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The Fight-or-Flight Response

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Abstract

The fight-or-flight response was a concept developed by Walter B. Cannon in the course of his studies on the secretion of epinephrine from the adrenal medulla of laboratory animals. This concept was an outgrowth of his studies of homeostatic mechanisms, particularly as they related to the sympathetic-adrenal medulla system. Cannon’s research on homeostasis and the fight-or-flight response led him to delve into mechanisms of “voodoo death” and to propose a new theory of emotions, known as the Cannon-Bard theory. Cannon thought that the sympathetic nervous system and the adrenal medulla operated as a functional unit, with epinephrine as the chemical messenger. He did not understand that the postganglionic sympathetic nerves utilized norepinephrine as a chemical transmitter. Cannon’s research legacy is a rich one and his work is still cited frequently by contemporary researchers in the field of stress.

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... Modern theories of stress have proposed multiple definitions of the concept ranging from generic ones like 'a nonspecific response of the body to any demand' (Selye, 1993) to more complex ones such as: 'the biological response elicited when an individual perceives a threat to it's homeostasis' (Moberg and Mench, 2000a) or 'any stimulus that will activate (i) the HPA system, thereby triggering the release of pituitary adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) and adrenal glucocorticoids and (ii) the SAM system with consequent release of adrenaline and noradrenaline' (Fink, 2016). Cannon(1932) was the first author to coin the expression fight or flight as a response to external stress and to describe the physiological changes associated with the activation of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) due to perceived stressors (Mccarty, 2016a;Moksnes and Espnes, 2016). ...
... The biological cost of stress associated with the activation of the ANS include cardiovascular changes, release of epinephrine in the blood circulation and increases in glucose and oxygen to skeletal muscles and brain as an adaptive response for survival (Everly and Lating, 2013;Mccarty, 2016a;Moberg and Mench, 2000b;Ziegler, 2012). ...
... The sympathetic-Adrenal Medullary component of the Autonomic Nervous System has different physiological effects and consequences (Table 2.From (Mccarty, 2016a) but once the threat is no longer perceived, the parasympathetic system returns to a normal state of vasodilatation and gradual temperature rise (Everly and Lating, 2013;Ioannou et al., 2014a;Nhan and Chau, 2010). These physiological mechanisms are valuable indicators when monitoring the emotional states and overall welfare of animals (Bartolomé et al., 2013;Briefer et al., 2015;Faucitano and Schaefer, 2008;Moberg and Mench, 2000b;Proudfoot and Habing, 2015;Zebunke et al., 2011). . ...
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One of the characteristics of the intensive pig farming industry is that it will regroup unfamiliar animals together at certain moments during their production which prompts the animals to establish dominance. This results in aggressive behaviours and causes many welfare issues like skin lesions, health problems and mostly stress. In recent years, infrared thermography, as a non-invasive tool, has been used to investigate the emotional state of animals in context of stress and negative emotional valence. The aim of this study was to explore the validity of infrared thermography as a method to collect the body surface temperature of pigs engaged in agonistic behaviours and to assess the thermal changes in regards to their emotional status. The project was approved by the UK Government Home Office Legislation and by SRUC’s Animal Ethics Committee. In the context of a larger study, 46 female and male pigs of 10 weeks of age from Large white x Landrace sow x American Hampshire boar were staged in dyadic contests in which opponents were unfamiliar to one another. This resulted typically in short but intense fighting and was recorded on CCTV and simultaneously with a thermal imaging device. The thermal imaging device (FLIR SC620) took photographs every 10 seconds and was positioned 5m above the ground to capture the entire contest arena including the two pig contestants. Ambient temperature was 16.1±0.3° C and humidity 53.5±01%. The dorsal plane of the pigs was identified as the region of interest (ROI) to extract the data and the polygon tool was used in the Flir ThermaCAM Researcher Professional 2.1 software to extract the thermal data. A total of 1284 images were analysed and our result suggest that winners and losers have similar thermal profiles due to social synchrony phenomenon. Furthermore, our results suggest that the temperature decrease and increase observed at specific moments during the contest were activated by the underlying stress response of the sympathetic and parasympathetic activation of the Autonomic Nervous System (ANS). Finally, higher emotional arousal levels, measured as greater thermal variation and lower temperature, were observed in pigs that had won a previous contest and higher arousals levels were also observed in males compared to females. Key words: Infrared thermography, agonistic encounters, emotional arousal, autonomic nervous system, social synchrony Written in the style of Applied Animal Behaviour Science ISSN 0168-1591
... However, often, the social response to stress is not tend-and-befriend, but fight-or-flight (Cannon, 1932;Dedovic et al., 2009;McCarty, 2016;Rodrigues et al., 2009). Fight-or-flight responses involve antagonistic social behaviors aimed at promoting own survival and well-being, potentially at the opponent's expense. ...
