Chapter

Application of Eye Tracking for Diagnosis and Therapy of Children with Brain Disabilities

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Abstract

Children affected by brain disabilities require a lot of attention and care to improve their life. The quicker the support will be introduced the better effect can be achieved. One of important impairments resulted from the brain disability is a cerebral visual one. In case of children, communicating with whom is difficult or impossible, assessment of vision quality is very challenging and eye tracking methods may prove very useful. The research discussed in this paper was devoted to development of a workspace, which may support the effort of therapists working on improving the quality of disabled children's life. The important element of this solution is the implicit calibration procedure, making eye movement registration possible. Additionally, there were several stimuli developed and tested with cooperation of therapists from one of associations for children with developmental disabilities. Initial tests confirmed usefulness of the elaborated solution, which facilitates children's vision assessment based on the eye movement signal and may be used for a further children therapy.

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... However, it must be proceeded by gaining the knowledge to what extend children with impairments are able to use vision and for how long they can keep their attention at an environmental object, which may significantly improve work of educational teams and therapists. The research, in which such the attempted has been made are presented in Harezlak et al. (2016). There was an adequate workspace created (Fig. 14) consisting of one big display used to present a stimulation to children and an additional display for an operator/therapist. ...
... Workspace used during experiments described inHarezlak et al. (2016). It consists of the stimulation screen (right) visible to a subject and the control screen (left) visible to an operator. ...
Article
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... Realization. The VisDaT system is the extended version of the prototype presented in [19]. It consists of the computer with dual graphics card, two displays, an Eye Tribe eye tracker, Genius Eye camera, and speakers. ...
... More examples of the system usage are discussed in [19]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Vision plays a crucial role in children’s mental development. Therefore, early diagnosis of any vision disparities and implementation of a correct therapy is very important. However, carrying out such a procedure in case of young children and especially children with brain dysfunctions poses some limitations due to cooperation problems. The vision diagnostics and treatment (VisDaT) system presented in this paper is meant to help therapists in proper diagnosis and treatment involving such children. It utilizes a computer connected to two monitors and equipped with a specialized software. The main system components are as follows: an eye tracker recording child’s eye movements and a digital camera monitoring online child’s reactions. The system is equipped with a specialized software, which creates the opportunity to stimulate children’s vision with a dedicated stimulus and post hoc analyses of recorded sessions, which enable making decision as to the future treatment.
... The introduction of an eye tracker could be useful to measure the ocular movements during the paper and pencil tests performance. These technological tools are commonly used to assess visuomotor skills in children with cerebral visual impairment [29][30][31]. ...
Chapter
Vision is a dominant sense in humans and its performance is a critical factor in children’s development and learning. For health sciences it is essential to identify the tools most used in the last decade to assess visuomotor and visual perception skills in children under 6 years of age. For that reason, systematic research was conducted according to the PRISMA criteria. The research was performed using B-on and Pubmed and were included articles published between 2011 until 2021. Included were 17 articles highlighting 2 different samples: children with typical development and children with abnormal development. The assessment protocol differs between researches. A large diversity of tests were observed, usually involving “paper and pencil” tasks. Surprisingly, the association of neuroimaging or electrophysiological techniques with traditional assessment is not common in clinical settings. This aspect will be fully analyzed and a proposal of change will be presented.
... In image and video processing, visual attention and saliency have been widely used in compression algorithms (Yu and Lisin, 2009;Zünd et al., 2013;Hadizadeh and Bajic, 2014). In the medical field, eye-tracking devices are used to help the communication in cases of locked-in syndrom (Majaranta and Räihä, 2002) or for diagnosis purposes (Harezlak et al., 2016); for more applications in medicine, see for instance Harezlak and Kasprowski (2018). ...
Preprint
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In the process of making a movie, directors constantly care about where the spectator will look on the screen. Shot composition, framing, camera movements or editing are tools commonly used to direct attention. In order to provide a quantitative analysis of the relationship between those tools and gaze patterns, we propose a new eye-tracking database, containing gaze pattern information on movie sequences, as well as editing annotations, and we show how state-of-the-art computational saliency techniques behave on this dataset. In this work, we expose strong links between movie editing and spectators scanpaths, and open several leads on how the knowledge of editing information could improve human visual attention modeling for cinematic content. The dataset generated and analysed during the current study is available at https://github.com/abruckert/eye_tracking_filmmaking
... Additionally, the results presented in this research were obtained for healthy, young people with normal vision, therefore, application of such studies for individuals affected by any abnormality in the eyes functioning or those suffering from brain diseases, would provide new insights into the usefulness of the presented method. Some steps were conducted towards this direction by the development of the platform for diagnosis and therapy of children with brain disabilities [50,51]. The continuation of these activities is also planned as future studies. ...
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Full-text available
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Thesis
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Conference Paper
Full-text available
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Conference Paper
Full-text available
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Full-text available
Holmqvist, K., Nyström, N., Andersson, R., Dewhurst, R., Jarodzka, H., & Van de Weijer, J. (Eds.) (2011). Eye tracking: a comprehensive guide to methods and measures, Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
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Book
