Conference Paper

Eye Movement Tracking as a New Promising Modality for Human Computer Interaction

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Abstract

It is well known that eye movement tracking may reveal information about human intentions. Therefore, it seems that it would be easy to use gaze pointing as a replacement for other traditional human computer interaction modalities like e.g. mouse or trackball, especially when there are more and more affordable eye trackers available. However, it occurs that gaze contingent interfaces are often experienced as difficult and tedious by users. There are multiple reasons of these difficulties. First of all eye tracking requires prior calibration, which is unnatural for users. Secondly, gaze continent interfaces suffer from a so called Midas Touch problem, because it is difficult to detect a moment when a user wants to click a button or any other object on a screen. Eye pointing is also not as precise and accurate as e.g. mouse pointing. The paper presents problems concerned with gaze contingent interfaces and compares the usage of gaze, mouse and touchpad during a very simple shooting game.

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... In [14] Kasprowski and Niezabitowoski replaced the mouse input with the ET input in a shooting game context. They measured higher values in the aiming time due to the lack of accuracy of the ET method. ...
... A typical FPS scenario consists of a player who moves around the virtual world, searches for a target, aims and shoots at the target. Similar to [14] we have implemented a moving target, but in a 3D environment, not a 2D one. The authors of [5] use a 3D environment shown on a HMD, but static targets. ...
... VR modalities consistently had lower values in pointing times. For both DB and VR modalities, the times by ET were the highest and the standard deviation the largest which is similar to the results in [14]. ...
... The changes that occurred in the intensity of brainwaves of test subjects recorded while browsing different media content were analyzed in [22]. Apart from BCI systems, there are other methods of human-computer interaction, such as eye movement tracking [23]. These systems can be used in the analysis of programming technologies such as LINQ [24], thus allowing, the loading of cognition or source code and algorithm description tools for readability [25]. ...
...  Alpha waves (8-13 Hz): these ones predominate when the Central Nervous System is at rest, relaxed but awake and attentive.  Beta waves (13)(14)(15)(16)(17)(18)(19)(20)(21)(22)(23)(24)(25)(26)(27)(28)(29)(30): these ones are associated with external cognitive tasks, and activities related to concentration, such as solving a mathematical problem. ...
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... However, the users have to spend longer time to calibrate their gaze. Furthermore, this conventional calibration is designed with poor user experience [12] and it may cause visual fatigue [13]. During gazeto-screen calibration, users are normally not allowed to blink and they have to keep their heads steady. ...
... During gazeto-screen calibration, users are normally not allowed to blink and they have to keep their heads steady. Additionally, the calibration may be repeated several times due to inaccuracy in results of calibration [10], [13]. ...
... There are plenty of potential applications of eye tracking: medicine [1,2], psychology [3], sociology [4], education [5], usability assessment [6] or advertisement analysis. There is also a growing number of applications using eye gaze as a new input modality [7]. With access to high quality cameras and devices that are able to process sophisticated image retrieval tasks, anybody can build an eye tracker. ...
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... both elements of their use contribute to time required to complete various tasks and claim additional cognitive resources. These limitations are not critical, however, as in a number of experimental studies where various types of human-computer interaction were examined gaze was not able to outperform mouse and other traditional manual input devices (e.g., [10][11][12][13]). To our knowledge, faster or more accurate selection with gaze compared to mouse has been never demonstrated for non-salient targets. ...
... The second method, electrooculography (EOG), comprises electrodes placed around the eyes, which measure the electric potential changes during eye movement. These electric potential changes allow to conclude the position of the eye gaze and to measure relative eye movement [6], [7]. ...
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... If not, one could assume that a well-established input form, such as a mouse, would be sufficient to achieve a similar or even better result. By doing so, we want to contribute to the research body of comparative studies in the field of gaze vs. mouse (e.g., [49][50][51][52][53][54][55]). Figure that illustrates the commonalities and differences between CrossG and GazeG; left image: in CrossG, players interact via a mouse (look around, pointing) and a keyboard (WASD-movement, crouching); the guidance (i.e., vignette effect) is driven by the current crosshair position that is pinned to the center of the screen, right image: in GazeG, players move in the same way as in CrossG (i.e., mouse and keyboard); in this condition, the guidance is decoupled from the screen's center and is driven via the player's gaze position. Note: gaze point is shown for demonstration purposes (i.e., no visual feedback on the current gaze position was provided). ...
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... Various selection methods have been developed and tested: dwell-time, which is most common [1,5,21], blinking and winking [16,22], voluntary pupil size manipulation [4], and external triggers [23]. However, none is as quick and simple as pressing a button [9]. The second problem is precision: a cursor stands perfectly still indefinitely when its control device remains untouched, while the human eye is in constant motion. ...
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... Thus, it may be possible to conduct a higher accuracy evaluation of the physiological mental state if the eye-blink types are automatically classified by the system. Hence, that approach can contribute significantly to analyzing usability and the user experience of various systems [15][16][17]. ...
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