Conference PaperPDF Available

Giocando si impara: i giochi di Findhorn come strumento di crescita personale e professionale per gli insegnanti

Conference Paper

Giocando si impara: i giochi di Findhorn come strumento di crescita personale e professionale per gli insegnanti

Abstract

La presenza di docenti motivati e competenti nella gestione della complessità e della differenza rappresenta uno dei fattori determinanti per la costruzione di contesti di apprendimento inclusivi. Una ricca normativa nazionale ed internazionale richiede sempre più agli insegnanti competenze interculturali, che necessitano di una specifica formazione anche esperienziale che permetta di impadronirsi di strumenti di mediazione e di leadership. Questo lo sfondo del presente contributo, che intende presentare alcune direzioni di senso emergenti da un’esperienza formativa che, dal 2013 al 2015, ha coinvolto complessivamente 98 docenti in servizio presso alcune scuole primarie e secondarie di diversi Istituti Comprensivi del Trentino. Con un approccio connesso all’Experiential Learning Model della Findhorn-Foundation, gli interventi hanno previsto - con un progressivo livello di coinvolgimento - giochi di apertura, esplorazione, fiducia, mediazione dei conflitti, sintonia del gruppo e attività cooperative, alternando a simulazioni osservazioni riflessive sui vissuti e una rielaborazione teorica dell’esperienza. In ciascun modulo (di 10-16 ore) sono stati proposti un questionario sui bisogni formativi, un questionario di valutazione e un incontro di debriefing, che hanno evidenziato il valore del percorso come crescita personale e professionale dei docenti, con una iniziale ricaduta operativa sulla loro prassi didattica. I risultati sottolineano come questo approccio favorisca un incremento motivazionale, lo sviluppo di competenze relazionali in un clima di fiducia reciproca e la creazione di un team collaborativo e suggeriscono l’importanza di promuovere percorsi formativi esperienziali sulla gestione della classe, convalidando l’ipotesi che la facilitazione di competenze sociali negli studenti presupponga la presenza di insegnanti socialmente competenti.
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Giornate!Nazionali!di!Psicologia!Positiva!
IX!Edizione!
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CULTURE!DELLA!POSITIVITÀ.!
ATTUALITÀ!E!PROSPETTIVE!
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Cesena,!9-11!giugno!2016!
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Università!degli!Studi!di!Bologna!–!Campus!di!Cesena!
Piazza!Aldo!Moro,!90!
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Comitato! Scientifico:! "##$%&$! '()$*+,+! -.*&%+/,&#0! 1&! 2&($*345&6366$78! 2$/#$! 5$,,&!
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92GP9A'b9"L9!GO=!P'!GC9A"P"H9'!G"C9_9N'8!FOPP'!C'P._O!O!AP9L9A'!
!
Chair:'Chiara'Ruini'(Università'di'Bologna)!
Discussant:!Elisa&Albieri&(Università&di&Bologna)!
!