... Fight-or-flight responses involve antagonistic social behaviors aimed at promoting own survival and well-being, potentially at the opponent's expense. This social response to stress has been described almost a century ago (Cannon, 1932), and its discovery has had great impact on the animal and human literature (Haller, 2018;Haller et al., 1998;Jansen et al., 1995;Kruk et al., 2004;McCarty, 2016;Sandi and Haller, 2015;Sgoifo et al., 1996;Sgoifo and Papi, 1995;Terbeck et al., 2016Terbeck et al., , 2012White et al., 2019). In humans, antagonistic fight-or-flight-like responses might manifest as higher egocentricity and reduced other-regarding behavior. ...
Article
Most individuals are willing to forego resources for the benefit of others, but their willingness to do so typically declines as a function of social distance between the donor and recipient, a phenomenon termed social discounting. We recently showed that participants were more altruistic towards strangers when a costly generous choice was framed as preventing a monetary loss to the other rather than granting them a gain. Here, we asked if acute stress would diminish this frame effect on social discounting. To test this hypothesis, 102 male participants engaged in either the Maastricht Acute Stress Task, or a matched, non-stressful control procedure. They subsequently played a two-frame dictator game version of the social discounting paradigm. Whereas both frame conditions were economically equivalent, in the give frame, participants were asked how much money they would share with other persons on variable social distance levels, and in the take frame, they decided on how much money to take away from the others. While non-stressed control participants showed increased generosity toward strangers in the take compared to the give frame, similar to previous findings of our group, stress attenuated this frame effect on social discounting by reducing generosity toward strangers in the take frame. These findings confirm that stress can corrupt prosocial motives and social norm compliance, diminishing prosocial tendencies toward unfamiliar others.
... This was found for cognitive dissonance (e.g., Martinie et al., 2013), social interaction (Mendes et al., 2007;Patterson, 1976), decision making (Mann et al., 1969;van Harreveld et al., 2009), and even the rather trivial inconsistency of anomalous colours of the suits of playing cards (Sleegers et al., 2015). Increased autonomic arousal has also been associated with the performance of exploration, aggression, and fear (Berlyne, 1960;LeDoux, 2014;Novaco, 2000;"fight-or-flight," Cannon, 1915;McCarty, 2000). Thus, for both cortical and autonomic arousal there are strong indications that they are both related to cognitive inconsistency and are both involved in the performance of behaviour. ...
... Acute stress, which occurs immediately after the perception of a stressor, is associated with increased arousal (Belujon and Grace, 2015;Bremner et al., 1996;Guilliams and Edwards, 2010). This is not surprising, as acute stress is actually the same as the fightor-flight response (Cannon, 1915;McCarty, 2000), or, the normal reaction to the perception of a relatively large cognitive inconsistency. According to Ursin (1988;Ursin and Eriksen, 2004), when the inconsistency between expected events ("set value") and perceived events ("actual value") cannot be resolved satisfactorily, this results in chronic stress and sustained high levels of arousal, for instance increased levels of cortisol. ...
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At all levels of information processing in the brain, neural and cognitive structures tend towards a state of consistency. When two or more simultaneously active cognitive structures are logically inconsistent, arousal is increased, which activates processes with the expected consequence of increasing consistency and decreasing arousal. Increased arousal is experienced as aversive, while the expected or actual decrease in arousal as a result of increased consistency is experienced as rewarding. Modes of resolution of inconsistency can be divided into purely cognitive solutions, such as changing an attitude or an associated motor plan, and behavioural solutions, such as exploration, aggression, fear, and feeding. Models and theories consistent with the principle of consistency are numerous, have a long and continuing history, and come from many different scientific fields, such as social psychology, perception, neurocognition, learning, motor control, system control, ethology, and stress. The present paper presents a brief overview of relevant information from these fields of research, while focusing mainly on the implications of the principle of consistency for the understanding of the cause and function of behaviour. Based on this overview, it is proposed that all behaviour involving cognitive processing is caused by the activation of inconsistent cognitions and functions to increase perceived consistency.
