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STUDY ON IMPACT OF URBANIZATION AND RAPID URBAN EXPANSION IN JAVA AND JABODETABEK MEGACITY, INDONESIA

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... Amidst its continuing suburbanization process, agricultural land still remains in the peri-urban area of Jakarta even though its land area has declined from 61% to 52% of the total Jakarta peri-urban area (Pribadi et al., 2017). The rapid urbanization process experienced by Jakarta led to urban expansion and the emergence of suburbanization in suburban areas (Rustiadi & Panuju, 2002;Indraprahasta, 2013;Pravitasari, 2015;Pravitasari et al., 2018). These two processes caused the Jabodetabek area to lose 18,956 ha of agricultural land during the 1972-2005 period (Rustiadi et al., 2015). ...
... According to Pravitasari (2015) and Rustiadi et al. (2009), the conversion of rice fields was related to the suburbanization process. As mentioned earlier, massive conversions of rice fields to settlements occurred until the end of the 1990s, when the suburbanization process was at its highest rate. ...
... As shown in Fig. 7 and Table 2, despite a slowdown in the early 2000s, the conversion of lowland rice fields has experienced an upward trend in the last fifteen years. For -2010For -2015, the total area of the rice fields in JBMUR had decreased by 25,998 ha, 44,729 ha, and 59,391, respectively. Conversion of agricultural land as an impact of urbanization is unavoidable, but the urgency and magnitude of the conversion of rice fields in JBMUR are considered to threaten the existence of rice production centers that have been built with expensive investments in the last half-century. ...
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Rapid urbanization in Asian developing countries has led to large urban agglomerations called “megacities.” The Jakarta megacity keeps growing and has extended along a corridor linking Jakarta to the Bandung metropolitan area. The continuation of this urban expansion, which converts strategic rice fields, seems unstoppable, regardless of its adverse impacts. This paper had four aims: to describe the tendencies of urban physical expansion over the last four decades in the Jakarta megacity; to portray the pattern of changes in the total population and population density along the Jakarta-Bandung urban corridor; to define the potential impact of the emergence of the Jakarta-Bandung conurbation; to explore better approaches for future mega-urban regions. GIS and remote sensing techniques were employed to identify urban expansion and the conversion of rice fields. The results showed that conurbation accelerated after the development of a highway road linking Jakarta and Bandung, and the population and built-up areas along the corridor have grown much faster than the cores of the two metropolitan areas. Four factors have likely driven this urban expansion: ineffective government policies, private settlements and new town development, private industrial estate development, and infrastructure. A critical effect of the growth in the Jakarta megacity is the conversion of rice fields in the region that support the rice stock for Western Java. This study recommends new approaches to mega-urban governance in developing countries to avoid the inefficiency of scarce resources, including industrial estates and new town governance with reliable data systems and collaborative approaches.
... Java has been identified as the most populous island in the world; in fact, it is home to 56% of Indonesia's total population [1]. Although it only covers 6.9% of the country's land area, several main metropolitan areas of Indonesia are located on this island, including that of Jakarta (Jabodetabek), which serves as an economic center for national economic activities and is the capital city of Indonesia [2,3]. The mega-urbanization of Java is reflected in the spatial patterns of its urban population growth [4]. ...
... Some phenomena strengthened the spatial shift of the driving factors in explaining development level. Firstly, in recent decades, a massive paddy conversion has occurred in western Java, due to the higher rate of urbanization, especially in the northern part of western Java, than in other parts of the island [2,31]. Secondly, massive urbanization and agglomeration in western Java during the last two decades accelerated their GRDP and HDI. ...
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Although uneven regional development has long been an issue in Java, most parts of the territory experienced an increased level of development over the last two decades. Due to the variance in local background and spatial heterogeneity, the driving factors of the development level should, theoretically, vary over space. Therefore, in this study, we aim to investigate the local factors that influence the development level of Java’s regions. We used the spatiotemporal pattern analysis, ordinary least squares (OLS) regression, and geographically weighted regression (GWR), utilizing the regional development index as the predicted variable, and the social level, economy, infrastructure, land use, and environmental barriers as predictors. As per our results, it was found that the level of development in Java has improved over the past two decades. Metropolitan areas continued to lead this improvement. All the predictors that we examined significantly affected regional development. However, the spatial pattern of the local regression coefficients of Human Development Index (HDI), landslide, paddy conversion, and crime shifted due to changes in the spatial concentration of development activities.
... As in the Jabodetabek area, the process of land conversion has occurred so rapidly in the last few decades due to the influence of the urban development of DKI Jakarta (Pravitasari, 2015;Rustiadi and Retno, 1999). According to Kurnianti et al. (2016), Changes in land use in the Jabodetabek area are very dynamic, the increasing need for residential land has converted a lot of agricultural lands. ...