Questo' simposio' ha' l’obiettivo' di' illustrare' l’importanza' delle' dimensioni' di' benessere'
all’interno* dei* contesti* della* salute,* analizzando* le* sue* relazioni* con* gli* indicatori* di* disagio*
psicologico( !"#$%&'#( )$"#&"#*( +,-.,""#/#( ,( "#$+.&'#( -"#0&"&')%#01,2( ,( /)34%)$+&( 3,(
modificazioni*eventualmente*indotte*attraverso*interventi*clinici.*Il*primo*contributo*descrive*
la#relazione#tra#benessere#e#malessere#durante#la#gravidanza,#analizzando#le#sue#relazioni"con"
la# depressione# post4partum' e' l’evoluzione' temporale' nel' periodo' perinatale.' Il' secondo'
contributo) descrive) il) rapporto) tra) dimensioni) di) crescita) personale) e) sintomi) depressivi) in)
pazienti( con( recente( diagnosi( di( sieropositività( HIV,( attraverso( la( descrizione) di) casi) clinici)
esemplificativi.- Il- terzo- contributo- descrive- l’importanza- di- considerare- il- benessere- come-
elemento' essenziale' nella' definizione' di' guarigione' e' come' indicatore' di' esito' nei' processi'
terapeutici,* attraverso* l’utilizzo* di* uno* strumento& psicometrico& (il& CORE4OM)" che" valuta"
contemporaneamente* indicatori* di* disagio* e* di* benessere* psicologico.* Il* quarto* contributo*
illustra(l’utilizzo(del( CORE4OM!in#un#campione# di#studenti#universitari#afferenti#al#Servizio#di#
Aiuto&Psicologico&(SAP)&de!!"#$%&'()%*+,-%,./!/0$12,3'!!"%$)%'4'5,67')*%,8/$*(%97*%,)/**/!%$'1$/,
la# necessità# di# integrare# la# valutazione# del# benessere# e# del# funzionamento# ottimale#
dell’individuo*durante*fasi*di*vita*cruciali,*quali*il*periodo*perinatale,*durante*malattia*cronica,*
durante(il(trattamento(terapeutico(e(nella(transizione(verso(l’età(adulta,(fornendo(specifiche(
indicazioni(cliniche(e(strumenti(psicometrici(atti(allo(scopo.(Il(simposio(fornisce,(pertanto,(un(
valido' esempio' di' integrazione' tra' psicologia' positiva,' psicologia$ clinica$ e$ psicologia$ della$
salute'nell’arco'di'vita.!
!
!
Benessere&e&maternità:&uno&studio&longitudinale&con&donne&primipare&e&
multipare*!
!
Marta%Bassi1,"Antonella"Delle"Fave1,"Irene"Cetin1,"Erika"Melchiorri2,"Melissa"Pozzo1,"Francesca"
Ves covel li2,"Chiara!Ruini2"(1Università*di*Milano,*2Università*di*Bologna)!
!
Gli$studi$riguardanti$la$maternità$si$sono$concentrati$prevalentemente$sull’analisi$di$indicatori$
di#malessere,#quali#la#depressione#perinatale,#trascurando#indicatori#di#salute#mentale#positiva#
che$possono%altresì%avere%conseguenze%rilevanti%per% il%buon%funzionamento%famigliare.%Ai%fini%
di# una# valutazione# integrata# del# benessere# durante# la# maternità,# la# presente# ricerca# ha#
esplorato)l’impatto)della)nascita)di)un)figlio)sia)sulla)depressione)perinatale" che"sul"benessere"
psicologico( delle( donne,( tenendone( in( considerazione( la( parità.( Un( campione( di( 81(
!"#$%&'!"($')*+,)!#'-'!"#%)%)./)-01$'!"#%2)3")&4-!1%$"$4)1")56'(70#83)9%!#%::'4();&"1%)%)1%)
Psychological+ Well4being& Scales& durante& la& gravidanza& (22432# settimane' di' gestazione)' e' il'
post4partum'(346" mesi"dal"parto)."I"dati"sono"stati"sottoposti"ad"ANCOVA"e"mixed"ANOVA"per"
!"#$%&#'!()*!++!,,-(.%( ,!$/-( 01'#2%.#&3#4/-",4!"#$%&'()(!"#*$+(,!#*&*!"#*$+-&%.$*!"#*$+'(/%(
depressione) e) benessere) psicologico.) Le) analisi# hanno# mostrato# che# i# livelli# di# depressione#
!
!
!
C&BE3,&!
