Book

Thanatourism and Cinematic Representations of Risk: Screening the End of Tourism

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Abstract

In today’s world, the need to eliminate natural and human-made disasters has been at the forefront of national and international socio-political agendas. The management of risks such as terrorism, labour strikes, protests and environmental degradation has become pivotal for countries that depend on their economy’s tourist sector. Indeed, there is fear that that ‘the end of tourism’ might be nigh due to inadequate institutional foresight. Yet, in designing relevant policies to tackle this, arts such as that of filmmaking have yet to receive due consideration. This book adopts an unorthodox approach to debates about ‘the end of tourism’. Through twenty-first century cinematic narratives of symbolically interconnected ‘risks’ it considers how art envisages the future of humanity’s well-being. These ‘risks’ include: migration as an infectious disease; alien incursions as racialized labour mobilities; cyborg rebellion as the fear of post-colonial otherness; and zombie anthropophagy as the replacement of rooted identities by nomadic lifestyles. Such filmic scenarios articulate the futuristic survival of community as the triumph of the technological human over otherness, and provide a means to debate societal risks that weave identity politics into unequal mobilities. This book will appeal to researchers and students interested in mobilities theory, tourism and travel theory, film studies and aesthetics, globalisation studies, race, labour and migration.
... In the western debate, the conceptions regarding what dark tourism is are certainly polarized. While some voices suggest that dark tourism orients to understand the own life through the Other`s death, others Miles 2002;Stone, 2013) -more caustic works-hold that the phenomena exhibits a new postcolonial project to make from the vulnerable others a commodity which entertains the bored Western audiences (Bowman & Pezzulo 2009;Tzanelli 2016). Unlike others themes, dark tourism in Southeast Asia appears not widespread unless by the lens of western scholars. ...
... Over the recent years, dark tourism took many shapes and interpretations, which oscillate from Thana tourism (Seaton, 1996;Dann & Seaton 2013), wartourism (Rivera, 2008;Butler & Suntikul 2013), prison tourism (Wilson, 2011) or mourning tourism to post-disaster tourism (Seraphin, Butcher & Korstanje 2017). What all these terms have in common seems to be the interest of gazing the Others´ suffering Tzanelli 2016). This was studied by a marginal portion of the academy. ...
... Unlike other scholars, Sather Wagstaff acknowledges that the invention of heritage, far from uniting people, is created for ideological purposes. By this token, R. Tzanelli (2016) argues convincingly that the fascination for visiting dark (gazed) site comes from an long dormant cultural matrix, created by the colonial rule. Dark tourism revives a dependency between the global North and South. ...
Chapter
The case studied in this chapter is about the discourse of halal tourism (HT) to be implemented in Bali, and to be proposed as layer in special interest tourism (SIT). It aims to offer a framework that attempts to demystify the halal dimensions attributed at non-Muslim destination. Literature review is used as method of the study. Discussion of this chapter lies on the basic elements to be attributed to HT and SIT as a basis to strengthen and to support the framework derived from the review literature and to clarify the record of literature which suggests economic benefits by providing HT in the non-Muslim-friendly destination and sustaining tourists' arrival by mapping SIT as priority in development of destination. Overall, this present essay-review specifically shows preliminary design to develop HT, coupled with SIT for a non-Muslim destination. Several issues and directions for future research are provided.
... In the western debate, the conceptions regarding what dark tourism is are certainly polarized. While some voices suggest that dark tourism orients to understand the own life through the Other`s death, others Miles 2002;Stone, 2013) -more caustic works-hold that the phenomena exhibits a new postcolonial project to make from the vulnerable others a commodity which entertains the bored Western audiences (Bowman & Pezzulo 2009;Tzanelli 2016). Unlike others themes, dark tourism in Southeast Asia appears not widespread unless by the lens of western scholars. ...
... Over the recent years, dark tourism took many shapes and interpretations, which oscillate from Thana tourism (Seaton, 1996;Dann & Seaton 2013), wartourism (Rivera, 2008;Butler & Suntikul 2013), prison tourism (Wilson, 2011) or mourning tourism to post-disaster tourism (Seraphin, Butcher & Korstanje 2017). What all these terms have in common seems to be the interest of gazing the Others´ suffering Tzanelli 2016). This was studied by a marginal portion of the academy. ...
... Unlike other scholars, Sather Wagstaff acknowledges that the invention of heritage, far from uniting people, is created for ideological purposes. By this token, R. Tzanelli (2016) argues convincingly that the fascination for visiting dark (gazed) site comes from an long dormant cultural matrix, created by the colonial rule. Dark tourism revives a dependency between the global North and South. ...
Chapter
Sustainable development is an objective that every destination is aiming at. This chapter provides evidence that street food, as a special interest for of tourism, if appropriately explored, has the potential to contribute significantly to the sustainable tourism development of Southeast Asia, and more generally to emerging destinations. Within this context, there is an opportunity to convert street food into a tourism resource that can align with the SDGs of the UNWTO. From a management point of view, this chapter highlights the fact that destination marketing organisations need to rethink the type of products and services offered to visitors and more importantly how they advertise themselves. The priority should be given to products and services that are not only authentic but also meet the needs of visitors and locals alike. On an academic level, this chapter contributes to the existing meta-literature on tourism sustainability by presenting street food as an example of good practice.
... In the western debate, the conceptions regarding what dark tourism is are certainly polarized. While some voices suggest that dark tourism orients to understand the own life through the Other`s death, others Miles 2002;Stone, 2013) -more caustic works-hold that the phenomena exhibits a new postcolonial project to make from the vulnerable others a commodity which entertains the bored Western audiences (Bowman & Pezzulo 2009;Tzanelli 2016). Unlike others themes, dark tourism in Southeast Asia appears not widespread unless by the lens of western scholars. ...
... Over the recent years, dark tourism took many shapes and interpretations, which oscillate from Thana tourism (Seaton, 1996;Dann & Seaton 2013), wartourism (Rivera, 2008;Butler & Suntikul 2013), prison tourism (Wilson, 2011) or mourning tourism to post-disaster tourism (Seraphin, Butcher & Korstanje 2017). What all these terms have in common seems to be the interest of gazing the Others´ suffering Tzanelli 2016). This was studied by a marginal portion of the academy. ...
... Unlike other scholars, Sather Wagstaff acknowledges that the invention of heritage, far from uniting people, is created for ideological purposes. By this token, R. Tzanelli (2016) argues convincingly that the fascination for visiting dark (gazed) site comes from an long dormant cultural matrix, created by the colonial rule. Dark tourism revives a dependency between the global North and South. ...
