Article

The scope of fisheries learning exchanges for conservation

If you want to read the PDF, try requesting it from the authors.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... Study tours, also known as learning exchanges, are used when the goal of the knowledge exchange is for stakeholders from different communities to gather and share experiences. Learning exchanges have become particularly popular within the field of fisheries management (Jenkins et al., 2017); these have been recently termed "fisheries learning exchanges" (FLEs) by some researchers and practitioners (Jenkins et al., 2017;Thompson et al., 2017aThompson et al., , 2017b. ...
... Study tours, also known as learning exchanges, are used when the goal of the knowledge exchange is for stakeholders from different communities to gather and share experiences. Learning exchanges have become particularly popular within the field of fisheries management (Jenkins et al., 2017); these have been recently termed "fisheries learning exchanges" (FLEs) by some researchers and practitioners (Jenkins et al., 2017;Thompson et al., 2017aThompson et al., , 2017b. ...
... Fisheries learning exchanges as a form of knowledge exchange FLEs are considered to be highly effective, and are credited as integral in the diffusion and adoption of fisheries management strategies (Cooke et al., 2014;Ferse et al., 2010;Garrett, MacMullen and Symes, 2012;Heyman and Stronza, 2011;Pietri et al., 2009;Ramirez-Sanchez and Pinkerton, 2009). An FLE can be defined as a gathering in which fisheries stakeholders exchange information, experiences and/or lessons learned for the improvement of resource management in the communities involved (Jenkins et al., 2017). Exchanging knowledge within fisheries is important because fishers' knowledge differs based on their respective experiences (Johannes, Freeman and Hamilton, 2000;Turner, Polunin and Stead, 2014). ...
... Study tours, also known as learning exchanges, are used when the goal of the knowledge exchange is for stakeholders from different communities to gather and share experiences. Learning exchanges have become particularly popular within the field of fisheries management (Jenkins et al., 2017); these have been recently termed "fisheries learning exchanges" (FLEs) by some researchers and practitioners (Jenkins et al., 2017;Thompson et al., 2017aThompson et al., , 2017b. ...
... Study tours, also known as learning exchanges, are used when the goal of the knowledge exchange is for stakeholders from different communities to gather and share experiences. Learning exchanges have become particularly popular within the field of fisheries management (Jenkins et al., 2017); these have been recently termed "fisheries learning exchanges" (FLEs) by some researchers and practitioners (Jenkins et al., 2017;Thompson et al., 2017aThompson et al., , 2017b. ...
... Fisheries learning exchanges as a form of knowledge exchange FLEs are considered to be highly effective, and are credited as integral in the diffusion and adoption of fisheries management strategies (Cooke et al., 2014;Ferse et al., 2010;Garrett, MacMullen and Symes, 2012;Heyman and Stronza, 2011;Pietri et al., 2009;Ramirez-Sanchez and Pinkerton, 2009). An FLE can be defined as a gathering in which fisheries stakeholders exchange information, experiences and/or lessons learned for the improvement of resource management in the communities involved (Jenkins et al., 2017). Exchanging knowledge within fisheries is important because fishers' knowledge differs based on their respective experiences (Johannes, Freeman and Hamilton, 2000;Turner, Polunin and Stead, 2014). ...
Chapter
Full-text available
The yellow clam fishery in Uruguay provides a longstanding case study of co-management in small-scale fisheries. This paper employs a participatory approach to examine the co-management experience in the yellow clam fishery and distill numerous lessons for implementing the Voluntary Guidelines for Securing Sustainable Small-Scale Fisheries in the Context of Food Security and Poverty Eradication (SSF Guidelines). There were three main findings in the study. First, from the perspective of the fishers, co-management has proven successful in advancing gender equity, human rights and subjective well-being within the fishery, which align with the SSF Guidelines. Second, co-management is likely most effective at achieving the goals of the SSF Guidelines when it is accompanied by wide-scale structural changes in legislation and efforts to improve its coherence across areas of jurisdiction. Third, the nature and rate of socio-economic and ecological change currently being experienced – and which is expected to continue – requires a significant amount of flexibility in co-management arrangements in order for them to deliver on the intended outcomes of the SSF Guidelines. These findings help further the implementation of the SSF Guidelines through co-management in the yellow clam fishery, and serve as a learning platform for scaling up good practices to other small-scale fisheries of Uruguay. Additionally, the findings can also be applied in other regions dealing with similar issues in the management and governance of small-scale fisheries.
... Study tours, also known as learning exchanges, are used when the goal of the knowledge exchange is for stakeholders from different communities to gather and share experiences. Learning exchanges have become particularly popular within the field of fisheries management (Jenkins et al., 2017); these have been recently termed "fisheries learning exchanges" (FLEs) by some researchers and practitioners (Jenkins et al., 2017;Thompson et al., 2017aThompson et al., , 2017b. ...
... Study tours, also known as learning exchanges, are used when the goal of the knowledge exchange is for stakeholders from different communities to gather and share experiences. Learning exchanges have become particularly popular within the field of fisheries management (Jenkins et al., 2017); these have been recently termed "fisheries learning exchanges" (FLEs) by some researchers and practitioners (Jenkins et al., 2017;Thompson et al., 2017aThompson et al., , 2017b. ...
... Fisheries learning exchanges as a form of knowledge exchange FLEs are considered to be highly effective, and are credited as integral in the diffusion and adoption of fisheries management strategies (Cooke et al., 2014;Ferse et al., 2010;Garrett, MacMullen and Symes, 2012;Heyman and Stronza, 2011;Pietri et al., 2009;Ramirez-Sanchez and Pinkerton, 2009). An FLE can be defined as a gathering in which fisheries stakeholders exchange information, experiences and/or lessons learned for the improvement of resource management in the communities involved (Jenkins et al., 2017). Exchanging knowledge within fisheries is important because fishers' knowledge differs based on their respective experiences (Johannes, Freeman and Hamilton, 2000;Turner, Polunin and Stead, 2014). ...
