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A new deep water species from the Philippines: Profundiconus limpalaeri sp. nov. (Gastropoda, Conilithidae)

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Profundiconus limpalaeri sp. nov. is described from deep water material taken around Balut Island, Philippines. The new species had been previously misidentified as Profundiconus cakobaui (Moolenbeek, Röckel & Bouchet, 2008) or Kurodaconus darkini (Röckel, Korn & Richard, 1993). The observed similarities and differences of these taxa with the new species are discussed.
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ABSTRACT
Profundiconus limpalaeri sp. nov. is described from deep water
material taken around Balut Island, Philippines. The new species
Profundiconus cakobaui
(Moolenbeek, Röckel & Bouchet, 2008) or Kurodaconus darkini


INTRODUCTION
The genus Profundiconus Kuroda, 1956 has been
recently reviewed in Tenorio & Castelin (2016), and currently
comprises 27 species living in deep water. The species in this
       
Profundiconus emersoni (Hanna, 1963), which occurs in the
      
Profundiconus is only provisional (Tenorio et al. 2012). Due to
   

However, species of Profundiconus  
in material dredged by research vessels in deep waters. To a

species of Profundiconus also surface occasionally in nets
         
species caught by tangle nets at depths of 100-450 meters in
the waters around Balut Island and the neighboring Sarangani
Island in Southern Mindanao, Philippines. This species has

among dealers and collectors with the names “Conus darkini” or
Profundiconus cf. cakobaui” (Raybaudi Massilia in Poppe 2008;
Tenorio & Castelin 2016). We have now been able to gather a


Profundiconus cakobaui (Moolenbeek,
Röckel & Bouchet, 2008), and also with Kurodaconus darkini
(Röckel, Korn & Richard, 1993). Although we did not have access
to preserved material in our lots, we have concluded that the
specimens under study obtained from Balut Island are not
P. cakobaui nor K. darkini, and represent

the name Profundiconus limpalaeri sp. nov.
MATERIAL AND METHODS
      
  
included in Tucker & Tenorio (2013). Specimens were collected

in depths ranging from 100 m to 500 meters.
A new deep water species from the Philippines:
Profundiconus limpalaeri sp. nov. (Gastropoda, Conilithidae)
Manuel J. TENORIO
INBIO - Dept. CMIM y Química Inorgánica, Facultad de Ciencias, Torre Norte, 1ª Planta,

e-mail: manuel.tenorio@uca.es
Eric MONNIER


e-mail: eric.monnier@cnam.fr
We describe shell morphology using the terminology
established in Röckel, Korn & Kohn (1995). For morphometric
comparisons, adult shells selected among available specimens

the MNHN, were measured with a digital caliper, and the
measurements rounded to 0.1 millimeter. All measurements
      
 
   
morphometry, we have performed analysis of the covariance
     

spire height (SH), using species hypotheses as factor, and shell
length (SL
STATGRAPHICS 5.1, once all the measurement sets passed the
normality tests.
RADULAR PREPARATIONS
We use the terminology for radular morphology of
Tenorio & Castelin (2016). Specimens of shells containing the
dried animal inside were digested in concentrated aqueous


of the shell by means of a syringe with an incurved needle.
         





to the microscope.

Museums and instuons

HMNS: Houston Museum of Natural Science, Houston, USA.


      
France.
PK: Paul Kersten reference collection, Hoornaar, The
Netherlands.