... The results presented here are congruent with what we know of how aggression affects individuals and groups and in turn how stress shapes organizational behavior: exposure to aggression elicits and semi-automatic sympathetic response pattern-the "fight or flight" response that involves the experience of stress-a multi-systemic response preparing us to respond-wither protect and defend or escape and evade the threat (McCarty, 2016). In other words-stress responses are the most immediate and natural responses to exposure to threat (and thus it also accounts for why the effect route for physical aggression was more pronounced than the one involving verbal aggression). ...
... 27 Adrenaline (Adr) is a hormone that widely known for the "fight or flight" response. 28,29 As a part of the acute stress response system, Adr works through stimulating the heart rate, contracting blood vessels, and dilating air passages. 30,31 Since first synthesized in 1904, Adr has been a common treatment for low cardiac output. ...
Article
Currently, the prevention and treatment of hypertensive crises especially when it occurs with serious adverse outcomes have led to worldwide controversy. Despite of clinical possibilities of multiple agents, clinical failures still occur frequently. Therefore, early evaluations and observations of different therapies on appropriate animals should be emphasized. In the present study, an animal model for hypertensive crises emergencies was firstly established and experimentally testified. Five-month-male spontaneously hypertensive rat was consecutively fed with 60%-Kcal fat diet for four, six, and eight weeks with body weight and blood pressure monitored every two weeks, and then followed by an acute vasoconstriction stress of 5-min ice-bath treatment in the 4-h time interval of two adrenaline injections (0.8 mg/kg). Forty-four biochemical parameters were detected, covering hepatic and renal function, blood glucose and lipid levels, myocardial enzymes and energy metabolisms, blood coagulative and anti-coagulative system, oxidative stress and anti-inflammatory cytokine, blood viscosity, and RAAS system. Six tissues including heart, brain, liver, kidney, coronary arteries, and mesenteries were removed for pathological observations with hematoxylin–eosin staining. As a result, multi-organ dysfunctions in the heart, brain, liver, kidney, vascular endothelium, and blood system were testified in the modeling rats at weeks 6 and 8. In conclusion, severe consequences of this animal model were highly similar to those in hypertensive crises emergencies, which could be further utilized in the early intervention of hypertensive crises emergencies including the possible risk factors control and efficient therapies assessment. Impact statement In the late 90s, numerous reports predicted that 1–2% of hypertensive individuals would undergo hypertensive crises (HPC) and figures reached as high as 7% when no antihypertensive therapies were administrated. Currently, clinical failures appear frequently due to the improper or excessive medication regimen instead of the illness itself. Therefore, early evaluations and observations of HPC on appropriate animal models ahead of patients should be discussed and emphasized more widely. In the present study, an appropriate animal model for HPC emergencies was firstly established, in which the consequences of long-term high-fat diet feeding followed by an acute vasoconstriction stress on the spontaneously hypertensive rats were experimentally testified. The proposed model would have a wide application prospects in early intervention of HPC emergencies including the controls of possible risk factors and assessments of efficient therapies.
... Apart from seyle's GAS model another american physiologist W.B. Cannon (1932) describes stress as a response in his flight-or-fight model. In his model, he linked emotional expression to physiological changes in the periphery (McCarty, 2000). Cannon (1932) proposed that when the organism perceives a threat, the body is rapidly aroused and motivated via the sympathetic nervous system and the endocrine system to regain homeostasis. ...
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This research paper aims to review the literature on stress; sources of stress; signs and symptoms of stress; and adverse effects of stress on students health and well-being. Students of the modern era are living in a highly competitive world which exerts lots of stress on students to survive in this era. Stress is an unavoidable phenomenon in all aspects of human life. Stress is an emotional imbalance which may occur due to various reasons such as tests, papers and projects, competitive nature within one’s chosen field, financial worries about school and future employment prospects (Ross et al., 1999). Stress can be negative or positive to an individual, depending on the strength and persistence of the stress, the individual’s personality, cognitive appraisal of the stress, and social support. Stress affects students academically, socially, physically and emotionally. Keywords: Stress, Stressor, Students, Effect of stress.
... Vertigo, fear-inducing animals, and scary scenarios with villains unpredictably appearing with the intention to harm -these are typically used in gaming plots to provoke adrenaline rush. Typically, the fight-or-flight response, a primal adaptation, is triggered [3]. ...
Chapter
This article focuses on psychological safety while playing XR (VR + AR) games, and the development of safe-guards (‘fuses’) to avoid possible negative impacts incurred during virtual experiences. VR and AR have moved from hi-tech development laboratories and design studios into the homes of otherwise conventional users. XR technology has been repeatedly proven to be beneficial for supportive treatment of phobia, PTSD (post-traumatic stress disorder), training of complex behaviors in harsh environments, and education related applications.