Chapter
Full-text available
This paper presents a case study of the Rupa Lake watershed, where a bottom-up approach to fisheries management was adopted through the formation of the Rupa Lake Restoration and Fisheries Cooperative. The cooperative introduced a fisheries management system based on participation, engagement and inclusiveness that helped restore the lake and its fisheries. The system was designed to be inclusive and to distribute benefits among communities living both up- and downstream from the lake, thus helping ensure the necessary buy-in and behaviour change across diverse stakeholder groups. To collect data on cooperative’s contribution to lake and fisheries restoration, and socioeconomic changes in the area, we employed a range of social research methods such as Focus Group Discussion (FGD), Key Informant Surveys (KIS), Direct Observations and review of secondary information. At the core of the discussions we contextualized the human rights-based approach (HRBA) to development and Voluntary Guidelines for Securing Sustainable Small-Scale Fisheries connecting Food Security and Poverty Eradication (SSF Guidelines). Results indicate that households were satisfied with the efforts of the cooperative in promoting lake restoration, increasing fishery production and fishing incomes, and in supporting development activities including education and loans to modernize traditional farming methods in catchment areas. A majority of respondents agreed that inclusive rights-based governance contributed to socio-economic improvements, implying that such an approach to sustainable development for fisheries can be applied elsewhere. The results also confirm that the HRBA and democratic practices adopted by the cooperative succeeded in engaging the people and ensuring the benefits were shared among them. In summary, the keys to success of the cooperative include inclusion and fair representation, empowerment of marginalized communities, transparent governance, and equity in benefit- and burden-sharing. However, some grievances were also reported by certain communities. Thus, potential conflict is likely in the future if proactive management and governance are not properly pursued.
... Learning exchanges in the field of natural resource management allow stakeholders to share information and experiences regarding best practices, with the goal of replicating those practices and improving conservation efforts [1][2][3][4][5][6]. Learning exchanges have been increasingly used by non-governmental organizations (NGOs), government agencies, managers, and scientists to improve fisheries management strategies, particularly in the last decade [7]. Fisheries learning exchanges (FLEs) bring together fisheries stakeholders to exchange information for the improvement of resource management and the communities involved [7]. ...
... Learning exchanges have been increasingly used by non-governmental organizations (NGOs), government agencies, managers, and scientists to improve fisheries management strategies, particularly in the last decade [7]. Fisheries learning exchanges (FLEs) bring together fisheries stakeholders to exchange information for the improvement of resource management and the communities involved [7]. NGOs, government agencies, and resource users consider them to be important tools in the adoption of successful marine conservation strategies [2,4,[8][9][10][11]. ...
... The authors drew the guidelines presented in this paper from data collection efforts connected to a workshop organized by two authors (Jenkins and Peckham) in May 2013 entitled Fishermen Learning Exchange for Conservation: An Examination of Lessons Learned (FLExCELL), which was hosted and sponsored by the National Socio-Environmental Synthesis Center (SESYNC) and attended by an international group of FLE organizers and participants [7,22]. ...
... General education about MSE should ideally be separated from an immediate decision-making context or a particular MSE application, so that stakeholders can become comfortable with the steps involved in the process without the pressure of decisions that potentially affect livelihoods (Table 6; Jenkins et al. 2017). The herring example highlighted that improved education about MSE concepts external to the MSE process would have been extremely useful, especially given the limited time frame available to organize and implement the MSE (Table 2). ...
... Conversely, MSE allows for proactive involvement of stakeholders in the management process. Fundamental to a successful MSE is developing a sense of mutual problem-solving and creating avenues for mutual learning among scientists and stakeholders (Berkes 2009;Jenkins et al. 2017), which produces active trust through discourse and transparency (Table 5; de Vos and van Tatenhove 2011;Rockmann et al. 2012). Scientists involved in the MSE process must commit to listening to and understanding stakeholder needs and perspectives, as well as answering all technical questions as clearly, honestly, and with as minimal jargon as possible (Rockmann et al. 2012). ...
Article
Full-text available
Management strategy evaluation (MSE) is a simulation-based approach to examine the efficacy of management options in achieving fishery-, ecosystem-, and socioeconomic-related objectives while integrating over system uncertainties. As a form of structured decision analysis, MSE is amenable to stakeholder involvement, which can reduce implementation barriers associated with non-transparent decision-making procedures. Based on analysis of three MSE processes (Atlantic tunas, Atlantic herring, and eastern oysters), we provide suggestions for improving stakeholder engagement in MSE. By assembling a workgroup and modeling team with diverse backgrounds, including professional facilitators, communication liaisons, and social scientists, dialogue can be improved and an atmosphere of mutual learning fostered. Communication further benefits from clearly defining roles, responsibilities, and terms of engagement for all involved; explicitly and transparently identifying goals and objectives of the MSE before modeling has begun; and, when appropriate, revisiting goals and objectives throughout the MSE process. Although MSEs are not without limitations, the participatory modeling framework, wherein stakeholders are actively engaged at each stage of MSE development, provides a useful mechanism to support fisheries management.
... Given the strong cultural importance of sea turtles in Japan, Hawaii, and Mexico combined with strong interest in loggerheads' transpacific migrations [24], the authors hypothesized in 2006 that producing a trinational FLE could be highly effective for enabling fishers, conservationists, and managers to share bycatch problems and co-develop lasting mitigation solutions. In part as a result of this FLE, the authors and others have come to recognize FLEs as a practical, widely applicable tool for improving management of fisheries and fisher participation [14,38]. ...