Visual Diagnosis and Care of the Patient with Special Needsprovides a thorough review of the eye and vision care needs of patients with special needs. This book gives you a better understanding of the most frequently encountered developmental and acquired disabilities seen in the eye care practitioner's office. These disabilities include patients with autism, brain injury, Fragile X syndrome and Down syndrome, as well as those with psychiatric illness, dual diagnosis, and more. The text discusses, in great detail, the visual issues inherent in these populations and their possible treatment. A group of authors with approximately 500 years of experience in the field of eye care and special populations have been brought together to develop this comprehensive reference. It may appear that this book is written primarily for eye care practitioners such as optometrists and ophthalmologists, while vision is the overriding topic, this book serves as an excellent resource for a multitude of professions including those engaged in occupational therapy, physical therapy, speech and language therapy, physiatry, social work, pediatric medicine, and special education. "There is literally no other book that covers this very important subject area. It is structured by common conditions that lead to special needs so that the reader can easily access areas they need more information in. The writing style and tone of the book are very clear and simple. This text could also be easily read by lay person carers of special needs patients. This area of work within eye health in the world is very much neglected. It is a groundbreaking piece of work to help the most disabled of people in our modern society. In addition they have done a great job of a most complex task." - BMA Medical Book Award reviewer, 2013 BMA Medical Book Awards. © 2012 Wolters Kluwer Health, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.All rights reserved.
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Means-end actions are an early-emerging form of problem solving. These actions require initiating initial behaviors with a goal in mind. In this study, we explored the origins of 8-month-old infants' means-end action production using a cloth-pulling training paradigm. We examined whether highlighting the goal (toy) or the means (cloth) was more valuable for learning to perform a well-organized means-end action. Infants were given the opportunity to both practice cloth-pulling and view modeling of the action performed by an adult throughout the session. Infants saw either the same toy or the same cloth in successive trials, so that the goal or means were highlighted prior to modeling of the action. All infants improved throughout the session regardless of which aspect of the event was highlighted. Beyond this general improvement, repetition of goals supported more rapid learning and more sustained learning than did repetition of means. These findings provide novel evidence that, at the origins of means-end action production, emphasizing the goal that structures an action facilitates the learning of new means-end actions.
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How do young children direct their attention to other people in the natural world? Although many studies have examined the perception of faces and of goal-directed actions, relatively little work has focused on what children will look at in complex and unconstrained viewing environments. To address this question, we showed videos of objects, faces, children playing with toys, and complex social scenes to a large sample of infants and toddlers between 3 and 30 months old. We found systematic developmental changes in what children looked at. When viewing faces alone, younger children looked more at eyes and older children more at mouths, especially when the faces were making expressions or talking. In the more complex videos, older children looked more at hands than younger children, especially when the hands were performing actions. Our results suggest that as children develop they become better able to direct their attention to the parts of complex scenes that are most interesting socially.
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This paper presents two methods that we applied to our research to record infant gaze in the context of goal-oriented actions using different eye-tracking devices: head-mounted and remote eye-tracking. For each type of eye-tracking system, we discuss their advantages and disadvantages, we describe the particular experimental setups we used to study infant looking and reaching, explain how we were able to use and synchronize these systems with other sources of data collection (video recordings and motion capture) in order to analyze gaze and movements directed toward 3D objects within a common time frame. Finally, for each method, we briefly present some results from our studies to illustrate the different levels of analyses that may be carried out using these different types of eye-tracking devices. These examples aim to highlight some of the novel questions that may be addressed using eye-tracking in the context of goal-directed actions.
Book
to the Human Visual System (HVS).- Visual Attention.- Neurological Substrate of the HVS.- Visual Psychophysics.- Taxonomy and Models of Eye Movements.- Eye Tracking Systems.- Eye Tracking Techniques.- Head-Mounted System Hardware Installation.- Head-Mounted System Software Development.- Head-Mounted System Calibration.- Table-Mounted System Hardware Installation.- Table-Mounted System Software Development.- Table-Mounted System Calibration.- Eye Movement Analysis.- Eye Tracking Methodology.- Experimental Design.- Suggested Empirical Guidelines.- Case Studies.- Eye Tracking Applications.- Diversity and Types of Eye Tracking Applications.- Neuroscience and Psychology.- Industrial Engineering and Human Factors.- Marketing/Advertising.- Computer Science.- Conclusion.
Book
Despite the availability of cheap, fast, accurate and usable eye trackers, there is still little information available on how to develop, implement and use these systems. This second edition of Andrew Duchowski's successful guide to these systems contains significant additional material on the topic and fills this gap in the market with this accessible and comprehensive introduction. Opening with useful background information, including an introduction to the human visual system and key issues in visual perception and eye movement, the second part surveys eye-tracking devices and provides a detailed introduction to the technical requirements necessary for installing a system and developing an application program. The book focuses on video-based, corneal-reflection eye trackers - the most widely available and affordable type of system, before closing with a look at a number of interesting and challenging applications in human factors, collaborative systems, virtual reality, marketing and advertising.
Visual impairment in children due to damage to the brain: clinics in developmental medicine
  • G Dutton
  • M Bax
Dutton, G., Bax, M.: Visual Impairment in Children due to Damage to the Brain: Clinics in Developmental Medicine. Clinics in Developmental Medicine, John Wiley & Sons (2010), https://books.google.pl/books?id=bM0sk\_-O6qAC