USA.
Other
m: meter
mm: millimeter
XENOPHORA TAXONOMY 12 - JUL 2016 41
42 XENOPHORA TAXONOMY 12 - JUL 2016
Type  Dimensions
(mm)
Locality
Holotype MNHN-
IM-2000-
32434
 Balut Island, Southern
Mindanao, Philip-
pines, 300 m, trawled.
Paratype 1 EM  Balut Island, Southern
Mindanao, Philip-
pines, 100-150 m.
Paratype 2 CR  Balut Island, Southern
Mindanao, Philip-
pines, 200-300 m,
dredged.
Paratype 3 PK  Sarangani Island,
Southern Mindanao,
Philippines, 300 m.
Paratype 4 HMNS  Balut Island, Southern
Mindanao, Philippines,
200-250 m.
Paratype 5 WJF  Tinina, Balut Island,
Southern Mindanao,
Philippines, 500 m, by
tangle net.
Paratype 6 WJF Balut Island, Southern
Mindanao, Philip-
pines.
Paratype 7 LL  Balut Island, Southern
Mindanao, Philip-
pines, 400 m.
RESULTS
SYSTEMATICS
Family Tucker & Tenorio, 2009
Genus Profundiconus Kuroda, 1956
Profundiconus limpalaeri sp. nov. (Plate 1, Figs. 1–4; Plate 2,
Figs. 1–4; Plate 3, Figs. 3–6)
Conus darkiniC. darkini
Röckel, Korn & Richard, 1993).
Profundiconus cf. cakobaui
9E (non C. cakobaui Moolenbeek, Röckel & Bouchet, 2008).
Type material: Holotype and 7 paratypes. See table for details.
Material examined:
dead collected, have been studied; all of them from Balut Island,
Southern Mindanao, Philippines, collected in deep water. These

Conchology Inc.
Type locality: Balut Island, Southern Mindanao, Philippines.
Distribuon and habitat: To date, specimens have only been
found at the type locality (Balut Island) and the neighboring
Sarangani Island, in 100 to 450 m depth. Most specimens
found correspond to empty shells. A few specimens have been

study.
Etymology: The species is named after Loïc Limpalaër, a

co-described with the second author about 20 new species
of cones.
Descripon of the shell: Morphometric parameters: L = 32–40
mm; RD = 0.56–0.65; RSH = 0.21–0.27; PMD = 0.81–0.88. Shell
shape is ventricosely conical to conical. This is a moderately


   
white to creamy-yellow, porcellaneous and translucent, with a

whorls are white or tan, with small tubercles which disappear


teleoconch whorls, but fade slightly in the outer whorls near
the shoulder. The shoulder is angulated, with a weak ridge

the shoulder and then straight, becoming very slightly concave

spiral grooves around the basal quarter. The posterior notch is
shallow and C-shaped. There is no anterior notch.
Fig. 1.- Protoconch and early teleoconch whorls of P. limpalaeri
sp. nov. (Holotype, SL 35.8 mm).
Shell morphometry Radular morphometry
SL SL/TL shell length/radular tooth
length
 TL/APL   -

 100BL/APL    



M. TENORIO & E. MONNIER - A new deep water species from the Philippines: Profundiconus limpalaeri sp. nov.
XENOPHORA TAXONOMY 12 - JUL 2016 43
Ground color white to very pale cream. Early teleoconch
     

reaching the shoulder. Last whorl overlaid with large irregular
       

whorl (i.e. Plate 2, Fig 4a; Plate 3, Fig. 6). In some specimens,
       
interrupted spiral bars (i.e. Plate 1, Fig. 4a; Plate 2, Fig 2; Plate
3, Fig. 4). The columella is white. The aperture is bluish-white,
usually stained with purplish-brown at the inner edge of the
lip, especially towards the base. The aperture may be slightly

to the bluish-white aperture. The periostracum is yellowish, thin
and transparent. The operculum (Fig. 2) received with paratype

 

in the operculum of other species in genus Profundiconus
(Tenorio & Castelin 2016). Instead, it displays just rather gentle
       
though, about whether or not this operculum actually belongs
to the specimen corresponding to paratype 5.
Fig. 2.- Operculum of P. limpalaeri sp. nov. received with
paratype 5.
Living animal and radula:
Details about the living animal are unknown.
DISCUSSION
Profundiconus limpalaeri sp. nov. is most similar to
K. darkini (Plate 3, Fig. 2) and to P. cakobaui (Plate 3, Fig. 1).
K. darkini can be easily separated from P. limpalaeri sp. nov.
versus 32 – 40 mm for P.
limpalaeri sp. nov.), larger number of strongly tuberculated
spire whorls (9 – 10 versus 5 in P. limpalaeri sp. nov.) and its