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11!
sono$analoghi$tra$primipare$e$multipare,$e$che$essi$si$ mantengono$costanti$tra$il$ pre4!e"post4
partum.(Per(contro,(dopo(la(nascita(del(figlio,(le(partecipanti(primipare(hanno(riportato(livelli(
più$ elevati$ di$ padronanza' ambientale' ed' auto4accettazione) rispetto) alle) multipare.) Inoltre,)
!"#$%"&'()!*+!, +-(, $!, .-&)&.(-!/, "&, 0, -!1&"+-(+2, %*, (%)!*+2, 3&, (%+24accettazione) e) crescita)
personale) dalla) gravidanza) al) post4partum.( Lo( studio( mette( in( luce( alcune( dimensioni( di(
funzionamento+psicologico+positivo+che+contribuiscono+in+maniera+specifica+al+benessere+delle+
donne% nella% transizione% alla% maternità,% sottolineando% altresì% la% necessità% di% adattare% alla%
particolare* condizione* di* parità* l’intervento* volto* alla* promozione* della# salute# mentale#
completa)delle)madri.!
!
!
HIV$e$depressione:$dal$trauma$alla$crescita$passando$per$il$sistema$immunitario!
!
Silvia& Ferrari1," Silvia" Alboni1," Simone" Maffei2," Maria" Giulia" Nanni3," Chiara" Piemonte1," Manuela"
Miselli1," Valentina" Moretti4," Laura" Feltri1," Lorenzo" Marchetti1," Marianna" Menozzi1," Marco"
Rigatelli1!(1Università*di* Modena* e* Reggio*Emilia,*2Università*di* Parma,* 3Università* di*Ferrara,*
4AUSL%Reggio%Emilia)!
!
I"disturbi"depressivi"sono"molto"frequenti"nei"soggetti"HIV4positivi,(con(notevoli(ripercussioni(
sul$ funzionamento$ e$ la$ qualità$ della$ vita$ dei$ pazienti.$ È$ stato$ ipotizzato$ un$ complesso$
meccanismo) di) attivazione) infiammatoria,) mediata) da) sistemi) di) citochine" già" implicate"
nell’eziopatogenesi- della- depressione- tout4court.' Per' tale' motivo,' è' in' corso' di' realizzazione'
un# progetto# di# ricerca# che# mira#a# identificare# specifici# profili# di# biomarker# infiammatori# nei#
soggetti' con' recente' diagnosi' di' sieropositività' HIV# in# grado# di# predire# attendibilmente# lo#
sviluppo(di(depressione.(Lo(studio,(controllato,(prospettico,(longitudinale,(multicentrico,(vede(
la#collaborazione#dei#centri#di#Modena,# Ferrara#e#Parma.#Tutti#i#soggetti#con# diagnosi#recente#
di# sieropositività# HIV!vengono& sottoposti& a& screening& psichiatrico/neurocognitivo& e,& se&
positivi,(avviati(ad(opportuna(terapia.(Vengono(contestualmente(studiati(con(riferimento(ad(un(
vasto& set& di& biomarker& infiammatori.& Attraverso& la& descrizione& di& alcuni& casi& clinici&
esemplificativi,'si'approfondirà'il'tema'della'rilevanza'della'prospettiva'temporale'e'narrativa,'
che$consente$di$ individuare$il$significato$creativo$e$ costruttivo$del$trauma,$attivando$risorse$
definibili(come(psico4neuro4endocrino4immunologiche+(PNEI).!
!
!
Il#questionario&CORE4OM#e#la#valutazione#del#benessere#soggettivo!
!
Gaspare'Palmieri"(Ospedale"Privato"Villa"Igea,#Modena)!
!
Il!questionario+Clinical+Outcome+for+Routine+Evaluation!4!!"#$%&'()'*+",'(-.!/04OM)$è$uno$
strumento)di)valutazione)a)34)items,"che"è"stato"tradotto"in"italiano"e"validato"in"un"campione"
clinico& italiano& attraverso& uno& studio& multicentrico.& Il& CORE4OM# valuta# gli# effetti# dei#
trattamenti(psicologici(ed(è(attualmente(utilizzato(come(misura(di( outcome(da(diversi(Servizi(
di#Psicologia!e"Psicoterapia"in"tutta"Italia.!È!uno$strumento$di$facile$utilizzo$e$interpretazione,$
adatto% a% somministrazioni% ripetute.% Si% somministra% solitamente% all’inizio% e% alla% fine% della%
terapia'per'valutare'il'cambiamento'clinico'in'modo'obiettivo.'Si'compone'di'quattro'domini:'
Benessere& soggettivo,& Sintomi,& Funzionamento& e& Rischio.& Verranno& presentate& le& principali&
caratteristiche) dello) strumento,) con) particolare) riferimento) ai) 4) items) del) Benessere)
soggettivo.!
