulsion and displacement of small traditional retail shops, being replaced by franchises and multinational stores, which mainly derives from the increase in value of real estate properties in transformed areas. This model inevitably consolidates processes of exclusion, gentrification and socio-spatial segregation, which drives into a loss of diversity, identity and complexity in urban centers. In the absence of studies that specify these impacts in the city of Madrid, this research emerges, in order to quantify and qualify the effects caused by pedestrian prioritization on the commercial sector and services at street level in the main commercial areas of the city. To this end, all the economic activities of nine commercial axes have been registered and analyzed, synchronously and diachronically, in the period 2008-2018. Finally, it is verified the implication of these urban transformations in the disappearance of traditional retail shops, mainly in conditions of greater centrality and full pedestrianizations.
... In addition, the rapid growth of the cities cause a rapid change and transformation in the functions of the city center. This change cause traffic congestion and environmental pollution in urban centers and a decrease in physical, social and economic attractiveness (Oztan 2004;Soni and Soni 2016;Tarakci Eren et al. 2018). ...
Article
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Due to the urbanization in the world, there is a great increase in the number of vehicles in the cities. The increase in the number of vehicles causes an increase in vehicle roads and prevents the pedestrians to move comfortably and safely in the cities. This situation affects negatively the individuals living in urban areas in terms of social, economic and physical aspects. Antalya where the research area is located is one of the Turkey's most important tourism centers. Şarampol Street, located in the center of Antalya city, is one of the most densely used streets in the city. In 2017-2018, the street was closed to traffic within the scope of urban design and landscaping project. Thus, the street has been pedestrianized by the spatial arrangements realized within the scope of the project. In this study, it is aimed to investigate the pedestrianization of Antalya-Şarampol Street in terms of landscape design and user satisfaction. In this context, as a result of the evaluation of the data obtained from the analyzes, 82.3% of the users stated that they were satisfied with the project which realized in the street. They also stated that after the implementation of the project, the street became a center of attraction for the region. As a result recommendations have been made to increase the spatial quality of the research area and to increase user satisfaction.
... Additionally, it is important to point out that today's cities have other requirements than cities in the past (Panagopoulos et al. 2018), the challenge is to conceive urban spaces that prioritize social relations in public space and that contribute to the generation of sustainable cities with less vehicular traffic (Soni and Soni 2016). Loss of quality of public space affects cities in different contexts, this has caused a reformulation of public spaces based on the logic of prioritizing pedestrians, and has forced to seek comprehensive planning, especially in highly consolidated areas. ...
Article
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Introducción. El espacio público es importante en la arquitectura de las ciudades; sin embargo, desde el siglo XX ha perdido su protagonismo. Además, se ha dado un descenso en la realización de actividades sociales debido a la aparición de ciertas tipologías arquitectónicas. En este sentido, el estudio de los usuarios en el espacio público permite comprender sus necesidades y diagnosticar futuras intervenciones urbanas. Cuenca fue declarada Patrimonio Cultural de la Humanidad por la UNESCO. “El Barranco” es el borde del Centro Histórico de Cuenca y es un importante conector con la zona de nueva planificación lo que lo convierte en un escenario elemental de relaciones sociales. Objetivo. Determinar la influencia de la calidad del espacio público en los patrones de comportamiento de sus peatones. Metodología. La investigación fue de carácter cuantitativa, de tipo descriptiva realizando cada punto de estudio observaciones de la dinámica peatonal durante dos semanas y mediante una ficha de recolección de datos se aplicaron encuestas a 240 usuarios que frecuentan las escalinatas y se obtuvieron 3337 formularios. Resultados. A través del estudio de cinco puntos estratégicos de “El Barranco” se determinó que la calidad de su espacio público no es buena y esto ha incidido a que sus escalinatas se usen mayormente para actividades necesarias, y que exista muy poca motivación para desarrollar actividades sociales. También se encontró que el grupo etario, la nacionalidad y el grupo étnico influyen en los patrones de comportamiento de los peatones. De todos los peatones que transitan por los puntos de estudio se determinó que solo el 20% realiza actividades sociales, 24% actividades opcionales y el 56% solo los utiliza como puntos de conexión a sus actividades cotidianas.
... Some have started pilots to assess pedestrianization; Lima is one such (Municipalidad de Lima 2019). Pedestrianization has transport-related, social, environmental, economic, and health-related benefits (Soni and Soni 2016). Following the pedestrianization of Quito's historic center, the city saw reductions of 25 percent in fine particle emissions (PM2.5), 25 percent in carbon monoxide, and 30 percent in sulfur dioxide (Quito Alcaldía 2018). ...
... Sustainable approaches to urban development are important for neighborhoods in decline because they incorporate many facets that seek to assuage the condition. For example, mixed land-uses and a mixture of housing typologies have long since been listed as components contributing to sustainable urbanism (Ford, 1999;Soni and Soni, 2016;Williams et al., 2000). These elements are said to primarily determine the basic lay-out of neighborhoods and the flow of activities of residents within them (Lynch and Rodwin, 1958;Spangenberg and Lorek, 2002;Halme et al., 2004;Park, 2017). ...
Article
Neighborhood decline is a critical issue in shrinking cities. Components of sustainable urbanism such as mixed land uses have risen as possible urban planning-based approaches to help mitigate urban and neighborhood decline. This research identifies examines if mixed land uses can help mitigate urban decline by using the tax delinquent status of single family houses as a proxy for decline in Dayton, Ohio, USA. Logistic regression models are utilized to estimate the probability of tax delinquency. The results suggest that the proximity to mixed land uses is associated with increasing or decreasing the probability of tax delinquent for single family lots. The number of commercial and industrial lots in a neighborhood also has effects on the probability of a lot becoming tax delinquent, but the specific types of commercial and industrial lots dictate the direction of effects. The existence of commercial apartment lots, retail lots, and industrial food and drink plant lots were shown to help decrease the probability of tax delinquent lots. Also, decreasing the amount of property tax applied to parcels can help to limit distress in neighborhoods. This research contributes to the ongoing efforts to stymie the amount of residential abandonment in depopulating and declining cities.
... Incluso estas pueden transformarse en un recurso turístico y de ocio (Troitiño, 2003). Así también la integración de diversas actividades en este espacio coadyuva a tener una percepción positiva de la seguridad ante la delincuencia, y a conservar los edificios históricos al reducirse las vibraciones y contaminantes provenientes de los vehículos (Soni & Neetishree, 2015). En suma, los beneficios más resaltantes suelen ser los asociados a la mejora de la salud (Pozueta, Lamíquiz & Schettino, 2009), la disminución de la contaminación ambiental, acústica y a la reducción de accidentes de tipo vehicular (Sanz, 1998). ...