... The results of land alignment analysis based on land capability can be taken into consideration for planners to determine land use in an area (Rustiadi et al., 2009). One analysis that can be carried out is to see the difference in land capacity based on the carrying capacity of an area, namely by comparing the alignment of land cover to land capacity, the data used is data from two land cover in the same year with the same difference can be found using the table or percentage using a comparison matrix (Pravitasari, 2015) The use of GIS in conducting land use analysis is carried out by overlaying data with projections of land cover in 2035 based on trend scenarios and the application of the Bogor Regency Spatial Planning Policy (RTRW) with the results of land capability analysis. The analysis shows that there are differences in land capacity based on land cover. ...
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The Puncak area is administratively located in Bogor Regency, West Java Province. Its function has been designated as an area to support the ecological sustainability of the Megacity Jakarta area, which is the capital of the Republic of Indonesia. So that land use based on its land capability is very important to pay attention to in managing this area. The main objective of this research is to analyze the comparison between the land cover alignment in 2035 from the results of the trend scenario with the land alignment in 2035 from the RTRW policy scenario based on land capability. This research method consists of three stages, namely the first stage interpreting satellite imagery using a Geographic Information System (GIS), the second stage by carrying out land cover projections in 2035 based on trend scenarios and RTRW policy scenarios using Artificial Neural Network (ANN), the third stage by doing Comparison of the alignment of land cover in 2035 from scenario results based on land capability. The results of this study indicate that there are differences in land use harmony, namely based on the results of the trend scenario cover, there are 1126 hectares in accordance with the land capacity and 6942 hectares, while the land use and from the projections of land cover policies based on regional spatial planning (RTRW) Bogor Regency is in accordance with the land capacity of 12589 hectares, while those that are not suitable are 5779 hectares.
... Therefore, cities are responsible for reducing GHG emissions, both emissions that have been generated and emissions that will come. Due to uncontrolled urbanization in Indonesia, particularly in Java, environmental degradation has been occurring very rapidly and causing many problems [3]. High development activities have placed Indonesia as one of the world's third emitting countries, especially emissions from deforestation and degradation of forests and peatlands [4][5][6][7][8][9][10]. ...
... This study shows that the phenomenon of urbanization and urban development in Salatiga City is in line with the decrease in carbon stocks which will have an impact on global climate change. This is supported by several previous studies [3,14,34,35]. The researches reveal that the urbanization process occurs rapidly in the open space area and the dominance of new public infrastructure investment because the demand for land increases as a result of high population growth and development activities. ...
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Previous research has not discussed about the prediction method of carbon stock changes using open-source software. This research aims to fill the gap by using QGIS as open-source software in. The method used is Support Vector Machine and Cellular Automata, which is only found in QGIS software, including QGIS 3.8.0 and QGIS 2.18.24 with Pip-Python 3. The results show that SVM and Cellular Automata algorithms in QGIS software successfully predicted land cover in the context of carbon stock change. This study shows the prediction of carbon stock changes due to land cover conversion in Salatiga City for the period 2019-2029 decreased by 9,202.77 tons C, where carbon emission was 10,313.47 tons C and carbon sequestration was 1,110.70 tons C. The prediction of carbon stock changes in Salatiga City is needed to reference local governments to formulate mitigation and adaptation efforts to global climate change.
... Rapid urbanization in Greater Jakarta has resulted in the existence of squatters inhabiting slum areas spread that have out in the city (Andrea, 2015) 1) . The existence of these squatters, which mostly live in the riverside area of Ciliwung River, which is one of the largest river systems in Indonesia and is considered one of the most polluted rivers in the world. ...
... Almost every day, the residents in Kampung Pulo passes through that alley and met other residents who stand by at their shop or those who were stopping there. Even though most of them were spending time inside their house or on the front porch (1) , they still managed to have Urban and Regional Planning Review Vol. 8,2021 | 2 a little conversation with some residents who were passing by or hanging out together in the alley or the other residents' stall. ...
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The rapid urbanization of Greater Jakarta has resulted in the existence of slum areas. Some of them were inhabited along the riverside and were purged by the Governments in order to prevent a flood. Residents of the settlements were then relocated to the high-rise low-cost public housing named Rusunawa Jatinegara Barat. Literature and previous studies have stated that high-rise settlements pose problems for its residents, and social interaction was one of them. Physical factor also plays an essential role in this problem. For example, the social interaction of upper-floor residents might be different compared to that of lower-floor residents. This research aims to study changes after relocation and the pattern difference of social interaction between upper- and lower-residents. The research will be done through quantitative analysis using Wilcoxon test to show the significant changes after relocation and later a Chi-square test in order to see whether there were any significant differences in terms of social interaction between the upper-floor and lower-floor residents. From this study, first, it was discovered that in the case of Rusunawa Jatinegara Barat, the frequency of visiting neighbors was the most significant change after the relocation. Second, there were several significant pattern differences in social interaction between upper- and lower-floor residents including the frequency of having interaction, the location of where residents spend their free time and have social interaction, and perception of the number of friends.
... Urbanization is considered as the most significant anthropogenic process of social transformation from traditional rural societies to modern urban communities (Pravitasari, 2015). Compared to the rural areas, the facilities of employment, health treatment, higher education, trade and commerce, and proximity of administration and government offices are remarkable in urban areas. ...
