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The strength of weak ties: A network theory revisited'

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... al., 2001). The structural components of networking involve the building and maintaining of linkages or ties that form the conduits for moving information and enhancing success (Granovetter, 1982). Social capital concepts underpinning networking have been explicitly integrated to build understanding about the strength of group-oriented actions such as an alliance of Italian knitting and apparel manufacturers (Putnam et al., 1993), embeddedness in the New York City apparel industry (Uzzi, 1996), and networking among apparel business owners (Besser and Miller, 2011;Miller et al., 2007). ...
... Network ties, as defined in this study, are interfirm agreements among firms who share or exchange their resources in a cooperative effort to achieve a collective goal (Teece, 1992). The term network is used to represent social, professional, and exchange relationships with other entities (Granovetter, 1982). Following the categories proposed by Achrol and Kotler (1999), we examine vertical networks ties that create partnerships or arrangements among independent but ability-or capacity-specific firms. ...
... Moreover, because of discovered findings regarding the influence of knowledge and social capital on new product development, the authors deem that a qualitative study would be useful to gain a deeper understanding of this occurrence in SME's new product development. Research based on mixed methods may provide insights as to the firm-and industry-level determinants of social interactions, and tie strengths (Granovetter, 1982) as well as the types and qualities of network configurations supporting innovation. Essential ways that horizontal relationships could provide a combination of cooperation for competitive advantages remain under-explored. ...
Article
Studies have highlighted the benefits of external knowledge building as a means of heightening a firm’s innovation activities. Simultaneously supply chain scholars have highlighted the lack of focus on social facets at the micro behavioral level, as well as the limited endeavors to build upon existing theories for new perspectives. Taking an exploratory approach to addressing literature gaps, the objectives of this research involve integrating constructs from social capital theory and the knowledge-based view of the firm to examine associations and interactions among network ties, social interactions, knowledge absorptive capacity, and knowledge acquisition in the development of new product innovations by US apparel and sewn products manufacturers (N=125). Quantitative data were collected via an online survey of both a national and state sample of small sized manufacturers. Findings regarding new product development indicated: positive associations for network ties, social interactions, knowledge absorptive capacity, and knowledge acquisition; network ties and knowledge acquisition; mediated relationships with social interaction and absorptive capacity; and moderated social interaction relationships with absorptive capacity and network ties­. These empirical insights highlight the importance of building external relationships for generating knowledge in amplifying innovation. Theoretical contributions, managerial implications, limitations and suggestions for future research are presented.
... Individuals engage with their offline and online networks to satisfy their emotional, psychological, commercial, and social needs (Granovetter, 1983). Although not new, SNT has gained momentum as SNSs have begun to play a significant role in the everyday lives of individuals (Kim et al. 2018). ...
... Lee and Choi (2019) claim that social ties are important and that eWOM on SNSs can be triggered by interaction between individuals with both strong and weak ties. It can be assumed that the stronger the social ties are, the greater the acceptance of the message, and the higher the level of impact (Granovetter, 1983). Thus, it is argued that the impact of eWOM messages on SNSs is higher between users who have strong social ties (see Hu et al., 2019). ...
Article
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Electronic Word of Mouth (eWOM) engagement on social networking sites (SNSs) is influenced by social relationship factors and this influence is assumed to be consistent. This study investigates the effects of social relationship variables in the context of emerging economies. It also observes the mediating role of social relationship variables in the relationship between conformity and eWOM. We hypothesized a moderating role of age, gender, and country of residence. The results revealed that social ties, trust, and interpersonal influence exert consistent impact and that conformity exerts positive indirect influence on eWOM engagement via social ties, trust, social capital, and interpersonal influence. It was found that age, gender moderate the observed relationship, while country plays no moderating role. The theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed.
... Other advantages may include job fulfilment (Brass et al., 2004), staffing (Granovetter, 1982) and 'getting ahead' based upon 'who you know' (Burt, 1997). ...
... However, an over-dependence on strong connections can limit flexibility and smother innovation. Indeed, weak connections provide a unique advantage in that they permit the entrepreneur to obtain more information from additional sources (Granovetter, 1982). 'Diversity' in a network is the range of sources accessible to the entrepreneur, in terms of experience and knowledge (McGowan and Hampton, 2006;Eternad et al., 2001). ...
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Despite the acknowledged benefits networking offers to entrepreneurs and the interest in female entrepreneurship in developing countries, there have not been any studies on the networking activities of Pakistani female entrepreneurs. This study obtained and analysed rich data from 20 in-depth interviews with Pakistani women entrepreneurs about their networking activities and how these changed as their businesses matured. Results demonstrated that Pakistani women initially join informal networks of family and friends but, when their businesses mature, they tend to join strategically valuable, high-quality networks that include anyone, regardless of gender, who offers guidance, insights or know-how. It is hoped that these results will guide government policy to facilitate female entrepreneurs' networking endeavours.
... The entrepreneurial team either considers the individuals' complementary skills required for managing the complexity of TBV or the set of individuals providing social and emotional support to the team members (Soetanto, 2017). Scholars suggest that entrepreneurial teams in TBV are more likely to have strong ties (Ruef et al., 2003) as they result in the diffusion of social information and increase social influence within the team (Granovetter, 1983). These ties make the team's internal environment more expressive, trustworthy, and willing to work for the venture. ...
... Alternatively, if technical expertise is the venture's primary requirement that existing team members do not fulfil, collaboration through weak ties is generally considered in technology ventures (Aldrich & Kim, 2007). The weak ties provide instrumental/task-oriented strength in the network that better reaches the outside source of information through bridging ties between different network clusters (Granovetter, 1983). Entrepreneurial team members in such a network work independently to achieve the common goals of venture success (Schjoedt & Kraus, 2009). ...
Article
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In Tamil Nadu, the IR situation is relatively favorable compared to other states in India. Data was collected from authorized websites and the labor commissioner’s office. Focus on skill development and technical education has enabled the state to generate a regular supply of workers for the manufacturing industries, and the employment generation and growth of the manufacturing sector surpass the national average. The number of strikes and lockout in Tamil Nadu resulted in 89658 man-days lost. It is evident from the findings that the state contributes a significant portion to the country’s development and manufacturing. Providing an endless opportunities for education (Engineering, diploma, IIT) for setting up manufacturing and sustainable practices, with a favourable IR climate in the industry, work to the advantage of the state.
... In this paper, we seek to make a contribution to theory by gathering evidence on whether clientelism is disappearing in the states of the post-Soviet Union or whether it may persist. Third, since central to informal network theory, the 'strength of weak ties'-theory (Granovetter, 1973(Granovetter, , 1983(Granovetter, , 2017 claims that having weak ties is the key to informal networking to gain personal benefits. Tie strength is important in relation to the persistence debate and hence interconnected. ...
... In collectivistic societies strong ties count; weak ties either do not exist to such an extent as in Western countries or they are not influential. Hence, this paper has the aim to add to the "strength of weak ties debate" (Granovetter, 1973(Granovetter, , 1983 by making a case for clientelism in the post-Soviet Union region. ...