... The authors produced the trinational loggerhead FLE with the objective of reducing loggerhead bycatch mortality. To do so, The authors united a diverse delegation from each country to follow the migration route of the loggerhead turtle, the configuration described as a reciprocal FLE [14]. The authors organized workshops, symposia, fishing, and cultural activities during each phase of the FLE in Japan, Hawaii, and Mexico in order to achieve the following outputs: 1) Key leaders from all three countries gain a pan-Pacific conservation perspective by witnessing the decline of nesting of the loggerhead turtle in Japan; 2) Key leaders share information on bycatch problems and potential solutions in each country; 3) Participants and their peers are inspired and empowered to reduce bycatch mortality by sharing FLE results and experiences. ...
... In addition, the gerontocratic systems still present within fishing organizations limited participation of young people in decision-making processes, hindering the integration of innovative fishing practices (Zepeda-Domínguez and Espinoza-Tenorio 2018) or bidirectional learning. Under these circumstances, activities designed to foster exchanges among fishers are particularly important because they provide opportunities for fishers to share the lessons, knowledge, and skills they have acquired while exploring new ideas that will allow them to learn, adapt, and strengthen their understanding (Jenkins et al. 2017). Although there is a lack of interest in formal education, learning from experience and the information that is connected through different contexts is valued by young fishers. ...
Article
Full-text available
The path to sustainable small-scale fisheries (SSF) is based on multiple learning processes that must transcend generational changes. To understand young leaders from communities with sustainable SSF management practices in Mexico, we used in-depth interviews to identify their shared motivations and perceptions for accepting their fishing heritage. These possible future decision-makers act as agents of change due to their organizational and technological abilities. However, young people are currently at a crossroads. Many inherited a passion for the sea and want to improve and diversify the fishing sector, yet young leaders do not want to accept a legacy of complicated socioenvironmental conditions that can limit their futures. These future leaders are especially concerned by the uncertainty caused by climate change. If fishing and generational change are not valued in planning processes, the continuity of fisheries, the success of conservation actions, and the lifestyles of young fishers will remain uncertain. Graphical abstract
... Although the fisheries described in the case studies have not yet fully implemented multispecies fisheries management, they are each on a pathway toward that end. Several approaches are introduced in the case studies that are advancing multispecies management, including networks for communication and capacity building (e.g., learning networks, fisher exchanges; Jenkins et al., 2017), community-based fishery monitoring, bioeconomic modeling, leadership and women fisher development programs, recognition and use of traditional ecological knowledge, and the fish baskets approach ( Table 2). ...
Article
Full-text available
Fish live in communities, and most fisheries catch multiple species, yet fishery management predominately focuses on single species. In many multispecies fisheries, a variety of species are generally caught together at similar rates. Failure to account for this adequately in management has resulted in serial depletion and alterations to the ecosystem. Ideally, multispecies fisheries management should strive to produce good yields from specific valuable stocks and avoid adverse impacts of fishing on marine ecosystems. Moreover, multispecies management should aim to build resilience to changes in stock productivity and distribution driven by climate change. Here, we present tools and pathways that seven fisheries are adopting to achieve these goals. These case studies – from Mexico, Cuba, and Chile – differ in data richness, governance structure, and management resources. The management systems are also in various stages of evolution from unmanaged to complete management of a single species but transitioning to multispecies management. While various analytical tools and decision-making processes are described in the case studies, a common feature is the use of participatory stakeholder processes to build capacity and socialize the importance of multispecies management. We use lessons from these cases to recommend a multispecies management approach to overcome the limitations of current practices (typically single-species catch limits or large spatial restrictions), using the participatory processes and data-limited assessments to create stock complexes that simplify multispecies management (i.e., the “fish baskets” approach). Indicator species for each fish basket are identified to support the development of fishery performance indicators, reference values, harvest control rules, and management measures to create an adaptive management cycle to enhance the fishery’s resilience to impacts induced by climate change and other factors.
... Consultees cited that face-to-face education with sector peers can hold more resonance than education provided by the MPA proponents or supporting researchers. Such learning exchanges do not appear overly common, although use has increased markedly (mainly in the Americas) over the last 10-15 years, from only a few per year to close to 20 in 2013 (Lekelia et al, 2017). ...
Technical Report
Full-text available
EU publications Study on the economic benefits of MPAs and SPMs Abridged version of the final report - Study Publication metadata This report provides an introduction to the different ways in which the blue economy can benefit from marine protected areas (MPAs) and other spatial protection measures (SPMs), providing success stories from across Europe and across multiple sectors. It demonstrates that there is a broad set of potential benefits and ways in which these can be delivered that are little documented. It draws out key governance and management actions that support the sustainable realisation of benefits and foster support for MPAs and SPMs. There are 5 reports in total which can be accessed online
... can do so with their allocation, allowing innovation without establishing a political 69 consensus for any particular change (Jenkins et al. 2017). The Multispecies fishery has 70 seen improvements in economic outcomes ( regulators. ...
Article
Full-text available
Traditional co-management of common property resources involves stakeholders contributing knowledge and ideas about rules for access and extraction, which are analyzed and implemented by the regulator. We examine an emerging alternative system, in which self-identifying clubs of users are allocated a share of a total allowable extraction, that they manage with considerable autonomy. When multiple clubs concurrently extract under different self-selected rules, users gravitate toward more profitable regulations in subsequent seasons, putting evolutionary pressure on less profitable systems. We show experimentally that strong individual property rights, and the efficiencies associated with them, emerge endogenously from this process. A taste for competition among some individuals limits realized efficiency, but not extensive adoption of individual rights. Thus, regulators need not directly implement strong individual rights to achieve their benefits; regulators may instead assign a collective property right and provide a self-governance pathway toward management that supports better outcomes.