Article
Resumen La implementación de políticas públicas se ha convertido en un gran reto para los gobiernos. A ello no es ajeno la gestión de una peatonalización que, como toda política pública, busca satisfacer necesidades demandadas por sus ciudadanos. En ese sentido, en el presente trabajo, se busca identificar la mejor manera de abordar este tipo de políticas urbanas, teniendo en cuenta los diversos elementos o agentes que la conforman y la multiplicidad de relaciones que se generan dentro de este sistema funcional. Para lo cual se ha revisado el estado del arte, y, además, analizado algunos casos de peatonalización a través del uso de histogramas. Luego, en base al conocimiento adquirido proponer un modelo conceptual y una diagramación temporal para casos genéricos de peatonalización. Finalmente se concluye que, a pesar de los intentos de los urbanistas por tratar con políticas peatonales, estos resultan ser de naturaleza perversa, es decir, son problemas complejos. Abstract The implementation of public policies has become a great challenge for governments. The management of pedestrianization, which—like any public policy—seeks to satisfy the needs of citizens, is no stranger to this challenge. This paper seeks to identify the best way to approach this type of urban policy, taking into account the various elements or agents that make it up and the multiplicity of relationships that are generated within this functional system. Some cases of pedestrianization have been analyzed through the use of histograms, and based on the knowledge acquired, we propose a conceptual model and a temporal diagram for generic cases of pedestrianization. We conclude that, despite the attempts of urban planners to deal with pedestrian policies, they turn out to be of a perverse nature; they are complex problems.
... Also, the livable city benefits from pedestrianization, by meeting its purpose in promoting sustainable access and linkage for all its citizens within a neighborhood. Thus, the pedestrianization is an effective tool in order to increase the city's livability, by improving the accessibility, mobility, safety and environment that make the city a good quality place to all its inhabitants [5]. Furthermore, the pedestrian street function doesn't rely only on movement, but it also acts as a public space where sociability, activities and accessibility take place in integration [6]. ...
Article
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Many ancient cities around the world were known with their livability. However, these cities started to lose this feature, when vehicles became prior to pedestrians who lost their sense of place, as many negative impacts came along. In return, people escaped the city's core searching for lively districts with attractive streets where the human basic activities can be performed. As a result, dead city centers were left behind. The present paper work proposes an integrative literature between the pedestrianization and livability, then analyze the precedent approaches to pedestrianization in global review, and introduce a creative implementation approach to pedestrianization in order to achieve the following objectives: (1) a tool to break the various barriers that may face implementation, (2) a method of exploration regarding the potential of the misused asphalt, (3) a tactic to re-attract people to the city's core and its walkable environment and finally, (4) restore the city's livability thus its sustainable urban development. From this perspective, by rejuvenating the core of a city, the entire city's livability could be restored, causing a sustainable urban development, through the creative tactical urbanism. Also, the paper includes an analysis of international examples, based on the criterion of tactical urbanism practices.
... C15. Developing communities: space for meetings and interaction-Sisman (2013) and Asadi-Shekari et al. (2015) claim that good pedestrian zones should encourage communal activities, improve communication in the community and offer discussion [54,55] and improvement [18] opportunities. ...
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As pedestrian zones are public spaces in urban areas, they are important in terms of meeting people’s needs. However, it is worth noting that attention should be paid not only to the development of the physical infrastructure, but also to a sustainable balance between the socio-economic and environmental aspects. To guide urban planning and management initiatives towards more sustainable patterns, it is essential to re-examine the already existing characteristics of cities, establishing how they are used and perceived by inhabitants. The present research suggests environmental, economic and social criteria that determine a greater vitality of pedestrian zones in cities and better life quality for the inhabitants. A questionnaire survey was used to assess common attitudes regarding the research topic in major cities in Lithuania. The multiple criteria decision-making COPRAS (COmplex PRoportional ASsessment) method was used for the formation of a priority queue. The research results showed the attitudes of inhabitants towards pedestrian zones in Vilnius, Kaunas and Klaipėda. The inhabitants of these three cities regarded social and environmental criteria groups as the most significant. Contrary to what was expected and anticipated, respondents do not consider economic criteria as playing a key role in the sustainable preservation and development of pedestrian zones.
... There are also social, environmental, and economic benefits. The turnover in middle European and Scandinavian city centers increased in 60% and remained constant in 25% after being pedestrianized [11]. ...
... Traveling on foot stimulates other activities and is an opportunity to interact with people (Gehl, 2014). Improving the conditions of pedestrian travel promotes sustainability not only in the environmental but also social sense, allowing children, elderly or less affluent people or those who do not have a car to reach their destination and have everyday activity on foot (Soni, Soni, 2016;Gilderbloom et al., 2015). The research also shows that by creating appropriate conditions for travelling with the force of one's own legs only, more people not only walk but also remain in urban areas (Gehl, 2014). ...
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Transport is a sphere of economic activity and social life where paradoxes appear at every step, except that they are disregarded and they are not called by name. It is therefore worth making transport professionals sensitive to the paradoxality of many phenomena, especially if it is important for the formulation of relevant theories and scientific principles. Paradoxes related to the development of the transport infrastructure have been described in the literature, but there are far more paradoxes in the behavior of transport users. A number of subjective theories and hypotheses that paradoxically do not find practical implementation are formulated in the theory of economics and transport policy. Paradoxical dilemmas should be resolved rather in favor of real facts than seemingly logical theories.
... There are also social, environmental, and economic benefits. The turnover in middle European and Scandinavian city centres increased in 60% and remained constant in 25% after being pedestrianized [11]. ...
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Walking is the most natural human movement. The lack of walking on a daily basis causes a number of lifestyle diseases including diabetes, obesity and cardiovascular diseases. These medical complications are increasingly widespread by urban lifestyle. Comfort of non-physical activity allowed by developed transportation systems leads to the pandemic of physical passivity. Our case study is based on the data set of daily activity schedules of 89 948 urban citizens extracted from agent-based simulation model of multimodal mobility of Prague. The schedules contain the exact routes, transport modes and durations of all the trips made by the public transport users. The analysis proves that the most of the walking trajectory is composed of the necessary daily routine: walk from home to the public transport station, walk from a different station to the workplace and back. This trajectory covers on average 85,4% of daily walking distance. With increasing age, the percentage is slightly higher. An average inhabitant of Prague, Czech Republic walks 3.1 km per day, which is considered a low daily physical activity. Residents are considered active, if they walk more than 6.6 km on an average day. We did not find a statistically relevant correlation with the marital status or education. However, a correlation with financial income is apparent: an average walking distance is higher in households with income higher than 1 130 EUR per household member. That could be caused by the fact that higher income Prague families tend to reside in the areas with lower building density and worse public transport connectivity. The daily travelling routine constitutes a majority of daily physical movement, which seems to be insufficient at the moment.
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Pedestrian zones are public spaces intended for the continued and safe mobility of pedestrians and people with disabilities, and they provide multiple benefits to urban areas. They counterbalance the densely built-up areas, decrease atmospheric pollution, increase available green or social space, increase walking and cycling rates, and facilitate active play for children. Done properly, pedestrianization may also increase local business sales. Greece boasts open public spaces and the pedestrianization of common roads. The economic crisis that Greece has been experiencing since 2008 has led people to give up their vehicles and use the pedestrian streets more frequently. The purpose of this paper was to investigate residents’ perceptions and satisfaction rates concerning the pedestrian streets of Kalamaria, Greece, and evaluate their importance for residents’ well-being. Following a random sampling method, 400 residents were interviewed. A two-step cluster analysis was conducted. The survey showed that the urban residents visited pedestrian zones in Kalamaria at least once a week, and the visits lasted 46–60 min. The improvement of urban landscape aesthetics and people’s health and well-being were evaluated as important functions of pedestrian zones. The results also indicate that residents were not satisfied with their quality of life and the existing green infrastructures of the pedestrian streets, even though they have a positive disposition toward the construction or transformation of pedestrian streets. The residents expressed their unwillingness to pay more public taxes for the construction and maintenance of pedestrian and cycling streets. The safety and convenience of the mobility of residents were the most important advantages of the pedestrian streets. Meanwhile, overspill parking and difficulties with finding parking spaces were the main disadvantages for the residents. Local authorities can use the results of the present survey to manage the city’s green infrastructure and use this information in the urban planning framework.