... Two neuroendocrine systems come into play to promote an adaptive response to a stressful situation (see Figure 1): the sympathetic nervous system (SNS), mainly through the release of adrenaline and noradrenaline, and the hypothalamuspituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis, mainly through the release of the glucocorticoid (GC) cortisol. The SNS is responsible for the fast and short-term responses occurring in the initial phase of the stressful event (e.g., elevated heart rate and breathing, increased arousal), whereas the HPA axis responds slower and has long-lasting effects (e.g., increase in blood sugar, suppression of the immune system) that promote the response to the stressor and the subsequent return to homeostasis (McCarty, 2016;McEwen, 2019). The effects of the SNS and HPA axis are not limited to responding to present events; through their ability to modulate learning and memory processes, they influence the response to future events as well (Joëls et al., 2006). ...
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The glucocorticoid cortisol, a major player in the development of stress-related psychopathology, can also be used for the augmentation of extinction-based psychotherapies (e.g., exposure therapy). Substantial evidence supports its beneficial effects in the treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder and specific phobias. In this review, we first present the role of stress and cortisol in the development of maladaptive emotional memories. Then, we describe the mechanisms that may account for the cortisol-induced augmentation of exposure, namely, the enhancement of extinction memory consolidation and the reduction of the contextual dependency of the extinction memory. Finally, we discuss several considerations and limitations for the use of cortisol in psychotherapy, focusing on the possible adverse effects of cortisol in a reconsolidation-based (as opposed to extinction-based) intervention.
... The hypothalamus secretes corticotrophin releasing hormone (CRH) which stimulates the anterior pituitary to release adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH), triggering the release of glucocorticoids (GCs) from the adrenal gland into the circulatory system [18]. The elevation of GCs in response to an acute stressor is transient and can be beneficial, activating gluconeogenesis and the mobilisation of energy for a fight-or-flight response [18][19][20]. A chronic stressor causes a long-term change in GC secretions and creates a physiological state where negative feedback functions are impaired with potential knockon effects on immune function and health [14,16,21,22]. ...
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Volunteer wildlife rehabilitators rescue and rehabilitate thousands of native animals every year in Australia. However, there is little known about how exposure to novel stimuli during rehabilitation could affect the physiology of wildlife. We investigated this question in a species that commonly enters rehabilitation, the common brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula). We evaluated five enzyme immunoassays (EIA) to determine the most suitable for measuring faecal glucocorticoid metabolites (FGM) as a proxy for evaluating the response of brushtail possums to potential stressors during rehabilitation. An adrenocorticotrophin hormone (ACTH) challenge was conducted on wild-caught possums to determine the best-performing EIA based on the successful detection of FGM peaks in at least two of three possums. While a number of assays met these criteria, the 11-oxoaetiocholanolone (abbreviation: 72a) EIA was selected as it had the largest amplitude of change in response to the ACTH challenge. This assay was then used to measure FGM concentrations in 20 possums during rehabilitation. There was high variation in baseline FGM concentrations and response to captivity between possums. Significant changes in FGM levels were detected in most possums during captivity, but were not reliably associated with potentially stressful events that were identified by rehabilitators. The probability of an FGM peak occurring within five days of a potentially stressful event was about 50%, regardless of the type of event. Our study has demonstrated that injured and orphaned possums show changes in FGMs during captivity and rehabilitation and has identified events that can induce a physiological response in some individuals. We recommend that research now focus on the relationship between these responses during rehabilitation and pre- and post-release survival.
... Finally, as far as the two main predictors that show the highest contribution to the predictive model are concerned, ASD was found to be predominantly the most significant criterion with the highest contribution to the model. This is a highly anticipated result, since already the rationale of psychosomatics -probably from the era of Walter Cannon in the fight-or-flight response [70] -require the activation the PNE response of the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal (HPA) Axis as it was described in the original theory of the 'general adaptation syndrome' by Hans Selye. [71] Again, it was not surprising that PR was the second most important predictor in this study. ...