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C&BE3,&!
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12!
Il#benessere#come#indicatore#di# recovery#nelle#psicoterapie:( l’utilizzo( del(CORE4
OM#nel#servizio#di#aiuto#psicologico#dell’Università#di#Bologna!
!
!"#$%&'%#()&'%*+&,,-.(/#*,*(0&,#$-.(12-#"#(34-$-.(/-*(5$"-%*(3-%%-(6-77-.(!-*"&,,#(0*$7-(89$-+&"'-7:(
di#Bologna)!
!
Numerosi)studi)hanno)messo)in)luce) il)ruolo)protettivo(del(benessere(per(la(salute(psicologica(
e"fisica"di"adolescenti"e"adulti."Lo"studio"si"è"proposto"di"indagare"i"cambiamenti"in"termini"di"
malessere'e'benessere'in'seguito'a'psicoterapia'erogata'presso'il'servizio'di'aiuto'psicologico'
dell’università% di% Bologna% (SAP).% 149% studenti% (102$ donne;$ Età$ media=$ 24.55,$ DS=" 3.35),"
iscritti&all’università&di&Bologna,&hanno&richiesto&supporto&al&SAP.&Dopo&essere&stati&intervistati&
e"valutati"dai" clinici" del" servizio," gli" studenti" sono" stati" indirizzati" a" percorsi%di% psicoterapia%
(ad$orientamento$psicodinamico$o$cognitivo4comportamentale),in, base, a, specifici, criteri., Gli,
!"#$%&"'()*&&+(,+-.'/*"+('/(0/'&',*/(1#",+-%!('&(2+#"'&%(34*/#*"'+&(501234OM)$prima$e$dopo$
la# psicoterapia.# Inoltre,# psicoterapeuti# (ciechi# al!!"#!!#$%&!'() &%) *#&&') +#,-!#!') .,)
funzionamento+psico4!"#$%&'(%))*$+,'-."(,-(/,-)'00$"(1&"+%&( 2!!'!!3'-)( 4#%&'( 512467(8"/"(
l’intervento,+si+è+osservato+un+miglioramento+statisticamente+significativo+sia+dei+ sintomi+ sia+
del$benessere,$indipendentemente$dal!tipo%di%approccio%psicoterapico.%Tale%risultato%è%emerso%
sia$osservando$i$punteggi$del$CORE4OM#sia#quelli#del#GAS#formulati#dai#clinici.#In#conclusione,#
lo# studio# ha# messo# in# luce# come# la# valutazione# del# benessere,# in# qualità# di# indicatore# di#
outcome,&sia!imprescindibile,anche, nell’ambito,delle,psicoterapie,per, problematiche,cliniche,
di# studenti# universitari.# Infatti,# il# suo# ruolo# risulta# essenziale# anche# nel# favorire# una#
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Chair:'Enrico'Zaccagnini'(Istituto'di'Psicotraumatologia'e'Psicodinamica,"Firenze)!