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In this theoretical study, we challenge two prevalent assumptions in the international business domain: the "disappearance of informal networks" and the "strength of weak ties" assumption. By doing so, we draw from cultural as well as informality studies and explore the phenomenon of clientelism and its characteristics in the post-Soviet Union. We first conceptualize clientelism as an informal reciprocal exchange mechanism between a patron and a client, defined by mutual benefits on a long-term basis that also can underlay and lead to other forms of informal exchange practices such as clanism, blat, and kinship. As a result, we argue that informal networks and ties based on patron-client relations are neither disappearing nor is weakness a characteristic that makes them strong. We propose that diverse clientelistic ties appear to persist in the post-Soviet Union, as they are culturally embedded and dynamically adjust to changes in the environment. Furthermore, we assume that, contrary to the West, typically strong ties prevail in informal networks in the East. Finally, we argue that the nature of clientelism is paradoxical: on the one hand, it is prone to favoritism, unfair competition, corruption or bribery but, when it comes to weak governments, clientelistic practices may, on the other hand, be seen an effective means to give aid to poor or disadvantaged citizens. Also, it can help to overcome social boundaries by connecting persons of different social classes. Our conceptualization of clientelism and the specifics of informal networks in the post-Soviet Union, as well as our propositions, can inform future research at the intersection of international business and informality studies.
... According to foundational research into professional communities, there are two main forms of professional connections: 'strong ties', where information and ideas flow and circulate freely but are often recycled, and 'weak ties' where information tends to be new but less freely-circulating (Granovetter, 1983). Although the past forty years' of technological advances have radically altered the nature of communities, this division still holds in recent research, conducted over a timespan that factors in increasing Internet use (Castells, 2009;Matthews, Crampton, Hill, Johnson, Sharma, & Varsavsky, 2015). ...
... The development of the Internet has, however, brought some changes to theoretical models. Earlier research focused on exact geographical distances (Homans, 1961), emphasising the impact of geographical location on our personal ties (Granovetter, 1983). Several writers have since challenged this given changes in technology use. ...
Book
The “School and University Partnership for Peer Communities of Learners (SUP4PCL)” is an ERASMUS+ funded project. It established partnerships between a number of Egyptian and European Educational institutions to create Professional Communities of Learners (PCLs). Each Egyptian University was twinned with a European partner university. In this case, Alexandria University (AU) was twinned with the University of Northampton (UON). During the lifetime of the project, AU formed a team to lead the project’s work packages. This team formed a core PCL that worked closely with a parallel team from UON. This case study set out to explore and examine the process of the PCL’s formation, evolution and development and aimed to capture variables that impacted the establishment and sustainability of PCLs within the Egyptian context.
... There are numerous studies which focus on the individual entrepreneur (e.g., Baum & Locke, 2004;Kets de Vries, 1977) as isolated, self-directed, 'sometimes maverick, often non-conforming but single-handedly relentlessly pursuing opportunity' (Dodd & Anderson, 2007, p. 341). Others see entrepreneurship as embedded (Cornelissen & Clarke, 2010;Granovetter, 1983), where entrepreneurs are considered beings influenced by their social circle (Rosenberg, 2011;Steinberg & Monahan, 2007). Past research on social influence has revealed counterintuitive psychologi-cal effects generated by social forces (Asch, 1956;Milgram, 1963), and the impact of persuasion and normative influences (Cialdini & Goldstein, 2004) on an individual's judgement relating to entrepreneurial activity holds great interest for the field of entrepreneurship scholars (Minniti, 2005;Shepherd, 2015;Shepherd & Krueger, 2002) and more recently in Douglas et al. (2021). ...
... Through their social embeddedness, individuals are connected with people in their social environment by strong and weak ties, according to the extent of trust and the time they spend together (Granovetter, 1983(Granovetter, , 2005. Family members, friends, role models, colleagues and acquaintances are usually present in an individual's social circle, however, the nature of the connections (ties) with these categories of people would differ. ...
Article
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What role peers play in individuals’ decisions to become entrepreneurs and to what extent peer effects play a role in influencing behaviours at the various stages of business venturing are important questions for scholars and policymakers. This systematic review takes stock of the recent additions to the literature around the phenomenon of peer influence in entrepreneurship. The review identified 2894 documents which were then narrowed down through three consecutive filtering stages. We thematically analysed the final sample of 27 empirical studies that shed light on how individual peers influence the process and outcomes of these individuals’ entrepreneurial intentions and behaviour, allowing for critical analysis. We propose a conceptual schema of social influence that occurs in interactions among entrepreneurial individuals within business venturing and across the three stages of pre‐formation, formation and growth. Our framework reconciles the conceptual classification around discovering, evaluating and exploiting entrepreneurial opportunities with the mechanisms of social influence affecting entrepreneurial behaviours. Grounded in the findings of the literature review, this framework synthesizes peer influence in entrepreneurship with the tripartite distinction of the behavioural motives recognized in contemporary theories of social influence. We suggest promising directions for further research on how interactions with peers might affect individuals’ entrepreneurial behaviours.
... Granovetter's (20) pioneering research on tie strength in social networks-the "amount of time, emotional intensity, intimacy, and reciprocal services" that define every relationshiplaunched decades of research in sociology, social psychology, and computational social science investigating how the nature of one's relationships moderates the link between people's social lives and their well-being. On one hand, strong ties (i.e., close others) serve as powerful sources of intimacy, support, and emotional richness (21)(22)(23)(24). Compared to interactions with strangers or colleagues, people tend to feel happiest after interactions with their partners, friends, and family members (7,25). ...
... In fact, recent work suggests that individuals discuss important topics with their weak ties more often than traditional network theory would predict (29,30)-especially in one-on-one conversation when relational stakes are lower (31,32). At the network level, weak ties play a critical role in bolstering one's network, by serving as bridges that provide access to information and resources (20)(21)(22)(23)(24). ...
Article
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We document a link between the relational diversity of one's social portfolio-the richness and evenness of relationship types across one's social interactions-and well-being. Across four distinct samples, respondents from the United States who completed a preregistered survey (n = 578), respondents to the American Time Use Survey (n = 19,197), respondents to the World Health Organization's Study on Global Aging and Adult Health (n = 10,447), and users of a French mobile application (n = 21,644), specification curve analyses show that the positive relationship between social portfolio diversity and well-being is robust across different metrics of well-being, different categorizations of relationship types, and the inclusion of a wide range of covariates. Over and above people's total amount of social interaction and the diversity of activities they engage in, the relational diversity of their social portfolio is a unique predictor of well-being, both between individuals and within individuals over time.
... Although it may seem counterintuitive, there is value in weak ties. In employment networks, Granovetter (1983) found that job seekers were more likely to find a job through weak ties than through strong ties. Job seekers would not use close friends to find jobs because they usually knew the same things and people as they did (Granovetter, 1983). ...
... In employment networks, Granovetter (1983) found that job seekers were more likely to find a job through weak ties than through strong ties. Job seekers would not use close friends to find jobs because they usually knew the same things and people as they did (Granovetter, 1983). Instead, they found jobs through acquaintances like old college friends, former colleagues, or people they just happened to run into at the right moment. ...
Article
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In recent years, some new professional sport franchises experienced instant success in developing passionate fanbases. For example, the Vegas Golden Knights of the National Hockey League (NHL) sold over 90% of the area’s capacity as season tickets before the puck dropped on their inaugural season in 2017 and were in the top 10 of league ticket revenue that year (Ewing 2017). Another example is Atlanta United of Major League Soccer (MLS) who broke the league’s attendance record during their first season and have been the league’s most attended stadium every season for their first five years of exist-ence (Butler 2021; Hensley, 2017). To the surprise of many, without ever playing a match, these teams formed tight knit communities, which warrants further discussion to understand how this occurred. his article highlights how SNT can explain how teams like the Golden Knights and Atlanta United experienced instant success in building a fanbase and provides implications for sport practitioners in looking to build fan communities of their own.
... Agora que apresentamos de que sociedade tratamos neste capítulo, podemos nos aprofundar nas reflexões do conceito de Rede. O conceito de redes tem base nos estudos de Harrison White (1930) e Granovetter (1983), dialogando com Barabási (2002), além dos autores Buchanam (2009 e 2010) e Christakis e Fowler (2010). A importância da ciência das redes envolve a compreensão de padrões comportamentais. ...