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Bu çalışmada, Trabzon kenti Maraş caddesindeki mevcut fiziki yapıyı ortaya koymak, cadde üzerindeki bina tipolojisini belirlemek, hangi işlevlerin ağırlıklı olduğu ve yaya-taşıt yoğunluklarının hangi bölgelerde ağırlıklandığı, peyzaj bileşen ve öğelerinin nitelik ve niceliklerinin tespit etmek amaçlanmıştır. Bu araştırmada etüd, veri toplama, analiz ve senteze dayalı peyzaj araştırma yöntemleri kullanılmıştır. Çalışma toplamda 3 aşamadan oluşmaktadır. Çalışmanın I. aşamasında araştırma alanı olan Maraş caddesi üzerindeki mevcut fiziki durum, bina işlevleri, kaldırım ve yol genişlikleri tespit edilerek fotoğraflanmış ve haritalar oluşturulmuştur. II. Aşamada ise gözlem yapılmıştır. III. Aşamada ise anket yöntemiyle cadde kullanıcılarının görüşleri belirlenmiştir. Çalışma kapsamında mevcut durum incelemesinde Maraş Caddesi üzerinde 18 çeşit iş sektörü olduğu, gözlem sonucu cadde üzerinde 5 yoğun bölge tespit edilmiş, anket sonuçlarının en önemli sonucu; yaya bölgeleri oluşturulması ile ilgili soruya, %27’si yaya bölgesi istemediğini, % 73’ü ise yaya bölgesi istediği şeklinde cevap vermiştir. Yapılan anket çalışması ile kent halkının görüşleri alınarak değerlendirmeler yapılmış ve kent halkının açık yeşil alan sisteminin bir parçası olan yaya bölgelerine ihtiyaçları olduğu ortaya çıkmıştır. Anahtar Kelimeler: Kent merkezi, Cadde, Yayalaştırma, Yaya yoğunlukları, Trabzon, Maraş Caddesi
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A growing body of literature shows that neighborhood characteristics influence older adults' mental health. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the association between structural and social characteristics of the neighborhood, and depression in Mexican older adults. A longitudinal study was conducted based on waves 1 (2009-2010) and 2 (2014) of the Mexican sample from the Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE). A street-network buffer around each participant's household was used to define neighborhood, so that built environment and social characteristics were assessed within it. Depression was ascertained by using an algorithm based on the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. In the analysis, multilevel logistic regression models were constructed separately for each built and social environments measurement, adjusted for socioeconomic, demographic and health-related covariates, and stratified by area of residence (urban versus rural). The results showed that a length of space between 15-45 meters restricted to vehicles was significantly associated with a lower risk of depression in older adults from the urban area (OR: 0.44; IC 95% 0.23-0.83) and the protective association appeared to be larger with increasing space with this restriction, although it lacked significance. Contrarily, the built environment measures were not predictive of depression in the rural setting. On the other hand, none of the variables from the social environment had a significant association, although safety appeared to behave as a risk factor in the overall (OR: 1.48; CI 95% 0.96-2.30; p = 0.08) and rural (OR: 3.44; CI 95% 0.95-12.45; p = 0.06) samples, as it reached marginal significance. Research about neighborhood effects on older adults' mental health is an emergent field that has shown that depression might be treated not only from the individual-level, PLOS ONE | https://doi.
Conference Paper
Kent merkezleri, birçok işlevsel öğenin bulunduğu mekânlardır. Yapılar, bahçeler, parklar, alışveriş mekânları, konutlar, sağlık ve eğitim kurumları, ulaşım arterleri, konaklama gibi pek çok farklı işlevi ve mekânı bir arada bulundururlar. Fiziksel açıdan en önemli öğelerden biri de yollardır. Yollar ise; caddeler, sokaklar ve bulvarlar şeklinde olup, kentin diğer bileşenleri ile ilişki kurmayı sağlarlar. Kentlerde yaya yolları ve meydanlar, insanların birbirleri ile buluşacakları, toplanacakları alanlardır. Oysa taşıt trafiğinin artmasıyla yaya yollarının bu fonksiyonları azalmaktadır. Mevcut taşıt yolları giderek sayıları artan özel arabaların hareket ve otopark gereksinimini, karşılayamamakta, kapasiteleri yetersiz kalmaktadır. Taşıtlar yaya alanlarına ve kaldırımlara taşmaktadır. Bunun sonucunda da yaya ve taşıtlar arasında bir karmaşa ortaya çıkmaktadır. Kentsel mekânların asıl kullanıcısı olan yayaların bu alanlardaki düzenlemelerle katılımının sağlanması, istek ve önerilerinin belirlenmesi yapılacak çalışmalar için önemlidir. Bu çalışmada, Trabzon kenti Maraş caddesindeki mevcut fiziki yapıyı ortaya koymak, cadde üzerindeki bina tipolojisini belirlemek, hangi işlevlerin ağırlıklı olduğu ve yaya-taşıt yoğunluklarının hangi bölgelerde ağırlıklandığı, peyzaj bileşen ve öğelerinin nitelik ve niceliklerinin tespit etmek amaçlanmıştır. Buna göre; kent halkının kent merkezindeki yayalar için yapılan düzenlemeler ile ilgili görüşleri ve isteklerinin neler olduğu, mevcut durumun yeterliliği belirlenmeye çalışılmıştır. Yapılan anket çalışması ile kent halkının görüşleri alınarak değerlendirmeler yapılmıştır. Kentte yaya bölgeleri oluşturulması ile ilgili soruya kent halkının % 73’ü evet cevabını vermiştir. Bu çalışmayla kent halkının açık yeşil alan sisteminin bir parçası olan yaya bölgelerine ihtiyaçları olduğu ortaya çıkmıştır. Anahtar Kelimeler: Kent merkezi, Cadde, Yayalaştırma, Yaya yoğunlukları, Trabzon, Maraş Caddesi
Chapter
With the increase of population living in urban areas, many transportation-related problems have grown very rapidly. Pollution causes many inhabitants health problems. A major concern for the International Community is pollution, which causes many inhabitants health problems. Accordingly, and under the risk of fines, countries are required to reduce noise and air pollutants. As a way to do so, road restrictions policies are applied in urban areas. Evaluating objectively the benefits of this type of measures is important to asses their real impact. In this work, we analyze the application of Madrid Central (MC), which is a set of road traffic limitation measures applied in the downtown of Madrid (Spain), by using smart city tools. According to our results, MC significantly reduces the nitrogen dioxide (\(NO_2\)) concentration in the air and the levels of noise in Madrid, while not arising any border effect.