in P. limpalaeri sp. nov.). It is important to point out that
 darkini is not a
Profundiconus. A study of the radular morphology (Fig. 3A)
indicated that it is a typical Conidae sensu Tucker & Tenorio
   
shell length SL/TL
L/APL= 2.9). There is
 



on top of the rounded base of the tooth. Recent molecular
studies suggest that this species belongs to the same clade as
Kurodaconus luciae (Puillandre, pers. comm.), and hence the
darkini to genus Kurodaconus.
We are provisionally considering limpalaeri as a
member of genus Profundiconus  


the radular teeth of two specimens of P. cakobaui
Profundiconus
(Fig 3B, C). The radular tooth is rather large: its total length
L/TL   
Fig. 3.- Radular teeth of: (A) Kurodaconus darkini
SL 57.3 mm); (B) Profundiconus cakobaui, paratype (MNHN IM-2000-21033, Ride de Lau, Somo-somo Strait, Fiji, 414-510 m, SL
18.4 mm); (C) Profundiconus cakobaui (MNHN IM-2008-1243, Bligh Water, Fiji, 567-699 m, SL 24.8 mm).
M. TENORIO & E. MONNIER - A new deep water species from the Philippines: Profundiconus limpalaeri sp. nov.
44 XENOPHORA TAXONOMY 12 - JUL 2016
L/APL=

 



   



is present on top of the slanted base of the tooth. All these
features of the radular tooth of P. cakobaui are fully consistent
with those reported for other species in genus Profundiconus
(Tenorio & Castelin 2016).
P. limpalaeri sp. nov. and P. cakobaui, known from
   
L

L for P. limpalaeri sp. nov. 36.1 mm; mean SL
for P. cakobaui 17.4 mm (t-12; U = 128, p =
0.0001). ANCOVA (using SL as covariate) indicates that there are
F
= 2.98, p = 0.099) or HMD (F
in MD (F = 8.65, p = 0.0078, Fig. 4).
Hence, P. limpalaeri
and broader shell in comparison with P. cakobaui. Apart from
   
features of the shell of the two species are similar, including
the paucispiral protoconch with tuberculated early teleoconch
whorls. However, the cords on the teleoconch whorls of P.
cakobaui are less numerous than in P. limpalaeri sp. nov. (Fig.
5). In P. cakobaui
Fig. 4.- Plot of MD versus SL for P. limpalaeri sp. nov. () and P. cakobaui ().
       
teleoconch whorls of: A) P. cakobaui (Paratype, MNHN IM-
2000-21033, SL 18.4 mm); B) P. limpalaeri sp. nov. (Holotype)
M. TENORIO & E. MONNIER - A new deep water species from the Philippines: Profundiconus limpalaeri sp. nov.
XENOPHORA TAXONOMY 12 - JUL 2016 45
then showing 3-4 cords (Fig. 5A). In P. limpalaeri sp. nov., there
are more cords, and these are more evenly distributed (Fig. 5B).
Apart from these morphological features, P. limpalaeri
sp. nov. and P. cakobaui are separated geographically by a

protoconch indicates a direct, non-planktonic mode of
      
there is support for the hypothesis of two separate species.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
Our most sincere thanks to: Prof. Philippe Bouchet, Virginie
        

Fiji and New Caledonia; Manuel Caballer, project E-RECOLNAT:
ANR-11-INBS-0004, MNHN for the photos of the types of
P. cakobaui; Guido T. Poppe and Conchology, Inc. for kindly


      
improvements to the manuscript.
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Mollusks, Vol. II. Conchbooks, Hackenheim, Germany.
 1995. Manual of the Living
 