... Lest I exercise naïve pessimism, I add that this governing will inform and be informed by a group of conflicting imaginaries of sustainability, which will expose once again, the limitations and failures of unrestrained economic growth. The feared "end of tourism" is an old scenario, entangled in the ways dystopian art repeatedly imagined the restructuring of life in world societies in fictional contexts of crisis or by allegorising real crises of mobility, rather than specifically tourism (Tzanelli, 2016(Tzanelli, , 2020. Dystopian scenarios about the end of tourism are associated with forms of representation purified of vulgarity (e.g. the kitschification of dark tourism) and always entangled with future potentialities to prosper (Sorokin, 1937(Sorokin, -1941(Sorokin, /1982Jackson, 2011). ...
... The subject has already entered the public discussion in the context of VR engagement with different places and cultures, and has informed educational programmes on the environment (Skinner, 2020). There is already a vast literature on digital travel (Germann Molz, 2012;Tzanelli, 2015Tzanelli, , 2016Tzanelli, , 2020, cinematic (Tzanelli, 2010) and film-induced tourism (Beeton, 2016), which interconnects embodied with virtual movement. The COVID-19 experience may strengthen such links, producing more organised virtual tourism, which is not followed by physical visits to the represented travel destinations. ...
Article
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Purpose This paper aims to examine the antagonistic coexistence of different tourism imaginaries in global post-viral social landscapes. Such antagonisms may be resolved at the expense of the ethics of tourism mobility, if not adjudicated by post-human reflexivity. Currently, unreflexive behaviours involve the refusal to conform to lifesaving “stay-at-home” policies, the tendency to book holidays and the public inspection of death zones. Design/methodology/approach Each of the consumption styles explored in this paper to discuss post-COVID-19 tourism recovery corresponds to at least one tourist imaginary, antagonistically placed against social imaginaries of moral betterment, solidarity, scientific advancement, national security and labour equality. A multi-modal collection of audio-visual and textual data, gathered through social media and the digital press, is categorised and analysed via critical discourse analysis. Findings Data in the public domain suggest a split between pessimistic and optimistic attitudes that forge different tourism futures. These attitudes inform different imaginaries with different temporal orientations and consumption styles. Social implications COVID-has exposed the limits of the capacity to efficiently address threats to both human and environmental ecosystems. As once popular tourist locales/destinations are turned by COVID-2019s spread into risk zones with morbid biographical records their identities alter and their imaginaries of suffering become anthropocentric. Originality/value Using Castoriadis’ differentiation between social and radical imaginaries, Foucault’s biopolitical analysis, Sorokin’s work on mentalities and Sorel’s reflections on violence, the author argue that this paper has entered a new phase in the governance and experience of tourism, which subsumes the idealistic basis of tourist imaginaries as cosmopolitan representational frameworks under the techno-cultural imperatives of risk, individualistic growth through the adventure (“edgework”) and heritage preservation. This paper also needs to reconsider the contribution of technology (not technocracy) to sustainable post-COVID-19 scenarios of tourism recovery.
... Ultimately, recent studies move to a critical perspective that denounces terrorism and inscribes it into a complex cultural platform, which is created not only to entertain lay citizens but displaces the causality of events towards a fictional landscape, externally fabricated and imposed to prevent social change. Like celebrities, terrorists are embedded with a culture of gazing (witnessing) that makes from the tragedy a criterion of attraction, if not pleasure maximization (Howie 2009(Howie , 2012Howie and Campbell 2017;Korstanje 2016;Tzanelli 2016). ...
... To put this bluntly, terrorism interrogates and encroaches in the fictionality created by a mediated society, where events are commoditized and sold as pseudo-events. Paradoxically, in contemporary society terrorism is conceived as a danger, which triggers the surface of the most recalcitrant racism, and as a "show", made to keep the workers under control (Korstanje 2016;Tzanelli 2016). Last but not least, Islamophobia as a tactic of domination imagined by the ruling elite, plays a crucial role introducing "the enemy", similar to the metaphor of the Trojan Horse. ...
Book
This volume provides a multidisciplinary perspective on a set of transformations in social practices that modify the meaning of everyday interactions, and especially those that affect the world of labour. The book is composed of two types of texts: some dedicated to exploring the modifications of labour in the context of the ‘digital age’, and others that point out the consequences of this era and those transformations in the current social structuration processes. The authors examine interwoven possibilities and limitations that act in renewed ways to release/repress the creative energy of human beings, just a few of the potential paths for investigating the connections between work and society that are nowadays involved in the battle of sensibilities.
... Ultimately, recent studies move to a critical perspective that denounces terrorism and inscribes it into a complex cultural platform, which is created not only to entertain lay citizens but displaces the causality of events towards a fictional landscape, externally fabricated and imposed to prevent social change. Like celebrities, terrorists are embedded with a culture of gazing (witnessing) that makes from the tragedy a criterion of attraction, if not pleasure maximization (Howie 2009(Howie , 2012Howie and Campbell 2017;Korstanje 2016;Tzanelli 2016). ...
... To put this bluntly, terrorism interrogates and encroaches in the fictionality created by a mediated society, where events are commoditized and sold as pseudo-events. Paradoxically, in contemporary society terrorism is conceived as a danger, which triggers the surface of the most recalcitrant racism, and as a "show", made to keep the workers under control (Korstanje 2016;Tzanelli 2016). Last but not least, Islamophobia as a tactic of domination imagined by the ruling elite, plays a crucial role introducing "the enemy", similar to the metaphor of the Trojan Horse. ...
Book
This volume provides a multidisciplinary perspective on a set of transformations in social practices that modify the meaning of everyday interactions, and especially those that affect the world of labour. The book is composed of two types of texts: some dedicated to exploring the modifications of labour in the context of the ‘digital age’, and others that point out the consequences of this era and those transformations in the current social structuration processes. The authors examine interwoven possibilities and limitations that act in renewed ways to release/repress the creative energy of human beings, just a few of the potential paths for investigating the connections between work and society that are nowadays involved in the battle of sensibilities. Adrian Scribano is Principal Researcher at the National Council for Scientific and Technical Research of Argentina (CONICET) at Research Institute Gino Germani, Social Sciences Faculty, University of Buenos Aires, and Director of the Centre for Sociological Research and Studies (CIES), Argentina. Pedro Lisdero is Researcher at the National Council for Scientific and Technical Research of Argentina (CONICET) and Co-Director of the Program of Studies on Collective Action and Social Conflict in the Center for Research and Studies on Cultures and Societies, National University of Cordoba, Argentina.
... Ultimately, recent studies move to a critical perspective that denounces terrorism and inscribes it into a complex cultural platform, which is created not only to entertain lay citizens but displaces the causality of events towards a fictional landscape, externally fabricated and imposed to prevent social change. Like celebrities, terrorists are embedded with a culture of gazing (witnessing) that makes from the tragedy a criterion of attraction, if not pleasure maximization (Howie 2009(Howie , 2012Howie and Campbell 2017;Korstanje 2016;Tzanelli 2016). ...