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Background: Between March 23 and May 4, 2020, the Greek government established an economic and social 'lockdown' to prevent the spread of COVID-19. It was hypothesized that the unsafe environment activated the stress response of the Greeks during that time, while existing literature supports the development of psychosomatic disorders. Aim: The research question is whether six biopsychosocial variables predict psychosomatic symptoms of the Greek general population during the 'lockdown'. Methods & Materials: A convenient sample of 1,158-of whom 2 were excluded from the final analysis-Greeks participated electronically during the 'lockdown'. Pearson's r and a linear-multiple regression analyses were chosen to test the hypothesis. The participants answered a series of demographic questions, while the rest variables were measured through the following self-reported psychometric tools: 'psychosomatics' [PSSQ-29], 'acute stress' [ASDS], 'psychological resilience' [NMRQ], and 'satisfaction with life' [SWLS]. Results: Between the significant predictors, the first to appear is 'acute stress' (β = .66, p< .001), while 'psychological resilience' (β = .21, p< .001), 'satisfaction with life' (β = .06, p= .001) and 'age' (β = .04, p= .025) follow hierarchically. Discussion: The findings are consistent to the background literature and previous relevant COVID-19 studies, with the exception of the findings regarding 'gender'-which was not found significant in the weightings-. Conclusion: The model predicts the criterion with a large effect. The study is overall confirmatory to previous COVID-19 research regarding domestic general population, while the need for European studies that would include positive components on psychosomatic health is highlighted.
... Cannon (1935) was the first to point to the "fight-or-flight" response to threatening stimuli, reflecting the fundamental attempt to eliminate or escape it. Since then, extensive attention has been given to the activation of the fight-or-flight responses and its reflexive biophysical substrate (McCarty, 2016). These reactions have been shown to involve the activation of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis (HPA-axis) as well as neurochemical and neuroanatomic functions, all of which underlie the psychophysiology of PTSD (Heim & Nemeroff, 2016;McEwen, 1998;Rizvi, Kaysen, Gutner, Griffin, & Resick, 2008;Sherin & Nemeroff, 2011). ...
Article
Background Extensive literature focuses on peritraumatic responses to trauma and their link to subsequent posttraumatic symptomatology. However, although posttraumatic symptomatology following child abuse (CA) has been documented, research on peritraumatic responses to CA is sparse. Objective The current study utilizes a new typology of peritraumatic responses to CA and tests whether automatic and behavioral peritraumatic responses to CA differ in their long-term implications for posttraumatic symptomatology, i.e., posttraumatic stress (PTS symptoms), deficiency in self-organization (DSO symptoms; complex posttraumatic symptoms), and dissociation. Participants, settings and methods One-hundred and eighty adult CA survivors reported on CA, peritraumatic responses, PTS symptoms, DSO symptoms, and dissociation. Results The tendency to freeze and dissociate, and utilize extensive behavioral methods to survive the abuse were implicated in higher posttraumatic symptomatology (F(2,178) > 4.26, p < 0.01). The absence of automatic and behavioral responses were found to be implicated in the lowest levels of posttraumatic symptomatology (p < 0.01) and to buffer the effect of CA severity on PTS and DSO posttraumatic symptoms (0.047 > effect>0.029, p < 0.001). Conclusions The findings uncovered a novel response pattern, reflected in a tendency to eradicate responses to CA, which was the most protective in regard to its link to later posttraumatic symptomatology. Contrarily, the most scarring peritraumatic responses to CA that arose from the findings were the tendency to freeze and dissociate and utilize various excessive behavioral methods to endure the abuse. These findings imply that CA generates several possible responses, some of which, although allowing for survival in childhood, have adverse effects in adulthood.
... This is known as the fight-flight response. The fight-or-flight response is a concept developed by Walter B. Cannon during his studies on the secretion of epinephrine from the adrenal medulla of laboratory animals [53]. This concept was an outgrowth of his studies of homeostatic mechanisms, particularly as they related to the sympathetic-adrenal medulla system. ...
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The study of the origin and implications of fatigue in exercise has been widely investigated, but not completely understood given the complex multifactorial mechanisms involved. Then, it is essential to understand the fatigue mechanism to help trainers and physicians to prescribe an adequate training load. The present narrative review aims to analyze the multifactorial factors of fatigue in physical exercise. To reach this aim, a consensus and critical review were performed using both primary sources, such as scientific articles, and secondary ones, such as bibliographic indexes, web pages, and databases. The main search engines were PubMed, SciELO, and Google Scholar. Central and peripheral fatigue are two unison constructs part of the Integrative Governor theory, in which both psychological and physiological drives and requirements are underpinned by homeostatic principles. The relative activity of each one is regulated by dynamic negative feedback activity, as the fundamental general operational controller. Fatigue is conditioned by factors such as gender, affecting men and women differently. Sleep deprivation or psychological disturbances caused, for example, by stress, can affect neural activation patterns, realigning them and slowing down simple mental operations in the context of fatigue. Then, fatigue can have different origins not only related with physiological factors. Therefore, all these prisms must be considered for future approaches from sport and clinical perspectives.