Chapter
This article presents the application of data analysis and computational intelligence techniques for evaluating the air quality in the center of Madrid, Spain. Polynomial regression and deep learning methods to analyze the time series of nitrogen dioxide concentration, in order to evaluate the effectiveness of Madrid Central, a set of road traffic limitation measures applied in downtown Madrid. According to the reported results, Madrid Central was able to significantly reduce the nitrogen dioxide concentration, thus effectively improving air quality.
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June 2019 saw large-scale street protests in Hong Kong that impeded traffic flow along streets in areas around to the Legislative Council building. These had the potential to reduce overall air pollutant emissions from traffic and lower their concentrations. Two roadside monitoring stations relatively close to the Legislative Council reveal that measured concentrations of nitrogen dioxide declined during the protests compared with measurements from other sites by at least 50% on many occasions. There were only subtle changes in particulate loads and no evidence of any reduction in carbon monoxide concentrations. Pedestrianisation and bus route rationalisation are often seen as methods to reduce exposure in congested areas, but the observations here suggest that the substantial improvements in the nitrogen dioxide levels might not be matched by improvements in other pollutants. Plans for changes to street layouts to improve air quality need careful investigation before they are implemented.
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This study uses a natural experiment in Beirut, Lebanon, to investigate the effects of a street-level urban design intervention that improved the walking environment through a wider sidewalk, removal of a parking lane, raised junctions, and other elements. This study analyzes the impacts on pedestrian flow, pedestrian satisfaction with the walking experience, commercial activity, and business managers’ attitudes. Difference-in-difference regressions suggest that the main effect of such interventions is not necessarily an increase in pedestrian traffic, but instead safer pedestrian maneuvering and a better walking experience. It is also found through descriptive analysis that while businesses and shops experience increased business post-intervention, noticeable dissatisfaction with the intervention is reported by managers and owners. It is hypothesized that this dissatisfaction is a result of the lengthy construction process renovating and refurbishing the street, and the removal of parking spaces. Policy recommendations are drawn for the mitigation of business managers’ concerns and the enhancement of the walking environment for the design of future similar interventions.
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Financing of public transportation has been a challenge that needs to be concerned because ridership has decreased by up to 90% with the impact of COVID-19. This study presents sustainable policy recommendations and their cost-benefit analyses for the financing problems in public transportation caused by COVID-19. First of all, the public transportation data of Eskişehir-Turkey between the years 2018-2021 were investigated according to different public transportation modes, and financial losses were calculated for municipality. Secondly, within the scope of the study, six policies were recommended as follows: (i) different network and service plans for public transportation, (ii) new or improved low-budget public transportation, (iii) congestion pricing, (iv) bike, bike-sharing and e-scooter, (v) park and ride, (vi) pedestrianization. Crucial points in the implementation of policies and their possible financial impacts were investigated. According to the findings of the study, total ridership decreased 72.94 million in 2020 and 2021 compared to pre-COVID-19. In different modes, it was observed that the decrease buses ridership was higher than in trams. Municipality financial loss was calculated as $19.69- 24.87 million. In the cost-benefit analysis results of recommended policies, net present value was calculated as 0.28-23.36 million $ according to different scenarios and sensitivity analyses. It has been foreseen that this is a very suitable period for the implementation of these policies, they could provide sustainable urban transportation and increase the quality of life as well as solving financial problems.
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It has been argued that the residential environment could play a role in the lower health and well-being commonly found in deprived areas. Yet, more knowledge is needed on how residential environmental quality together with neighborhood satisfaction relate to neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation. This paper explores the links between neighborhood deprivation and neighborhood characteristics, neighborhood satisfaction, and well-being, using survey and geospatial data from Oslo. Findings on physical neighborhood characteristics show that deprived neighborhoods are not underprivileged in terms of green space, public transport, and local amenities. However, perceived neighborhood characteristics – evaluated by their residents – were found to be negatively associated with neighborhood deprivation. These results suggest that deprived neighborhoods have higher perceived noise and lower perceived safety, cleanliness, aesthetic quality, reputation, and place attachment. Neighborhood satisfaction and emotional response to neighborhood were found to be lower in deprived neighborhoods. Overall, evidence from this study suggests that even when green space, public transport, and local amenities are evenly distributed, residents of deprived neighborhoods may still experience lower levels of neighborhood satisfaction and lower emotional response to neighborhood due to differences in neighborhood qualities such as perceived safety, noise, and place attachment.
Chapter
This chapter investigates walking mobility as an element of modal split on the example of cities of Warsaw and Gdynia (Poland). Research methodology presents a real challenge in trying to establish the precise share of walking in urban modal split. Whilst the methods applied in defining and measurements of mechanised trips have an established presence in the transport economics, the measurement of walking mobility is not as simple. The results vary not only because of the nature of cities (their size, spatial, demographic and socio-economic and natural features) but also because of methodology being used to measure walking trips. The chapter identifies main challenges of measurement of walking mobility, focusing on results of different research methods. The comparison was made using the case study of two cities in Poland conducted in 2015. Conclusions are of practical and methodological importance for future research of sustainable mobility policy.
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Previous studies have investigated the increased volume of pedestrians to establish success rates of the pedestrian-friendly policy after a street redesign intervention. However, few studies have focused on the effect of street regeneration on air quality perception and user satisfaction. The influence of the physical environment on street vitality may vary, depending on area context and regional factors. A comprehensive understanding of effective interventions could increase pedestrians’ satisfaction with their walking environment. This study examines the effect of pedestrianization on individuals’ air quality perception and satisfaction, based on three regenerated streets in Seoul, Korea. We analyzed data from 672 questionnaires administered after the pedestrianization project. We used a subset of variables in a binary logistic regression model to understand general determinants of user satisfaction toward their walking environment. Our case study contributes to the verification of pedestrianization effects on air quality perceptions. Results show that overall satisfaction could be acquired through positive perceptions of air quality, as achieved through pedestrianization of streets. Moreover, pedestrian satisfaction varies according to the purpose, activities and health-related behaviors and attitudes. The interrelationships between environmental health, activity, satisfaction and quality of life provide design insights to consider when implementing pedestrianization projects in the future.
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In light of the rapid global urbanization, providing a better quality of life in cities is becoming an increasingly critical issue for urban planning. However, the links between the built environment and subjective well-being are not sufficiently understood. This paper reviews the evidence on the range of pathways linking the built environment to subjective well-being. Seven potential pathways are identified and reviewed: (1) travel, (2) leisure, (3) work, (4) social relationships, (5) residential well-being, (6) emotional responses, and (7) health. Based on this knowledge, the paper presents an overview of strategies for improving subjective well-being through urban planning. Among others, proposed strategies are to: enhance conditions for active travel; improve public transport while restricting cars; provide easy access to facilities and services; develop or steer technology and emerging mobility options to improve inclusiveness and quality of life for different groups; integrate various forms of urban nature as much as possible; provide accessible, inclusive public spaces and communal spaces; maintain upkeep and order in urban space, vegetation, and transport systems; implement noise reduction strategies; develop aesthetically pleasing buildings and public spaces based on residents' needs and preferences; and reduce socio-spatial inequalities while providing support for housing and transport for vulnerable groups.