... Underlying these policies is a rising interest in maintaining the bonds between non-resident citizens and their CoO through enacting Diaspora engagement policies. The importance of maintaining such bonds (Granovetter 1983) stems from the emergence of the network effect that is susceptible to leveraging through citizens residing abroad, acting in cooperation with their compatriots within their CoO. The main purpose would be the creation and maintenance of collective social capital which would then be able to maintain and strengthen the relationships between the CoO and CoR, within a utilitarian perspective (Portes 1996). ...
Article
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Portuguese emigration has a long global history and, in recent decades, has increased substantially and diversified its range of destinations. Recent emigration, predominantly to the European Union and Lusophone countries in Africa, complemented the traditional 19th to twentieth centuries’ waves of emigration to the Americas. The Portuguese Diaspora is multigenerational and globally distributed, although diverse. How are those generations of migrants organized within the local spaces of the Diaspora? Based on an innovative survey of more than 500 Portuguese Diaspora organisations, this paper shows how migrant engagement policies and practices are evolving and dealing with the new types of Diaspora relations, organisations and institutions. The main output of this research is an exploratory typology of the contemporary apparatuses of these Portuguese Diaspora systems and their nodes. This typology characterises the modern political engagement of non-resident citizens through their participation in associations and other social networks. With this pioneering paper, we intend to open a discussion regarding the means and forms available to mobilise current and past emigrant groups within a meaningful Diaspora policy.
... Granovetter proposed the tie strength theory in the social network theory and divided the tie strength in the network into strong tie and weak tie. Strong tie represents multiple social relationships with high connection frequency, closeness, mutual trust and information sharing among network members, while weak tie is the opposite [36]. Coleman and Landry et al. found that strong tie can improve innovation performance [37,38]. ...
Article
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Taking A-share listed companies in the petroleum industry as the research object, this paper empirically studies the relationship among the characteristics of industry-university-research (IUR) cooperation network, social capital, and innovation performance in the petroleum companies. The empirical research results show that the strength and centrality of the IUR cooperation network in the petroleum industry positively affect social capital and innovation performance; Network scale has no significant positive impact on social capital and innovation performance; Social capital plays a partially mediating role in the influence of characteristics of IUR cooperation network on innovation performance. According to the research findings, some strategies to improve the innovation performance of petroleum companies are proposed, which include occupying the center of the IUR cooperation network, high-frequency interaction with the objects of the IUR cooperation network, and expansion of the IUR cooperation network should match its own growth stage.
... Javari and Jalili, (2014) modeled (Knapskog, 1998) and bi-lattice (Victor et al., 2006) to investigate the trust and distrust propagation in signed networks. Granovetter (1983), proposed the idea of strong and weak ties where he showed 'weak' connections to be more useful than connections signifying 'strong' bonds of closed friendship or kinship. Davis (1967) generalized the concept of structural balance to weak balance considering triads with all negative links. ...
... Alguns estudos indicam que a intensidade de interação em rede está positivamente correlacionada à geração de inovações, como também a cooperação, sendo o termo chave para o funcionamento adequado da rede (GRANOVETTER, 1973) compartilhamento da informação e do conhecimento em Redes Sociais. Permite identificar medidas de padrões de interação, laços fortes e fracos e, assim aprimorar a cooperação da rede. ...
... , Ajzen, I. (1985) [117], Fishbein and Ajzen (1975) [118], Tobin, J. (1958) [119], Adu, G. (2019) [120] Nahapiet & Ghoshal, (1998)[ 121], Berraies et al., 2020 [122] and Granovetter, M. (1983)[123]. ...
Article
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Purpose: The most pertinent source for generating wealth is to invest in stock market, however numerous studies have proved that there is low stock market participation. Hence, the extensive review of existing literatures on stock market involvement has been conducted to identify the various factors influencing stock market participation and also to identify the gap in this body of research. Approach: The current study is conducted with thorough analysis of the body of literature from numerous search engines, including Google Scholar, Scopus, Research Gate, etc. these gathered data on financial literacy, stock market participation, social inclusion and digital inclusion includes journal articles, working paper, reports, magazines, books and websites etc. In order to search the pertinent information for the study many keywords were used. Literatures were then divided into conceptual review, hypothetical relationship review, and theoretical review. Results/ Findings: Numerous studies have exposed that financial literacy and social inclusion significantly contribute to stock market participation, and also digitization promotes individuals involvement in the financial market. The extensive review directed a researcher towards low touched area under stock market participation i.e. to determine how literacy level on financial aspects and social inclusion will improve one’s involvement in the stock market, when it is mediated through digital inclusion. Originality/Value: This study will provide policy guidelines to Government, financial policy makers, practitioners and academician in the area of finance to encourage stock market participation by highlighting the sustainable inclusive growth through socialization and digitalization in order to generate wealth which again contributes to economic development of a country. Type of Paper: Literature Review
... It is one of the sources for information that immigrants have higher barriers to compare to the locals or to the immigrants that have migrated earlier. Being socially connected in the host society can provide job opportunities, informal insurance, social support and more (see for instance, Foster and Rosenzweig 2001; Blumenstock et al. 2019;Bloch et al. 2008;Gërxhani and Kosyakova 2020;Munshi 2003;McKenzie and Rapoport 2010;Granovetter 2018Granovetter , 1983. While it is difficult for immigrants to be socially integrated with locals immediately, immigrants tend 7 Recommendations on Statistics of International Migration, Revision 1(p.113). ...
Article
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Today, many users are actively using Twitter to express their opinions and to share information. Thanks to the availability of the data, researchers have studied behaviours and social networks of these users. International migration studies have also benefited from this social media platform to improve migration statistics. Although diverse types of social networks have been studied so far on Twitter, social networks of migrants and natives have not been studied before. This paper aims to fill this gap by studying characteristics and behaviours of migrants and natives on Twitter. To do so, we perform a general assessment of features including profiles and tweets, and an extensive network analysis on the network. We find that migrants have more followers than friends. They have also tweeted more despite that both of the groups have similar account ages. More interestingly, the assortativity scores showed that users tend to connect based on nationality more than country of residence, and this is more the case for migrants than natives. Furthermore, both natives and migrants tend to connect mostly with natives. The homophilic behaviours of users are also well reflected in the communities that we detected. Our additional privacy risk analysis showed that Twitter data can be safely used without exposing sensitive information of the users, and minimise risk of re-identification, while respecting GDPR.
... In the current research, we analyze the textual information by focusing on whether and how frequently social-ties-related words (e.g., family, friends) are used in the borrower's project description. Strong social ties refer to human relationships that involve more frequent contact, stronger emotional intensity, and greater intimacy (Granovetter, 1983). Social ties have been investigated in previous research but in a different context. ...
... varied ideas which are more readily received or rejected without personal ties being involved (Granovetter 1983:215). ...
Thesis
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In October 2015, students from the University of Witswatersrand (WITS) engaged in passionate protest after an announcement that university fees were set to increase by 10.5% in the following year. Nearly concurrently, students from the University of Cape Town (UCT) gathered to demand the felling of the statue of Cecil Rhodes. Both protests, termed Fees Must Fall and Rhodes Must Fall respectively, saw the spread of visually striking images, spread by the activists, news stations and spectators to the events on social media sites. My dissertation explores the role of visual activism from the Fees Must Fall movement with a focus on how the protest imagery both characterised and motivated spectators to side with the cause. With the American hashtag movement Black Lives Matter and Rhodes Must Fall as comparative case studies, I investigate the iconography of the movements, focussing on the use of the clenched fist gesture, images of pain and suffering, as well as transformation portraiture. I further explore the online dimension of the sharing of visual activism images and speculate as to how social networking sites encourage political activists to engage in affective arguments through their visual communication.
