Article

Modelling the dynamics of technological innovation systems

Article

Modelling the dynamics of technological innovation systems

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Abstract

Currently there is no formal model describing the dynamics of technological innovation systems. This paper develops a system dynamics model that integrates the concept of ‘motors of innovation’, following the literature on emerging technological innovation systems, with the notion of ‘transition pathways’ that was developed as part of the multi-level-framework thinking. As such, the main contribution of this paper is a cross-over of two key-frameworks into a system dynamics model that can serve as underpinning for future research. The model’s behaviour is illustrated by means of analyses of TIS dynamics in the context of different transition pathways, under different resourcing conditions. The paper also provides a future research agenda, pursuable by means of experimentation and/or further development of the presented model.

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... While the prevalent frameworks in the strategic management literature, such as Porter's five forces, mainly assume pure competition between firms or technologies to determine the attractiveness of an industry (Porter, 2008), recently, some scholars took advantage of the Multi-Level Perspective (MLP) and the Technological Innovation System (TIS) framework and investigated the nested hierarchies of interrelated technological components (Hillman and Sandén, 2008;Sandén and Hillman, 2011), multi-sector interactions along the value chain of a technology (Malhotra et al., 2019;Stephan et al., 2017), complementarities and competition at niche-niche, niche-regime, and regime-regime levels (Geels and Schot, 2007;Hofman and Elzen, 2010;Köhler et al., 2009;Markard and Hoffmann, 2016;Moallemi and Köhler, 2019;Raven and Verbong, 2007;Rosenbloom, 2020;Walrave and Raven, 2016), multi-technology interactions within a sector as inter-population relationships within a biological ecosystem (Mirzadeh Phirouzabadi et al., 2020a, 2020b, 2020cMirzadeh Phirouzabadi et al., 2020d;A. 2020f;Sandén and Hillman, 2011), and sector-technology interactions (Andersen and Markard, 2019;Bach et al., 2021;Mäkitie et al., 2018;Ulmanen and Bergek, 2021). ...
... And this includes multi-technology interactions. For example, on the basis of the TIS functions, the MLP transition pathways, and system dynamics (SD) modelling, Walrave and Raven (2016) and Raven and Walrave (2020) simulated the symmetrical modes of competition and symbiosis for the market interaction between one generic niche and one generic incumbent. Finally, multi-technology interactions can be fully investigated by stepping beyond explicit dimensions such as market share as the point of interaction (Pistorius and Utterback, 1997;Walrave and Raven, 2016). ...
... For example, on the basis of the TIS functions, the MLP transition pathways, and system dynamics (SD) modelling, Walrave and Raven (2016) and Raven and Walrave (2020) simulated the symmetrical modes of competition and symbiosis for the market interaction between one generic niche and one generic incumbent. Finally, multi-technology interactions can be fully investigated by stepping beyond explicit dimensions such as market share as the point of interaction (Pistorius and Utterback, 1997;Walrave and Raven, 2016). Since (taken-for-granted) implicit dimensions such as knowledge, regulations, expectations, promises, and collaborations provide more sufficient information and insights regarding the future performance and pathways of new emerging technologies (Alkemade and Suurs, 2012;Jun et al., 2014), socio-technical scenarios that project the co-evolution of technologies and their societal embeddings are gaining attention over technical scenarios (Hofman and Elzen, 2010). ...
Article
A multi-modal and multi-dimensional technology interaction framework is constructed to systematically and dynamically model and simulate the dimension, extent, and modes of multi-technology interactions. Using the Technological Innovation System (TIS), it is argued that a TIS' internal dynamics couple with the internal dynamics of neighbouring TISs vis-à-vis what is referred to as 'co-dynamics' which trade a mix of positive and negative externalities in the form of biological relationship modes. Based on the Lotka-Volterra equations, the framework is quantified and simulated via a computerised System Dynamics model, for the case of internal combustion engine, hybrid, and battery electric vehicles over 1985-2050 in the US market. The pure competition view in the strategic management literature is extended by the nuanced multi-modal interactions in ecology such as parasitic, commensal and amensalism modes. Additionally, the single-path view in the path dependency literature is extended by the nuanced multi-dimensional interactions such as knowledge cross-path interaction and market cross-path interaction. Furthermore, the TIS framework is made more outward orientated by proposing the notion of 'co-dynamics' and motors of 'creative destruction' and 'creative accumulation'. It is concluded that innovation policy mixes can possess a triple nature of 'creation', 'destruction' and 'accumulation' for interacting TISs through positive and negative internalities and externalities.
... Over the last two decades, several scholars provided conceptional work to advance the original TIS framework, including the functions of innovation systems (Hekkert et al. 2007, Bergek et al. 2008, development phases over time (Markard 2020), and interactions with the surrounding context structures such as spatial, sectoral and technological relations (Bergek et al. 2015). In turn, this set the ground for fruitful empirical research utilising a variety of cases, data sources and empirical frameworks but primarily relying on qualitative research methods (Walrave and Raven 2016). Although the qualitative TIS studies are able to identify cause-and-effect relationships in the system, their findings and analytical frameworks are bound to their specific research case, impeding generalizability without a laborious analysis of multiple cases (Eisenhardt andGraebner 2007, Weckowska et al. 2021). ...
... This provides researchers and policymakers with a forecasting tool to plan out different intervention strategies and estimate possible trade-offs between them (Raven and Walrave 2020). However, the reviewed studies using SD are mostly confined to single TIS and regimes as an intention to simplify complex transition processes, which usually entails multiple interaction dimensions between technologies, sectors and context structures (Walrave and Raven 2016). Thus, the reviewed works provide a blueprint for further scholars to consider additional interactions mechanisms between TIS territories (Binz et al. 2014) or competing and complementary technologies (Dreher et al. 2016). ...
... Although Walz et al. (2016) pointed out difficulties in collecting enough quantitative data, especially for more qualitative functions like guidance and legitimacy, the recent NLP approaches provide an efficient way to solve this issue, considering the broad availability of text data for technologies (Berger et al. 2020, Antons et al. 2020. Furthermore, as the abstraction and reduction of complexity of system modelling come at the cost of a missing understanding of the underlying TIS process on the micro-level Raven 2016, Raven and, there is further opportunity to complement system modelling with other approaches. ...
Conference Paper
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Qualitative approaches have dominated the analysis of technological innovation systems (TIS). However, considering the limited generalizability and time-consuming nature of qualitative research, scholars suggested quantitative methods as a complement to derive more general explanations about the empirical dynamics of TIS. Nonetheless, quantitative TIS studies are equally criticized for their abstraction of micro-processes and narrow analytical focus, undermining their contribution to empirical research and theory-building. This study contributes to this emerging discussion by embarking on the first dedicated methodological review of quantitative approaches in empirical TIS research. The review comprises 18 dedicated methodological studies applying social network analysis, regression analysis, natural language processing, and system modelling to TIS. Besides describing the key features of these studies, this study suggests possible extensions to strengthen the contribution of the quantitative toolbox of methods in TIS analysis.
... To contextualize the TIS perspective for the e-mobility sector, we adopt a dynamic and systemic approach toward mapping the effect of the e-mobility innovation system on the diffusion and adoption of electric vehicles. To accomplish this, we draw on work by Suurs [40] and the formalization and further development of his work by Walrave and Raven [41]. Accordingly, we consider the innovation functions as aggregate stocks, representing "the state of a specific innovation system in a defined moment" [42] (p. ...