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Cities have intensified the adoption of Low Emission Zones (LEZs) to improve urban livability. Despite the high social controversy caused by LEZs in many cities, the scientific literature has paid little attention to study their public acceptability. This paper conducts a modelling approach exploring the impact of four groups of variables on the public acceptability of LEZs: (i) socio-economic and demographic characteristics; (ii) personal attitudes; (iii) travel-related variables; and (iv) perceptions and mobility habits linked to LEZs. The city of Madrid, Spain, is a case study of great interest because a LEZ called “Madrid Central” has been recently implemented. A total of 799 individual questionnaires were used to calibrate an ordered logit model. Results indicate that socio-economic and demographic variables are weakly related to the level of public acceptability towards the LEZ. On the contrary, the political ideology of individuals, their environmental awareness, their primary transport mode, the use of shared mobility systems, and the frequency of access to “Madrid Central” have a higher explanatory power. The results may be useful for policy-makers to understand the factors that increase the public acceptability of LEZs.
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As there are very marked relationships between tourism and transport, integrated knowledge of these processes is essential if destinations and tourism enterprises are to be developed, an effective tourism policy pursued, and emerging local and global issues and conflicts surrounding tourism resolved. Beyond this, in an era of huge change reflecting the consequences of the COVID-19 viral pandemic, the importance of sustainable transport in tourism’s sustainable development appears to be of critical importance. Adopting this kind of perspective, this paper seeks to achieve a critical overview of conceptual dimensions of sustainability that link up with tourism and transport. To this end, ideas based on the literature and previous discussions are extended to include certain new propositions arising out of a (hopefully) post-COVID-19 world. Proceeding first with a systematic literature review (SLR), this article discusses the importance of transport to the development of tourism, dealing critically with modes of transport and their changing roles in sustainable development under COVID and post-COVID circumstances. The author summarises likely new way(s) of thinking in the aftermath of the pandemic, with the need for this/these to be far more sustainable and responsible, and characterised by a reorientation of behaviour in a “green” direction. It is further concluded that three aspects of transport–tourism relations will prove crucial to more sustainable utilisation—i.e., proximity, slower and less energy-intensive travel, and green transport.
Chapter
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Today, cities host more than half the world population, and this number is expected to increase by 70% and reach 6.4 billion people by 2050. Asian tropical cities will experience more than 60% of this increase, half of which will occur in cities with less than 500,000 urban dwellers. Owing to the rapid urbanisation in the tropics, governmental organisations should ensure that urban planning and design policies adequately address the socio-economic aspect and well-being of urban inhabitants and meet the sustainable development missions and visions. Bangkok, the capital of Thailand, is one of the megacities in Asia, with an estimated population exceeding 60 million people. This chapter provides an overview of the main challenges that planners encounter to address the sustainable development objectives in Bangkok. These challenges are listed as follows. 1) Climate change has been the main drive for stakeholders and municipalities to propose a strategic framework, which can reduce CO2 emissions and increased urban air temperature. These actions consider the existing city infrastructure and the need for community involvement. 2) The economic development and productivity of Bangkok are adversely affected by traffic congestion and poor connectivity in the urban fabric. 3) Poverty, social inclusion and the growing number of slums in Bangkok, accounting for almost one-quarter of the city’s total population. This chapter adopts a case study approach in providing a review on how municipalities tackled the above-mentioned challenges considering environmental (climate change), physical (transportation and street systems) and social (slum access to housing) sustainability. This chapter also provides an insight into the planning actions that can be considered to meet sustainable development goals.
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In recent years, EU has placed great importance on the safety of road users (real and perceived). In this context today in Greece, around 180 municipalities are implementing SUMPs for first time and therefore a primary identification of the hazardous points is made through the mapping of traffic incidents. This article presents the results of the mapping of traffic accidents in five metropolitan municipalities of Attica (Athens, Piraeus, Marousi, Kifisia, Chalandri), and their analysis using GIS tools. Network kernel density analysis was performed to determine the spots where a high concentration of severe accidents appeared, as well as spatial autocorrelation using Moran index and Hot-Spot Analysis in terms of time, driver's age and type of vehicle involved. The results indicate the hazardous points in the study areas and their particular characteristics. Finally, it is noted that the aforementioned analysis can contribute to the design of feasible solutions in order to improve road safety and at the same time, create a safe and sustainable transport system in each of the study cities.
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Pedestrianisation, the conversion of a vehicular street for pedestrian use, is increasingly being proposed worldwide as a sustainable measure by hegemonic powers. Pedestrianisation can bolster uneven urban development patterns, however social tensions can magnify on the pedestrianised street, where deprived social groups claim the right to the city. This study employs a mixed method approach to examine, within a de Certeausian theoretical framework, the relationship between the governmental strategies promoting pedestrianisation and the tactics of pedestrianised space informal appropriation. Within this context Hong Kong emerges as a revelatory case, it is a city where the extreme scarcity of public open space exacerbates the conflict between social groups interested in this resource. The analysis provides evidence of a discrepancy between expected and actual uses of the pedestrianised streets. Furthermore, this study highlights the need in the context of the global neoliberal city for discussing the theoretical dichotomy of strategies and tactics. This paper argues for pedestrian planning which includes stationary use as a main pedestrianisation objective, as well as for responsive urban design that carefully considers the association between behavioural patterns and spatial features of the pedestrianised street.
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Safe Routes to School is very important for students to have good physical and psychologically healthy in school life. For providing safe routes based on risk analysis, finding out dangerous points and areas can be a target to avoid dangerous locations by pedestrians and drivers. However, analyzing the risk assessment to derive the safe routes requires a large amount of data with a certain time of observation by experts. Deep learning is a solution to provide information regarding safe routes based on expert knowledge. In this paper, we propose a risk assessment inference approach using a Recurrent Neural Network (RNN) model with Long-Short Term Memory (LSTM) cells based on geographical information for safe routes to school. However, geographical information including coordinates is difficult used in learning-based inference models because of the series of float values. For training the RNN model with the geographical data, coordinates of routes and danger points are translated to be geohash through the geohash converter. The geohash data with other data of features are fused and inputted to the one-hot encoder. The one-hot encoded data is used in the inputs of the RNN model to train the LSTMs. The input data of the training model is derived by the risk index model that is proposed to calculate the risk index based on distances of route coordinates and danger points. Therefore, the risk index is correlated with the training dataset. Through the proposed inference approach, the geographical information including multiple coordinates is enabled to be trained by RNN as a geohash-based input string. Moreover, the input string with other features is fused to support the one-hot encoding to get a better result in RNN models.
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This study investigated levels and sources of pollution and potential health risks associated with potentially toxic elements (PTEs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in urban street dust collected from Tyumen city, a large transport centre with one of the highest motorization rates in Russia. Twenty street dust samples were collected from four grades of roads in five different land use areas. Research methods included measurements of physical and chemical properties of street dust, concentrations of 18 PTEs using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, 12 PAHs using high-performance liquid chromatography, and statistical analysis of the data. Concentrations of Ni, Cr, Sb, and Mo, as well as medium and high molecular weight PAHs in urban street dust, were notably higher than in soils within the city, which indicates that transport is the main source of these elements. Concentrations of Cu, Cd, Pb, Zn, Mn, and As in street dust of Tyumen were lower compared to many large cities, while Cr, Ni, and Co were higher. Concentrations of PAH were comparable to other large nonindustrial cities. Total contamination of street dust by both PTEs and PAHs showed more robust relationships with the number of roadway lanes rather than land use. The estimated carcinogenic risks were low in 70% of samples and medium in 30% of samples. Noncarcinogenic risks were attributed to exposure to Co, Ni, V, and As. The total noncarcinogenic risk for adults was found to be negligible, while the risk was found to be moderate for children.