... Uno de los fundamentos conceptuales de la teoría de las redes sociales es el concepto de "capital social" o los recursos integrados en un sistema a través de las relaciones sociales (Lin, 2001, p. 24). La calidad de los vínculos entre los individuos de un sistema social es lo que genera una estructura que, en última instancia, determina las oportunidades para las transacciones de capital social y el acceso a los recursos (Burt, 1992;Granovetter, 1982;Lin, 2001;Putnam, 1995). Los vínculos fuertes fomentan la transferencia de conocimiento tácito (Hansen, 1999;Reagans y McEvily, 2003) y soluciones mutuas o colaborativas (Uzzi, 1997), en tanto que las redes menos densas fomentan la transferencia de información rutinaria y explícita (Hansen, 1999). ...
Chapter
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Los académicos Elizabeth Gil y Muhammad Khalifa, plantean lo que consideran una nueva dimensión del liderazgo para los directivos escolares, que debe ser integrada a los modelos tradicionales y que se basa en ser culturalmente sensible a la comunidad que se atiende en la escuela. Este enfoque responde de una manera no convencional y políticamente comprometida a la habitual exhortación a tomar en consideración el contexto socio-cultural para el trabajo escolar, en particular en los establecimientos estadounidenses de alta complejidad racial, dónde tanto latinos como afrodescendientes suelen ser marginalizados. Se parte del principio de que la escuela debe escuchar, validar y aprender de la cultura de los estudiantes y sus familias, asegurándose que sus prioridades sean también las prioridades escolares, así como entendiendo su punto de vista ante las dinámicas educativas y los conflictos.
... It can be used to define the contribution of personal ties and networks, both within and outside the business, to organizational performance. (Kawachi & Berkman, 2000) Social capital is linked to shared group resources, such as friends' awareness of job openings (Granovetter, 1982). Individuals get social capital through their social network, which is made up of a web of social connections (Berkman, Glass, Brissette, & Seeman, 2000). ...
Article
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Differentiation and diversity are highly valued in a plural society. Despite this, a plural society need a binder to reinforce interpersonal relationships, often known as social cohesiveness. Social cohesion is a social process aimed at eliminating disparities, socioeconomic inequalities, and societal rifts in order to consolidate plurality of citizenships. To survive, social cohesion requires reinforcing energy, one of which comes from social capital. This paper will explain how social capital is a source of energy that helps to strengthen social cohesion in multiple societies.
... A value network is explained by Lusch, Vargo, and Tanniru (2010, p. 20) as "a spontaneously sensing and responding spatial and temporal structure of largely loosely coupled value proposing social and economic actors interacting through institutions and technology". Value networks are formed by seemingly unrelated actors and allow the formation of a macro-structure that is more fluid, responsive, and flexible (Granovetter, 1983). Previously, studies adopted a value network approach due to the underlying deficiency of traditional dyadic relationships in a value chain. ...
Article
Advanced technologies assist diverse entities in becoming network actors, exchanging resources and co-creating value together to achieve service innovation. However, tensions emerge when multiple actors have different goals and expectations during the service innovation process. This thesis extends the service ecosystems literature by incorporating the evolution of value platforms in the service innovation process over time. The notion of value platforms facilitates our understanding of the dynamic interactions among actors to co-create value for the development of service innovation. The theoretical lens of institutional logics was applied in this study to explore the dynamic resource-related activities that occur as value platforms evolve. This thesis explores the evolution of value platforms embedded in service ecosystems during the service innovation process. It investigates how the resource-related activities evolve in service ecosystems throughout the process of service innovation and seeks to unravel the mechanism of actor interaction in platform-based service innovation. In particular, the study investigates how value platforms embedded in service ecosystems evolve, what tensions arise throughout the evolution due to the multiple institutional logics of the actors within the ecosystem, and how multiple institutional logics are navigated as value platforms evolve. A critical realist approach is adopted to explore the phenomenon of value platform evolution. A process-based single-case study design with two embedded cases is implemented to investigate value platforms embedded in service ecosystems to develop telematics insurance services. The researcher conducted a two-phased data collection to gather semi-structured interviews and participant-generated drawings as primary data from different actors along with archival documents as the secondary data. A realist evaluation enabled the delineation of the five stages that form the building blocks of the evolution of the value platforms. Moreover, an abductive approach identified three types of process-related tensions and three types of navigating mechanisms that emerge dynamically as value platforms evolve. This research offers theoretical contributions to a processual understanding of value co-creation in service ecosystems by explaining the evolution of tensions resulting from co-existing institutional logics and navigating mechanisms inherent in value platforms. It also highlights how regulatory actors affect service ecosystems during the process of service innovation. Furthermore, the study offers practitioners a processual understanding of tensions that occur in the service innovation process, and the approaches to navigating those tensions in service ecosystems during the service innovation process.
... Социальные медиа как базовый элемент протестной консолидации [Архипова и др. 2018] существенно упрощают мобилизацию, повышают эффективность массовых движений [Соколов, Курбанова 2018], В Л А С Т Ь 2 0 21 ' 01 способствуя выстраиванию «слабых социальных сетей» между неоднородным населением, коммуникативно сопрягая несколько малых групп и упрощая их взаимодействие по социально значимой проблематике [Granovetter 1983]. Но повсеместное распространение цифровых медиа не превращает их в механизм революционной самоорганизации. ...
Article
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Автор обращается к исследованию проблемы генезиса протестной коммуникации и консолидации под влиянием нематериальных факторов. Обращаясь к историко-философской традиции, автор последовательно рассуждает о состоятельности таких «нематериалистических» методологических парадигм объяснения социальной консолидации, как символический интеракционизм, теория фреймов, концепция утверждения постматериальных ценностей и пр. Последовательно исследуя специфику протестных выступлений последних лет по всему миру, автор резюмирует состоятельность применения коммуникативной методологии интерпретации протестной самоорганизации как особой коммуникации, опирающейся на уникальный «код взаимодействия» и ценностную систему, альтернативную артикулируемой властью и бюрократией. Однако повсеместное распространение цифровых медиа не превращает их в механизм революционной самоорганизации.
... This hypothesis is likely to help us understand the dissemination of the petition from the local to the national and international levels. This is in line with the theory of the strength of weak ties, according to which the passage into other spheres (here into the inter-community dimension) allows one to move beyond the proximal space of mobilisation [21] [22]. ...
Preprint
E-petitioning is a useful object of study for observing the potential emergence of a new relationship to politics and new forms of political participation. Access to a dataset of hundreds of thousands of users of an electronic petitioning platform, provides the opportunity to overcome a certain number of limitations that are associated with traditional methods of studying political participation, since it allows us to focus on the reality of the signatories’ behaviour rather than on their declarations. We follow the traces left by the petitioners on this site to better understand the process of dissemination of an online petition, and its linked with offline activities. Our examination of the three most signed petitions in the ‘environment’ category, combining an analysis of their petitioning dynamics and an analysis of the comments attached to them, allows us to show: firstly, that there is an interwoven relationship between the local anchoring of the mobilisation and the processes of dissemination by which petitions extend from local signatories to signatories who are geographically more distant; and secondly, that it is not accurate to imagine that just anyone can sign any petition, since petitioning dynamics proceed from one person to the next, whether these dynamics start from a pre-existing local anchorage on the ground, or act through a platform effect which is dependent on the attractiveness of the petition in question.