... Looking to the future is always related to the fuelling of motivational instincts, and thus it may replace the sense of a lost world and the tendency of looking to the past. This curative process may buffer the sense of longing and the tendency to avoid which corresponds to the 'fight or flight' conceptualization (McCarty, 2016). ...
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The COVID‐19 pandemic exposed the field of psychotherapy to the need to provide treatment remotely. We discuss the question of whether remote therapy can be curative and if the electronic device used to manage these sessions unites or separates the therapist and the patient. We term the electronic device as ‘the inanimate third’ in the therapeutic process and discuss the objectivity of the device as opposed to the subjective emotional processes involved. We deal with emotional themes relevant to the COVID‐19 pandemic and associated social distancing practices, such as longing, loneliness, the perception of the future and the lost past, and the efficacy of the therapeutic stimulation of fantasy and hope. We also evaluate the possibility of existing transference and countertransference processes while working remotely. We suggest the term ‘social paradox’ to describe the situation in which an objective entity such as the digital media symbolizes both distance and intimacy as well as separation and unity. We conclude by stating that containment of the social paradox by the therapeutic dialogue is possible as the existence of the dialogue eliminates elements of the paradox.
... Por lo que, entenderemos al estrés como la respuesta biológica que se activa cuando existe una amenaza hacia la homeostasis, la cual desencadena mecanismos tanto conductuales como físicos para reestablecerla (Selye, 1955;Chrousos y Gold, 1992;Aréchiga, 2000). Conductualmente, el organismo reacciona ante estos estímulos por medio de un gran repertorio de respuestas, sobre todo la conocida respuesta de "lucha o huida" descrita por Walter Cannon a principios del siglo XX (McCarty, 2016). Cuando el estímulo estresor tiene un umbral bajo, favorece respuestas adaptativas exitosas; en cambio, cuando el umbral es muy alto, produce reacciones fisiológicas de estrés que pueden repercutir en la conducta del individuo, y de esta forma desfavorecer su adaptación al medio (Dorn y Chrousos, 1993;Stratakis y Chrousos, 1995). ...
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La neuropsicología es una de las áreas de especialidad del psicólogo que más fuerza ha ganado en las últimas décadas. La contribución de las distintas ciencias a nuestra comprensión del cerebro, así como el desarrollo de técnicas e instrumentos cada vez más sofisticados para su estudio, han contribuido a su auge. Por esta razón, no es de sorprender que estos temas sean parte importante del pénsum que cursa todo psicólogo durante su formación básica. En la práctica docente, a menudo el profesorado se enfrenta con el reto de transmitir a las y los estudiantes un gran cúmulo de conocimiento neurocientífico de manera articulada, sencilla y atractiva. En este sentido, la presente obra nace de la preocupación de quienes la coordinan por disponer de material amigable, actualizado y relevante para los estudiantes. Así, la obra fue diseñada con fines de enseñanza y pretende ser una herramienta útil para docentes y material de gran interés para los estudiosos de las neurociencias de distintos niveles.
... Por lo que, entenderemos al estrés como la respuesta biológica que se activa cuando existe una amenaza hacia la homeostasis, la cual desencadena mecanismos tanto conductuales como físicos para reestablecerla (Selye, 1955;Chrousos y Gold, 1992;Aréchiga, 2000). Conductualmente, el organismo reacciona ante estos estímulos por medio de un gran repertorio de respuestas, sobre todo la conocida respuesta de "lucha o huida" descrita por Walter Cannon a principios del siglo XX (McCarty, 2016). Cuando el estímulo estresor tiene un umbral bajo, favorece respuestas adaptativas exitosas; en cambio, cuando el umbral es muy alto, produce reacciones fisiológicas de estrés que pueden repercutir en la conducta del individuo, y de esta forma desfavorecer su adaptación al medio (Dorn y Chrousos, 1993;Stratakis y Chrousos, 1995). ...