... Payments for environmental service (PES) programs were originally designed to provide external financial rewards for engaging in stewardship (Wunder 2007), thus targeting extrinsic motivations, though PES programs are becoming more nuanced in how they are designed to match a variety of local motivations (Rode et al. 2016). Some stewardship programs focus on building stewardship networks, at times introducing new actors or organizations to facilitate these processes (Kowalski and Jenkins 2015;Jenkins et al. 2017). Sustainable livelihoods programs aim to build local capacity for environmental stewardship (Cattermoul et al. 2008;Bennett 2010). ...
Preprint
Full-text available
There has been increasing attention to and investment in local environmental stewardship in conservation and environmental management policies and programs globally. Yet environmental stewardship has not received adequate conceptual attention. Establishing a clear definition and comprehensive analytical framework could strengthen our ability to understand the factors that lead to the success or failure of environmental stewardship in different contexts and how to most effectively support and enable local efforts. Here we propose such a definition and framework. First, we define local environmental stewardship as the actions taken by individuals, groups or networks of actors, with various motivations and levels of capacity, to protect, care for or responsibly use the environment in pursuit of environmental and/or social outcomes in diverse social–ecological contexts. Next, drawing from a review of the environmental stewardship, management and governance literatures, we unpack the elements of this definition to develop an analytical framework that can facilitate research on local environmental stewardship. Finally, we discuss potential interventions and leverage points for promoting or supporting local stewardship and future applications of the framework to guide descriptive, evaluative, prescriptive or systematic analysis of environmental stewardship. Further application of this framework in diverse environmental and social contexts is recommended to refine the elements and develop insights that will guide and improve the outcomes of environmental stewardship initiatives and investments. Ultimately, our aim is to raise the profile of environmental stewardship as a valuable and holistic concept for guiding productive and sustained relationships with the environment.
... Payments for environmental service (PES) programs were originally designed to provide external financial rewards for engaging in stewardship (Wunder 2007), thus targeting extrinsic motivations, though PES programs are becoming more nuanced in how they are designed to match a variety of local motivations (Rode et al. 2016). Some stewardship programs focus on building stewardship networks, at times introducing new actors or organizations to facilitate these processes (Kowalski and Jenkins 2015;Jenkins et al. 2017). Sustainable livelihoods programs aim to build local capacity for environmental stewardship (Cattermoul et al. 2008;Bennett 2010). ...
Article
Full-text available
There has been increasing attention to and investment in local environmental stewardship in conservation and environmental management policies and programs globally. Yet environmental stewardship has not received adequate conceptual attention. Establishing a clear definition and comprehensive analytical framework could strengthen our ability to understand the factors that lead to the success or failure of environmental stewardship in different contexts and how to most effectively support and enable local efforts. Here we propose such a definition and framework. First, we define local environmental stewardship as the actions taken by individuals, groups or networks of actors, with various motivations and levels of capacity, to protect, care for or responsibly use the environment in pursuit of environmental and/or social outcomes in diverse social-ecological contexts. Next, drawing from a review of the environmental stewardship, management and governance literatures, we unpack the elements of this definition to develop an analytical framework that can facilitate research on local environmental stewardship. Finally, we discuss potential interventions and leverage points for promoting or supporting local stewardship and future applications of the framework to guide descriptive, evaluative, prescriptive or systematic analysis of environmental stewardship. Further application of this framework in diverse environmental and social contexts is recommended to refine the elements and develop insights that will guide and improve the outcomes of environmental stewardship initiatives and investments. Ultimately, our aim is to raise the profile of environmental stewardship as a valuable and holistic concept for guiding productive and sustained relationships with the environment.
Article
Full-text available
The literature on ecosystem management and assessment is increasingly focusing on social capacity to enhance ecosystem resilience. Organizational flexibility, participatory approaches to learning, and knowledge generation for responding adequately to environmental change have been highlighted but not critically assessed. The small, flexible municipal organization, Ecomuseum Kristianstads Vattenrike (EKV) in southern Sweden, has identified win-win situations and gained broad support and legitimacy for ecosystem management among a diversity of actors in the region. Navigating the existing legal-political framework, EKV has built a loose social network of local stewards and key persons from organizations at municipal and higher societal levels. As a 'bridging organization', EKV has created arenas for trust-building, knowledge generation, collabo-rative learning, preference formation, and conflicts solving among actors in relation to specific environmental issues. Ad hoc projects are developed as issues arise by mobilizing individuals from the social network. Our results suggest that the EKV approach to adaptive comanagement has enhanced the social capacity to respond to unpredictable change and developed a trajectory towards resilience of a desirable social-ecological system.
Article
Full-text available
In order to strengthen biological and social success of community-based marine protected areas (MPAs) in the Philippines, many organizations have begun instituting MPA networks. In the Central Visayas Region, Coastal Conservation and Education Foundation and Fisheries for Improved Sustainable Harvest are implementing socioecological networking initiatives. Educational programs, employing diverse methods such as cross visits and community MPA monitoring, are integral components of these projects. This article analyzes the relationship between education, information diffusion, and standard measures of MPA success (e.g., MPA rule compliance and fish abundance) in communities participating in these networks. Surveys were conducted with 13 individuals per community in 36 communities. Statistical tests reveal that the presence of a clear MPA leader, participation in cross visits, and presence of community environmental education programs were the strongest predictors of social and biological MPA success. Formal education programs (e.g., management committee member trainings) independent of other processes did not demonstrate strong statistical relationships with MPA success. Overall, the findings of this study demonstrate the current and potential benefits and efficacy of education programs for communities in MPA networks. When linked to a strong infrastructure for information diffusion, education programs have the potential to increase both biological and social MPA success.