... It is also easier to contain disturbances to local areas in a loosely coupled system so that disruptions are prevented from spreading throughout the system (Perrow, 1984, cited in Staber andSydow, 2002, p. 418). The benefits of weak ties (Granovetter, 1982) are that they promote the search for non-redundant information, and that can be critical to new learning and for building responses to disturbances. On the contrary, strong ties promote conformity, prevent the development of new ideas (Scott, 1995) and hinder creative thinking (Perry-Smith and Shalley, 2003) which is what organizations need in a crisis. ...
Article
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Purpose-The purpose of this conceptual paper is to explore the role of strategic leadership under conditions of uncertainty and unpredictability. The authors argue that highly improbable, but high-impact events require the upper echelons of management, traditionally the custodians of strategy formulation to offer a new kind of strategic leadership focused on new mindsets, organizational capabilities, more in tune with high uncertainty and unpredictability. Design/methodology/approach-Drawing on strategic leadership, and complexity leadership theory, the authors review the literature and present a conceptual framework for exploring the nature of strategic leadership under uncertainty. The authors conceptualize organizations as complex adaptive systems and discuss the imperatives for developing new mental models for emergent leadership. Findings-Strategic leaders have a key role to play in preparing their organizations for episodic disruptions. These include developing their adaptive capabilities and building resilient organizations to ensure their organizations cannot only bounce back after a disruption but have the capacity for transformation to new fitness levels when necessary. Strategic leaders must engage with complexity leadership by seeing their organizations as complex adaptive systems, reconfigure their leadership approaches and organizations to build strategic adaptive capability. Research limitations/implications-This is a conceptual paper and the authors cannot make any claims of causality. Practical implications-Organizational leaders need to reconfigure their mental models and leadership approaches to reflect the new normal of uncertainty and unpredictability. Developing the strategic adaptive capability of organizations should prepare them for dealing with high impact events. To assure business continuity in the face of disruptions requires building flexible, adaptable business models. Originality/value-The paper focuses on how managers can offer strategic leadership for a new normal that challenges some of our most cherished leadership and strategic management paradigms. The authors explore the new mental models and leadership models in an era of great uncertainty.
... It also appears that men's social networks have fewer binary and ternary social ties than women's, implying a greater proportion of weak ties in men's social networks. Given weak ties are generally related to sharing of information, influence, status or prestige 70 , the striving for political status or more novel opportunities and information may be one of the motivations for men to participate in the pilgrimage. This is consistent with earlier research showing that males favour new contacts 71 and tend to form larger, hierarchically structured networks [72][73][74] , which may help them attain greater social status 75 . ...
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Many have attempted to explain the evolutionary origins of religion and some suggest that religiosity promotes cooperation. But the empirical works evaluating the links between religious practices and social cooperative networks have been surprisingly few, and whether religious celibacy helps structure local social support remains to explore. Here, we draw on the religiosity and social support network data among residents of an agricultural Tibetan village to evaluate whether people are more likely to establish supportive relationships with religious individuals and consanguineous kins of celibates, and examine the gender-specific correlations between religiosity and personal network characteristics. We found that religious practices foster social supporting relationships overall. Consanguineous kins of celibate monks enjoy more social acceptance not only by the enhanced probability of having a supportive relationship but also by denser connections among them. Engagement in pilgrimage acts is associated with larger networks for males but not for females, partaking in daily practice correlates with denser networks for both males and females. Particular religious acts may help individuals gain particular types of social network benefits.
... Social capital fulfills a bridging function between groups because contact and exchange break the narrow boundaries of 'closed ties' (Granovetter 1983) and widen the radius of transaction and interaction. According to Putnam (2001) and Coleman (1982), bridging social capital arises from the willingness of citizens to cooperate with one another and to provide mutual support because social interaction and joint activities strengthen generalized reciprocity, reinforce incentives for voluntary contributions and thus develop trust. ...
Article
In today’s globalized and interconnected world, international relationships are becoming ever more important. This applies not only to political relations but also to transnational attachment, a positive and solidary mutual attitude between the citizens of two countries, which is mainly based on social capital and trust. In particular border areas can benefit enormously when people have a bond with their neighboring country and its inhabitants. Due to their geographic proximity and historically shaped identity, border regions have a high potential for increased economic and social exchange. While empirical work on these characteristics of specific border areas is scarce, this article presents a novel approach which applies the concept of transnational social capital taking the French–German border area as an example. The representative study is based on telephone interviews, which were conducted in the border area and in regions within the two countries as a control for country-level effects. We find strong evidence for border region attachment in form of higher levels of social capital and trust in the border area. Our findings have important implications for borderland economies in general and in particular for cross-border resilience with regard to prevailing risks like upcoming nationalism and disasters such as the Covid-19 pandemic.
... Cohesive networks have the potential to mobilise more supportive resources, partly because such networks make it easier for the alters to become aware of the importance of the problem [40] and also make it possible for them to compare their impressions with those of others [14]. There is evidence of this outside the field of mental health: individuals who are embedded in dense networks receive more support in both routine and crisis situations [18,28,[58][59][60][61][62][63]. A dense network, however, could have a negative influence on the support offered by the members of a user's network. ...
Article
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Background For psychiatric service users suffering from severe mental disorders, the social support provided by personal social networks is essential for living a meaningful life within the community. However, the importance of the support received depend on the relations between the providers of social support. Yet this hasn’t been addressed in the literature so far for people with severe mental disorders. This article seeks to investigate how characteristics of service users with severe mental disorders, their social contacts, and the pattern of relationships between those contacts influence the distribution and provision of social support to people with severe mental disorders. Methods We collected personal network data relating to 380 psychiatric service users from a random sample of health care providers in Belgium. We computed various measures of the structure of those networks and of the position of support persons within those networks. We conducted a multilevel analysis of the importance of the support provided by each support persons. Results The results show that the more central a support person was in the network of a service user, the more important his or her support was considered to be by the service user. Also, the denser the network in which a support person was embedded, the less important was the support he or she offers, but only for hospitalised service users. Conclusion These finding highlight the collective dimension of social support. We discuss the implications for the organisation of mental health care.
... Such bounds try to separate the graph by removing a few edges (or substructures). Most real-world networks have a significant fraction of long-rage edges or weak ties, that are not part of any community [8,2,4]. Hence, it makes more sense to try to find a constant fraction of the network within communities, rather than remove few edges to separate them. ...
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A fundamental problem in mathematics and network analysis is to find conditions under which a graph can be partitioned into smaller pieces. The most important tool for this partitioning is the Fiedler vector or discrete Cheeger inequality. These results relate the graph spectrum (eigenvalues of the normalized adjacency matrix) to the ability to break a graph into two pieces, with few edge deletions. An entire subfield of mathematics, called spectral graph theory, has emerged from these results. Yet these results do not say anything about the rich community structure exhibited by real-world networks, which typically have a significant fraction of edges contained in numerous densely clustered blocks. Inspired by the properties of real-world networks, we discover a new spectral condition that relates eigenvalue powers to a network decomposition into densely clustered blocks. We call this the \emph{spectral triadic decomposition}. Our relationship exactly predicts the existence of community structure, as commonly seen in real networked data. Our proof provides an efficient algorithm to produce the spectral triadic decomposition. We observe on numerous social, coauthorship, and citation network datasets that these decompositions have significant correlation with semantically meaningful communities.
... Contrastingly, it was also very divisive, as it established distinctions between the "true believers" and the apostates. Interviewee 4 mentioned that it was acceptable to kill disbelievers based on their disbelief, which reinforces the hateful, intolerant, and puritanical aspects of the ideology which was alluded to by Interviewee 3 and 9. Commitment and loyalty were distinguishing features of the network, there was a closeness between the members, which was characterized by uniquely strong ties through family and kinship connections (Granovetter, 1983;Hafez, 2016;Medina, 2014). ...