... To put this bluntly, terrorism interrogates and encroaches in the fictionality created by a mediated society, where events are commoditized and sold as pseudo-events. Paradoxically, in contemporary society terrorism is conceived as a danger, which triggers the surface of the most recalcitrant racism, and as a "show", made to keep the workers under control (Korstanje 2016;Tzanelli 2016). Last but not least, Islamophobia as a tactic of domination imagined by the ruling elite, plays a crucial role introducing "the enemy", similar to the metaphor of the Trojan Horse. ...
Chapter
The notion of digital labour has revitalized discussions around critical communication studies, but it has also been relevant to inquiries on the metamorphosis of labour relationships, and even in studies of everyday life in the context of Society 4.0. Addressing questions emerging from those insights, this chapter explores some contributions from the sociology of the body/emotions for understanding the practices and politics of sensibilities associated with digital labour. To do this, this chapter (i) explores various theoretical debates around the definition of digital labour, in order to underline the relevance of redefining forms of exploitation regarding related practices, (ii) develops arguments from the perspective of the sociology of bodies/emotions, which allow us to understand in what sense the technological mediation linked to the expansion of ICTs constitutes a reconfiguration of “the politics of the senses” (look, see, observe, touch etc.) and (iii) analyses cases of workers in ICT industries (based on testimonies and records of virtual ethnography) that allow us to connect their daily experience with certain mechanisms of expropriation and commodification of the vitality of bodies.
... Some emergent study-cases evince that when tourism is adopted in an unregulated manner, the risks the branding process turns in negative effects for locals such as gentrification, discriminative practices or resentment against tourists, are higher than in those cases, where tourism couples with other stronger industries (Korstanje 2012;Skoll & Korstanje, 2014). Doubtless, the formation of authenticity, which is vital for the configuration of heritage, plays a vital role in offering to strangers a spectacle which is externally designed to meet their hopes and ideological expectances (Korstanje 2012;Tzanelli, 2016). In this token, RicklyBoyd (2012, p.273) has widely discussed how the sense of authenticity conforms the postmodern world of consumption. ...
Chapter
Full-text available
Death is a great unifier, not only for one who is in grief but also those who have similar shared values (i.e., tourist demand for visiting death sites). In this sense, visitation to the death sites denotes its importance to people's lives. However, as types of death sites are distinctively different from one to another, death sites as tourist attraction remains a segmented target market. This chapter looks at some viewpoints for making death sites not only for a segmented target market, which leads to discourse of virtual dark tourism (VDT) formation. With sound branding coupled with augmented reality (AR) as tools to support the claims of virtual dark tourism, death sites, which are considered exclusive touristic market offerings, presumably could be consumed by more target markets. Several issues and direction for future research are discussed.
Article
Full-text available
Serial killers fascinate people and books, films, TV series and other types of entertainment increasingly cater to this interest providing sensationalized media coverage. The theory suggests that the boundaries are blurred considerably between fact and fiction, even for the serial killers themselves. For many people, serial killers are both frightening and attractive enough to motivate them to go on tours and visit sites, museums and other attractions that are associated with them. This paper explores the motivation for consuming true and fictional crime including murders and serial killing with an emphasis on literature, films, TV series as well as tourism. A content analysis of the websites of walking tours, museums and other attractions connected to fictional and real serial killers was undertaken, as well as a questionnaire with a niche sample of respondents who commented on their experience and perceptions of serial killers within a dark tourism context. The results suggest that while tourists tend to prefer real serial killers to fictional ones, only a small number of tourists actually engage in this form of dark tourism. Their motivations tend to be more connected to education or entertainment rather than a morbid obsession with death or tragedy.
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Doubtless, COVID-19 has affected not only the tourism industry as well as global trade but also education worldwide. Although technology occupied a central position in online classroom, no less true was that many students had not access to digital platform. This chapter interrogates on the problem of curricula in higher tourism education for Argentina to understand the new global risks. The pandemic has opened the doorsteps to new opportunities, problems and challenges educators should bear on mind. In this vein, creativity and entrepreneurship play a leading role in the formation of a new curricula in a post COVID-19 context. To think the future research lines of tourism and hospitality in a post-COVID-19 context is very hard to grasp, simply because the future of tourism seems to be a bit uncertain. In fact, in this post-COVID-19 world, new technologies lead us to a landscape without tourists. At the same time, digital technology helps in the creation of more resilient and smarter destinations.
Article
L’article discute des utilisations du concept de biopolitique dans les études critiques sur le tourisme. Après un bref exposé généalogique du concept en philosophie politique, il suit sa transposition et ses applications thématiques dans la théorie et la pratique du tourisme. L’auteur affirme que la biopolitique n’est qu’un des trois domaines clés des ‘intérêts humains’ qui doivent faire l’objet d’une critique radicale dans les études et les pratiques touristiques. Cette critique doit s’articuler avec les questions de (a) pouvoir institutionnel et discursif dans la création des mondes et des destinations touristiques (worldmaking, Hollinshead, 2009a), mais aussi, et surtout, (b) les contre-discours analogues institués par les chercheurs critiques en études touristiques, qui cherchent à légitimer leur propre communauté épistémique et à produire ainsi une voix majoritaire assurant un soutien apparent (mais non exempt d’intérêts ou de motivations) à des causes moralement justes pour un meilleur avenir humain et planétaire.
Article
The article reviews the uses of the concept of biopolitics in critical tourism studies. After a brief genealogical account of the concept in political philosophy, it follows its transposition and its thematic applications in tourism theory and practice. It is argued that biopolitics is only one of the three key domains of ‘human interests’, which must be subjected to a radical critique in tourism studies and practice. Such critique should be entwined with questions of (a) institutional and discursive power in the making of tourism worlds and destinations (‘worldmaking’ – Hollinshead, 2009a), but also, crucially (b) the analogous counter-discourses instituted by critical tourism studies scholars, who seek to legitimise their own epistemic community and thus produce a majoritarian voice endorsing an apparent (but not interest or motivation free) support of morally just causes for a better human and planetary futures.