... Second, the balancing Regime Resistance loop (B.2) is about the (potential) adopters' perceived legitimacy of the e-mobility system. When the number of EV Adopters increases to a certain threshold, ICEV manufacturers are likely to invest in improving their products to prohibit further loss of their customers; this is known as the sailing-ship effect, for example, [41,91,92]. This effect is in line with studies that observed how incumbent firms, representing the dominant regime, actively resist the diffusion of niche innovations, see, for example, [93][94][95]. ...
... This entity type appears to be the "motor" of any e-mobility system, and we draw on TIS functions to capture this system. Specifically, we draw on recent work describing the causal relations among these functions [25,40,41]. Accordingly, we assume that the higher the stock of EV adopters is, the stronger the associated actors believe in the growth potential of the EV market (see Figure 1). ...
Article
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Transportation systems are transitioning to e-mobility, but scholars and policymakers are struggling to understand how to accomplish this transition effectively. In response, we draw on the technological innovation systems perspective and the unified theory of acceptance and use of technology to develop a theory-guided and entity-based simulation model to better understand, among others, electric vehicle (EV) adoption processes as a specific yet core element driving business innovation. By doing so, our model is among the first to capture and combine the macro-and microlevel interactions associated with the EV transition process. Our simulation results shed light on the impact of alternative innovation policies, notably by explaining relations between EV market dynamics and changes in e-mobility policies, such as EV-related subsidies and resource mobilization. As such, the simulation modeling approach adopted in this paper enables a more in-depth study of transition problems related to e-mobility. Notably, the resulting modular model can be adjusted to other e-mobility transition problems by changing the specified entities.
... For several years, SD has been used for understanding and discussing complex SC issues (Campuzano et al., 2010;Forrester, 1961;Georgiadis et al., 2005;Gonçalves et al., 2005;Herrera et al., 2020b;Sterman, 2000). More recently, SD has been employed to understand the dynamics of ISs, particularly in technological transitions (Holtz et al., 2015;K€ ohler et al., 2018;Papachristos, 2019;Walrave and Raven, 2016). As SD can capture much of the complexity of SC as well as IS, the present paper has adopted this approach in order to implement a novel strategic innovation framework (Lane et al., 2017;Wheat, 2010). ...
... Consequently, the implementation gaps could affect SC performance as well as decelerate IS growth. Although several studies on innovation functions involve analysing ISs by using SD simulation (K€ ohler et al., 2018;Moallemi et al., 2017;Papachristos, , 2019Walrave and Raven, 2016), the effects of innovation functions on SC performance have not yet been extensively addressed. According to Hekkert and Negro (2009), so far the innovation functions approach has not become a fully established theoretical framework. ...
... Fourth, the TIS approach has been criticised for having a limited conceptual understanding of the interaction of IS with its environment (Markard et al., 2012;Walrave and Raven, 2016). In this regard, this paper adds innovation functions to an SD model in order to assess performance management for a particular case study. ...
Purpose This paper aims to determine how a strategic innovation framework that integrates the concepts of innovation function, dynamic performance management (DPM) and system-dynamics (SD) modelling can measure performance in a supply chain (SC). Design/methodology/approach The paper provides a strategic innovation framework for an SC by considering three steps. First, a systemic intervention is presented based on the innovation functions that influence SC performance. Second, an analysis of the system's performance is proposed. Third, a model SD-based simulation is designed. The developed framework is explained by employing a case study of the Colombian pig sector SC. Findings The results reveal that identifying and synchronising the system's performance drivers associated with the innovation functions could improve the inventory in the SC. Practical implications On the one hand, managers can use the proposed framework to evaluate the innovation investments and understand their impact on operation performance (e.g. on inventories). On the other hand, policymakers may support decision-making to improve policy design (e.g. through investment in R&D). Originality/value Few studies discuss the impacts of innovation functions on SC performance. This paper aims to fill this theoretical gap and to contribute to the literature by suggesting a novel framework which includes innovation functions.
... This paper used system dynamics modelling to explore the relationship between the installed capacity of renewable energy and innovation capacity through patent application rate. System dynamics (SD) is particularly useful to gain insights about energy and innovation policy design to improve system performance (Cardenas et al., 2016;Herrera, et al., 2019a;Walrave and Raven, 2016;Wheat, 2010). In this sense, SD allows us to understand the uncertain behaviour of the electricity market that should be taken into account when formulating and implementing policy. ...
... This feature of the SD modelling can be used as an effective graphic display method for illustrating the changes of policy (Gary et al., 2008;Wheat, 2010) and supporting strategy development within organisations (Bianchi and Tomaselli, 2015;Cosenz and Noto, 2016;Gary et al., 2008;Torres et al., 2017). SD has been a useful method to model and explore complex problem in the field of the innovation (Papachristos, 2019;Uriona and Grobbelaar, 2019;Walrave and Raven, 2016). Several studies have highlighted a number of benefits of applying SD modelling for supporting sustainability transitions in the energy sector (Köhler et al., 2018;Moallemi et al., 2017a). ...
... The energy transitions are not only determined by external conditions (e.g., climate change) but also emerge endogenously from interactions within the system (e.g., technology development). Recently, SD is used to assess the sustainability transitions that includes the functions of the technological innovation system (TIS) (Holtz et al., 2015;Walrave and Raven, 2016). The interest in diffusion processes has grown due to the increase of clean technology adoption studies in both, developed and developing countries, all within the TIS perspective (Uriona and Grobbelaar, 2019). ...
... To elucidate the feedback story, I rely on the work of Walrave & Raven (2016a, 2016b, who have translated the literature on Technological Innovation Systems (TIS) framework (Bergek et al., 2008;Hekkert et al., 2007;Markard & Truffer, 2008) into a system dynamics model. TIS theory posits that seven key functions undergird the formation and growth of innovation systems, namely, "(1) entrepreneurial activities, (2) knowledge development, (3) knowledge diffusion, (4) guidance of search, (5) market formation, (6) mobilization of resources, and (7) creation of legitimacy" (Hekkert et al., 2007;Walrave & Raven, 2016b, p. 1834Wicki & Hansen, 2017). ...
... To elucidate the feedback story, I rely on the work of Walrave & Raven (2016a, 2016b, who have translated the literature on Technological Innovation Systems (TIS) framework (Bergek et al., 2008;Hekkert et al., 2007;Markard & Truffer, 2008) into a system dynamics model. TIS theory posits that seven key functions undergird the formation and growth of innovation systems, namely, "(1) entrepreneurial activities, (2) knowledge development, (3) knowledge diffusion, (4) guidance of search, (5) market formation, (6) mobilization of resources, and (7) creation of legitimacy" (Hekkert et al., 2007;Walrave & Raven, 2016b, p. 1834Wicki & Hansen, 2017). These functions power the 'motors of innovation' through complex interactions and have been described through informal causal loop diagrams (see Suurs, 2009;Suurs et al., 2009Suurs et al., , 2010Suurs & Hekkert, 2012). ...
... These functions power the 'motors of innovation' through complex interactions and have been described through informal causal loop diagrams (see Suurs, 2009;Suurs et al., 2009Suurs et al., , 2010Suurs & Hekkert, 2012). These loops were, in turn, formalised and operationalised into a SD simulation model (Walrave & Raven, 2016b). This TIS modelling approach was selected over the more common Bass Diffusion Model as it captures more feedback mechanisms beyond the simple "innovator and imitator adoption mechanisms" (Uriona & Grobbelaar, 2019, p. 34). ...