Article
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The cataclysmic rise to prominence of the Radical Islamic Network (RIN) in Trinidad and Tobago afforded this small twin island developing state, the unenviable title of Highest Exporter of ISIS foreign terrorist fighters (FTF) per capita in the Western Hemisphere. Such notoriety jolted the nation to reexamine and revise its strategies to treat with radicalisation and religious extremism, with special emphasis on transnational militancy. As such, this research effort explores the FTF issue through the lens of the radical social network and the Radical Milieu from which these fighters emerged. This network centric approach to Islamic militancy in Trinidad and Tobago is a novel one that illuminates on the intersection of people, places and events, that integrated ideas and mobilized resources into the complex geo-clustered network of FTFs. The application of Social Network Analysis (SNA) has provided an opportunity to gain a deeper understanding of the defining relationships within the RIN and how the structural properties of the network protected some members whilst it progressed others to Jihad and Martyrdom.
... Contrastingly, it was also very divisive, as it established distinctions between the "true believers" and the apostates. Interviewee 4 mentioned that it was acceptable to kill disbelievers based on their disbelief, which reinforces the hateful, intolerant, and puritanical aspects of the ideology which was alluded to by Interviewee 3 and 9. Commitment and loyalty were distinguishing features of the network, there was a closeness between the members, which was characterized by uniquely strong ties through family and kinship connections (Granovetter, 1983;Hafez, 2016;Medina, 2014). ...
Article
Full-text available
Small States & Territories Journal https://www.um.edu.mt/library/oar/handle/123456789/44404 The cataclysmic rise to prominence of the Radical Islamic Network (RIN) in Trinidad and Tobago afforded this small twin island developing state, the unenviable title of Highest Exporter of ISIS foreign terrorist fighters (FTF) per capita in the Western Hemisphere. Such notoriety jolted the nation to reexamine and revise its strategies to treat with radicalisation and religious extremism, with special emphasis on transnational militancy. As such, this research effort explores the FTF issue through the lens of the radical social network and the Radical Milieu from which these fighters emerged. This network centric approach to Islamic militancy in Trinidad and Tobago is a novel one that illuminates on the intersection of people, places and events, that integrated ideas and mobilized resources into the complex geo-clustered network of FTFs. The application of Social Network Analysis (SNA) has provided an opportunity to gain a deeper understanding of the defining relationships within the RIN and how the structural properties of the network protected some members whilst it progressed others to Jihad and Martyrdom.
... However, several studies have shown that weak connections can play a significant role when investigating the links between network properties and individual differences in behaviour. The importance of weak connections for network stability has been established for various complex systems, from protein-to-protein interaction 23 to mobile communication networks 24 , biological functions 25 , or social networks 26 . According to the recent anatomical studies with tracing the connections within the cortical, the brain indeed has a lot of weak connections that have a substantial impact on maintaining the intermodular Figure 9. ...
Article
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Graph thresholding is a frequently used practice of eliminating the weak connections in brain functional connectivity graphs. The main aim of the procedure is to delete the spurious connections in the data. However, the choice of the threshold is arbitrary, and the effect of the threshold choice is not fully understood. Here we present the description of the changes in the global measures of a functional connectivity graph depending on the different proportional thresholds based on the 146 resting-state EEG recordings. The dynamics is presented in five different synchronization measures (wPLI, ImCoh, Coherence, ciPLV, PPC) in sensors and source spaces. The analysis shows significant changes in the graph’s global connectivity measures as a function of the chosen threshold which may influence the outcome of the study. The choice of the threshold could lead to different study conclusions; thus it is necessary to improve the reasoning behind the choice of the different analytic options and consider the adoption of different analytic approaches. We also proposed some ways of improving the procedure of thresholding in functional connectivity research.
... 2) Network connection strength refers to the degree of closeness of the members constituting the social network. Granovertter pointed out that it could be measured from four dimensions: interaction time, emotional intensity, intimacy and reciprocal service (Granovertter, 1982). ...
... As redes de contatos e relações sociais são um dos mecanismos para atração de pessoas ao mercado acionário (Hong, Kubik & Steins, 2004). Para Granovetter (1983), o enfoque das redes teve um impacto significativo na agenda deste campo, através da tecnologia possibilitou-se a análise de diversos objetos empíricos, resultados e "descobertas". A evolução das tecnologias de informação e comunicação foram de suma importância para a popularização do mercado de capitais (Silva et al., 2010). ...
Article
Esse estudo tem o objetivo de verificar os fatores determinantes para a entrada de pequenos investidores na Bolsa de Valores Brasileira. Para isso, utilizou-se um questionário encaminhado aos respondentes por meio eletrônico. Foram obtidas 698 respostas válidas. Foi utilizada a Análise de Homogeneidade (HOMALS) para identificar a associação existente entre o perfil dos investidores e os fatores determinantes para a entrada dos investidores na Bolsa de Valores. Através dos resultados, verificou-se que os fatores determinantes de maior destaque são: a possibilidade de obter renda extra no futuro, a queda no preço das ações, o baixo rendimento da poupança e a queda na Taxa SELIC. Os fatores que apresentam menor influência são: as propagandas e o incentivo de parentes e amigos. Além disso, quase metade dos respondentes concordam que enxergam a Bolsa de Valores como opção de ganhar dinheiro rápido. Identificou-se que pessoas com menos conhecimento sobre o mercado e perfil de risco moderado discordam que a Bolsa de Valores seja uma oportunidade de ganhar dinheiro rápido e que quanto mais agressivo é o perfil do investidor mais forte é a visão que a queda no preço das ações é uma oportunidade para investimentos na Bolsa de Valores. Foram identificadas diferenças entre os fatores que determinaram a decisão de investir na Bolsa de Valores dos investidores que entraram antes e depois da pandemia de COVID-19 no Brasil. Este estudo colabora com o preenchimento das lacunas de investigações empíricas sobre os motivos que fazem com que os pequenos investidores optem por investir na Bolsa de Valores. Ainda, contribui na formulação das estratégias de investimento e estratégias comerciais dos interessados no aumento de investidores Pessoa Física na Bolsa de Valores.
... As stated above it is possible, and likely, that these patterns vary across different samples, even within the US. In particular with socioeconomic (SES) diversity, there are theories in the network literature that suggest adults from high-versus low-SES backgrounds have different functions for the high and low intensity relationships in their networks (Granovetter, 1983;McPherson et al., 2006). Indeed, there is a general trend in the US that adults with higher levels of education have less kin relationships in their social networks (McPherson et al., 2006). ...
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Psychologists are interested in understanding how early social environments impact children’s behavior and cognition. Early social environments are comprised of social relationships; however, there have been relatively few tools available to quantify the depth and breadth of children’s social relationships. We harnessed the power of social networks to demonstrate that networks can be used to describe children’s early social environments. Descriptive data from American children aged 6 months–5 years ( n = 280; 47% female, 56% White) demonstrates that network properties can be used to provide a quantitative analysis of children’s early social environments and highlights how these environments vary across development. Social network methodology will provide researchers with a comprehensive picture of children’s early social experiences and improve studies exploring individual differences.
Conference Paper
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Proximity has lately become a keyword to approach territorial enhancement goals. The most common representation of proximity at the urban level is the idea of the 15-minute city, which has gained massive attention in political, economic, social, and academic discourses. However, this idea is not new in the worldwide panorama and, during the COVID-19 pandemic, has gained renovate attention because of contextual extraordinaire conditions. Furthermore, under so-called normal circumstances, this concept of proximity has certain evident societal constraints. In our paper, we want to propose and discuss a wider systemic approach and consequent definitions of proximity in connection with the different actors that compose and drive our societies. In the design for relations, we will identify a systemic and valuable strategy to overcome the previously discussed limits.