Article
English version : https://journals.openedition.org/viatourism/8070 Espanol https://journals.openedition.org/viatourism/8074
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The reign of terror ignited by 9/11 and the resulting War on Terror has accelerated the effects on social imaginary. Beyond the economic aftermaths, 9/11 recreated the conditions towards a monopoly of radicalized discourse, which was mainly oriented toward demonizing the “Non-Western Other.” Terrorism allowed the introduction of a conspiracy plot that marked some minority ethnicities as an enemy living within. At the bottom, these narratives punctuated that Muslim communities hate the society they inhabit. Such discourse changed forever the ways the “Other” is imagined. The chapter deals with HBO Saga Westworld, a futurist and dystopian world where robots (hosts) are subjected to torture, violence, and even sadist practices at the hands of wealthy tourists (guests). The formula in “Robots We Must Trust” is placed under the critical lens of scrutiny.
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At the end of December of 2019, the first cases of COVID-19 alerted the health authorities about the rise of a new pandemic. Although some voices have claimed that mass tourism as well as the public and private transport system are fertile ground for lethal virus propagation, governments systematically overlooked these alerts. In this respect, COVID-19 generated an unparalleled halt to the tourism industry and the transport system. The globalization world sets the pace to new fractured geography fraught with geopolitical tensions, chauvinist, and separatist discourses without mentioning the rise of global fears and anxieties. Having said this, the chapter discusses critically the effects of COVID-19 and the future guidelines of research for the next years. The chapter holds the thesis the world is being feudalized towards an atomized climate that marks a new form of production/consumption. Far from being a foundational event, COVID-19 reaffirms culturally and symbolically a trend initiated just after the War on Terror was declared during Bush´s administration.
Article
This study explores the ‘30 September Movement’ that staged a communist coup in 1965 as travel motivation for an anti-communism museum. ‘Framing’ and ‘uses and gratifications’ theories were used for this case study. The findings concluded that negative film plots and scenes are signature themes that can be used as attributes of red or dark film motivations for tourism. The use of theories, such as ‘framing’ and ‘uses and gratifications’, along with reflexive thematic analysis has provided unique and valuable theoretical insights that may be overlooked by other analyses.
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In the preceding chapter, we introduced readers to the complex and dense interplay between scientific expeditions, which were moved by scientific interests, and colonialism. In this chapter, we focus on the ways and morphologies of colonial voyages to draw new borders of colonial geographies. Of course, some might speculate both chapters overlap, but one continues the discussion the other leaves. In the introductory chapter, we discussed the imperial machine (and the cultural matrix) that invented, fabricated, and packaged the non-Western “Other” to legitimate the would-be European supremacy. Now it is time to review how Western reasoning develops the gaze to explain and expropriate the new cosmologies the new world offers.
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The term tourist gaze was coined initially to represent those superficial expectations that tourists have on destination communities; tourists impute their ideas of authentic experience upon destination residents and their social structure and see what they have predetermined to see. This is made more real when local communities consciously act out the desired roles for financial reasons. Thus, gaze leads to surreally authentic experiences. However, does this always happen? Say, in community-centered tourism where empowered destination communities choose tourists, tourists do not have the privilege to gaze. These communities might even be able to apply their own versions of gaze upon the tourists. Although we propose resident gaze here, it is not examined by any other serious researchers. In this chapter, we call for a critical relook at the literature on gaze. Another factor making us rethink gaze is the role of new forms of tourism such as virtual tourism. Say, how differently does gaze act upon in virtual environments? Finally, gaze may not be a unidirectional phenomenon, unlike how John Urry conceived it. There may be a reverse gaze, probably equal yet opposite in direction from the other side. Again, this is a new term that we propose for further investigation.
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In the preceding chapters, we carefully revised the history of colonial expeditions, the intersection of the native “Other” with science, and the evolution of leisure travels and the consolidation of the tourism industry. We make the point that after the terrorist attacks in 2001 in the US, Western civilization entered a state of crisis which gradually tended to demonize the non-Western “Other”. These chapters acted as conceptual platforms that guided readers to understand the role played by hospitality in the configuration of the modern nation-state. Although illustrative to some extent, these chapters lacked an empirical approach. This chapter, complementarily, keeps an empirically based dynamic focusing on the long durable effects of COVID-19 to re-draw new geopolitical strategies and relationships and feudal geography where the borders are in constant change. We combine case studies with ethnographic material organized in different interviews and journalist sources and articles.
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The present chapter centres on Haitian case, which evinces not only the failure of development theory in improving the economies of pour countries but also how political instability and corruption affect competitive capabilities of tourist destinations in the periphery. In the turn of the century, the rise of different risks as terrorism, natural disasters or virus outbreaks forced the specialists and policymakers to rethink not only its policies but its marketing tactics. The post-disaster marketing as well as the post-conflict destinations emerged as valid options to revitalize tourist destinations obliterated by disasters or any other major threats. More important, policymakers acknowledged the reconstructive nature of tourism, not only accelerating the post-disaster recovery timeframe but also allowing investors that help the local devastated economy.
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...Este trabajo de reflexión y de investigación documental y cualitativa, se explorará el concepto de ciudad turística como un objeto de estudio del y para el turismo; y, para dicho fin se abordarán algunas posturas claves sobre la categoría de turismo y ciudad...
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Over the years, philosophers have debated the problem of war and peace. Is violence inherently enrooted in our minds? Or simply are we educated in a violent society? Is war a social malady to be eradicated or part of our nature? The myth of Cain and Abel gives some hints on this, but, of course, it does not suffice to explain the complexity of the conflict in the societal order. Humans often are slaves of negative emotions such as rage, fear, greed, and envy. Nonetheless, as Immanuel Kant imagined, a durable and perpetual peace can be internationally achieved, where a tacit agreement is convened among nations. In so doing, they should share a common-grounded constitution and be subject to the law of federation. The figure of hospitality is vital to weave an international pact of cooperation and non-aggression. Here one might question if tourism is part of this panacea, as Kant in his days envisaged.
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There is a recent morbid tendency to consume (gaze) sites of mass death, mourning and suffering. This tendency was baptized in different forms such as dark tourism, thana-tourism or mourning tourism to name only a few. To date, no matter the multiplication of theories and studies, two great tendencies coexist. On one hand, some voices allude to the dark tourism as a mechanism of reisilience which helps community to recover after a disaster takes hit. The other signals to the pedagogical functions of dark tourism as a fertile ground to develop empathy with the Other’s pain. The present chapter reviews the strengths and weaknesses of both position with strong focus on the cultures of neo-tribes. Based on the previous publications on Maffesoli, as well as the theory of social capital, we lay the foundations towards a new understanding of dark tourism which is helpful not only for academicians but by practitioners and policy-makers.