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Il# simposio# cerca# di# mostrare# l’importanza# delle# risorse# e# della# positività# nei# diversi# ambiti#
dell’applicazione,clinica.,Il,primo,intervento(si(occupa(del(valore(delle(risorse(nel(trattamento(
dei$ soggetti$ autistici.$ Il$ secondo$ intervento$ si$ occupa$ del$ valore$ delle$ risorse$ nelle$
problematiche- innescate- dalle- adozioni,- sia- per- quanto- riguarda- i- soggetti- adottati- sia- per-
quanto'riguarda!i"genitori" adottivi."Il"terzo"intervento"si"occupa"del"valore"delle"risorse"nella"
prevenzione) e) nel) trattamento) dei) problemi) all’interno) della) scuola,) visti) con) l’ottica) dello)
sportello(psicologico.(Il(quarto(intervento(si(occupa(del(valore(delle( risorse(nella%prevenzione%
e" nel" trattamento" dei" fenomeni" del" bullismo" e" del" cyberbullismo," dal" punto" di" vista" del"
sostegno'psicologico.'Una'breve'introduzione'del'coordinatore'cercherà'di' evidenziare'come'
le# ultime# scoperte# psiconeurologiche# pongano# l’accento# sull’importanza+ di+ orientare+ e+
mantenere'il'cervello'in'stati'psichici'di'positività.!
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Il#problema#ed#il#valore#dell’attivazione#delle#risorse#nel#trattamento#dei#soggetti#
autistici!
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L’autismo,+da+quando+è+stato+codificato+come+sindrome+a+sé+stante+(circa+70+anni+fa),+presenta+
una$ sfida$ a$ livello$ di$ ricerca$ e$ di$ trattamento.$ Attualmente$ si$ parla$ di$ Spettro$ Autistico$ in$
riferimento) ad) un) insieme) di) disturbi) di) tipo) neuro) evolutivo,) caratterizzati' da' vari' deficit'
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L’intervento*qui*proposto*si*focalizza*su!due!ambiti:'sul'trattamento'del'bambino'con'autismo:!
di!come% costruendo% attività% di% gioco% e% interazioni% affettivamente% positive,% centrate% sui% suoi%
interessi,( si( possano( attivare( le( risorse( del( bambino( favorendo( così( la( costruzione( di( nuovi(
apprendimenti* più# funzionali# e# adattivi;# sul# lavoro# con# le# famiglie:# come# sappiamo# dalla#
letteratura,( l’elaborazione( dell’autismo( può( determinare( dei( “rovesciamenti”( famigliari( i( cui(
esiti%non%è!scontato'che'siano'solamente'negativi.'L’elaborazione'dell’autismo'in'famiglia#può#
favorire(un(nuovo(assetto(che,(attraverso(l’iniziale(accettazione(della(condizione(del(figlio,(può(
permettere&nel&nucleo&familiare&nuovi&apprendimenti&positivi.&Alcune&famiglie&si&riorganizzano&
e"attivano"le"risorse"personali"necessarie"per"affrontare#in#modo#costruttivo#le#sfide#presenti#e#
future;' infine,' accenna' a' quel' movimento' di' opinione' e' di' studio' (formato' da' parenti,'
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come% valorizzazione% positiva% delle# identità,# compresa# quella# “autistica”,# e# di# come# tale#
valorizzazione* possa* aumentare* il* benessere* del* singolo,* favorendo,* ad* esempio,* attraverso*
opportuni( adattamenti( ambientali,( inserimenti( lavorativi,( nella( società,( delle( persone(
autistiche.!
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Chair:!Ezio!Menoni!(Università!di!Siena)!
Discussant:!Francesco!Fressoia!(Istituto!di!Psicoterapia!Integrata,!Firenze)!e!
Loris!Pinzani!(Associazione!Italiana!per!l’Integrazione!in!Psicoterapia,!Firenze)!
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Maria!Chiara!Bradascio!(University!of!Bolton,!United!Kingdom)!
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Laura!Giuntoli1,!Corrado!Caudek2!(1Università!di!Padova,!2Università!di!Firenze)!
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Lilian!M.!Landriel!(Formatrice!e!consulente!pedagogica)!
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Giovanna!Malusà!(Università!di!Trento)!
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Emanuela! Marini1,! Marco! Albarini2,! Luca! Bernardo2,! Eleonora! Mascolo1,! Maria! Elena!
Magrin1(1Università!di!Milano-Bicocca,!2A.O.!Fatebenefratelli!e!Oftalmico,!Milano)!