Thesis
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The World Health Organization has predicted a doubling in the global population for persons with amputation by 2050 because of steady population growth, ageing populations, and climbing rates chronic conditions such as peripheral arterial disease and diabetes mellitus. Without proper and timely prosthetic interventions, amputees with major lower-limb loss experience adverse mobility outcomes, including the loss of independence, lowered quality of life, and decreased life expectancy. Yet, a vast majority of amputees still do not have access to prosthetic services given the present capacity constraints, lack of proximity to services, high costs and poor healthcare coverage. Today, the entry of digital technology to the prosthetics services industry (e.g., 3D-printed sockets) is touted to be a plausible solution to this problem. This thesis aims to assess the impact of digital prosthetics on the amputee mobility outcomes – specifically, the proportion of amputees who successfully regain mobility from using a prosthesis and the health-economic consequences of such mobility. Using the system dynamics approach, this study presents a computational simulation model ¬– representing the patient-care continuum and digital prosthetics system – that provides a feedback-rich causal theory of how digital prosthetics impacts amputee mobility outcomes over time. In general, this study has found that with sufficient resources for market formation and capacity expansion for digital prosthetics services, substantial improvements to mobility outcomes for amputees can be expected. In doing so, it serves as proof-of-concept for the viability of scaling digital prosthetics for enabling mobility and bolstering the social impact of providing a prosthesis. Based on the high-leverage policy levers found in the system, this study further discusses the model-based insights that could inform policy design for alleviating the barriers to access and enhancing the health-economic outcomes of prosthetics care.
... Furthermore, adaptive and participatory governance with works on the governance of commons (Dietz et al., 2008;Ostrom, 2004), socio-ecological ecosystems (Chaffin et al., 2014) and transport systems (Marchau et al., 2010), for instance, have developed invaluable approaches to complexity. Yet, apart from some exceptions like Rijke et al. (2013), these fields have paid limited attention to the long-term direction and societal impact; topics addressed by transformative innovation policy and socio-technical transition research (Foxon et al., 2008;Geels, 2005;Schot and Kanger, 2016;Walrave et al., 2018;Walrave and Raven, 2016). ...
... 3 The evolutionary and systemic view on innovation systems policy (Carlsson et al., 2002;Freeman, 1987) consists of complementary ways of framing innovation through national (Lundvall, 2007), regional (Cooke, 2011), sectoral (Malerba, 2002) or technological innovation systems (Carlsson and Jacobsson, 1994). 4 Since early 2000s, socio-technical transitions and multi-level perspective have been studied among many scholars (Armitage et al., 2008;Diercks et al., 2019;Geels, 2019Geels, , 2005Schot and Kanger, 2016;Walrave et al., 2018;Walrave and Raven, 2016). 5 Oxford English Dictionary (2019) provides multiple definitions for uncertainty, among others "something not definitely known or knowable", which apply in this paper. ...
... Perhaps due to its origin (Moore, 1993), the ecosystem discourse builds strongly on evolutionary theories (Shaw and Allen, 2018;Tsujimoto et al., 2018) and the facilitation of continuous change and adaptability (Brown and Eisenhardt, 1998), topics relevant also in transition research (Foxon et al., 2008;Geels, 2005;Schot and Kanger, 2016;Walrave et al., 2018;Walrave and Raven, 2016). Rijke et al. (2013) and adaptive governance (e.g. ...
Article
Full-text available
Transformative innovation policy has recently emerged at the intersection of innovation and socio-technical transition research. It has provided valuable heuristics to guide policy; but it has also led to the recognition of major challenges in the management of uncertainty and complexity. In this paper, we address these challenges by linking transformative innovation policy with research perspectives from (i) complex adaptive systems, (ii) ecosystems, and (iii) adaptive and participatory governance. Specifically, we develop a conceptual framework for transformative governance, which seeks to improve the adaptiveness and resilience of the ecosystem and orchestrates socio-technical transformation based on the balanced presence of diversity, connectivity, polycentricity, redundancy and directionality. We also present an illustrative example by applying the framework to a Finnish policy reform in which the lack of balanced attention to the ecosystem features catalysed major shortcomings in an emerging innovation mobility ecosystem. Finally, we explore the implications for the design of individual policies and policy mixes which arise from the recognition of complexity and the holistic policy impacts on the ecosystem and society at large.
... It seems that in order to create a comprehensive framework for evaluating technological innovation systems, it is necessary to use models that measure both the macro level and micro level in better quality. Therefore, the idea of integrating the multilevel approach and innovation system has been applied successfully by some of the recent papers to get a better understanding of innovation processes and technological changes [32][33][34]. ...
... Geels et al. [40] mentioned that while both concepts take different levels in their analysis, MLP has to be further developed in mapping the interaction between internal and external processes [40]. In fact, the functions of the innovation system are introspective, and the macro factors that exist in the system's environment were not taken into account [16,30,34,[41][42][43]. Fig. 1 shows the integration of TIS concept with MLP. ...
Article
Full-text available
Innovation systems operate in specific regional, political, social and economic contexts and are influenced by their environment. The internal structures and processes of a technological innovation system (TIS) are usually well understood in the literature, but what is happening outside and across the boundaries of the system is less systematically considered. This paper tries to fill this gap by combining the TIS concept and multi-level perspective (MLP) in studying problems impeding the development of photovoltaic technology in Iran. Considering MLP, this paper firstly identifies the most influential macro factors on photovoltaics TIS by studying the literature and semi-structured interviews. Then, the relationships between these factors were explained using the Interpretive Structural Modeling (ISM) technique. We used cross-impact matrix multiplication applied to classification or MICMAC analysis to better understand the dependence power and driver power of those variables. The results illustrate that government policies, oil crisis, economic growth, and downturn are the most influential macro factors in photovoltaics TIS in Iran.
... The means a sustainability transition can be top-down, bottom-up, or a combination (Verbong and Geels, 2010). From a TIS perspective, sustainability transitions occur around the development and diffusion of innovations that can lead to a reduced footprint in comparison to the current conditions (Walrave and Raven, 2016). The TIS approach is particularly effective if aimed at redesigning the entire production and consumption systems (Truffer and Coenen, 2012). ...
... In the sustainability transitions field, CLDs have been used to describe the positive feedback-loop systems that enable a Technological Innovation System to mature, named 'motors of sustainable innovation' (Suurs and Hekkert, 2012). Walrave and Raven (2016) developed SFD models of such motors of innovation to investigate transition pathways through simulation under different conditions. De Gooyert and colleagues (2016) have applied group model building techniques to represent and explain the sources of policy resistance in sustainability transitions. ...
Article
The electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) industry requires a Circular Economy (CE) transition, and decision-makers need support to deal with the complexities of such change. The goal of this research is: (1) providing an SD-based conceptual model for CE systems that clarifies their potential for decelerated flow of resources; (2) providing a simulation model that enables gaining knowledge of the effects of the implementation of CE strategies on nationwide stocks and flows of EEE; and (3) discussing the capabilities of such a model to facilitate CE transitions. The System Dynamics (SD) methodology is used to conceptualise and operationalise CE systems grounded on adjacent theories as industrial ecology (IE) and sustainability transitions. In this research, the resulting Circular EEE SD Model used data from publicly available sources to represent the long-term (1980–2050) adoption of flat display panel TVs in the Netherlands in different scenarios. Diverging restoration infrastructure levels and diverging product lifetimes were examined. Results show that although no scenario led to full eco-economic decoupling, the Circular EEE SD Model enables decision-makers to create “what-if” scenarios to test their assumptions about the potential effects of CE strategies to achieving transitions. The model is fully available for verification, modification, and use.