Article
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Tourism affects the lives of an increasing number of people across the world and has been growing and diversifying immensely since the turn of the 21st century. Anthropological approaches to tourism have also expanded from the early contributions of the 1970s, which tended to focus on the nature of tourism and its “impact” on peripheral host communities. These first interventions see anthropologists theorizing tourism as a “secular ritual,” studying its workings as a process of “acculturation,” and countering macroeconomic views of tourism’s potential for the economic development of peripheral societies by underscoring instead its neocolonial and imperialist features. Tourism is linked to the exacerbation of center-periphery dependencies, seen as an agent of cultural commoditization and responsible for the promotion and dissemination of stereotypical images of people and places. Moving beyond the impact paradigm, which has the disadvantage of portraying tourism as an external, disembedded, and imposed force on a passive population, constructivist approaches highlight its creative appropriations and integral role in the reinvention of culture and traditions. Anthropologists pay attention to the varied range of actors and agencies involved in tourism, accounting for the multi-scalar dimensions of this phenomenon and the uneven circulation of images, discourses, and resources it engenders. Tourism exerts a powerful global influence on how alterity and difference are framed and understood in the contemporary world and contributes to the valorization and dissemination of particular views of culture, identity, and heritage. Tourism is increasingly intertwined with processes of heritage-making, whose study helps advance anthropological reflections on cultural property, material culture, and the memorialization of the past. A key source of livelihood for a growing number of people worldwide, tourism is also becoming more and more associated with development projects in which applied anthropologists are also enrolled as experts and consultants. The study of the tourism-development nexus continues to be a key area of theoretical innovation and has helped advance anthropological debates on North–South relations, dominant responses to poverty and inequality, and their entanglements with neoliberal forms of governance. Given its diffuse and distributed character, tourism and touristification have been approached as forms of ordering that affect and restructure an ever-growing range of entities, and whose effects are increasingly difficult to tease out from concomitant societal processes. The ubiquitous implementations of tourism policies and projects, the influx of tourists, and the debates, reactions, and resistances these generate underscore, however, the importance of uncovering the ways tourism and its effects are being concretely identified, invoked, acted upon, and confronted by its various protagonists. Research on tourism has the potential to contribute to disciplinary debates on many key areas and notions of concern for anthropology. Culture, ethnicity, identity, alterity, heritage, mobility, labor, commerce, hospitality, intimacy, development, and the environment are among the notions and domains increasingly affected and transformed by tourism. The study of tourism helps understand how such transformations occur, uncovering their features and orientations, while also shedding light on the societal struggles that are at stake in them. The analysis of past and current research shows the scope of the theoretical and methodological debates and of the realms of intervention to which anthropological scholarship on tourism can contribute.
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The present chapter posits an interesting discussion revolving around the term Thana Capitalism, which was originally formulated in earlier works. Originally formulated to serve as an opposite alternative against neo-pragmatism, neoliberalism toyed with the belief that the world can be united through the consumption and free trade. During 80s and 90s decades, the theory of development adopted tourism as an efficient instrument to struggle with poverty. Under the auspices of neoliberalism, modern tourism not only paved the ways for an “Kantian eternal peace,” but also conducted a much deeper process of democratization beyond the borders of Western civilization. After the recent, stock market crisis in 2008, tourism not only was placed in jeopardy by the advance of jihadist terrorism but mutated towards more morbid forms of consumption, which made from human suffering as a tantalizing criterion of attraction. Thana-Tourism, War tourism, Dark Tourism or slum tourism are indicators that the society is changing towards new horizons.
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“Maximiliano Korstanje weaves a brilliant reflective documentary of our terror-driven world culture. Reading his book will stimulate your thinking about what we need to do to better understand and improve our fatalistically failing future.” —Kenneth David Strang, Editor in Chief, Int. Journal of Risk and Contingency Management, State University of New York at Plattsburgh, USA “This book is a must read. More importantly, it is topical to the 21st century. I strongly recommend it.” —Hugues Seraphin, Senior Lecturer, University of Winchester, UK “Maximiliano Korstanje’s provocative book integrates traditional apocalyptic myths with contemporary issues that reflect new forms of terrorism, social control, popular culture, the politics of fear, and propaganda.” —David L. Altheide, Regents’ Professor Emeritus, Arizona State University, USA “This book is an important work in rethinking the impact of technology in society.” —Brett van Niekerk, Co-Editor-in-Chief, Int. Journal of Cyber Warfare and Terrorism, University of Kwazulu Natal, South Africa “In this book, the author brings to bear an insightful collage of perspectives to critique today’s apocalyptic global culture.” —Geoffrey Skoll, Emeritus Professor, State University of New York at Buffalo, USA This book centers on the power of mythical narratives and technology in creating the idea of a world that should be purged. The introduction of sin, the fall and other disruptive conflict have led mankind towards a world of scarcity, where suffering and sacrifice prevail. The author analyzes this apocalypse theory, which describes humans’ perversion by the use of technology, self-consciousness and knowledge. Based on an anthropological viewpoint, the book not only discusses the nature of bottom days, but explores other related sub-themes such as capitalism, terrorism, dark tourism, the essence of evil and the power of prophecy, coining the term thana-capitalism to denote a new stage of capitalism where death is the main commodity exchanged. Maximiliano E. Korstanje is Senior Researcher in the Department of Economics at the University of Palermo, Argentina. His work specializes in terrorism, mobilities and tourism.
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Contemporary tourism is omnipresent in development discourses and policies, functioning as a "worldmaking" force in which tourism activities provide a representation and storyline that influence the tourist and their behavior, thus becoming a form of social production. Justifying the inclusion of biopolitics as a response to the questions raised by the worldmaking tenet, this article aims to set the concept of biopolitics as the articulation between dominant structures and agency. As contemporary social life and the reproduction of society are integrated into the scope of market capitalism, and the state exerts its role as protector of the "free" market, biopolitics functions through the internalization of the rules of conduct by individuals, as well as through the economic integration of previously noneconomic spheres. Conducting a systematic literature review to expose the presence of the biopolitical lens in tourism research reveals the relevance of pursuing critical and unconventional research strategies. A diverse yet limited corpus of texts has developed in the context of the persistence and pervasiveness of both biopolitics and tourism in complex and uneven global social, political, and spatiotemporal systems and networks, highlighting new theoretical constellations rooted primarily in Foucauldian biopolitics. This essay uncovers a powerful entanglement of nonlinear and multiscalar tourism elements, and calls for ambitiously undertaking tourism research to address tourism discourses, structures, and practices in place and society.
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This study looks at some primary points in the discourse of virtual dark tourism (VDT) formation. Derived from the spectrum of sound branding (SB), virtual reality (VR), coupled with augmented reality (AR), the case is used as a tool to support the claims of VDT. Findings suggest viewpoints for making death sites exclusive, and offer valuable clues to the design of VDT formation as an option to include death sites as market offerings of dark tourism. Guided by social constructionist research philosophy, coupled with semiology and compositional interpretation, the analysis offers valuable clues to position sites built around the narratives of death. Not only does it verify elements of unique and emotional selling propositions in the typology of death sites, but it also signifies the emerging state of the art on the nexus between VDT and SB. Specifically, dark themed songs coupled AR are used as tourism drivers for designing Trunyan Cemetery, Bali. Overall, this review shows preliminary designs for prototype death sites. Several issues and directions for future research are discussed.