Article
Full-text available
This paper analyzes how social capital influences fisheries governance. Social capital is shown to play a crucial role in promoting trust and co-operation among fishers, and can reduce the ‘race to fish’. The effects of bonding, bridging and linking social capital are described in terms of six key aspects of fisheries governance and examined in terms of their ability to promote better fisheries management practices. The paper finds that a social capital view of fisheries governance suggests there should be a redirection in priorities and funding away from ‘top-down’ fisheries management towards ‘co-management’ with a focus on engendering rights and responsibilities for fishers and their communities.
Article
Full-text available
This article contributes to understanding about the potential and limitations of social learning for collaborative natural resource management. Participants in a deliberative planning process involving a state agency and local communities developed common purpose and collaborative relationships, two requisites of comanagement. Eight process characteristics fostered social learning: open communication, diverse participation, unrestrained thinking, constructive conflict, democratic structure, multiple sources of knowledge, extended engagement, and facilitation. Social learning is necessary but not sufficient for collaborative management. Other requisites for comanagement, including capacity, appropriate processes, appropriate structures, and supportive policies, are necessary to sustain joint action.
Article
Full-text available
Various management approaches have been proposed to address the alarming depletion of marine coastal resources. Prominent among them are community-based management and the establishment of marine protected areas (MPAs). The overall poor performance of MPAs can be traced to a failure to effectively include local communities in the design and implementation of relevant measures. Recent efforts have incorporated aspects of community-based management into a hybrid form of management, which ideally builds upon existing local management practices. A key challenge lies in the development of appropriate frameworks that allow for the successful participation of local communities in management. A review of studies on MPA design and community-based marine resource management and fieldwork observations provides suggestions on how to address current socioeconomic shortcomings in MPA design and implementation, successfully involving local communities in order to provide a better local basis for effective larger MPA networks. A combination of MPA tools as the formal frame and community-based natural resource management as the adaptive core that recognizes local communities as allies, not aliens, is needed to develop successful conservation approaches.
Article
Full-text available
There is a well-acknowledged communication or knowledge gap between scientists and decision-makers. Many scientists who take on the challenge of narrowing this gap operate on the understanding that their role is to communicate their findings in a one-way flow of information: from science to decision-makers. However, to be effective scientists must engage in an ongoing social learning process with decision-makers, and regard themselves as facilitators, and also as one among many stakeholders who have valid and important ecological knowledge. The developing world poses some particular challenges in this regard, specifically in terms of the large number of local level subsistence resources users who are important de facto decision-makers. We examine four natural resource management case studies from South Africa that differ in spatial scale and complexity, ranging from a single village to a whole biome. We distil seven lessons to help guide development of social learning processes and organizations in similar situations relating to natural resource planning and management. The lessons pertain to: maintaining ‘key individuals’ within social learning processes; the role of researchers; the formulation of research questions that social learning processes require adaptive long-term funding and capacity support; that local resource users are key decision-makers in developing countries; some perspectives on knowledge; and the need to measure research success.
Article
Full-text available
There are two broadly conceptualized ways in which conservation knowledge may evolve: the depletion crisis model and the ecological understanding model. The first one argues that developing conservation thought and practice depends on learning that resources are depletable. Such learning typically follows a resource crisis. The second mechanism emphasizes the development of conservation practices following the incremental elaboration of environmental knowledge by a group of people. These mechanisms may work together. Following a perturbation, a society can self-organize, learn and adapt. The self-organizing process, facilitated by knowledge development and learning, has the potential to increase the resilience (capability to absorb disturbance and reorganize while undergoing change) of resource use systems. Hence, conservation knowledge can develop through a combination of long-term ecological understanding and learning from crises and mistakes. It has survival value, as it increases the resilience of integrated social--ecological systems to deal with change in ways that continue to sustain both peoples and their environments.
Article
Full-text available
Ecotourism can be an incentive for conservation, especially when it triggers positive economic change. Yet it introduces many changes to communities:positive and negative, social and economic. The full range of change is seldom evaluated in direct relation to conservation at the local level. In this study of three Amazon ecotourism projects, local leaders discussed changes from ecotourism in their communities. Economic benefits were mentioned, but so were new restrictions on time, decreased reciprocity, and social conflict. Other changes included heightened self-esteem and greater community organization. Such shifts should be considered in relation to conservation as they affect the stability of local institutions and the prospects for long-term collective action for resource management.RésuméOpinions communautaires sur l’écotourisme. L’écotourisme peut motiver la conservation, surtout quand il déclenche des changements économiques positifs. Pourtant, les nombreux changements peuvent être positifs et négatifs, sociaux et économiques. La totalité de ces changements est rarement évaluée en relation directe à la conservation locale. Dans cette étude de trois projets écotouristiques en Amazonie, les leaders de la population locale ont mentionné les bénéfices économiques mais aussi les nouvelles restrictions sur le temps, la réciprocité diminuée et le conflit social. D’autres changements comprenaient un respect de soi accru et une meilleure organisation communautaire. On devrait considérer de tels retournements en relation à la conservation et leur effet sur la stabilité des institutions locales ainsi que les perspectives pour l’action collective pour la gestion des ressources à longue terme.
Article
Full-text available
One billion people depend on seafood as their primary source of protein and 25% of the world's total animal protein comes from fisheries. Yet a third of fish stocks worldwide are overexploited or depleted. Using individual case studies, many have argued that community-based co-management should prevent the tragedy of the commons because cooperative management by fishers, managers and scientists often results in sustainable fisheries. However, general and multidisciplinary evaluations of co-management regimes and the conditions for social, economic and ecological success within such regimes are lacking. Here we examine 130 co-managed fisheries in a wide range of countries with different degrees of development, ecosystems, fishing sectors and type of resources. We identified strong leadership as the most important attribute contributing to success, followed by individual or community quotas, social cohesion and protected areas. Less important conditions included enforcement mechanisms, long-term management policies and life history of the resources. Fisheries were most successful when at least eight co-management attributes were present, showing a strong positive relationship between the number of these attributes and success, owing to redundancy in management regulations. Our results demonstrate the critical importance of prominent community leaders and robust social capital, combined with clear incentives through catch shares and conservation benefits derived from protected areas, for successfully managing aquatic resources and securing the livelihoods of communities depending on them. Our study offers hope that co-management, the only realistic solution for the majority of the world's fisheries, can solve many of the problems facing global fisheries.