... For example, Carayannis and Grigoroudis (2016) , using Multi-Objective Mathematical Programming (MOMP) techniques, study how competitiveness, productivity, and innovation are linked in national entrepreneurship ecosystems. Simulation approaches can also suggest a framework for analyzing and evaluating entrepreneurship activities, such as knowledge and capital flows ( Lee & von Tunzelmann, 2005 ;Walrave & Raven, 2016 ), examine the behavior of EE's elements ( Backs, Günther & Stummer, 2019 ) or investigate the different type of innovation activities (e.g., product innovation and process innovation) ( Samara et al., 2012 ). Similarly, Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) models are used to identify the factors that may affect innovation capabilities ( Song, Tao & Wang, 2015 ), analyze the different stages and hierarchies of innovation systems ( Carayannis, Goletsis & Grigoroudis, 2015 ;, study the cooperation among industry-university-research and its effect on EE's efficiency ( Fang & Chiu, 2017 ) or examine the efficiency gaps within an EE ( Chen, 2017 ;Chen 2018 ;Lu & Lo, 2007 ). ...
... Focusing on the integrated circuit industry, Lee & von Tunzelmann (2005) use system dynamics to evaluate policy alternatives for the Taiwanese government based on flows of knowledge and capital in the national system. A similar approach is used by Walrave & Raven (2016) , who investigate sustainable transitions in technological innovation systems. ...
Article
Full-text available
Innovation-driven entrepreneurship has become a focus for economic development and received increasing attention from policy makers and academics over the last decades. While consensus has been reached that context matters for innovation and entrepreneurship, little evidence and decision support exists for policy makers to effectively shape the environment for growth-oriented companies. We present the entrepreneurial ecosystem concept as a complex systems-based approach to the study of innovation-driven entrepreneurial economies. The concept, in combination with novel data sources, offers new opportunities for research and policy, but also comes with new challenges. The aim of this paper is to take stock of the literature and build bridges for more transdisciplinary research. First, we review emergent trends in ecosystem research and provide a typology of four overarching problems based on current limitations. These problems connect operational research scholars to the context and represent focal point for their contributions. Second, we review the operational research literature and provide an overview of how these problems have been addressed and outline opportunities for future research, both for the specific problems as well as cross-cutting themes. Given that operational research has been invaluable in supporting decision-makers facing complex problems in several fields, this paper provides a conceptual and methodological agenda to increase its contribution to the study and governance of socio-economic development.
... Since technological innovation promotes the engagement of knowledge-empowered workforces in designing new tools (Walrave and Raven, 2016), it can improve employee psychological well-being in MSMEs. But technological innovation is a risky activity that can cause stress among employees and deteriorate their well-being (Zuo et al., 2019). ...
Article
A significant yet rarely explored research area is how the adoption of technological innovations impacts employee psychological well-being, such as in regard to employee anxiety and satisfaction. Accordingly, this study proposes and tests a framework of the effect of technological innovation on the psychological well-being of employees and how much effect is shaped by employee learning orientation and perceived organizational support. Empirical findings from 202 employees within 40 manufacturing SMEs show an inverted U-shaped relationship between technological innovation and employee psychological well-being (measured as employee anxiety and satisfaction). Further analysis reveals that both employee learning orientation and perceived organization support enhance the inverted U-shaped effect of technological innovation on employee psychological well-being. Our findings present important research and practical implications for innovation and organizational studies literature.
... Much research has been done in the field of application of system dynamics in quantitative analysis of different innovation systems (Ghodsypour and Azad 2018; Samara, Georgiadis, and Bakouros 2012; Uriona and Grobbelaar 2019; Rodr ıguez and Navarro-Ch avez 2015) and in particular, technological innovation systems (Wang et al. 2021;Walrave and Raven 2016;Raven and Walrave 2020). In this research, the purpose of applying system dynamics was to identify important and influential variables on the innovative systems' performance and also to predict the results of policies on future system performance. ...
Article
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Transition to sustainable energies is a fast-growing field of research. Modeling complex systems can expand our possibilities in this field through quantitative analysis. Photovoltaic technology is one the best potential energy sources in Iran but until now, this technology has not been diffused appropriately. According to the review of research on PV TIS, it was found that in developing countries such as Iran, quantitative analyses based on simulation by system dynamics have not been performed and also, positive and negative effective factors on this system (incentives and barriers), not comprehensively identified. Therefore, in this study, at first, positive and negative effective factors in the PV TIS of Iran were identified and in the next stage, innovation engines were extracted. In order to develop improvement policies, Iran’s PV TIS has been modeled using a system dynamics approach, and quantitative analyzes related to its performance have been presented using Vensim Ple software. Finally, in this study, some policies have been developed to promote PV TIS performance.
... Emerging technologies are disseminated mainly through technological innovation systems, which constitute a conglomerate of actors (besides firms) responsible for the development, propagation and consumption of new technologies, involving various institutions and organizations in this process (Fevolden and Klitkou, 2017), such as universities, research institutes and science parks (P aez-Avilé s et al., 2015). These new systems emerge as a way to support the spread of emerging technological innovations such as biogas and electric vehicles (Walraven and Raven, 2016), which require the action of other actors than firms to spread in time and space. ...
Article
Purpose This paper aims to discuss the dynamic interactions among knowledge management, strategic foresight and emerging technologies, resulting in a framework that can help companies to shape these interactions for achieving positive outcomes. Design/methodology/approach This conceptual paper is based on prior literature streams, which were interrelated through an abductive research process. This iterative conceptualization approach led to the formation of testable propositions that advance the understanding on the interactions among knowledge management, strategic foresight and emerging technologies. Findings The framework demonstrates the existence of an actions cycle between strategic foresight and knowledge management through a constructivist perspective, where one can improve the other. These interactions can be useful both for the development of emerging technologies and for identifying these innovations in market that can be applied in companies. Hence, all these dynamic interactions do not point to a hegemonic relationship of one construct over the others, but for the value equality among them. Originality/value Although current literature points to the existence of relationships among knowledge management, strategic foresight and emerging technologies, the dynamism inherent in these interactions as well as their positive effects for companies’ results are not properly discussed. This paper fills such a gap and proposes directions for future research.
... After the CLD has been formed, an FD (Figure 2 (b)) is built. FD is a dynamic model structure built by several components: levels, rates, and auxiliaries (Walrave & Raven, 2016). In the FD, information accumulation in the system is centered on the levels (stocks); the rate of change in the volume of information is represented by the rates ( ? ...
Article
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As a freshwater swamp forest that still remains in Java, the existence of Rawa Danau as an ecotourism destination is important to be explored, because its utilization is not yet based on sustainable management principles. For this reason, a system dynamics modeling was then made that integrates various factors in the biophysical, social, and economic dimensions to obtain the best alternative for managing the future ecotourism destinations. Management alternatives are designed in three scenarios: deep ecotourism oriented to very strong/strong sustainability; shallow ecotourism oriented to weak sustainability; and mass tourism oriented to very weak sustainability. The results showed that deep ecotourism was the most suitable scenario to be implemented. Through this scenario, the control of several parameters that were successfully carried out during the 10 years of the simulation are as follows: 1) restrain the growth rate of tourist numbers so as not to burden the environment; 2) reforesting almost all forest land converted so that the restoration of forest functions goes well; 3) increase local community income so that the community gets adequate economic benefits; 4) increase environmental investment so that stakeholders benefit economically, ecologically, and socially in an integrated manner; 5) maintaining biodiversity at a high level; 6) maintain swamp water reserves at a very good level; 7) reduce the volume of solid waste so that it does not burden the environment.
... Deal promoted by the European Union (European Commission, 2019). One of the key drivers in meeting the goals set for the forthcoming years is reliance on science and technological innovation (van Wezel et al., 2018;Walrave & Raven, 2016), and within this framework, technological assessment emerges as a tool for identifying socially and environmentally oriented innovations (Tran & Daim, 2008). Our results bring to light the manner in which consumers assess efforts made in green manufacturing practices, and this, in turn, has effects on company turnover. ...