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Earlier studies found that the implementation of traffic calming measures, including pedestrianisation, will reduce traffic speeds and accidents and thus make the streets safer and more pleasant places to be. The current study, conducted in Khao San Rd, Bangkok, Thailand, has shown that traffic calming can also have a positive economic benefit for the retailing and commercial community by increasing sales volumes. Furthermore, as indicated by increased property/rental values and business activity as well as by the preference of consumers as expressed in surveys, the liveability of the area is also improved. The current study also found that retailers were positively inclined towards further pedestrianisation in the area.
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There are ways to quantify the value of walking (the activity) and walkability (the quality of walking conditions, including safety, comfort, and convenience). Walking and walkability provide a variety of benefits, including accessibility, consumer cost savings, public cost savings (reduced external costs), more efficient land use, community livability, improved fitness and public health, economic development, and support for equity objectives. Yet current transportation planning practices tend to undervalue walking. More comprehensive analysis techniques are likely to increase public support for walking and other nonmotorized modes of travel.
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This paper describes ways to evaluate the value of walking (the activity) and walkability (the quality of walking conditions, including safety, comfort and convenience). Walking and walkability provide a variety of benefits, including basic mobility, consumer cost savings, cost savings (reduced external costs), efficient land use, community livability, improved fitness and public health, economic development, and support for equity objectives. Current transportation planning practices tend to undervalue walking. More comprehensive analysis techniques, described in this paper, are likely to increase public support for walking and other nonmotorized modes of travel.
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This paper reviews the failure of conventional transport policies to address the many problems caused by private car use in cities in high-income nations, and suggests that restructuring parking provision can address these problems. It discusses how increasing car use has not produced more trips per day, and increasing speed has not increased leisure time, because of congestion and increased travel distances. Transport planning that provides parking spaces for car owners at their homes, workplaces, shopping centres and recreational places has supported increased private car use. Not only does this make people car drivers but its effect also restructures cities so that shop, workplace, recreational and social contacts within neighbourhoods disappear, city landscapes become remodeled for cars, and public transport becomes unviable. Meanwhile, car-oriented city streets discourage walking. This paper suggests that these problems can be solved if strong incentives are provided for cars to be parked in garages that are only as accessible as public transport stops - at all origins and destinations.
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The effects of three isoenergetic diets on metabolic and appetite responses to prolonged intermittent walking were investigated. Eight men undertook three 450-min walks at intensities varying between 25-30 and 50-55% of maximal O2 uptake. In a balanced design, the subjects were given breakfast, snacks, and lunch containing total carbohydrate (CHO), protein (P), and fat (F) in the following amounts (g/70 kg body mass): mixed diet, 302 CHO, 50 P, 84 F; high-CHO diet, 438 CHO, 46 P, 35 F; high-fat diet, 63 CHO, 44 P, 196 F. Substrate balance was calculated by indirect calorimetry over the 450-min exercise period. Blood samples were taken before exercise and every 45 min during the exercise period. The high-fat diet resulted in a negative total CHO balance (-140 +/- 1 g) and a lower negative fat balance (-110 +/- 33 g) than the other two diets (P < 0.05). Plasma glucagon, nonesterified fatty acids, glycerol, and 3-hydroxybutyrate were higher with the high-fat diet (P < 0.05 vs. high CHO), whereas plasma insulin was lower after high fat (P < 0.05 vs. mixed and high CHO). Subjective ratings of fatigue and appetite showed no differences between the three trials. Although diet influenced the degree of total CHO and fat oxidation, fat was the main source of energy in all trials.
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The modeling of pedestrian motion is of great theoretical and practical interest. Recent experimental efforts have revealed quantitative details of pedestrian interactions, which have been successfully cast into mathematical equations. Furthermore, corresponding computer simulations of large numbers of pedestrians have been compared with the empirically observed dynamics of crowds. Such studies have led to a deeper understanding of how collective behavior on a macroscopic scale emerges from individual human interactions. Interestingly enough, the non-linear interactions of pedestrians lead to various complex, spatio-temporal pattern-formation phenomena. This includes the emergence of lanes of uniform walking direction, oscillations of the pedestrian flow at bottlenecks, and the formation of stripes in two intersecting flows. Such self-organized patterns of motion demonstrate that an efficient, “intelligent” collective dynamics can be based on simple, local interactions. Under extreme conditions, however, coordination may break down, giving rise to critical crowd conditions. Examples are “freezing-by-heating” and “faster-is-slower” effects, but also the transition to “turbulent” crowd dynamics. These observations have important implications for the optimization of pedestrian facilities, in particular for evacuation situations.
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Direct polling of city-centre retailers in Germany showed them to be cautious and sceptical about the influence of transit - they were also sceptical about the future prospects for retailing in city centres in general. Curiously, British retailers were far more enthusiastic about the prospects for city centres despite the fact that many have lost trade.-from Authors
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Examining the roots of traffic calming helps explain how Europe's changing culture and legislation have called for revised traffic calming schemes.
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For designing and evaluating pedestrian facilities, the 1985 Highway Capacity Manual (HCM) provides guidelines similar to those for vehicular flow, using the concept of level of service. It also recommends that additional environmental factors that contribute to the walking experience and therefore to the perceived level of service, such as comfort, convenience, safety, security, and attractiveness, also be considered. However, no guidelines are given on how to measure or use these environmental factors for designing and assessing pedestrian facilities. There is no question that environmental factors are of paramount importance for designing and assessing such facilities, because pedestrians, unlike motor vehicles, have practically no control over most of these factors. A practical method of assessing pedestrian facilities is described that takes into account several environmental factors observed by independent groups who are familiar with the situation being assessed.
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A study was undertaken for Main Roads Western Australia by BSD Consultants, which aimed to develop guidelines for assessing the Level of Service (LOS) of pedestrian facilities in Western Australia. Guidelines exist for assessing vehicular traffic LOS (Austroads) and cycling LOS (Main Roads WA). The formulation of LOS guidelines for pedestrians completes the LOS framework for vehicular, bicycle, and pedestrian traffic. Pedestrian LOS is an overall measure of walking conditions on a route, path, or facility. This is linked directly to factors that affect mobility, comfort, and safety, reflecting pedestrians' perceptions of the degree to which the facility is 'pedestrian friendly'. A unique model based on several factors affecting pedestrian LOS was developed to facilitate LOS measurement. These factors fall into three categories: physical characteristics, location factors, and user factors. These factors were weighted by relative importance and a LOS scale was developed to describe the LOS of pedestrian routes. Pedestrian conditions are described through a LOS grade from LOS A (ideal pedestrian condition) to LOS E (unsuitable pedestrian conditions), based on an assessment of the factors affecting LOS. The assessment includes desktop and on-site assessment of LOS factors. The development of the model was an iterative process that involved testing and refinement. The research undertaken and the LOS model developed provide a sound basis for the ongoing measurement of LOS for pedestrians. The model not only provides the opportunity to test the LOS provided by a pedestrian route, but also determines which factors contribute to low and high LOS.