Article
Full-text available
Wildland fire management in the United States is caught in a rigidity trap, an inability to apply novelty and innovation in the midst of crisis. Despite wide recognition that public agencies should engage in ecological fire restoration, fire suppression still dominates planning and management, and restoration has failed to gain traction. The U.S. Fire Learning Network (FLN), a multiscalar collaborative endeavor established in 2002 by federal land management agencies and The Nature Conservancy, offers the potential to overcome barriers that inhibit restoration planning and management. By circulating people, planning products, and information among landscape- and regional-scale collaboratives, this network has facilitated the development and dissemination of innovative approaches to ecological fire restoration. Through experimentation and innovation generated in the network, the FLN has fostered change by influencing fire and land management plans as well as federal policy. We suggest that multiscalar collaborative planning networks such as the FLN can facilitate overcoming the rigidity traps that prevent resource management agencies from responding to complex cross-scalar problems.
Article
Full-text available
As human impacts cause ecosystem-wide changes in the oceans, the need to protect and restore marine resources has led to increasing calls for and establishment of marine reserves. Scientific information about marine reserves has multiplied over the last decade, providing useful knowledge about this tool for resource users, managers, policy makers, and the general public. This information must be conveyed to nonscientists in a nontechnical, credible, and neutral format, but most scientists are not trained to communicate in this style or to develop effective strategies for sharing their scientific knowledge. Here, we present a case study from California, in which communicating scientific information during the process to establish marine reserves in the Channel Islands and along the California mainland coast expanded into an international communication effort. We discuss how to develop a strategy for communicating marine reserve science to diverse audiences and highlight the influence that effective science communication can have in discussions about marine management.
Article
Full-text available
"Fishers often rely on their social capital to cope with resource fluctuations by sharing information on the abundance and location of fish. Drawing on research in seven coastal fishing communities in Loreto, Baja California Sur, Mexico, we examine the effect of resource scarcity on the bonding, bridging, and linking social-capital patterns of fishers information-sharing networks. We found that: (1) fishers information sharing is activated in response to varying ecological conditions; (2) resource scarcity is an ambiguous indicator of the extent to which fishers share information on the abundance and location of fish within and between communities; (3) information sharing is based on trust and occurs through kinship, friendship, and acquaintance social relations; (4) friendship ties play a key and flexible role in fishers social networks within and between communities; (5) overall, the composition of fishers social networks follows a friendship>kinship>acquaintance order of importance; and (6) the function of social ties, internal conflict, and settlement histories moderate the effects of resource scarcity on fishers social capital. We conclude by arguing that the livelihoods of fishers from Loreto have adaptive capacity for dealing with fish fluctuations but little or no proactive resilience to address resource-management issues."
Article
Full-text available
After a long history of overexploitation, increasing efforts to restore marine ecosystems and rebuild fisheries are under way. Here, we analyze current trends from a fisheries and conservation perspective. In 5 of 10 well-studied ecosystems, the average exploitation rate has recently declined and is now at or below the rate predicted to achieve maximum sustainable yield for seven systems. Yet 63% of assessed fish stocks worldwide still require rebuilding, and even lower exploitation rates are needed to reverse the collapse of vulnerable species. Combined fisheries and conservation objectives can be achieved by merging diverse management actions, including catch restrictions, gear modification, and closed areas, depending on local context. Impacts of international fleets and the lack of alternatives to fishing complicate prospects for rebuilding fisheries in many poorer regions, highlighting the need for a global perspective on rebuilding marine resources.
Article
Full-text available
Estuarine and coastal transformation is as old as civilization yet has dramatically accelerated over the past 150 to 300 years. Reconstructed time lines, causes, and consequences of change in 12 once diverse and productive estuaries and coastal seas worldwide show similar patterns: Human impacts have depleted >90% of formerly important species, destroyed >65% of seagrass and wetland habitat, degraded water quality, and accelerated species invasions. Twentieth-century conservation efforts achieved partial recovery of upper trophic levels but have so far failed to restore former ecosystem structure and function. Our results provide detailed historical baselines and quantitative targets for ecosystem-based management and marine conservation.
Article
Full-text available
Ecological extinction caused by overfishing precedes all other pervasive human disturbance to coastal ecosystems, including pollution, degradation of water quality, and anthropogenic climate change. Historical abundances of large consumer species were fantastically large in comparison with recent observations. Paleoecological, archaeological, and historical data show that time lags of decades to centuries occurred between the onset of overfishing and consequent changes in ecological communities, because unfished species of similar trophic level assumed the ecological roles of overfished species until they too were overfished or died of epidemic diseases related to overcrowding. Retrospective data not only help to clarify underlying causes and rates of ecological change, but they also demonstrate achievable goals for restoration and management of coastal ecosystems that could not even be contemplated based on the limited perspective of recent observations alone.
Book
Congratulations to H. Russell Bernard, who was recently elected as a member of the National Academy of Sciences"This book does what few others even attempt—to survey a wide range of systematic analytic approaches. I commend the authors for both their inclusiveness and their depth of treatment of various tasks and approaches." —Judith Preissle, University of Georgia "I appreciate the unpretentious tone of the book. The authors provide very clear instructions and examples of many different ways to collect and analyze qualitative data and make it clear that there is no one correct way to do it." —Cheryl Winsten-Bartlett, North Central University "The analytical methodologies are laid out very well, and I will definitely utilize the book with students regarding detailed information and steps to conduct systematic and rigorous data analysis." —Dorothy Aguilera, Lewis & Clark College This book introduces readers to systematic methods for analyzing qualitative data. Unlike other texts, it covers the extensive range of available methods so that readers become aware of the array of techniques beyond their individual disciplines. Part I is an overview of the basics. Part II comprises 11 chapters, each treating a different method for analyzing text. Real examples from the literature across the health and social sciences provide invaluable applied understanding.