... For instance, the infrastructure and knowledge base of a sector tend to be designed to meet the needs of established technologies [33], existing institutions can have technology-specific features, and incumbent actors may or may not be engaged in the development of novel technologies [34]. Hence, the alignment of novel technologies with the existing configurations of a sector is relevant for innovation [35,36]. While the (mis) match of novel technologies with the configurations of sectors has been frequently discussed under the concept of regimes [37], prior literature has elaborated little on how the infrastructure, knowledge base, actor networks, institutions etc. centred around established technologies may affect e.g. the knowledge development, resource mobilization and legitimation around new technologies. ...
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Facing increasing pressure to decarbonize, innovation within the shipping sector has turned to low-and zero carbon solutions. In this paper we investigate how the development and implementation of biodiesel and liquefied biogas (LBG) in Norwegian coastal shipping has been influenced by the technological alignment with fossil fuels. We understand this influence to emanate from the (mis)match of biofuels with the structure of coastal shipping (e.g. infrastructure, knowledge, institutions, actors) which has been shaped by fossil fuels. This way we contribute to the development of Technological Innovation Systems (TIS) framework by discussing the effect of sectoral cross-technology externalities on the functionality of a TIS. Our core data consists of semi-structured interviews, supported by a firm survey with Norwegian shipowners. Our results show that the technological alignment provides the biodiesel and LBG TISs with several benefits, such as access to established markets and infrastructure, which suggests that Norway to some extent has good conditions for maritime biofuel markets to form. However, two major barriers for implementation of biofuels are fuel availability and cost. Considering the competition with battery-electric and hydrogen solutions, the positive externalities of the interchangeability between fossil and biofuels are insufficient to make biodiesel and LBG competitive contenders for coastal shipping. In order to upscale implementation of biofuels in the Norwegian coastal shipping sector, which is needed to reach national and international emission targets, there is a need for strengthened policy interventions. To establish market formation, subsidies for biofuels and feed-in targets would be crucial policy instruments.
... SFD excels at quantitative system modeling that allows the system flow estimation according to inflow and outflow quantity [22]. The SFD's ability to quantify flows makes it suitable for data-driven DS [23]. However, CLD integration with a bottom-up model such as ABM has enabled its utilization of quantitative problems. ...
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The role of the Association of Southeast Asia Nations (ASEAN) small and medium enterprises (SMEs) as the regional socioeconomic stabilizer is inseparable from endogenous multisector collaboration. Indonesian SMEs struggled with Industry 4.0 adoption due to the lower digital infrastructure (DI) and digital literacy (DL) index. This study aims to develop a provisional model to explore the role of technology startups (TS) in covering the DI and DL of SMEs. The evaluation was through a simulation model of Indonesian SMEs’ collaboration with the government and TS. The developed model is a concurrent real-time integration of an agent-based model (ABM) with a causal loop diagram (CLD). The simulation results imply that SMEs’ collaboration with TS leads to the early adoption of Industry 4.0 that balances the business competition environment. The model also shows that exponentially rising government aid can help the SMEs into late adoption of Industry 4.0. However, SMEs are still unable to sustain the business competition. Thus, the integrative simulation model is a state-action planning model with each state result bounded to the previous state result. The initial input parameters determine the model behavior. Thus, the model is a good resiliency planner for SMEs’ Industry 4.0 adoption.
... Shao and Yu [19] believe that there is a positive correlation between government support, cooperative innovation, and technical talents with technological innovation output. Bob and Rob [20] integrate the concept of innovation engine (a document that tracks emerging technological innovation systems) with the concept of transition path (a multilayered analytical framework) and used the system dynamic model to analyze the dynamic process of technological innovation systems in different transitional paths under different resource conditions. ese studies have demonstrated that under different innovation factors and innovative behaviors, technological innovation has different effects on the innovation system; however, there is a lack of analysis on the combination of innovation factors and the impact of different sources of technological innovation. ...
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Based on the analysis of the dynamic interrelationships of enterprise innovation factors according to system dynamics, we build a dynamic causality diagram and a flow graph model of the enterprise innovation ecosystem to study the potential business value creation paths focusing on technological innovation. The system model is simulated using data from high-tech enterprises. Our results show that the model can reasonably simulate the operation of the enterprise innovation ecosystem. Two paths to value creation are identified: (1) input-technological innovation-commercialization of results-value creation; (2) external acquisition of technology-digestion and absorption-value creation as a complementary path. Also, the technological innovation path expands and extends the industrial chain and supply chain of enterprises and better promotes the value creation of enterprises in the same supply chain. Furthermore, our results show that R&D investment and technical cooperation investment should be allocated rationally in order to improve the utility of value creation investment.
... Positive discourses and visions attract attention, create cultural enthusiasm, and increase socio-political legitimacy Negative cultural discourses undermine the legitimacy of existing regimes (e.g., coal and climate change, diesel cars, and air quality) TIS puts the system dynamics in the centre of analysis to understand innovation processes and to search for system patterns. Varied interaction patterns are also explored by applying new methods such as computer models (Walrave and Raven, 2016a). Because of the diversity of activities happening, Hekkert et al. (2007) pointed out to focus on those that influence the development, application, and diffusion of new technological knowledge within the innovation system. ...
... One of the main shortcomings of the TIS framework is that its seven internal dynamics (or functions) were coined and proposed for the stabilisation, rather than A limitation in the simulation stage is that I assumed each powertrain system to be a generic socio-technical system, one limitation in my simulation model is that I mapped and connected their internal dynamics essentially based on the generic speculations proposed in the TIS literature (Hekkert et al., 2007;Raven & Walrave, 2020;Suurs, 2009;Walrave & Raven, 2016). I contextualised the TIS generic speculations by the case of powertrain systems using real-world data. ...