Book
At the bottom of the sea, freedivers find that the world bestows humans with the magic of bodily and mental freedom, binding them in small communities of play, affect and respect for nature. On land, rational human interests dissolve this magic into prescriptive formulas of belonging to a profession, a nation and an acceptable modernity. The magical exploration is morphed by such multiple interventions successively from a pilgrimage, to a cinematic and digital articulation of an anarchic project, to an exercise in national citizenship and finally, a projection of post-imperial cosmopolitan belonging. At the bottom of the sea, freedivers find that the world bestows humans with the magic of bodily and mental freedom, binding them in small communities of play, affect and respect for nature. On land, rational human interests dissolve this magic into prescriptive formulas of belonging to a profession, a nation and an acceptable modernity. The magical exploration is morphed by such multiple interventions successively from a pilgrimage, to a cinematic and digital articulation of an anarchic project, to an exercise in national citizenship and finally, a projection of post-imperial cosmopolitan belonging. This is the story of an embodied, relational and affective journey: the making of the explorer of worlds. At its heart stands a clash between individual and collective desires to belong, aspirations to create and the pragmatics of becoming recognised by others. The primary empirical context in which this is played is the contemporary margins of European modernity: the post-troika Greece. With the project of a freediving artist, who stages an Underwater Gallery outside the iconic island of Amorgos, as a sociological spyglass, it examines the networks of mobility that both individuals and nations have to enter to achieve international recognition, often at the expense of personal freedom and alternative pathways to modernity. Inspired by fusions of cultural pragmatics, phenomenology, phanerology, the morphogenetic approach, feminist posthumanism and especially postcolonial theories of magical realism, this study examines interconnected variations of identity and subjectivity in contexts of contemporary mobility (digital and embodied travel/tourism). As a study of cultural emergism, the book will be of interest to students and scholars in critical theory, cultural, postcolonial and decolonial studies, and tourism/pilgrimage theory.Inspired by fusions of cultural pragmatics, phenomenology, phanerology, the morphogenetic approach, feminist posthumanism and especially postcolonial theories of magical realism, this study examines interconnected variations of identity and subjectivity in contexts of contemporary mobility (digital and embodied travel/tourism). As a study of cultural emergism, the book will be of interest to students and scholars in critical theory, cultural, postcolonial and decolonial studies, and tourism/pilgrimage theory.
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Without any doubt, terrorism causes higher levels of anxiety and very well enhances our fears as never before. The post 9/11 context witnesses the multiplication of xenophobic expressions, such as Islamophobia or tourist-phobia, only to name a few. These expressions result from a culture of intolerance, which not only was enrooted in the ideological core of western capitalism but was accelerated just after 9/11. Some voices emphasize the needs of employing technology to make this world a safer place. This chapter goes in a contradictory direction. The authors focus on the ethical limitations of technologies when they are subordinated to the ideals of zero-risk society. Echoing Sunstein and Altheide, the authors hold the thesis that the precautionary principle has invariably created a paradoxical condition where “the invented fears” transformed in the basic grounds of a new stage of capitalism.
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This volume is an eclectic multidisciplinary collection of essays related to the interconnections between dark tourism and pilgrimage travel. It focuses on dark tourism sites as pilgrimage destinations, dark tourists as pilgrims, and pilgrimage as a form of dark tourism. Theories and histories of dark tourism and pilgrimage are covered, as well as aspects of the visitor experience, including tourists' motivations and emotional responses, and social aspects, among others. The book has 22 chapters and a subject index.
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book dedicated to virtual dark tourism
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The 9/11 marked the end of an epoch, or so it is claimed by many voices. Scholars and colleagues of all stripes agree that the attacks on the World Trade Center changed international relations and geopolitics as never before. In this context, this chapter interrogates the ramifications of terrorism, its connection with media society and with Society 4.0. As Slavoj Žižek puts it, 9/11 was not only a founding event, but it also woke the Occident from its slumber. In view of this, terrorism paradoxically not only uses the media and digital technologies to instil its message in society, but alerts us to the risks posed by virtuality. This chapter, henceforth, continues Žižek’s reflections unveiling the role of digital technology in what he dubbed as “the desert of the real”.
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This chapter centers on the changes, limitations and future challenges tourism research faces in the years to come. In the days of morbid consumption, which means the proliferation of new dark forms of consumption as dark tourism, slum tourism, last day tourism or even war-tourism, scholars seem to be misguided or trapped into conceptual gridlocks. In fact, our grandparents chose other types of destinations for their holidays. Instead, new forms of tourism—more oriented to spaces of destruction, mass death and suffering—are surfacing. This chapter, echoing the main contributions of Dean MacCannell, calls for the introduction of ethics in business. This begs the following question: to what extent is dark tourism or last day tourism a sustainable activity?
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9/11 has changed the world in many senses. It introduced not only fear in the contemporary society, but also ignited the counter-reaction to the US in what G. W Bush dubbed as “War on Terror”. This chapter centers on a philosophical discussion that relates the international geopolitics with the sociology of terrorism. Basically, the archetype of 9/11 has woken the interests of many scholars though, to date, it is ideologically inspired. Paradoxically, while much attention was paid on the archetype of 9/11 as a founding event that subordinated other similar events, less understanding of the issue scholars have. This chapter places the war on terror and 9/11 under the critical lens of scrutiny.
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The term “genocide” was originally coined by Lemkin just after the horrendous crimes committed against innocent civilians in Nazi Germany. At that moment, the SS officials disposed of a systemic rationalized system of death which was oriented to domesticate and eradicate the “inferior” or the undesired “Other”. The concentration camps were space of torture, violence, death and mourning that marked the state of Israel forever. Today things have changed a lot, and the state of Israel is accused of violating the human rights in Palestine. While we review the discussion of senior lecturers such as Slavoj Žižek, Richard Bernstein, Norman Finkelstein and Yakov Rabkin, we reconstruct the philosophical touchstone that led a nomad tribe to become a state. This chapter deals not only with the sense of prophesy in Israel, but also it toys with the belief that the messianic idea of Messiah played a leading role in our appetite for consuming the Others’ death.
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Though the study of dark tourism has been widely expanded over the recent years, less attention was given to the Southeast Asian destinations. Dark tourism exhibits events that are marked a disgrace, the fatalities that interrogate on our own vulnerability. As a gaze of the Significant Other, dark tourism anthropologically mediates between our finitude and the future. The chapter centers on Philippines as a new emergent destination of dark tourism, stressing the contributions of the industry to the heritage sites but alerting the contradictions this new morbid consumption generates.