Thesis
El fenómeno de la migración de retorno siempre ha recibido menos atención que los procesos de inmigración/emigración. Además, sus elementos, como las intenciones de retorno y la toma de decisiones de retorno, se han estudiado casi exclusivamente desde un punto de vista estático, interrogando sobre las intenciones en un momento dado y disociando la acción de la intención y de la fase preparatoria. Para llenar estas lagunas de conocimiento, tomando el caso de los ucranianos en España, me centré en la formación y evolución de las intenciones de retorno durante el proyecto migratorio. Además, he analizado el proceso concreto del retorno, poniendo de manifiesto la relación entre la intención de retornar y la realización del retorno. Para abordar el fenómeno desde una perspectiva holística se ha desarrollado un marco teórico y analítico complejo e innovador. Los siguientes aspectos clave definieron el marco teórico y analítico: 1) El retorno no se consideró el punto final del proceso migratorio; 2) Se adoptó la perspectiva longitudinal; 3) La perspectiva comparativa era necesaria; 4) La atención se centró en la perspectiva de nivel meso (análisis de redes sociales); 5) Se introdujo en el modelo la perspectiva del curso de vida. El trabajo de campo consistió en 165 entrevistas cualitativas semiestructuradas (en España y Ucrania) sobre trayectoria migratoria, intenciones, motivaciones, decisiones y estrategias, complementadas con una entrevista mediante cuestionario para reconstruir la red personal de cada entrevistado.
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Problem: Networking in the context of various entry strategies is a relatively unexplored field in the domain of internationalization theory. Contrasting opinion regarding the role of networking on the mode of entry has been discussed by different authors. Further knowledge gap remains on how the role of networking might differ in case of various mode of market entry among family firms. This leads to the research question of this thesis: How does networking differs among family firms going international through various entry modes? Purpose: The purpose of this research paper is to focus on two themes that are recurrent in the discourse of Family Firm Internationalization which is networking and the market entry mode strategies that are chosen by family firms to enter the international markets. The goal of this research is to investigate how networking differs among four separate family firms that have used four different entry modes: exporting, joint venture, wholly owned subsidiary and franchising. To be more specific this research will try to show the influence of networking on the entry mode strategies of family firms going international. Furthermore, this paper aims to explore and add new knowledge on how family firms network during an internationalization. Method: This paper investigates four family owned companies using a case study strategy in which six respondents have been interviewed. The nature of the interview was semi structured. Additionally, secondary data have been collected from the companies’ websites. The empirical findings were categorized into three categories of variables which are networking relationship, networking ties and networking activities. Then the companies were cross-analyzed to reveal how these networking function in case of the four companies. Conclusions: The findings of the analysis are that trust is imperative in building relationship. Further the past records and reputation of the network actors play an important role for the family firm to decide if they want to establish a relationship. Family firms usually prefers to cement strong ties with network actors before internationalizing. Family firms most often choses proactivity when it comes to internationalization, however they are most likely to be proactive if some external event affects their businesses which might be threatening. Bigger family firms usually use inter-organizational relationships for networking, they further strengthen the network relations by being more interpersonal. This also allows them to retain some control abroad and avoid uncertainty. In case of smaller family firms, they mostly rely on interpersonal relationship.
Thesis
This thesis reviewed scholarship in the field of media and cultural studies with specific focus on audience studies. Literature review was focused on key themes such as data practices and experiences, data privacy, advertising surveillance and issues around informed consent by users of digital platforms. The review identified a gap in research about user understanding of data exchange with digital platforms and experiences with personalised advertising in India. A mix of qualitative research methods were used to evaluate contemporary experiences of participants engaging with their personal data. This research explored the process of converting digital data trail into customised advertising for smartphone owners and their incentives to participate in this exchange of data for access to app-based services. Industry Experts working in media agencies and marketing function of advertisers were interviewed to understand various sources of digital data that are used for creating affinity audiences. Owners of smartphones in Mumbai and Delhi reflected on their awareness of automated data collection, trust threshold for sharing sensitive data and understanding of advertising technology. Participants discussed the affirmative nature of digital platforms and described services that were critical to their day-to-day functioning. Participants had a gradation of trust and all the apps needed to clear thresholds to be considered reliable. Most of the popular digital platforms were highly trusted on data safety. Digital platforms that scored high on trust quotient were also believed to obfuscate relevant information about the usage and storage of their data in lengthy terms and conditions. Four main reasons stated for not investing time to understand the use of software as service contracts were, There Is No Control (TINC), Fear of Missing (FOMO) on popular apps, there is no time (TINT) to read the lengthy terms and conditions and there is no option (TINO) as there was no alternative to the apps. Participants outlined multiple instances where they saw advertising about topics that they had recently discussed in the vicinity of their smartphones. This led to a widespread belief that smartphone apps such as Facebook and Instagram were listening to their conversations. Industry participants were able to describe an extensive array of practices that were used to identify the right target audience for their campaign, using algorithms running on large databases built on behavioural and transactional data. These processes created highly accurate predictive abilities that enabled highly accurate profiling of Internet users. Some Everyday Users were aware of these processes and the analysis identified them as algorithm-aware. Others were not equipped or motivated to discover information to understand advertising technology. In the absence of this information, participants used heuristics to understand the ability of digital platforms to deliver advertising that is so relevant to their current personal situation. This common-sense explanation for personalised advertising (Ads are listening to me) is named Folk Theory of Customised Advertising. The research highlights the enabling nature of digital technologies in India and outlines a requirement for an easy-to-use toolkit for everyday smartphone users to become algorithm-aware and privacy conscious.
Article
The paper is dedicated to the characteristics of online communities in the virtual space. The study is based on the review of manuscripts on social interactions within online and offline communities in social reading of this term, and represents the key characteristics, similarities and differences of interaction in such communities. The analysis of sources suggests that online and real (offline) communities are largely similar in their features, and that virtual communities as self-organizing networks of interactive interaction, like real social communities, are formed on the basis of the common interests and goals of their participants. Real and virtual communities are located in the same social space, virtual communities take on some characteristics of traditional ones, and vice versa. The possibility of supplementing or replacing spatial connections in real communities with virtual interaction forms the socalled convergent communities. Like virtual ones, they are characterized by a high emotional involvement of community members in the communication process, but at the same time, they lose some of the properties traditionally inherent in communities due to a single territory, history, culture, and have a high potential to form a modified, virtual environment of interaction.
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A investigação propõe-se a compreender de que forma a geração dos jovens criativos, digitais e urbanos se posiciona face à ordem de género vigente. Procura-se para o específico dos contextos de trabalho, e também para os domínios da vida social, recolher representações e práticas ilustrativas das relações de género em que os jovens participam. A investigação envolve 26 mulheres e homens com idades compreendidas entre os 23 e os 34 anos residentes em meio urbano (Lisboa, Porto e Braga) e que exercem profissões do meio cultural e criativo. O sector criativo é considerado, se comparado com outros sectores da economia, tolerante, igualitário e menos hierarquizado, em termos das relações de género (e outras). A revisão da bibliografia e a presente investigação mostram, todavia, como os ambientes de trabalho criativos não são imunes às desigualdades e discriminações de género contra as mulheres. A dissertação assenta numa metodologia qualitativa, usando como instrumento a entrevista semi-directiva. A análise dos resultados sistematiza os depoimentos de acordo com uma grelha que cruza representações de género, relações de género no trabalho, relação trabalho-vida familiar e participação cívica dos jovens. Deste estudo emergem três perfis-tipo ilustrativos da geração de jovens criativos urbanos: os alheados, os instalados e os implicados.