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La neuropsicología es una de las áreas de especialidad del psicólogo que más fuerza ha ganado en las últimas décadas. La contribución de las distintas ciencias a nuestra comprensión del cerebro, así como el desarrollo de técnicas e instrumentos cada vez más sofisticados para su estudio, han contribuido a su auge. Por esta razón, no es de sorprender que estos temas sean parte importante del pénsum que cursa todo psicólogo durante su formación básica. En la práctica docente, a menudo el profesorado se enfrenta con el reto de transmitir a las y los estudiantes un gran cúmulo de conocimiento neurocientífico de manera articulada, sencilla y atractiva. En este sentido, la presente obra nace de la preocupación de quienes la coordinan por disponer de material amigable, actualizado y relevante para los estudiantes. Así, la obra fue diseñada con fines de enseñanza y pretende ser una herramienta útil para docentes y material de gran interés para los estudiosos de las neurociencias de distintos niveles.
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Stress is a complex phenomenon that silently rises and contributes to mental health disorders and chronic health conditions, decreasing work productivity, reducing our quality of life, and increasing our medical expenditures exponentially. Although a certain amount of stress is positive and beneficial for performance, such as “eustress,” chronic stress experienced for an extended time overwhelms the body’s coping mechanisms. We begin our chapter by briefly mentioning historical milestones related to stress research, followed by the definitions of stress. We then discuss the most recent epidemiological data related to stress prevalence and incidence, followed by a short description of the different types of stress across the lifespan. The following sections are dedicated to Burnout Syndrome, Stress-induced Exhaustion Disorder, and other types of stress-related experiences typical for our modern societies, such as Financial Stress and Stress due to Mental Illness Stigmatization. Finally, we conclude our chapter with the latest information on Caregiver Stress and Secondary Traumatic Stress.
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Purpose/Thesis: The article contains theoretical and conceptual reflection and analysis of howemotions and other affective phenomena are defined and understood in contemporary research on human information behavior. The article draws attention to the interdisciplinary nature of research into affective information activities.Approach/Methods: The reported research employs a qualitative approach, relying on critical literature review, and conceptual and thematic analysis. The analyzed material came from select publications from 2014–2020. Results and Conclusions: Information science studies the role of emotions in information behavior. However, the application of the affective paradigm remains very limited. The affective understandingof information activities should be constantly expanded on an interdisciplinary basis with reference to theories and methods of other disciplines, such as psychology. Originality/Value: The article studies the development of the theoretical affective phenomenon pa-radigm and presents the most important approaches psychology takes to emotions. By analyzing the latest trends in the study of affective information behaviors, the study joins the collaborative effort to develop an agenda providing a theoretical and practical basis for the development of interdisciplinary research within the affective paradigm.
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Thomas Trilling diskutiert Stressmanagement für Führungskräfte im Vertrieb. Er skizziert zunächst die Bedeutung von Stress im Vertrieb und charakterisiert die Führungskraft in ihrer Vorbildrolle beim Umgang mit Stress. Anschließend entwirft er Grundpfeiler einer leistungsorientierten Vertriebskultur ohne Stress.
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All who have experienced the global pandemic of 2020 can tell you that we live in a changed world. People no longer question whether we are in complexity, that reality has been made explicitly clear. What they want to know now is, what do we do about it, and what does it mean for how we need to lead differently? In this article I explore these questions by integrating generative emergence (Lichtenstein, B. [2014]. Generative emergence: A new discipline of organizational, entrepreneurial, and social innovation. Oxford University Press) and complexity leadership theory (CLT) (Uhl-Bien, M., Marion, R., & McKelvey, B. [2007]. Complexity leadership theory: Shifting leadership from the industrial age to the knowledge era. The Leadership Quarterly, 18(4), 298–318. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.leaqua.2007.04.002). Using COVID-19 as an example, I show how understanding complexity leadership theory as generative emergence can help us better understand how to lead differently in crisis and complexity. Doing so requires that research and practice focus on developing leaders and followers who can respond by adapting, rather than denying or retreating, in the face of complexity pressures. MAD statement The global pandemic of 2020 has made it clear that we need to place more emphasis on developing leaders and followers who can lead in complexity. This paper does this by using examples from COVID-19 to show the difference between successful and unsuccessful pandemic leadership. Successful leadership has leaders and followers who co-create adaptive responses that use complexity leadership to enable generative emergence. Unsuccessful pandemic leadership turned to order responses that denied the reality of the situation and tried to wish it away, leading to disastrous outcomes and hundreds of thousands of needless deaths.