Thesis
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It is critical to investigate the development, diffusion and utilisation of emerging technologies in relation with each other, as well as with incumbent technologies. This is particularly imperative in sectors such as energy and transportation that struggle with both economic concerns (e.g., resource scarcity) and ‘grand challenges’, such as unsustainable consumption and production and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. This thesis takes a biological perspective and investigates whether technologies in an industry interact with one another in the same way that populations do in an ecology. The biological inter-population relationships analogy is applied to the three powertrain technologies of internal combustion engine, hybrid and battery electric vehicles (ICEV, HEV, and BEV) in the United States (US) automotive industry. Inter-powertrain relationships are studied in the early technological lifecycle (TLC) stage, known as an ‘era of ferment’, as it is characterised by an increase in technological variations, intense competition, high market uncertainty, and the frequent exits and entries of firms. This thesis conducts a qualitative and quantitative explanatory–exploratory study through a three-staged research design of narrative (conceptualisation), quantification and simulation. In the first stage, it conducts a qualitative explanatory–exploratory study to construct the conceptual framework. Adopting the technological innovation system (TIS) framework and the biological relationship modes, a dynamic approach to socio-technical interactions between technologies is proposed, called ‘dynapstic’. The various dimensions of the dynapstic framework are initially demonstrated by narrating some case studies, especially in the transportation and energy sectors. In the second stage, it conducts a quantitative explanatory–exploratory study to quantify the individual dimensions of the dynapstic framework. The biological Lotka-Volterra (L-V) equations are applied to quantify the individual socio-technical dimensions of powertrain technologies for the period 1985 to 2016. In the final stage, this thesis conducts a simulative explanatory–exploratory study to comprehensively simulate all the individual dimensions of the dynapstic framework. Feeding all the L-V quantifications and estimations from the second stage, all the individual socio-technical dimensions of powertrain technologies are integrated via an extensive system dynamics (SD) modelling for the time horizon of 1985 to 2050. This thesis illustrates that the internal dynamics of one powertrain technology become coupled with the internal dynamics of another powertrain technology through what is referred to as ‘co-dynamics’ in the dynapstic framework. Some of the proposed co-dynamics are entrepreneurial spawning, policy transfer, knowledge recombination and resource redeployment. Co-dynamics are illustrated to carry a mix of positive, negative and neutral influences between powertrain technologies that shape the various biological relationship modes between them, such as competition symbiosis, commensalism, parasitism and amensalism. These co-dynamics eventually lead to the build-up of shared structural elements or ‘couplings’ between powertrain technologies, such as overlap actors, knowledge overlap, institutional overlap and resource overlap. The findings throughout the three stages reveal that while inter-technology relationships can be multimodal and multidimensional, their nature and extent may undergo temporal transitions and suspensions over time. This thesis extends the TLC and strategic management literatures by challenging the assumptions for pure competition and for explicit dimensions, as technologies are illustrated to interact with each other in other forms (e.g., symbiosis, parasitism and commensalism) and for implicit dimensions (e.g., knowledge, policies, expectations and collaborations). It additionally contributes to the path dependency and sustainability transition literatures by revealing that transition processes are not only a result of path dependence, path creation and path destruction, but also a result of cross-path socio-technical interactions via positive and negative internalities and externalities. In particular, the TIS framework is made more outward oriented—first, by accommodating co-dynamics as a complementary dynamical unit of analysis to the conventional structural unit of analysis ‘couplings’, and second by proposing two new TIS motors, ‘motor of creative destruction’ and ‘motor of creative accumulation’. Finally, it contributes to the sustainability transition literature by challenging the transitionary, parasitic definition of hybrid technologies. This thesis informs transition managers and policymakers that their policy mixes may possess a triple nature of ‘creation’, ‘destruction’ and ‘accumulation’. Because their policy mixes may not only generate positive or negative internalities for the intended technology, but may also bring about positive or negative externalities in the field of other technologies. Taking a biological perspective, six types of strategies are proposed: competition, symbiosis, parasitism, commensalism, amensalism and neutral strategies. Considering the temporal transitions and suspensions findings, public policy makers are recommended to create and alternate their strategies in accordance with the changing multimodal and multidimensional relationships, but maintain a balance between them by strategically and proactively reconfiguring, modifying, facilitating and coordinating them over time. While public policy makers should avoid devising policies that may eventually lead to the demise of both incumbent and emerging technologies, their pro-entrepreneurship public policies should be preceded by pro-incumbent public policies, for instance, through exit options or transition supports such as knowledge recombination, knowledge continuity mobilisation, resource redeployment, and entrepreneurial recycling. Such an understanding informs policy decisions of when, and to what extent, one should invest in emerging disruptive technologies, divest from the incumbent technology, or pursue an intermediate solution between the new and incumbent technologies, while avoiding any dead ends. (available at http://hdl.handle.net/1959.13/1423920)
... Although TIS studies provide already a more detailed explanation than other frameworks (Weber & Truffer, 2017), prior criticisms and propositions Markard et al., 2015) indicate that some explanatory gaps remain. For example, modelling studies (Holtz et al., 2015;Walrave & Raven, 2016) require more fine-grained information on how processes unfold and what are the necessary and contingent conditions. Moreover, for transition studies, there is already an explicit call for studying mechanisms (Papachristos, 2018;Sorrell, 2018;Svensson & Nikoleris, 2018) which corroborate with the need of focusing on causal explanations. ...
Thesis
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Current societal challenges pose different problems, such as the need to change energy systems. New and emerging technologies or technological fields often have critical roles in solutions. Stimulating and accelerating the development and diffusion of new technologies are common agendas for public policy debates, which are informed by various analytical frameworks. For emerging technological fields, scholars have applied the Technological System Innovation (TIS) framework. However, TIS conceptual and analytical limitations have led to constraints in informing policies. This thesis advances this debate by demonstrating how a new TIS conceptualisation for systemic problems and blocking mechanisms (TIS hindering factors) improves policy recommendations. I propose a conceptual framework that enables the identification and analysis of policy mixes for the diffusion of emerging technologies. Despite TIS literature's long tradition, I show that a more accurate definition of TIS hindering factors enhances the framework explanatory power for a higher diversity of cases. This conceptual improvement depends on addressing the unclear or incomplete definitions, the lack of explanation of interdependent TIS hindering factors and the vague explanation of contextual influences. To this end, I propose a mechanism-based conceptual framework that understands blocking mechanisms as causal pathways linking systemic problems (causes) to poor system functioning (outcomes). I argue that detailing the causal pathway in activities and actors better explains system malfunctioning. Hence, it is possible to discuss interdependencies patterns of TIS hindering factors. The policy implications of the proposed framework entail that TIS can inform policy through systemic goals to mitigate systemic problems, activity goals to mitigate activities in blocking mechanisms and contextual goals to support the contextual influences of activities in blocking mechanisms. This mechanism-based framework is applied to the biogas case in Brazil. Although biogas technologies in Brazil have a huge potential and a long history, few studies have examined biogas in Brazil as a technological field. Besides, this case presents all the features to explore the new framework: several contexts and interdependent hindering factors. An innovative methodology was developed combining event history analysis and 24 in-depth interviews to describe systemic problems with a theory-building process tracing to unpack the blocking mechanisms. The empirical finds demonstrate that the evolution of geographically embedded sectoral regulations and infrastructures and their interactions have been responsible for major changes in the biogas field in Brazil. The findings also indicate that the low level of knowledge of biogas among players, the divergent frames and financial conditions and the limited spectrum of interactions are the primary causes of system hindrance. These causes manifested themselves in five blocking mechanisms, which elucidate the interdependence of systemic problems. Still, the results reveal the need for a national agenda composed of five systemic goals, the necessity of coordinating these systemic goals, and how macro or external factors may counteract goals. Finally, this thesis contributes to TIS and emerging technologies literature by providing a mechanism-based explanation of TIS hindering factors, an analytical method to consider contextual influences in TIS and discussing patterns of contextual influences and interdependence of TIS hindering factors.
... However, the knowledge development and diffusion function remains important, since it enables learning and hence increasing returns (Jacobsson et al., 2017). Once this stage is reached, the TIS is internally resourced through stable market demand (Walrave and Raven, 2016), thus motivating the necessary investments. The problematic of the second valley of death is how to create such a "market motor" (Fig. 1). ...
Article
Financing the clean energy transition is a growing field of research, yet most research on investments in clean energy has focused on the early stage, and hence on the role of public policy and private equity such as venture capital. We examine how the clean energy sector enters the stage of mainstream financing, using Finland as an empirical case. We combine data from expert interviews and secondary sources, which are analysed using the Technological Innovation Systems framework to identify the enablers and barriers of the TIS functions of the market motor. The findings show the interdependency of the various TISs of the clean energy sector especially in creating a stable market for the developing technologies. Especially the growth of investments in renewable power production is dependent on the growth of investments in electrification and the management of intermittency of power production.
... The notion of 'motors of innovation', however, has not seen much uptake in the wider literature on TIS, with the exception of the work by Walrave and Raven (2016). This is a significant missed opportunity, because the lack of understanding of a TIS as a dynamic system, including the underlying processes, is a barrier to (impact) analysis of policy or actor interventions to support or accelerate TIS development. ...
Article
This introduction reviews analysis of the dynamics of Technological Innovation Systems and introduces four papers that extend the analysis of dynamic processes in TIS. All four papers employ a system analysis for explaining TIS dynamics: Walrave & Raven and Markard consider the dynamics of the whole TIS. Musiolik et al. and Kieft et al. consider interventions intended to strengthen TIS dynamics. Overall, these papers show that the TIS framework can be extended to include an explicit consideration of how complex dynamic processes of a TIS generate system changes. Methods for the measurement of the TIS functions and empirical assessment of their interactions remain limited. The relationships of TIS functions to actor networks could be explored in greater depth. Research synthesizing insights into TIS dynamics across case studies is still limited.