Article
International conservation organisations have invested considerable resources in fostering biodiversity conservation programs in the humid tropics, the most biologically diverse areas on earth. Recent approaches to conservation have centered on integrated conservation and development projects and participatory resource management programs, co-managed between governments and local communities. But these programs have had only mixed success and often suffer from insufficient quantity or quality of participation by local communities. We pose that participatory resource management is more likely to succeed when community members, 1) gain a global perspective on how their social, economic and environmental conditions compare with peer communities in other similar areas of the world, and thus better understand issues of relative scarcity and the benefits of sustainable resource management, and 2) engage as decision-makers at every stage of the conservation process up to reflective program evaluation. This paper examines the role of South-South exchanges as a tool to achieve these intermediate goals that ultimately foster more effective and participatory conservation and support sustainable local livelihoods. The data are extracted from the initiatives of the authors in two different environments - marine and coastal communities in Central America and the Caribbean, and lowland rainforest communities in the western Amazon of South America. We conclude that the exchanges are effective ways to build stakeholder comprehension about, and meaningful engagement in, resource management. South-South exchanges may also help build multi-local coalitions from various remote areas that together support biodiversity conservation at regional and global scales.
Article
Experiential learning refers to contextually relevant knowledge acquired through "hands-on" problem solving, critical reflection, discussion, and decision-making. Experiential learning broadens, extends, and deepens the intellectual content of instruction by integrating theory and practice, increasing student motivation through the experience of applying knowledge, and encouraging students to develop their skills as independent scholars. In wildlife science there is growing recognition that wildlife professionals must retain basic theory and application of concepts while being capable of assimilating and critically processing information. In this paper we explore the role of experiential learning in helping students acquire these necessary skills and the mechanics of experiential learning. We describe the inherent benefits and limitations, lessons learned, assessment techniques, and recommendations for use. We also demonstrate how to incorporate experiential learning into a wildlife curriculum using a classroom concept from 2 Wildlife Techniques courses. Students responded favorably to experiential learning opportunities and rated these experiences highly. Although experiential learning might not be appropriate in all wildlife classes, if applied correctly it could improve retention, problem solving, and decision-making: skills necessary to succeed in wildlife management.
Article
The dominant discourse of fisheries science and management, bioeconomics, places the behavior of individual fishermen operating on an open-access commons at the center of its understanding of fisheries resources and the fishing industry. Within this discourse, fishermen are the sole actors and the fishery is the fixed stage for an inevitable ‘tragedy of the commons.’ Starting from these particular assumptions of both subject and space, bioeconomics proposes solutions to fisheries crisis that differ sharply from fishers’ perceptions of the resource and their desires for management. These divergent understandings of both the natural and social environments are reflected in the maps produced by fisheries scientists/managers and those produced by fishers themselves. Remapping fisheries in terms of fishers’ perceptions and scales of operation reveals diverse natural landscapes and communities in which the dominant discourse charted only quantities of fish and individual fishermen. The landscape of fishing communities, once made visible, suggests an opportunity for forms of area-based management that might facilitate community development rather than just individual prosperity.
Article
This paper critically considers the emerging idea of marine spatial planning as part of the wider debates associated with the social reconstruction of the marine environment and the rethinking around the conventional boundaries of land use planning. First, the paper seeks to define the contemporary understanding of the marine environmental agenda, following Hannigan's (1995) social constructionist perspective. Second, it traces the evolution of thinking towards the concept of marine spatial planning. This locates the discussion within the current European discourse of spatiality, and strategies for the conservation and sustainable development of the marine environment, together with the evolving ideas associated with the practical management of coastal areas. The argument presented here is that if as a society we are successfully to reconstruct a solution to the perceived marine problem then a paradigm shift is required in terms of how we socially reconstruct the problem. It argues that the current incremental extension of terrestrial land use planning controls over aspects of the marine environment, together with the advocacy of marine spatial planning, requires a much more critically robust theoretical understanding so as to encompass the rapidly changing agenda of change.
Article
This article reports on the Learning Exchange Programme (LEP) model of capacity building for Integrated Coastal Management (ICM) professionals. The LEP model of capacity building involves international group-based exchange visits during which a structured program of experiential learning events is undertaken to meet specific capacity gaps. An application of the LEP model in Japan and the United Kingdom is presented and evaluated, which shows that while refinements could be identified, a group-based, tailored exchange model focused on filling specific capacity gaps is an effective model of capacity building for ICM.
Article
Understanding the behaviour of fishermen is a key ingredient to successful fisheries management. The aggregate behaviour of fishing fleets can be predicted and managed with appropriate incentives. To determine appropriate incentives, we should look to successes to learn what works and what does not. In different fisheries incentive systems have been found to reduce the race-for-fish and make fisheries profitable, to stimulate stock rebuilding, to reduce bycatch, and to provide for reductions in illegal fishing. Yet, success can be evaluated in many dimensions, but is, in fact, rarely done – per cent overfished seems to be the dominant measure of performance. I evaluate the yield lost due to overfishing in several ecosystems and contrast the situation of North Atlantic cod where considerable yield is lost, to fisheries in New Zealand and the west coast of the USA where lost yield due to overfishing is very small. Much more systematic evaluation of the other aspects of fisheries performance is greatly needed. From examples explored in this paper I conclude that prevention of overfishing can be achieved with strong central governments enforcing conservative catch regulations, but economic success appears to require an appropriate incentive structure.
