Sahandinone (1), 12-deoxysalvipisone (2), miltirone (3), 7α-acetoxyroyleanone (4), and labda-7,14-dien-13-ol (5) were isolated from the roots of Salvia rhytidea Benth. (Lamiaceae). Their structures were elucidated by a combination of spectroscopic analyses including EIMS and NMR. The 13C NMR spectroscopic data were revised for the quaternary carbons of both 1 and 3 with the help of HMBC spectra in respect to the spectral data previously reported in the literature. Compounds 1 and 3, two very potent anticancer agents, were isolated in high yields from the roots of the plant. The biological activities of the plants’ constituents were reported in the literature as antimicrobial, cytotoxic and antimalarial are discussed in this article.The major anticancer agents from Salvia rhytidea.