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The chapter starts from the assumption that in spite of the abundance of research about Southeast Asia, they are published by native English speakers such as Australians or Britons, instead of genuine Southeast Asians. In addition, they emulate long dormant discourses forged and used during the colonial rule to domesticate the non-Western “Other.” Alternating among the fields of heritage consumption, dark tourism, a post-colonial landscape, and of course the scourge of terrorism, these studies obscure more than they clarify – most probably replicating the essence of colonialism. This book aims to discuss new themes and horizons allowing youth researchers to produce knowledge from the bottom up.
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The chapter theorizes the rise of dark tourism in Southeast destinations. This represents an unexplored segment for the specialized literature that devotes its efforts in studying Western study cases. There were two important findings. Firstly, and most importantly, dark tourism gives an ideological explanation to the Cold War that sometimes singles out the history of colonialism, the rise of the US as a superpower, and the interests of the Soviet Union. Essentially in consonance with Tzanelli, Sather Wagstaff, and Guidotti Hernandez, the authors hold the thesis that the heritage of dark tourism serves an ideological instrument of power, which is orchestrated by a ruling elite to promote a distorted version of history.
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Based on the recently-dated terrorist attacks perpetrated in Europe, where terrorists weaponized classic forms of transport against civilian targets, one might speculate that likely mobilities and terrorism would be inextricably intertwined. In the mid of this mayhem, this chapter centers on the mobilities-paradigm as an ideological platform that keeps the interests of ruling elite, inasmuch as only 1% of mankind is legally authorized to travel worldwide. It is vital for social scientists to interrogate on the cultural effects of 9/11, in a world which is characterized by serious economic imbalances. In this world of full contrasts, while first world tourists are encouraged to move from one point to another without any restriction, migrants, asylum-seekers and vagabonds are energetically pursued, jailed or exiled by nation-state.
Article
Full-text available
This study looks at some primary points in the discourse of virtual dark tourism (VDT) formation. Derived from the spectrum of sound branding (SB), virtual reality (VR), coupled with augmented reality (AR), the case is used as a tool to support the claims of VDT. Findings suggest viewpoints for making death sites exclusive, and offer valuable clues to the design of VDT formation as an option to include death sites as market offerings of dark tourism. Guided by social constructionist research philosophy, coupled with semiology and compositional interpretation, the analysis offers valuable clues to position sites built around the narratives of death. Not only does it verify elements of unique and emotional selling propositions in the typology of death sites, but it also signifies the emerging state of the art on the nexus between VDT and SB. Specifically, dark themed songs coupled AR are used as tourism drivers for designing Trunyan Cemetery, Bali. Overall, this review shows preliminary designs for prototype death sites. Several issues and directions for future research are discussed.
Article
Full-text available
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This paper addresses critiques of Eurocentrism in tourism studies, which have called for a ‘paradigm shift' in response to the rapid rise of tourism from emerging world regions. We clarify the concept of a paradigm shift, and examine arguments for a shift in tourism studies on epistemological, theoretical and empirical levels. We argue for a shift on the theoretical level: the incorporation of tourism studies in the mobilities paradigm. We argue that this paradigm offers a fresh perspective on tourism as enmeshed with other kinds of discretionary mobilities, is free of Eurocentric assumptions, and destabilizes some of the leading concepts on which now problematic binary modernist thinking in tourism studies is based. However, the positivistic, ‘etic’ character of early studies of the mobilities paradigm hinders its culturally nuanced deployment in emerging world regions, a limitation we seek to remedy by adapting Tim Cresswell's conceptualization of mobility that comprised movement, representation and practice. We conclude by providing a summary of the principal findings of our application of the mobilities paradigm to the comparative study of tourism from the emerging regions.
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The question of judgment has become one of the central problems in recent social, political and ethical thought. This paper explores Hannah Arendt’s decisive contribution to this debate by attempting to reconstruct analytically two distinctive perspectives on judgment from the corpus of her writings. By exploring her relation to Aristotelian and Kantian sources, and by uncovering debts and parallels to key thinkers such as Benjamin and Heidegger, it is argued that Arendt’s work pinpoints the key antinomy within political judgment itself, that between the viewpoints of the political actor and the political spectator. The paper concludes by highlighting some lacunae and difficulties in the development of Arendt’s account, difficulties that set challenges for those theorists (such as Seyla Benhabib and Alessandro Ferrara) who wish to appropriate and extend Arendt’s contribution into the field of contemporary critical theory.
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A discursive analysis of natural area destinations is presented in this article, where it is argued that the management and use of natural areas for (eco) tourism is influenced by economic and institutional practices that contribute to rationalizing ‘Nature’ and the visitor experience. A brief look at some historical influences on nature-based tourism development in (post)-modernity sets the context for illustrating paradoxical discourses (e.g. neo-liberalism, ecological modernization and globalization) that structure and instrumentalize human relationships with the natural world. Viewing these natural areas as performance spaces helps to show how the multiplicity of discourses plays out and how nature and tourists are performatively engaged in these spaces. A conceptual analysis of performativity in relation to touristic spaces is presented and its potential to enable resistance to the rationalizations outlined in the article is examined. The possibility of a performative tourist ethic is discussed, based on a notion of reflexive praxis. Implications for (eco-) tourism research and practice are offered.