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Eugenio!Medea!–!La!Nostra!Famiglia,!2Università!di!Milano)!
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Maria!Beatrice!Presciutti,!Francesca!Artana,!Federico!Colombo!(Scuola!Asipse,!Milano)!
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Igor!Sotgiu,!Enrico!Briccoli,!Deborah!Cotich!(Università!di!Bergamo)!
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Danilo!Urbani!(Società!Internazionale!di!Psico-Acustica!Transizionale,!Milano)!
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Chiara!A.!Veneziani,!Alberto!Voci!(Università!di!Padova)!
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Gabriella! Gandino1,! Antonella! Bernaudo1,! Giulia! Di! Fini1,! Massimo! Santinello2! (Università! di!
Torino,!2Università!di!Padova)!
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Erickson! Institute,! Torino,! 3Università! di! Torino,!4Università! della! Svizzera! Italiana,! Lugano,!
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Denna,! Levino! Flacco,! Alangiò! D.! Gelo,! Omar! C.! Gelo,! Paolo! M.! Geraci,! Elio! Imbres,! Antonella!
Masiero,!Carmelina!Mandracchia,!Antonietta!Marchi,!Paolo!Menghini,! Gianni! Morandi,! Michele!
Pini,!Alberto!Schizzarotto,!Davide!Zarcone!(Progetto!Giovani!1981,!Pavia)!
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Carlo!Gelo,!Nimet!Bajaraktari,!Carolina!Bellingeri,!Federica!Bertuzzi,!Gianpaolo!Bitonti,!Andrea!
Boldrini,! Giovanna! Campagnoli,! Erika! Corna,! Andrea! Antonio! Frijio,! Jessica! Landini,! Giorgia!
Olivieri,! Samantha! Piatta! Cusimano,! Vittorio! Ricaldone,! Carlo! Rosiello,! Francesca! Rovaris,!
Alessandra!Nicole!Sassi!(Università!degli!Studi!di!Pavia)!
!
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Davide!Mazzoni,!Linda!Marchetti,!Cinzia!Albanesi!(Università!di!Bologna)!
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Pierina!Spannocchi,!Marco! Vieri! Cenerini,! Claudia!Malfatti,!Giulia! Mercuriali,! Serena! Stanescu,!
Roberta! Puri,! Elisa! Guidi! (Associazione! Phantàsia:! psicologia! e! psicoterapia! dell’emergenza,!
Firenze)!
!
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Guido! Veronese1,! Alessandro! Pepe1,! Loredana! Addimando2,! Jamal! Dakduki3! (1Università! di!
Milano-Bicocca,!2SUPSI,!Lugano,!3Galilee!Society,!Israele)!
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CLINICAL!APPLICATIONS!OF!POSITIVE!PSYCHOLOGY!!
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... An initial, exploratory, study (Malusà, 2016a(Malusà, , 2016b ...
... a) The results highlight the importance of experiential learning which enables teachers to acquire the skills necessary for effective classroom management (Sharan & Sharan, 1987). Through the direct experience of games and cooperative activities, followed by reflection on these experiences and their theoretical reelaboration, the participants said that they felt their professional competences had strengthened, and that they were more motivated to use games and participative methods in the classroom, confirming the hypothesis that the fostering of students' social competences requires socially competent (Malusà, 2016b;Malusà & Tarozzi, 2017). ...
Chapter
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Creating an inclusive and trusting climate in multicultural and conflicted classrooms is an essential prerequisite for cooperative activities and the development of students’ social and emotional skills, in a climate free of judgement and prejudice. Based on the Experiential Learning Model of the Findhorn Foundation (learning by doing), in this paper I will present the key elements of a variety of games for different purposes, and cooperative games in particular, discussing their possible implementation in multicultural educational contexts to build trust in both new and established groups. Keywords: cooperative games; trust; inclusion; multicultural contexts; experiential learning model; teacher education La creazione di un clima inclusivo e di fiducia nelle classi multiculturali e conflittuali rappresenta un prerequisito essenziale per proporre attività cooperative e facilitare abilità sociali ed emotive negli studenti, in un ambiente libero da valutazioni e pregiudizi. Basandosi sul modello di apprendimento esperienziale della Fondazione Findhorn (leaning by doing), in questo contributo presenterò gli elementi essenziali dei giochi cooperativi e vari tipi di giochi con propositi diversi, discutendo sulla loro possibile implementazione in contesti educativi multiculturali per creare un clima di fiducia in gruppi sia nuovi che consolidati.