... Although TIS studies provide already a more detailed explanation than other frameworks (Weber and Truffer, 2017), prior criticisms and propositions Markard et al., 2015) indicate that some explanatory gaps remain. For example, modelling studies (Holtz et al., 2015;Walrave and Raven, 2016) require more fine-grained information on how processes unfold and what are the necessary and contingent conditions. Moreover, for transition studies, there is already an explicit call for studying mechanisms (Papachristos, 2018;Sorrell, 2018;Svensson and Nikoleris, 2018) which corroborate with the need of focusing on causal explanations. ...
Article
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Understanding “systemic problems” or “blocking mechanisms” in emerging technologies and industries has been a major issue in Technological Innovation Systems (TIS) research. Despite this literature’s long tradition, we show that a more accurate definition enhances the TIS framework explanatory power for a higher diversity of empirical cases. We posit that conceptual improvement depends on addressing the unclear or incomplete definitions and the lack of explanation of interdependent systemic problems and blocking mechanisms. To this end, we apply a mechanism-based approach to explore these conceptual limitations. As a result, we propose a causal conceptual framework that understands blocking mechanisms as causal pathways linking systemic problems (causes) to poor system functioning (outcomes). We also argue that detailing the causal pathway in activities and respective actors better explains system malfunctioning. Finally, we discuss patterns of interdependencies among systemic problems and blocking mechanisms and implications for methodologies and for informing policy.
... Theories of the transition to sustainability are predominantly based on the ways in which system innovations (i.e. transitions from an incumbent socio-technical system to a new and more sustainable system) occur and how transition interventions can be organized [46]. Although the literature on sustainability transition theories is increasing 1 , this paper focuses on the multi-level perspective (MLP) developed by Rip and Kemp [47], Geels [36], Geels and Schot [48] and Grin [49]. ...
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The concept of sustainability is attracting great attention as societies become increasingly aware of the environmental consequences of their actions. One of the most critical challenges that humankind is facing is the scarcity of resources, which are expected to reach their limits in the foreseeable future. Associated with this, there is increasing waste generated as a consequence of rapid growth in the world population (particularly in urban areas) and a parallel rise in global income. To cope with these problems, a linear strategy has been applied to increase efficiency by reducing the use of materials and energy in order to lessen environmental impacts. However, this cradle to grave approach has proven inadequate, due to a lack of attention to several economic and social aspects. A paradigm shift is thus required to re-think and innovate processes (as early as in the design phase) in such a way that materials and energy are used more effectively within a closed-loop system. This strategy, known as the cradle to cradle approach, relies on the assumption that everything is a resource for something else since no waste is ever generated in nature. In line with the cradle to cradle approach, the bio-inspired circular economy concept aims at eco-effectiveness, rather than eco-efficiency. While the circular economy has neither a confirmed definition nor a standardized methodology, it nonetheless carries significant importance, since it “is restorative and regenerative by design and aims to keep products, components, and materials at their highest utility and value at all times, distinguishing between technical and biological cycles,” in accordance with the goals of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. Despite some controversial opinions that “circles are not spirals, and for growth to occur, spirals with ever-increasing radii are required,” the circular economy concept is taking a central role in the sustainable development debate and, for this reason, deserves attention. The aim of this paper is to shed light on this debate, pointing out the main features of the emerging circular paradigm along with sustainability transition theories and circularity evaluation tools.
... The framework needs validation in additional empirical contexts with different legislative and market characteristics to explore how our results might generalize regarding the emergence of OSS and the willingness of various actors to lead and contribute to an OSS. A related future research avenue might be to translate our framework into a system dynamics simulation model that enables the active testing of various support interventions to reach the critical threshold of supply-side conditions for an OSS model to emerge and scale (Walrave and Raven, 2016). Such a model could then be applied across local contexts as a Table 2 Policy implications for supporting OSS-encouraging organizational conditions. ...
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Residential energy-related renovations have a high potential to reduce emissions. However, organizing such renovation is riddled with high transaction costs. In response, scholars, and policymakers (e.g., European Commission) have advocated the One-Stop-Shop (OSS) concept to simplify house owners' access to complex renovation solutions, but adoption of the concept remains slow. So far, research has focused on the positive impact of OSS at the end customer interface, paying less attention to the governance challenges among supply-side actors. We perform abductive research that combines insights from 45 supply-side actor interviews with transaction cost economics and resource-based theory toward developing a conceptual framework that outlines 15 organizational conditions for supply-side actors’ uptake of the OSS model. Empirically, we find that supply-side organizations are, at this point, reluctant to take up governance of the OSS model. The reported reasons for this vary between different classes of organizations but overall align well with the organizational conditions outlined in transaction cost economics and resource-based theory. We propose policy interventions to tackle these shortcomings and to structurally support the supply-side of the renovation market in developing the relevant conditions for OSS uptake.
... Some simulation models presented in the specialized literature analyse TT processes from a technological learning approach for different sectors, as the basis of technical change and technological transition and where the simple existence of technology does not imply the adoption and use of the same [58]. The TIS literature focuses on understanding how innovation systems emerge around innovations such as electric vehicles, photovoltaic technology, and biogas [59]. ...
Article
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The technology transfer (TT) process has been studied from different approaches to improve productivity and competitiveness in agricultural chains. However, the process is not always presented successfully due to heterogeneity and inequality in the technological capacities (TC) of the agents that are part of the transfer process, in addition to the geographical context, the interaction networks and decision rules, which are key factors to understand the TT phenomenon. In this context and as a case study, the Colombian National Federation of rice growers promoted the development and adoption of technology that increased crop competitiveness and sustainability by implementing a technology transfer program known as the Massive Technology Adoption Program (AMTEC—Adopción Masiva de Tecnología) on rice. With the AMTEC program, average production costs were reduced by 26% (USD 119 per hectare), and it increased average yields by 23% (1.27 tonnes per hectare), which shows the importance of introducing technologies in productive chains in developing countries. This research provides a better understanding of the TT processes, based on the analysis of the interaction dynamics and behaviour patterns between the agents (i.e., generators, intermediaries, or users) in the TT processes. As an analysis tool, the agent-based modelling paradigm (ABM) was proposed to study the emergence at the macro-level of behaviour patterns of a system from the interactions of semi-intelligent agents at the micro-level, using experiments
... After the CLD has been formed, an FD (Figure 2 (b)) is built. FD is a dynamic model structure built by several components: levels, rates, and auxiliaries (Walrave & Raven, 2016). In the FD, information accumulation in the system is centered on the levels (stocks); the rate of change in the volume of information is represented by the rates ( ? ...
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As a freshwater swamp forest that still remains in Java, the existence of Rawa Danau as an ecotourism destination is important to be explored, because its utilization is not yet based on sustainable management principles. For this reason, a system dynamics modeling was then made that integrates various factors in the biophysical, social, and economic dimensions to obtain the best alternative for managing the future ecotourism destinations. Management alternatives are designed in three scenarios: deep ecotourism oriented to very strong/strong sustainability; shallow ecotourism oriented to weak sustainability; and mass tourism oriented to very weak sustainability. The results showed that deep ecotourism was the most suitable scenario to be implemented. Through this scenario, the control of several parameters that were successfully carried out during the 10 years of the simulation are as follows: 1) restrain the growth rate of tourist numbers so as not to burden the environment; 2) reforesting almost all forest land converted so that the restoration of forest functions goes well; 3) increase local community income so that the community gets adequate economic benefits; 4) increase environmental investment so that stakeholders benefit economically, ecologically, and socially in an integrated manner; 5) maintaining biodiversity at a high level; 6) maintain swamp water reserves at a very good level; 7) reduce the volume of solid waste so that it does not burden the environment.