Article
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Ethics are the aesthetics of the future. What is that sound high in the air Murmur of maternal lamentation Who are those hooded hordes swarming Over endless plains, stumbling in cracked earth Ringed by the flat horizon only What is the city over the mountains Cracks and reforms and bursts in the violet air Falling towers Jerusalem Athens Alexandria Vienna London The DVD release of Alfonso Cuarón's Children of Men (2006) may herald the first global blockbuster marketed as a teaching text. Both the director's statements in interviews for the popular press and the DVD's extra features offering commentary and analysis from Slavoj Žižek, Naomi Klein, Tzvetan Todorov, Fabrizio Eva, Saskia Sassen, John Gray, and James Lovelock suggest a film ready-made for cultural studies analysis. Moreover, the film, with its numerous allusions to contemporary geopolitics and dense network of high-culture and popular cultural citations, offers a doubly coded model of this type of analysis, combining an ideological critique of post-9/11 global politics with a meditation on cinematic aesthetics and their interpretation. As this essay will elaborate, Cuarón's film organizes its generic take on the dystopian science fiction film—responding in particular to the strain that Fred Glass conceptualizes as the "New Bad Future Film"—through a critical reading of the themes and referential aesthetics of T. S. Eliot's The Waste Land. Expanding on the diverse interpenetrations of the film's ideological and aesthetic critiques, I argue that Cuarón's film provides a compelling response to the aphorism attributed to Lenin: that ethics are the aesthetics of the future. The movie is loosely adapted from P. D. James's novel Children of Men (1992), which, according to the author, sprang from the question "If there were no future, how would we behave?" The film, which links its vision of the future to contemporary political, economic, and environmental concerns that did not yet exist when James wrote her novel, intimates that we would behave very badly indeed; Cuarón portrays a dreary future after the nuclear and environmental destruction of the entire world outside of England. Public service announcements and news programs provide much of the expository information, so that the viewer's knowledge of the dystopian world of Children of Men is delineated by what appears via its omnipresent audiovisual media. As co-viewers (along with the film's characters) of the various audiovisual stimuli that saturate the film's mise-en-scène, we are drawn into the dystopian world envisioned, so that our own perspective on events resembles that of the characters. This self-reflexive emphasis on media and representation can be related to the director's overarching concern with the politics of the present and how they inform the way we imagine the future. Children of Men opens with a black screen while a series of voices belonging to television announcers recite the day's lead stories: "The Homeland Security Bill is ratified. After eight years, British borders will remain closed. The deportation of illegal immigrants will continue." Whereas most viewers will be prepared for a sci-fi film set in a future United Kingdom, the mention of the term "Homeland Security" in this opening sequence actually links the narrative on several levels to the sociopolitical reality of the present-day United States. The establishing shot that emerges from the initial blackness is a coffee shop interior in which a transfixed public gazes at a television monitor off-screen; thus, as the film opens we view another audience who, at the same time, watches another screen. In this way, Cuarón establishes a formal parallel between the fictional world of the diegesis and the real world of the spectator while emphasizing the omnipresence of the media in the global age. The film's opening introduces the central thematic and structural elements that form the entire narrative: an omnipresent media, the problem of anonymous terrorism, and a dire biological and ecological reality, all photographed with an utterly realist style. Through Cuarón's...
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Why are economists and lawyers relevant to knowledge policy in a way that philosophers have not been? I argue that, unlike philosophers, economists and lawyers take seriously the “ontological status�? of knowledge. In other words, they routinely treat knowledge as a sort of thing, more specifically, a system of social relations that is fixed by a common physical object. This enables the isolation and manipulation of knowledge as “product�? (in economics) or “property�? (in law). I develop this argument, first, by contrasting the immaterial conception of knowledge typically found in metaphysics with the multimaterial one that follows from seeing knowledge as having the capacity to empower its possessor. This leads to a discussion of disciplines and professions as vehicles for embodying knowledge in people. Afterward, I turn to consider the conversion of knowledge products into intellectual property, which raises the normative implications of embodying knowledge in specific people. Next, I analyze how issues of epistemic validity and economic value are affected by interpreting goods as more or less “knowledge- like�?. Finally, I show how this materialist conception of knowledge can be used to raise a pressing epistemological question of the Knowledge Society, namely, whether we know too little or too much for our own good.
Article
This paper draws attention to the link between art and language in Yoruba society. It then focuses on the ontological, mnemonic, and ritual significance of àwòrán (visual representation) and the social, religious, and artistic conventions that influence the practice, modes, and reception of portraiture. The paper also examines the complex interaction between visual representation (àwòrán) and the beholder (awòran), underscoring the fact that in Yoruba society, the act of looking and seeing (ìwòran) is determined as much by individual responses to specific representations or spectacles as by culturally constructed modes of perceiving and interpreting reality.
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This study explores the 'imaginary of disaster' that appears in popular fictions about the apocalyptic breakdown of society. Focusing on representations of crime, law, violence, vengeance and justice, it argues that an exploration post-apocalyptic story-telling offer us valuable insights into social anxieties.
Article
This paper explores a range of meanings that have been attributed to the concept of the 'authenticity' of the tourist experience. The analysis suggests that the ambiguity that surrounds it is in part due to: using the term without clarifying whether it is the object or experience that is the source of the authenticity; and lack of philosophical clarity with respect to its underlying assumptions and attributes. In particular, it is shown that the tourist experience lacks theoretical and philosophical underpinnings that enable for example, a clear understanding of how an experience may be 'authentic' and whether an object or event is 'real' or 'fake'. The paper also demonstrates how the tourist, at the microlevel of travel, is intimately connected both to the object/event being experienced and to greater macrolevel global, social and geopolitical structures. Subsequently, a theoretical framework is compiled, one that uses a philosophical and interdisciplinary perspective. Here, the distinction of de dicto ('of what is said' (or 'of the proposition')) and de re ('of the thing') is introduced in order to clarify some of the ambiguity that results whenever the researcher's own methodological and philosophical assumptions are not clearly delineated or understood. Specific micro-macro level linkages are later discussed, including those related to post-colonial space, heritage tourism, alienation and performativity, along with the 'home' and 'world' of tourist experiences and existence. Finally, a few suggestions are offered for further critical and reflexive analysis of authenticity in tourism.
Article
Together with terms such as “savage”, “child” and “simpleton”, the word “cannibal” has played a significant role in the lexicon of colonial discourse as a signifier of alterity. Using Peter Hulme's thesis on the origin of the term “cannibal” as an anchor, this essay explores the fraught relationship between anthropophagy and the discourses surrounding the topic of cannibalism. As a point of articulation, I shall examine the short story “Falk” by Joseph Conrad in which a European protagonist confesses to the act of cannibalism in extremis. Reading the story contrapuntally, this essay interrogates the circumstances around Falk's “crime”, unravelling the narrator's own preconceptions and prejudices which feed into society's fixation with labels and stereotypes such as “savages” and “cannibals”.
Article
The author covers the background of soundscape composition, as initiated by the World Soundscape Project at Simon Fraser University, and soundscape documentation as an activity that is being increasingly practised worldwide. Today there are two striking manifestations of this work: the increasing globalisation of the electroacoustic community, and the increasing sophistication of digital techniques applied to soundscape composition. In addition, the tradition of listening to environmental soundscapes as if they were music is inverted to suggest listening to electroacoustic music as if it were soundscape. What analytical tools and insights would result? The theoretical concepts introduced in soundscape studies and acoustic communication are summarised and applied first to media and digital gaming environments, noting the extensions of both their sound worlds and the related listening attitudes they provoke in terms of analytical and distracted listening. Traditional approaches to acousmatic and soundscape analysis are compared for their commonalities and differences, the latter being mainly their relative balance of attention towards inner and outer complexity. The types of electroacoustic music most amenable to a soundscape based analysis are suggested, along with brief examples of pieces to which such analysis might be directed.