Verlag Christa Hemmen.
., 1993. From the Western
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Conchiglia: Internaonal Shell Magazine, 25 (267): 48–49.
      . 1995. Deep-
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    . 2016. Genus Profundiconus
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M. TENORIO & E. MONNIER - A new deep water species from the Philippines: Profundiconus limpalaeri sp. nov.
46 XENOPHORA TAXONOMY 12 - JUL 2016
M. TENORIO & E. MONNIER - A new deep water species from the Philippines: Profundiconus limpalaeri sp. nov.
Plate 1.- 1-4 Profundiconus limpalaeri sp. nov. Balut Is., Philippines. 1a-b
15.8 mm; 2a-b3a-b. Paratype 2, dorsal and ventral
4
XENOPHORA TAXONOMY 12 - JUL 2016 47
M. TENORIO & E. MONNIER - A new deep water species from the Philippines: Profundiconus limpalaeri sp. nov.
Plate 2.- 1-4 Profundiconus limpalaeri sp. nov. Balut Is., Philippines. 1a-b
16.5 mm; 2a-b3a-b. Paratype 6, dorsal and ventral
4
48 XENOPHORA TAXONOMY 12 - JUL 2016
M. TENORIO & E. MONNIER - A new deep water species from the Philippines: Profundiconus limpalaeri sp. nov.
Plate 3.- 1a-b. Holotype of Conus cakobaui Moolenbeek, Röckel & Bouchet, 2008, MNHN IM-2000-21030, Somo-somo Strait,
2a-b. Holotype of Conus darkini Röckel, Korn & Richard, 1993, MNHN IM-
3-6 Profundiconus limpalaeri sp. nov.
3456
Article
Full-text available
The genus Profundiconus Kuroda, 1956 is reviewed. The morphological characters of shell, radular tooth and internal anatomy of species in Profundiconus are discussed. In particular we studied Profundiconus material collected by dredging in deep-water during different scientific campaigns carried out in the Solomon Islands, Madagascar, Papua New Guinea and New Caledonia. We reconstructed a phylogeny of 55 individuals based on partial mitochondrial cox1 gene sequences. The phylogeny shows several clades containing individuals that do not match any of the known species of Profundiconus according to their shell and radular morphologies, and are introduced here as new species: Profundiconus maribelae sp. nov., from the Solomon Islands; Profundiconus virginiae sp. nov., from Chesterfield Plateau (New Caledonia); Profundiconus barazeri, from Chesterfield Plateau and Grand Passage area (New Caledonia); Profundiconus puillandrei sp. nov. from Norfolk Ridge (New Caledonia), Kermadec Ridge (New Zealand), and possibly Balut Island (Philippines); Profundiconus neocaledonicus sp. nov., from New Caledonia.
Book
Full-text available
The Illustrated Catalog of the Living Cone Shells is a work that unites in one book all the current taxonomic information about the cone shells. Cone shells have long been valued by collectors and malacologists and have become widely used in medical studies of their venomology. This book, written by two well-known experts on the subject, contains more than 1960 entries, with more than 1000 color photos of the species considered valid along with their subspecies and most important forms. Inclusion of a comprehensive chapter on taxonomy and an extensive bibliography, will make this work an invaluable tool for the serious collector as well as for the professional scientist interested in cone shells. Finally, the extensive additions helping resolve supraspecific taxonomy should make this aspect of cone shell biology more understandable carrying it well beyond the contributions made in 2009 by Tucker & Tenorio in their book Systematic Classification of Recent and Fossil Conoidean Gastropods
Article
Full-text available