... As part of system building activities, structural couplings are created with political actors in the form of "aligned institutions which enable the provision of specific resources that are essential for the further maturation of the TIS" (Bergek et al., 2015: 59). And, similar to the institutional entrepreneurship literature, case studies of TIS also emphasize the temporality of system-building activities with the identification and modelling of 'motors' of complementary activities that set in motion processes of cumulative causation (Suurs and Hekkert, 2009;Kivimaa and Kern, 2016;Walrave and Raven, 2016). ...
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Innovations accompanying transitions often prompt institutional change if they do not match with existing institutions. Transition studies started to incorporate institutional dynamics into their research, but efforts hitherto remain underdeveloped. In this paper, we systematically review the institutional entrepreneurship literature. Based on a reading of 153 empirical cases, we identify trends and biases in the literature and we distil a number of insights for transition studies to engage with.
... Public policy interventions should consider all the product life cycle stages and support CE initiatives locally, regionally and internationally (Milios, 2018). These instruments should align key actors' roles and expectations and help form the demand for emerging sustainable innovation (Suurs and Hekkert, 2012;Walrave and Raven, 2016). Cainelli and colleagues (2020) demonstrated that CErelated innovation in the European industry strongly depended on environmental policies. ...
Article
Public policies, incentives, and infrastructure are top-down instruments that can align stakeholders' roles and expectations for Circular Economy (CE) transitions, but it is crucial to analyse the possible effects of such instruments before implementation. This research investigates the Brazilian Industrial Agreement for Electrical and Electronic Equipment (BIAEEE) that governs the responsibilities and targets for nationwide collection and treatment of Waste from Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE). A system dynamics simulation model is adapted for the use of smartphones in Brazil, and interventions focused on the collection of end-of-life products are examined against the BIAEEE targets. Twelve policy scenarios investigate three aspects of EEE collection: coverage increase, distribution of collection points and rewards. All scenarios show improvement in the EEE collection, but only one meets the BIAEEE targets. This research demonstrates how modelling and simulation can inform strategic decision-making in public policies for CE transitions.
... Future MLP analyses could analyse the extent to which different components of the regime could be stretched and transformed through learning and adaptation vis-à-vis destruction and rebuilding. This also has implications for studies modelling transitions (Safarzyńska et al., 2012;Walrave and Raven, 2016), as these regime components have to be represented differently. ...
Article
Any major socio-technical transition requires a fundamental re-direction of financial capital from incumbent to new technologies and practices. While the transitions literature conceptually covers financial markets, the role of finance is marginalized and has scarcely been analysed empirically. To address this gap, here we build on the multi-level perspective (MLP), which considers financial markets as part of the existing regime. We argue that the role of finance is highly relevant for the niche-regime interaction: Redirecting finance towards new niche technologies requires that either the niche is fit for and conforms to the financial regime's expectations or the financial regime is stretched and transformed in order to accept and finance niche technologies. Based on 56 interviews, we identify factors that determine interactions between the financial regime and technology niches: these include acceptable risk and transaction size, an abundance of knowledge and heuristics in both the regime and niche, and an extensive, existing industry network. We further analyse how State Investment Bank (SIB) interventions in Germany, the UK and Australia, aimed to mobilise private finance into low-carbon project development, affect the interaction between the technology niche and financial regime, i.e. whether they resulted in fitting-and-conforming the technological niche for the financial regime or stretching-and-transforming the financial regime. Our results point to several important effects of SIB interventions, with most effects fitting the niche to the regime. However, we also detect effects that stretch and transform the financial regime – through evolutionary processes. Importantly, some effects occur as a consequence of the primary effects. Based on our findings we discuss policy implications on how to accelerate transitions through policies aiming at finance as well as theoretical insights gained through our analysis.
... The academic circles have not yet reached a unified conclusion on the concept of technological innovation. Most of the research on technological innovation theory is combined with economic growth (Walrave and Raven, 2016). Feki and Mnif (2016) believed that technological progress is an endogenous economic variable and the continuous accumulation of knowledge. ...
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توسعه‌ی اقتصادی کشور­ها با توسعه­‌ی فناوری‌های پیشرفته گره خورده ‌است. از همین‌رو، سیاست­‌گذاری این فناوری‌ها به یکی‌از مهم­ترین دغدغه‌های سیاستگذاران تبدیل شده ‌است. نظام نوآوری فناورانه، به‌عنوان مهم­ترین رویکرد در سیاست‌گذاری فناوری، توسعه‌ی بسیار قابل‌توجهی یافته ‌است. بنابراین ضروری است تا با استفاده از شناسایی عوامل اصلی موثر بر نظام نوآوری فناورانه چارچوبی برای سیاست­‌گذاری توسعه‌­ی فناوری­‌های نوین ارائه شود. در این مقاله به‌منظور یکپارچه­‌سازی و تجمیع مطالعات پیشین از روش فراترکیب استفاده شد. با استفاده از روش کتابخانه‌­ای، اطلاعات جمع آوری شد. جامعه‌ی آماری این تحقیق 280 مقاله ثبت‌شده با کلید­واژه‌ی نظام نوآوری فناورانه در پایگاه اسکوپوس تا پایان سال 2018 میلادی است. در پایان، از یافته‌های 52 مقاله در چارچوب نهایی استفاده شد. به‌منظور ارزیابی کیفیت تحقیقات مورد ‌استفاده از روش برنامه‌ی مهارت‌های ارزشیابی حیاتی استفاده شد. هم‌چنین با استفاده از شاخص کاپا، پایایی تحقیق تائید شد. با­ توجه به این‌که چارچوب، با بهره­‌گیری‌ازاجزاءوعوامل چارچوب‌های ارائه‌شده‌ی ‌پیشین توسعه یافته‌ است، روایی محتوایی برقرار است. به‌علاوه، چارچوب توسط پنج نفر از خبرگان حوزه‌ی نوآوری مورد ‌بررسی قرار­ گرفته و محتوای آن را مورد تائید قرار داده‌اند. چارچوب جامع نظام نوآوری فناورانه با 10 بعد اصلی و 102 زیرکارکرد مطرح شد. عوامل اصلی مورد اشاره در این چارچوب عبارتند از: توسعه، تبادل و انتشار دانش، فعالیت‌های کارآفرینانه، جهت­‌دهی به تحقیقات، شکل­‌گیری بازار، بسیج منابع، مشروعیت بخشی، سیاست‌­گذاری و ایجاد هماهنگی، ایجاد ساختار (شبکه و نهاد­های واسط)، تضعیف رژیم حاکم و بهره‌­برداری از رژیم حاکم. هم‌چنین توجه به محیط و استفاده از نگاه اقتضایی در واکنش به فرصت‌ها و تهدید‌های محیط علاوه‌بر توجه به توانمندی‌های نظام نوآوری فناورانه به‌عنوان عنصر مکمل چارچوب مطرح شد. توسعه‌ی فناوری‌های نوین موضوعی پیچیده و چند­وجهی است که نیازمند توجه به همه‌ی پویایی‌های موجود در نظام‌های نوآوری است. نگاه تک‌­بعدی به توسعه‌ی فناوری و پرداختن صرف به مواردی مانند خلق دانش و تحقیق و توسعه، منجر‌به توسعه‌ی فناوری نخواهد شد. بنابراین به‌منظور سیاست­‌گذاری فناوری‌های نوین در کشور، توجه نظام­مند به همه‌ی عوامل شناسایی‌شده در ­این تحقیق، امری ضروری است.
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