... One of the causes of biodiversity loss is the reduced habitat for wildlife habitat [10]. Indonesia, especially in Java, is experiencing a phenomenon of land use / cover changes (LUCC) due to urbanization which is characterized by a large reduction in land area for forests as well as agricultural land (fertile rice fields) [11]. ...
... Jakarta is the capital of Indonesia, which has experienced rapid urbanization and the extensive transformation of vegetative green spaces into impermeable urban surfaces [35][36][37][38]. Urbanization in Jakarta is driven by several factors, including its strategic political and economic position as the capital city where important activities like the functions of the national government, education, manufacturing, and commerce are taking place [39]. ...
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Urbanization is changing land use–land cover (LULC) transforming green spaces (GS) and bodies of water into built-up areas. LULC change is affecting ecosystem services (ES) in urban areas, such as by decreasing of the water retention capacity, the urban temperature regulation capacity and the carbon sequestration. The relation between LULC change and ES is still poorly examined and quantified using actual field data. In most ES studies, GS is perceived as lumped areas instead of distributed areas, implicitly ignoring landscape patterns (LP), such as connectivity and aggregation. This preliminary study is one of the first to provide quantitative evidence of the influence of landscape pattern changes on a selection of urban ecosystem services in a megacity as Jakarta, Indonesia. The impact of urbanization on the spatiotemporal changes of ES has been identified by considering connectivity and aggregation of GS. It reveals that LP changes have significantly decreased carbon sequestration, temperature regulation, and runoff regulation by 10.4, 12.4, and 11.5%, respectively. This indicates that the impact of GS on ES is not only determined by its area, but also by its LP. Further detailed studies will be needed to validate these results.
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This study tried to assess and monitor the spatiotemporal dynamics of urban sprawl and its growth pattern in Bahir Dar, Northwest Ethiopia for the last three and half decades (1984 – 2019). Supervised maximum likelihood technique has been used to map the land use land cover of Bahir Dar from 1984 to 2019 using Landsat TM and OLI datasets. Post classification comparison, spatial landscape metrics, and Shannon’s entropy index were used to detect changes in land use land cover, investigate the complex spatiotemporal dynamics and degree of urban sprawl. Findings of this study indicated that in the study periods, the built-up area increased at the expanse of cropland and forest. The values of Shannon’s entropy index were scaled from 0.45 to 0.74 between 1984 and 2019. Spatial metrics analysis was also computed using CA (261–2566), NP (371 – 3576), PD (1.74 – 9.72), LPI (12−52), ED (7.09 – 46.77) and FRAC-AM (1.12 – 1.25); indicated the existence of sprawl with high dispersion and heterogeneity which gradually expanded from central business district (CBD) to the periphery. The rapid urban expansion which in turn results in urban sprawl has various socio-economic and environmental consequences if sustainable urban planning and management policies are not properly prepared and utilized. The study can enable to devise proper policies and strategies for effective utilization of resources and allocation of infrastructure by controlling improper enforcement of land use.
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In many countries where the economy has shifted from mainly agricultural to industrial, abandoned agricultural lands are lost to urbanization. For more than 4 centuries the Puerto Rican economy depended almost entirely on agriculture, but sociopolitical changes early in the 20th century resulted in a shift to industry. This shift in the economy, and an increase in population, has resulted in an increase in urban areas. This study describes the rate and distribution of urban growth on the island of Puerto Rico from 1977 to 1994 and the resulting influence on potential agricultural lands. Urban extent and growth were determined by interpreting aerial photographs and satellite imagery. The 1994 urban coverage was combined with a soil coverage based on agricultural potential to determine the distribution of urban areas relative to potential farmlands. Analyses showed that in 1977, 11.3% of Puerto Rico was classified as urban. After 17 years, urban areas had increased by 27.4% and urban growth on soils suitable for agriculture had increased by 41.6%. This represents a loss of 6% of potential agricultural lands. If this pattern of encroachment by urban growth into potential farmlands continues, Puerto Rico’s potential for food production in the future could be greatly limited.
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In this book, an interdisciplinary research group of faculty members, researchers, professionals, and planners contributed to an understanding of the dynamics and dimensions of emerging challenges and risks in megacities in the rapidly changing urban environments in Asia and examined emerging resilience themes from the point of view of sustainability and public policy. The world’s urban population in 2009 was approximately 3.4 billion and Asia’s urban population was about 1.72 billion. Between 2010 and 2020, 411 million people will be added to Asian cities (60% of the growth in the world’s urban population). By 2020, of the world’s urban population of 4.2 billion, approximately 2.2 billion will be in Asia. China and India will contribute 31.3% of the total world urban population by 2025. Developing Asia’s projected global share of CO2 emissions from energy consumption will increase from 30% in 2006 to 43% by 2030. City regions serve as magnets for people, enterprise, and culture, but with urbanisation, the worst form of visible poverty becomes prominent. The Asian region, with a slum population of an estimated 505.5 million people, remains host to over half of the world’s slum population. The book provides information on a comprehensive range of environmental threats faced by the inhabitants of megacities. It also offers a wide range of case studies with transdisciplinary approach to rapidly growing megacities (with populations of more than 5 million) from developed and developing countries of Asia.
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