Knowledge of the attributes of the venom-injecting radular teeth of Conus can enhance understanding of the functional biology of feeding and the systematics of this large and taxonomically difficult genus of gastropods. We define and provide a scheme for coding the states of Conus radular tooth characters, in order to facilitate their use in taxonomic and phylo-genetic studies. To exemplify these characters, we describe and illustrate teeth of putatively primitive species and of species representing generalized, vermivorous, molluscivorous and piscivorous feeding groups within the genus. We define and address the intraspecific and interspecific variation of ten presence-absence characters and 15 continuous characters, of which at least five and ten, respectively, are present in most species. Some continuous characters are bimodally distributed among the species sampled. If this distribution still obtains when additional species are examined, these characters could also be coded unambiguously as having two states. We also review the several previously proposed classification schemes of Conus radular teeth and of species according to tooth characters. As Troschel suggested in 1866, a tooth length:width ratio greater than or less than 20 separates the genus into two distinct species groups, now known to comprise the molluscivorous and piscivorous species in the former, and vermivorous and generalized species in the latter. Important subsidiary characters are the number of barbs, presence/ absence of blade, cusp, and spur, length of serrations, relative width of base, and tooth length:shell length ratio.
Article
Full-text available
A little less than 100 species of cones are known in the literature from waters around the Fiji islands, all intertidal to subtidal. We report here on the species taken by recent offshore and deep-water benthic sampling expeditions. Samples were taken to depths of 1300 m, although cones were taken not deeper than 680 m. Leaving aside two taxa of uncertain identity, the material contains 22 species from depths deeper than 100 m, all of which are new records for Fiji, including four new species (Conus cakobaui spec. nov., alive in 414-567 m; C. joliveti spec. nov., alive in 150-353 m; C. fijisulcatus spec. nov., alive in 150-188 m; and C. gigasulcatus spec. nov., alive in 290-300 m). A further 19 species are from depths shallower than 100 m, and these include six new records for Fiji, including two new species (C. fijiensis spec. nov., alive in 80-120 m; and C. sutanorcum spec. nov., alive in 32-50 m).
Somo-somo Strait, South of Vanua Levu, Fiji, 426-487 m, 18.9 x 8.5 mm; 2a-b. Holotype of Conus darkini Röckel
Plate 3.-1a-b. Holotype of Conus cakobaui Moolenbeek, Röckel & Bouchet, 2008, MNHN IM-2000-21030, Somo-somo Strait, South of Vanua Levu, Fiji, 426-487 m, 18.9 x 8.5 mm; 2a-b. Holotype of Conus darkini Röckel, Korn & Richard, 1993, MNHN IM- 2000-2568, E Cap des Pins, Ride des Loyauté, Nouvelle Calédonie, 575 m, 55.6 x 24.4 mm. 3-6 Profundiconus limpalaeri sp. nov.
New species of the Conidae (Gastropoda)
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Kuroda, T. 1956. New species of the Conidae (Gastropoda).
Philippine Marine Mollusks
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Raybaudi-Massilia, G. in Poppe, G. T. 2008. Philippine Marine Mollusks, Vol. II. Conchbooks, Hackenheim, Germany. Röckel, D., Korn, W. & Kohn, A. J. 1995. Manual of the Living Conidae, Volume 1: Indo-Pacific Region: 1-517. Hackenheim. Verlag Christa Hemmen.
From the Western Pacific Conus darkini n. sp. (Prosobranchia: Conidae). La Conchiglia: International Shell Magazine
  • D Röckel
  • W Korn
  • G Richard
Röckel, D., Korn, W., & Richard, G., 1993. From the Western Pacific Conus darkini n. sp. (Prosobranchia: Conidae). La Conchiglia: International Shell Magazine, 25 (267): 48-49.
m, 18.9 x 8.5 mm; 2a-b. Holotype of Conus darkini Röckel, Korn & Richard, 1993, MNHN IM-2000-2568, E Cap des Pins, Ride des Loyauté, Nouvelle Calédonie, 575 m, 55.6 x 24.4 mm. 3-6 Profundiconus limpalaeri sp
Plate 3.-1a-b. Holotype of Conus cakobaui Moolenbeek, Röckel & Bouchet, 2008, MNHN IM-2000-21030, Somo-somo Strait, South of Vanua Levu, Fiji, 426-487 m, 18.9 x 8.5 mm; 2a-b. Holotype of Conus darkini Röckel, Korn & Richard, 1993, MNHN IM-2000-2568, E Cap des Pins, Ride des Loyauté, Nouvelle Calédonie, 575 m, 55.6 x 24.4 mm. 3-6 Profundiconus limpalaeri sp. nov. Balut Is., Philippines, private coll., ex-Conchology, Inc. 3. 38