... Facilitare un clima inclusivo come presupposto di ogni processo educativo (Malusà, 2017)  Nella scuola, primaria e secondaria, i giochi possono essere un valido strumento per costruire o ridefinire un clima accogliente, in cui ciascuno possa sentirsi valorizzato e accolto nella propria unicità e differenza (Malusà, 2016b(Malusà, , 2016c. ...
Presentation
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IL WORKSHOP SI PROPONE di far sperimentare direttamente alcuni giochi cooperativi riproponibili in classe, in uno spazio gioioso di formazione personale e professionale. Con una metodologia di apprendimento esperienziale (“Experiential Learning Model” della Findhorn Foundation) verranno presentate le linee guida dei giochi di Findhorn ed alcune simulazioni di giochi di apertura, esplorazione e fiducia, giochi sulla sintonia di gruppo e di mediazione/facilitazione dei conflitti, concludendo con un’integrazione e condivisione dell’esperienza vissuta (learning by doing). DESTINATARI: insegnanti, educatori, genitori e altri professionisti disponibili a “mettersi in gioco” e a riflettere su alcuni strumenti per migliorare la propria capacità di costruire contesti educativi inclusivi e collaborativi.
... E ho ritrovato molti elementi comuni con alcuni percorsi -che ho avuto l'opportunità di seguire -promossi dal Gruppo Abele di Torino, da Daniele Novara (1989) o da Sigrid Loos (1994a, 1994b. E da allora a scuola e nei corsi con i docenti introduco sempre questi giochi, verificandone costantemente l'efficacia (Malusà, 2016). E continuo a trovare insegnanti che si stupiscono della semplicità e dell'efficacia di queste proposte. ...
Research
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Uno, due, tre, pronti e… via!! Certo, cominciamo la scuola con un gioco, perché no? Anzi, con una serie di giochi non scelti a caso, ma finalizzati alla progressiva costruzione di un gruppo classe aperto alla conoscenza di sé e dell'altro, dapprima quasi " in punta di piedi " e poi sempre più in profondità, per sviluppare un senso di appartenenza e di fiducia reciproca. Giochi che ci consentano di dedicare tempo alla costruzione di relazioni positive, oltre i soliti codici verbali, per favorire tra gli studenti un senso di accoglienza, stupore e voglia di fare insieme. Giochi che ci permettano di creare gradualmente un gruppo classe collaborativo, in cui poter proporre attività didattiche in un'atmosfera di gioioso apprendimento. Così immagino l'inizio della scuola. Ma questa non è solo la mia visione. Da oltre trent'anni a Findhorn, una fondazione educativa olistica a nord della Scozia, si ritrovano persone provenienti da ogni parte del mondo per sperimentare modelli di apprendimento esperienziale finalizzati alla facilitazione di uno " sviluppo equilibrato ed integrato di corpo, mente, emozioni e spirito " , come si può leggere nella mission dichiarata nel sito web della Findhorn Foundation (www.findhorncollege.org). In particolare David Earl Platts 2 (1998; 2015), uno dei primi membri della Comunità, ha raccolto una serie di proposte orientate alla graduale facilitazione di un clima di fiducia, rispetto reciproco e coesione all'interno di un gruppo, affinché ogni diversità possa diventare una risorsa per tutti. E le sue sessioni di giochi sono particolarmente adatte ai contesti educativi in cui i docenti operano ogni giorno. Ma quali sono i presupposti dei giochi di Findhorn?