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This article reviews the recent literature on public infrastructure and economic productivity, with special attention to the particular case of highway infrastructure. Recent evidence suggests that, at the margin, highway infrastructure contributes little to state or national productivity. This is consistent with studies that show relatively small land-use impactsfrom modem highways. Yet the idea that highways enhance economic health is common in the policy and planning communities. Two explanations can help reconcile this divergence between academic research and popular perception. First, some of the economic development observed near highways might not actually be caused by the highway. Second, some of the economic development near highways might be a shift of economic activity awayfrom other areas. Either explanation implies the need for reforms in highway project analysis and funding. This article suggests appropriate policy reforms and directions for future research.
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Road transport is by far the major source of environmental degradation in urban centres. Hence, transport schemes like pedestrianization can have significant impacts on local environmental conditions, by provoking changes in the characteristics of traffic flows and on the patterns of traffic emissions. This paper analyses the extent to which the implementation of a pedestrianization scheme in Chester (a medium-sized historic city situated in northwest England) can influence the total vehicle exhaust emissions and local levels of air pollution concentration and noise from traffic. The analysis is based on the application of a road traffic assignment model in conjunction with models for the estimation of environmental degradation. This approach provides decision-makers with valuable information about the environmental implications from changes in the characteristics of the transport system.
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This article summarizes recent literature from several different disciplines in two new ways, first identifying six mechanisms through which transportation policy and investment could promote economic development and then discussing the evidence of the connection, one mode at a time. All claims for transportation 's effect on economic development depend on increasing the productivity of private firms, increasing the efficiency of transportation itself fostering innovation, improving the quality of life and thus the supply of labor and entrepreneurship, affecting perceptions, or changing land use and spatial patterns. The historical effects of transportation on economic development have clearly been beneficial, but these benefits have diminished over time, whereas the costs and potential for harm have increased. If long-lasting infrastructure investments are not adaptable, they willfit poorly with increasingly rapid and unpredictable change. To realize the potential for transportation to positively influence economic development in the future, decision making should be structured to make transportation efficient andflexible and take citizens'concernsfor equity, self-determination, and stability into account.
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The author examines the problem of a failing car-dominated transportation system and its environmental and human costs. He also includes a discussion of available remedies, but also questions our basic assumptions about the role of transportation in our society.
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Safe and comfortable walking is essential for pedestrian movement in modern urban transportation systems. Since pedestrian traffic cannot be restricted in some specified streets, some measures for pedestrians have to be taken everywhere in urban areas. This research describes a way to evaluate ordinary sidewalks, and two different methods are proposed. One is an evaluation based on pedestrian behaviour and the other is an evaluation based on pedestrian opinion. Using the indices of pedestrian density and sidewalk width, we can estimate the level of service of sidewalk usage. But generally speaking, since it is not often that a sidewalk is insufficient to deal with pedestrian flow, another approach is necessary for its evaluation, that is, pedestrian awareness of sidewalks must be taken into account. The former method is recommended for all sidewalks, especially with comparatively heavy pedestrian traffic, and the latter method is recommended for ones with light pedestrian traffic.
Article
Bangkok's extreme traffic problems have been traditionally explained in terms of a lack of road infrastructure and policy responses for many years have almost exclusively stressed road investment to the exclusion of all other forms of transport infrastructure development. This thesis questions this interpretation of the traffic problem and its chief policy response: building still more roads. It suggests that in order to effectively analyse Bangkok's traffic predicament and to formulate more sustainable responses to the crisis, an understanding is required of Bangkok's land use and transport development, as well as a systematic and detailed perspective on the similarities and differences between Bangkok and many other cities around the world, particularly those in Asia. This thesis suggests that Bangkok has passed through three key periods: a water-based transport and walking period, a transport modernisation period and a motorisation period. In each period up to motorisation Bangkok appeared to maintain a harmonious relationship between its high density, mixed use urban form, ideally suited to nonmotorised modes and to public transport. Even in the motorisation period, high density, mixed use development has mostly followed major road corridors and remains well-suited to much higher public transport and non-motorised mode use than currently exist. However, in this period, rapidly rising motor vehicle ownership and use began to come into conflict with the city's pre-automobile form. Road infrastructure could not be built fast enough to keep pace with traffic growth, despite almost exclusive commitment of resources to roads. High capacity public transport systems, including rail, renewed water transport and busways failed to materialise to help curb the motorisation process and to provide much needed relief on the roads. A basic conflict or mismatch between urban form and transport began to emerge, leaving the city ill-equipped to cope with the automobile and subject to large environmental, social and economic impacts from congestion. The thesis argues that while Bangkok's per capita road supply is low in an international sense, it is not atypical for an Asian city and road availability per hectare is similar to many other cities around the world. Likewise, com mon arguments about an inadequate road hierarchy are systematically analysed and are shown to be insufficient in explaining Bangkok's present crisis. The thesis thus suggests that attempting to tackle the traffic problem through an intensification of road building efforts will not provide the relief sought, but will only exacerbate the traffic impacts which are shown to be already at the limits of international experience. The international comparison of Bangkok with other cities, highlighting basic similarities and differences in land use and transport features, continues to build upon this argument. It shows that Bangkok lies at one extreme in many transport characteristics such as the amount of travel per hectare, and within the Asian cities, it is very high in vehicle ownership and use and energy use, comparatively low in public transport use and very low in non-motorised modes. The thesis suggests that in physical planning terms, Bangkok's traffic crisis appears to stem from a set of mismatches between its transport patterns, urban form and transport infrastructure. These mismatches are between: (1) vehicle use and urban form: higher levels of private vehicle use than can be properly accommodated in its dense, tightly woven urban fabric; (2) vehicle use and road supply: levels of private vehicle use which are incompatible with its road availability and which are uncharacteristically high compared to other Asian cities; (3) transit use, urban form and road supply: lower levels of overall transit use than would be expected in a city of its urban form and road availability; (4) transit infrastructure, urban form and road supply: a public transport infrastructure which is inadequate to meet the demands for transit movement inherent in such a dense city, particularly a lack of rail infrastructure; (5) non-motorised modes and urban form: levels of non-motorised mode use which are uncharacteristically low for such a dense, mixed use urban fabric. These mismatches are mainly the consequence of a long series of inappropriate and ineffective transport policies and investments which are biased towards private transport and which have at least in part arisen from narrow and outdated transport planning processes. In order for transport planning in Bangkok to address the suggested roots of the crisis, the thesis contends that at least two key constraints would have to be dealt with: the traditional urban transport planning process and the institutional fragmentation in transport policy and implementation. Notwithstanding, there are forces pushing in the direction of change and these are examined in terms of the growing global and local trends towards sustainability, community outrage over traffic and the role of NGOs. Based on these findings, this thesis provides a case for a series of policies to help deal with Bangkok's traffic disaster. In line with global trends towards sustainability as an organising principle for urban policy development, these policies are offered within a framework of developing a more sustainable transport system in Bangkok. The policies suggested cover priority to public transport infrastructure development, transitoriented,mixed land use development, transport demand management, improvement of waterway transportation, facilitation of walking and cycling and institutional reform of Bangkok's transport decision making structure. Opportunities for further complementary research are suggested.