Article
Resent research has identified the existence of social networks as a common and important denominator in cases where different stakeholders have come together to effectively deal with natural resource problems and dilemmas. It has even been shown that social networks can be more important than the existence of formal institutions for effective enforcement and compliance with environmental regulations. However, all social networks are not created equal. On the contrary, the structural pattern of relations (i.e. the topology) of a social network can have significant impact on how actors actually behave. This clearly has implications for actors’ abilities to manage environmental challenges. This review aims to add more precision to initial insights and pending hypotheses about the positive impacts of social networks on governance processes and outcomes, by reviewing and synthesizing empirically based literature explicitly studying structural characteristics of social networks in natural resource governance settings. It is shown that significant differences in governance processes and outcomes can be expected among networks experiencing structural differences in terms of density of relations, degree of cohesiveness, subgroup interconnectivity, and degree of network centralization. Furthermore, the review shows that none of these structural characteristics present a monotonically increasing positive effect on processes of importance for resource governance, and that favoring one characteristic likely occurs at the expense of another. Thus, assessing the most favorable level and mix of different network characteristics, where most of the positive governance effects are obtained while undesired effects are minimized, presents a key research and governance challenge.
Book
Most writing on sociological method has been concerned with how accurate facts can be obtained and how theory can thereby be more rigorously tested. In The Discovery of Grounded Theory, Barney Glaser and Anselm Strauss address the equally Important enterprise of how the discovery of theory from data--systematically obtained and analyzed in social research--can be furthered. The discovery of theory from data--grounded theory--is a major task confronting sociology, for such a theory fits empirical situations, and is understandable to sociologists and laymen alike. Most important, it provides relevant predictions, explanations, interpretations, and applications. In Part I of the book, "Generation Theory by Comparative Analysis," the authors present a strategy whereby sociologists can facilitate the discovery of grounded theory, both substantive and formal. This strategy involves the systematic choice and study of several comparison groups. In Part II, The Flexible Use of Data," the generation of theory from qualitative, especially documentary, and quantitative data Is considered. In Part III, "Implications of Grounded Theory," Glaser and Strauss examine the credibility of grounded theory. The Discovery of Grounded Theory is directed toward improving social scientists' capacity for generating theory that will be relevant to their research. While aimed primarily at sociologists, it will be useful to anyone Interested In studying social phenomena--political, educational, economic, industrial-- especially If their studies are based on qualitative data.
Memoria de la reunión De Pescador a Pescador: Buscando mejorar la pesca a través de las reservas marinas. Bahía de Kino, Sonora, 21-24 de Marzo de
  • A H Weaver
  • L Bourillón
  • J Torre
  • C Moreno
A.H. Weaver, L. Bourillón, J. Torre, C. Moreno, Memoria de la reunión De Pescador a Pescador: Buscando mejorar la pesca a través de las reservas marinas. Bahía de Kino, Sonora, 21-24 de Marzo de 2003., Comunidad y Biodiversidad, A.C., Sonora, Mexico, 2004.
Fishermen Learning Exchanges for Conservation: An Examination of Lessons Learned: Workshop Summary and Outputs, National Socio-Evironmental Synthesis Center
  • K R Thompson
  • L D Jenkins
  • S H Peckham
K.R. Thompson, L.D. Jenkins, S.H. Peckham, Fishermen Learning Exchanges for Conservation: An Examination of Lessons Learned: Workshop Summary and Outputs, National Socio-Evironmental Synthesis Center, Annapolis, MD, 2013.
Fishery and) Aquaculture Statistics 2007, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
  • Fao Fao
  • Yearbook
FAO, FAO Yearbook: Fishery and) Aquaculture Statistics 2007, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, 2009.
The importance of social learning in restoring the multifunctionality of rivers and floodplains
C. Pahl-Wostl, The importance of social learning in restoring the multifunctionality of rivers and floodplains, Ecol. Soc. 11 (1) (2006).
Learning Through Sharing: the Power of Exchange Visits and How to Make Them Work
  • G Piras
G. Piras, Learning Through Sharing: the Power of Exchange Visits and How to Make Them Work, Growing Forest Partnership, IIED, London.
Jamaica-Belize Fisher Learning Exchange Summary Report
  • N Zenny
N. Zenny, Jamaica-Belize Fisher Learning Exchange Summary Report, 2008.
Monitoring social learning processes in adaptive comanagement: three case studies from South Africa
G. Cundill, Monitoring social learning processes in adaptive comanagement: three case studies from South Africa, Ecol. Soc. 15 (3) (2010).
Belizean Fishermen and Fishery Managers Visit British Columbia to See Catch Shares at Work, Environmental Defense Fund
  • T Love
T. Love, Belizean Fishermen and Fishery Managers Visit British Columbia to See Catch Shares at Work, Environmental Defense Fund, 2009.
Guidelines for Responsible Fisheries: Recreational Fisheries
  • R Arlinghaus
  • S J Cooke
  • B M Johnson
R. Arlinghaus, S.J. Cooke, B.M. Johnson, F.A.O. Technical, Guidelines for Responsible Fisheries: Recreational Fisheries, Food And Agriculture Organization Of The United Nations., Rome, 2012.
Learning Exchanges: Creative Collaboration for Increasing Effective Management Webinar
  • Reef Resilience
Reef Resilience, Learning Exchanges: Creative Collaboration for Increasing Effective Management Webinar, 2012.
Social networks to support learning for improved governance of coastal ecosystems in Solomon Islands, Coral Reef Initiatives for the Pacific
  • P Cohen
P. Cohen, Social networks to support learning for improved governance of coastal ecosystems in Solomon Islands, Coral Reef Initiatives for the Pacific, 2011.