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Abstract and Figures

Polyetheretherketone (PEEK) is a polyaromatic semi-crystalline thermoplastic polymer with mechanical properties favorable for bio-medical applications. Polyetheretherketone forms: PEEK-LT1, PEEK-LT2, and PEEK-LT3 have already been applied in different surgical fields: spine surgery, orthopedic surgery, maxillo-facial surgery etc. Synthesis of PEEK composites broadens the physicochemical and mechanical properties of PEEK materials. To improve their osteoinductive and antimicrobial capabilities, different types of functionalization of PEEK surfaces and changes in PEEK structure were proposed. PEEK based materials are becoming an important group of biomaterials used for bone and cartilage replacement as well as in a large number of diverse medical fields. The current paper describes the structural changes and the surface functionalization of PEEK materials and their most common biomedical applications. The possibility to use these materials in 3D printing process could increase the scientific interest and their future development as well.
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CLINICAL APPLICATIONS OF BIOMATERIALS Review Article
Polyetheretherketone (PEEK) for medical applications
Ivan Vladislavov Panayotov
1
Vale
´rie Orti
1
Fre
´de
´ric Cuisinier
1
Jacques Yachouh
1
Received: 5 April 2016 / Accepted: 24 May 2016 / Published online: 3 June 2016
ÓSpringer Science+Business Media New York 2016
Abstract Polyetheretherketone (PEEK) is a polyaromatic
semi-crystalline thermoplastic polymer with mechanical
properties favorable for bio-medical applications.
Polyetheretherketone forms: PEEK-LT1, PEEK-LT2, and
PEEK-LT3 have already been applied in different surgical
fields: spine surgery, orthopedic surgery, maxillo-facial
surgery etc. Synthesis of PEEK composites broadens the
physicochemical and mechanical properties of PEEK
materials. To improve their osteoinductive and antimicro-
bial capabilities, different types of functionalization of
PEEK surfaces and changes in PEEK structure were pro-
posed. PEEK based materials are becoming an important
group of biomaterials used for bone and cartilage
replacement as well as in a large number of diverse med-
ical fields. The current paper describes the structural
changes and the surface functionalization of PEEK mate-
rials and their most common biomedical applications. The
possibility to use these materials in 3D printing process
could increase the scientific interest and their future
development as well.
1 Introduction
Polyetheretherketone (PEEK) is a polyaromatic semi
crystalline thermoplastic polymer with chemical formula
(–C
6
H
4
–O–C
6
H
4
–O–C
6
H
4
–CO–)
n
[1]. PEEK was com-
mercialized for the industry in the 1980s [2]. It was pro-
posed as a material for biomedical application in 1998 by
Invibio Ltd. (Thornton-Cleveleys, UK). In the same year
Victrex PEEK business (Imperial Chemical Industry,
London UK) launched PEEK-OPTIMA for long-term
implantable applications [2,3]. Describing the properties of
PEEK-optima LT1 materials we should differentiate the
unfilled PEEK biomaterial from PEEK-composites.
Implants based on the PEEK composites have been devel-
oped as an alternative to conventional metallic or ceramic
devices [4]. PEEK-LT1 can contain varying amounts of
bioactive materials like hydroxyapatite (HA) and b-trical-
cium phosphate. PEEK polymer devices were first reported
for fracture fixation, using carbon reinforcement in a PEEK
matrix [5]. All structural changes in PEEK materials are
developed to increase their biomechanical and biological
properties. Today the medical application of PEEK materials
is common in several surgical fields. One possible classifi-
cation based on clinical application of PEEK materials i.e.
PEEK based implants is presented below.
1.1 Clinical classification of PEEK implants
(1) PEEK for bone replacement-maxillo-facial and cra-
nial implants.
(2) PEEK for spine surgery-spinal cages.
(3) PEEK for orthopedic surgery.
(a) for bone and hip-replacement-articulation
implants.
&Ivan Vladislavov Panayotov
ivan.panayotov@gmail.com
Vale
´rie Orti
valerie.orti@umontpellier.fr
Fre
´de
´ric Cuisinier
frederic.cuisinier@umontpellier.fr
Jacques Yachouh
jacquesyachouh@free.fr
1
Laboratoire de Bioinge
´nierie et Nanosciences EA 4203, UFR
Odontologie, Universite
´de Montpellier, 545 Avenue du
Professeur Jean-Louis Viala, 34193 Montpellier Cedex 5,
France
123
J Mater Sci: Mater Med (2016) 27:118
DOI 10.1007/s10856-016-5731-4
Content courtesy of Springer Nature, terms of use apply. Rights reserved.
... A reference to the attenuation coefficients as a function of photon energy are shown in the Supplementary material A ( Figure A). PEEK is of particular interest, as it is biocompatible, has a higher elastic modulus than most polymers (3)(4) GPa), lying between the modulus for cancellous (1 GPa) and trabecular (14 GPa) bone [13][14][15][16][17][18]. PEEK can also be 3D printed, enabling implants to be quickly customised for individual patients and manufactured with porosity to facilitate osseointegration. ...
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