Article
In the post-World War II era, there have been dramatic changes to the environment that appear to be having a detrimental impact on the lifestyles and incidental physical activities of young people. These changes are not trivial and have the potential to influence not only physical health, but also mental health and child development. However, the evidence of the impact of the built environment on physical activity to date is inconsistent. This review examines the evidence on the association between the built environment and walking for transport as well as physical activity generally, with a focus on methodological issues that may explain inconsistencies in the literature to date. It appears that many studies fail to measure behaviour-specific environmental correlates, and insufficient attention is being given to differences according to the age of study participants. Higher levels of out-of-school-hours physical activity and walking appear to be significantly associated with higher levels of urban density and neighbourhoods with mixed-use planning, especially for older children and adolescents. Proximate recreational facilities also appear to predict young people's level of physical activity. However, there are inconsistencies in the literature involving studies with younger children. Independent mobility increases with age. For younger children, the impact of the built environment is influenced by the decision-making of parents as the gatekeepers of their behaviour. Cross-cultural differences may also be present and are worthy of greater exploration. As children develop and are given more independent mobility, it appears that the way neighbourhoods are designed - particularly in terms of proximity and connectivity to local destinations, including schools and shopping centres, and the presence of footpaths - becomes a determinant of whether children are able, and are permitted by their parents, to walk and use destinations locally. If older children and adolescents are to enjoy health and developmental benefits of independent mobility, a key priority must be in reducing exposure to traffic and in increasing surveillance on streets (i.e. 'eyes-on-the-street') through neighbourhood and building design, by encouraging others to walk locally, and by discouraging motor vehicle use in favour of walking and cycling. Parents need to be assured that the rights and safety of pedestrians (and cyclists) - particularly child pedestrians and cyclists - are paramount if we are to turn around our 'child-free streets', now so prevalent in contemporary Australian and US cities. There remains a need for more age- and sex-specific research using behaviour- and context-specific measures, with a view to building a more consistent evidence base to inform future environmental interventions.
Article
Current patterns of land use and development are at once socially, economically, and environmentally destructive. Sprawling low-density development literally devours natural landscapes while breeding a pervasive sense of social isolation and exacerbating a vast array of economic problems. As more and more counties begin to look more and more the same, hope for a different future may seem to be fading. But alternatives do exist.The Ecology of Place, Timothy Beatley and Kristy Manning describe a world in which land is consumed sparingly, cities and towns are vibrant and green, local economies thrive, and citizens work together to create places of eduring value. They present a holistic and compelling approach to repairing and enhancing communities, introducing a vision of "sustainable places" that extends beyond traditional architecture and urban design to consider not just the physical layout of a development but the broad set of ways in which communities are organized and operate. Chapters examine: the history and context of current land use problems, along with the concept of "sustainable places" the ecology of place and ecological policies and actions local and regional economic development links between land-use and community planning and civic involvement specific recommendations to help move toward sustainability The authors address a variety of policy and development issues that affect a community -- from its economic base to its transit options to the ways in which its streets and public spaces are managed -- and examine the wide range of programs, policies, and creative ideas that can be used to turn the vision of sustainable places into reality.The Ecology of Place is a timely resource for planners, economic development specialists, students, and citizen activists working toward establishing healthier and more sustainable patterns of growth and development.
Article
Over the course of a few short years, the city of Bogotá (Colombia) has dramatically transformed the quality of its public space. This session presents primary and secondary data documenting the economic, environmental, and social benefits of improved public space and urban mobility. Bogotá has benefited from a series of political leaders with a highly progressive view on the importance of urban space. This high degree of political will contributed to dramatic changes in several areas, including: 1. Reclamation of public space; 2. Improvement of public transport; 3. Promotion of non-motorised transport; and, 4. Implementation of auto restriction measures. The near simultaneous application of these policies has produced quantifiable benefits to the quality of life of city residents. The research shows that property values in areas with urban upgrades have appreciated considerably when compared to a control group of similar properties. Additionally, the research shows employment benefits from the city’s Sunday “ciclovía” (closing of streets to motorised vehicles) is significantly greater than week-day auto-related employment along the same corridors. Air quality monitoring shows emission reductions by as much as 40 per cent for some pollutants. Social indicators related to accidents, crime levels, and equity are also quite positive. Traffic deaths have been reduced from over 1,300 in 1995 to less than 700 in 2002. Bogotá’s transformation has attracted visits by city officials from over 50 nations. The replicability of Bogotá’s successes will depend upon local circumstances, and especially upon levels of local political will. Further documentation of the economic, environmental, and social benefits stemming from Bogotá’s efforts will help instil the confidence of city officials to move ahead with urban transformations of their own.
Article
With no attempt made to influence their diet, six sedentary obese men ages 19 to 31 completed 16 weeks of vigorous walking 90 min, 5 days/week, on a treadmill at up to 3.2 mph on a 10% grade, expending about 1100 kcal per session. Body composition studies indicated a loss of 5.9 kg of body fat and a gain of 0.2 kg of lean tissue for a net loss of 5.7 kg. Percentage body fat decreased from 23.3 to 17.4. Monitored food intake initially increased, then progressively decreased below pretraining levels. Work capacity and cardiovascular efficiency improved with training. Plasma cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations were not significantly changed; however, high density lipoprotein cholesterol progressively increased to 15.6% above pretraining levels and the high/low density lipoprotein ratio increased 25.9%. Fasting blood sugar was significantly lower after training. Blood glucose concentrations after a glucose challenge did not significantly change, but a 43% reduction in plasma radioimmunoassay insulin levels and a 36% decrease in the ratio of insulin/glucose concentration occurred. Thus, vigorous regular walking resulted in a reduction of body fate stores, endogenous insulin requirements, and food intake, and perhaps improved the ability to eliminate cholestrol by increasing the plasma high density lipoprotein fraction.
Article
Air pollution contributes to mortality and morbidity. We estimated the impact of outdoor (total) and traffic-related air pollution on public health in Austria, France, and Switzerland. Attributable cases of morbidity and mortality were estimated. Epidemiology-based exposure-response functions for a 10 microg/m3 increase in particulate matter (PM10) were used to quantify the effects of air pollution. Cases attributable to air pollution were estimated for mortality (adults > or = 30 years), respiratory and cardiovascular hospital admissions (all ages), incidence of chronic bronchitis (adults > or = 25 years), bronchitis episodes in children (< 15 years), restricted activity days (adults > or = 20 years), and asthma attacks in adults and children. Population exposure (PM10) was modelled for each km2. The traffic-related fraction was estimated based on PM10 emission inventories. Air pollution caused 6% of total mortality or more than 40,000 attributable cases per year. About half of all mortality caused by air pollution was attributed to motorised traffic, accounting also for: more than 25,000 new cases of chronic bronchitis (adults); more than 290,000 episodes of bronchitis (children); more than 0.5 million asthma attacks; and more than 16 million person-days of restricted activities. This assessment estimates the public-health impacts of current patterns of air pollution. Although individual health risks of air pollution are relatively small, the public-health consequences are considerable. Traffic-related air pollution remains a key target for public-health action in Europe. Our results, which have also been used for economic valuation, should guide decisions on the assessment of environmental health-policy options.
For Pedestrians Only: Planning, Design, and Management of Traffic-free Zones
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