Article
For more than 150 years, global perspectives on the mobile to sedentary transition have been framed by deeply entrenched categorical assumptions that have effectively blinded archaeologists to the fundamental importance of interpersonal relationships. Combining multi-disciplinary studies of living groups with recent archaeological findings, we formulate a model that identifies regularities and divergences in the social interactions and institutions of small-scale, variably settled communities. We then confirm the model’s diachronic validity for a sample of archaeological cases that followed alternative pathways to greater residential permanence. When interactive densities surpassed critical demographic thresholds and fissioning did not occur, diverse interpersonal realignments ensued. Much of the variability evident across cases stemmed from the characteristics of key resources. When resources were heritable, but not monopolizable, new institutional arrangements and social adjustments tended to be collectively organized, but when they were both, the new organizational arrangements tended to be more inequitable with greater power differentials.
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In the 21st century, social media sites have developed rapidly and universally. This world has become a global village because of the widespread use of social media. There are millions of people using social media sites all over the world to meet a wide range of needs. There are many perks to using social media, including gaining knowledge of the world around you, alleviating boredom, and keeping in touch with friends. Using social media provides individuals with a vital source of social, moral, and emotional support, as well as a means of enhancing their cognitive abilities. According to the uses and gratification model, the current study aims to discover which social media sites in Pakistan satisfy university students' desire for social capital (Bridging and Bonding). Questionnaires were used in four public universities in Pakistan's twin cities of Islamabad and Rawalpindi to collect data on students' experiences in the classroom. Majority of people use WhatsApp to build social capital. Many respondents, on the other hand, say that Facebook helps them bridge their social capital.
Article
Neighborhood-related social media uses are rapidly spreading, with citizens using already existing social media with community-related aims too. This has deeply modified how citizens can experience their neighborhoods and cities, making them more complex - and ubiquitous - social ecosystems. The present study aims at deepening the impact of such social media uses in terms of non-material, relational and community goods - that is, their social added value (SAV) for individuals and communities. The results show two main categories of such SAV: the enrichment in terms of local social relationships, and the promotion of citizens' active in-volvement in and engagement for their community and its members. The theoretical and practical implications stemming from these results will be deepened.
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O livro reúne capítulos que têm como objeto de investigação o Spaece sob diferentes óticas e questionamentos de pesquisa. Seu título, Spaece: pesquisas e propostas de ação, procura captar a essência das discussões apresentadas, pois, além de resultarem de pesquisas empíricas com rigor metodológico, os textos anunciam propostas de aperfeiçoamento dos usos do Spaece decorrentes da observação dos profissionais da educação a partir de suas investigações. Os autores, professores das redes estadual, municipal e federal de ensino, em sua maioria vinculados à Secretaria Estadual da Educação do Ceará (Seduc), oferecem aos leitores um conjunto de evidências que não deixam dúvidas quanto à capilaridade do Spaece nas redes de ensino e escolas, sem perder de vista os limites e riscos associados a essa avaliação.
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In the context of close integration of economic globalization and of local production networks, the network topology of producer service formed by the linkage between producer service and manufacturing industry has attracted widespread concern. Based on the research perspective of complex network theory, this paper theoretically analyzes the impact mechanism of how the evolution of network topology of producer service promotes the upgrading of manufacturing’s value chain. In addition, taking the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area as research object, this paper further analyzes the evolution characteristics of network topology, such as the breadth, intensity and centrality of network connection of producer service, so as to identify the interactive efficiency between producer services and the upgrading of manufacturing value chain. Finally, this paper proposes the path of coordinated development of network topology of producer services and manufacturing value chain.
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In recent years, with the rapid development of cultural globalization, foreigners have started to settle in Chinese short video platforms. A research on Bilibili reveals a large number of foreign UPs (video uploaders on Bilibili) that record their lives, introduce customs and habits of various countries, and respond to trending events. As the subjects of cross-cultural communication, they have attracted millions of Chinese audiences. In the new media environment, the status of the audiences in the process of media use is highlighted. A study of the audiences of short videos posted by foreign UPs on Chinese platforms represented by Bilibili will improve the understanding of the media use of this category of Chinese audiences. This study explores the demands and degrees of gratification of Chinese audiences under the theoretical frame of Uses and Gratification, so as to understand the effectiveness of cross-cultural communication by such videos through the online media as a communication channel. Data were collected through questionnaires and interviews. 150 valid questionnaires were obtained; 10 relevant users were interviewed. The results show that the personal motives of the audiences is basically satisfied; the knowledge of the audiences has increased and the cognitive perception of the audiences has been changed to a certain extent.
Chapter
This chapter introduces the role of the mobile phone and the internet in the everyday lives of families, young people, and adults when homeless, focusing on daily activities, relationships, and service access. Differences between these subgroups are explored as well as dynamics of gender, age, and the effects of long periods spent street homeless, also known as ‘chronic homelessness’. I develop the argument that homelessness is a mediated condition with the mobile phone—especially the smartphone—playing a special role as a ‘lifeline’. At the same time, as one of the groups with the most critical need for regular and reliable digital access, people experiencing homelessness are among the most precariously connected, with the greatest barriers and new risks and vulnerabilities associated with a dynamic of mobile dependency.KeywordsMobile phoneInternet accessMediated homelessnessLifelineRisk societyMobile dependency
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本文為第一篇針對居住於海外之臺灣移民在日常生活中交 友實踐與友好互動經驗(convivial experiences)之研究成果; 研究者以比利時臺灣移民社群為研究對象,而資料來源則是奠 基在研究者於比利時所進行為期三年(2017-2020)田野調查 的基礎而來,研究者順利招募了共計 24 位臺灣移民參與本文的研究與訪談過程。研究者發現,食物分享(food sharing)對 於本文受訪者在結交新朋友和拓展人際關係上扮演着重要的角 色,且透過與其他具有相似移民背景之成員共同分享和食用富 有家鄉意象的餐點,進一步提供了他們在接待國社會中尋求歸 屬感、認同感和情感支持等功能。除了食物分享外,社群媒 體和網站的使用在比利時臺灣移民之日常生活和交友實踐上亦 扮演着重要的角色,但移民群體使用社群媒體來結交新朋友和 拓展人際關係網絡存在着年齡世代和性別的使用差異;總體而 言,年輕世代(35 歲以下)相較於年長世代(50 歲以上)以及 男性移民相較於女性移民對於使用社群媒體在接待國社會中結 交新朋友和拓展人際關係抱持着更為開放的態度。另外,友好 互動經驗方面,在新冠肺炎(Covid-19)出現前,本文大多數 的受訪者皆擁有在接待國社會之公共空間,例如 : 公園、人行 道、博物館、超商等與他人正向和美好的互動經驗。而這樣的 友好互動經驗,也進一步地促使了擁有此類型經驗之受訪者建 構出具有世界主義特質的自我認同感(Cosmopolitan identity) 並據此增進了他們的跨文化溝通與互動能力(inter-cultural competence)。然而,這樣的經驗,隨着新冠肺炎在比利時疫 情的發展,臺灣移民與本地居民或接待國社會其他人的美好互 動經驗有了明顯地減少,且亦有超過半數的受訪者表示,受到 新冠肺炎疫情的影響,他們在日常生活中經歷到歧視的頻率與 情況提高了。另外,本文也發現,雖然個別的餐館經營者與移 民家庭主婦容或擁有不一樣的交友和友好互動經驗,但這兩類 移民群體所展現出來的人際關係網絡特徵卻是類似的,亦即他 們所擁有的人際關係網絡展現出了較高的同質性與異質性較低 的特徵。最後,有關本文的研究限制,以及對於未來研究的建 議與展望也都會在文中進行討論。
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