Thesis
Abstract Even though the teacher’s stress has been studied broadly in the higher levels of educational settings, but there is a minute investigation on (ECT) early childhood teachers. Job demand stress is a crucial problem, which leads to burnout that has severe effects on ECE teacher’s health and well-being. The job demands stressors (emotional demands, workload, role conflict, and work-family conflict) stimulate emotional exhaustion, low personal accomplishment depersonalization, low-quality teaching and overall teacher’s well-being in an educational setting. The current projected research aimed at investigating the sound effects of positive psychology on the teacher’s health. The positive psychological capital is a relatively new construct (PCQ-24), which is based on hope, optimism, resilience, and self-efficacy, as are four dimensions of PsyCap. There is a plethora of research conducted to investigate the problem focused on job-demand stress; burnout but there is little research where the mechanism of positive psychology was employed as direct, moderation and mediation effects in the job stress and burnout relationship. There are three paramount research studies in the present dissertation, which are interconnected and consistent. The sample group consists of 309 teachers from 60 schools in each country (altogether 618 samples from 120 schools) Pakistan and China. They were recruited by using a clustered sampling method including male and female teachers working in early childhood education. The data were collected using quantitative research approach and quasi-experimental design (often referred to as Causal-Comparative) method and analyzed through SPSS and AMOS 24 (Arbuckle, 2013), structural equation modeling (SEM) correlation and regression analyses. This study finds out the causes, symptoms and professional impacts of stress on early childhood teachers. Most importantly, it also elaborates how natural resource (PsyCap) moderates mediates the liaison between job demand stress and burnout as an intervening variable. In the first part, this research examines the current condition of job-demand stress, burnout, and positive psychological resource by calculating their mean, standard deviation, and frequency. Moreover, it evaluates the teacher’s background characteristics related to personal and school life. The relationship among the demographic and school-related characteristics with the stress, burnout, and PsyCap among early childhood teachers was tested by correlation analysis. In the process, the exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and then confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) were conducted to obtain the developed items of each variable. The multi-group factor analysis was employed to gain an understanding of the cross-cultural context in all variables. The results show that there are different levels of job demand stress, burnout, and positive emotions in both countries. However, Pakistan is comparatively higher in PsyCap whereas it is lower in burnout and job demand stress as compared with China. In the second stage, the current research follows the principle of causation or cause and effect theory which based on the psychological principle that second is caused by the first one or primary is responsible for the secondary. Therefore, in that scenario, it finds out the direct effect of job-demand stress on psychological burnout by using regression method analysis. There were all the dimensions of independent variable job-demand stress (workload, emotional demand, role conflict, and work-family conflict) were tested on dependent variable burnout (emotional demand, depersonalization and reduced personal accomplishment). The results show the different effects of sources of stress with the manifestations in Pakistani and Chinese cultures as two countries. For instance, the sub-variables in predictor and criterion have a different correlation, which pertained to a diversified output related to burnout. In the third stage, this research part developed an understanding of the moderating and mediating mechanism of positive emotions on the relationship between stressors and psychological burnout using structural equation modeling. The aim was to determine the mediation and moderation effects of positive psychological capital dimensions (i.e., hope, optimism, resilience, and self-efficacy) on job-demand stress dimensions (i.e., workload, emotional demand, role conflict, work-family conflict) and outcomes burnout dimensions (i.e., emotional exhaustion and depersonalization). The measurement model was developed to conduct exploratory factor analysis executed in SPSS. This process reduces burnout to a two-dimensional construct, which refutes the proposition that it is three-dimensional. Furthermore, technique exploratory component evaluation observed by using confirmatory factor analysis in AMOS aimed at determining the measurement model. The measurement model was treated for common method bias with a common latent factor in AMOS earlier than setting up the structural model producing CMB-adjusted variables used in mediation and interaction-moderation analysis. After that, the structural model was developed, permitting mediation and interaction-moderation tests to take effects. The Baron and Kenny (1986) approach were carried out for direct effects while the bootstrap technique used for indirect consequences. The Baron and Kenny technique indicates weak and non-substantial results via PsyCap while the bootstrap technique indicates otherwise. Accordingly, positive psychology mediates the relationship among sources of stress as an independent variable and psychological burnout as outcomes variable. The results show that early childhood teachers need to observe the impact of positive emotions in China and Pakistan to grab their optimal benefits and well-being. Summing up, the association among the stress and characteristics of early childhood teachers are highly vibrant as with personal and school-related factors in two countries. The direct effects of job-demand stress as an independent variable; burnout as a dependent variable; the prospective outcome for teachers is symbolic of cultural impacts as Chinese teachers are highly emotionally exhausted due to the high emotional demand. The impact varies in all the dimensions of occupational stress and burnout in Pakistan and China. Besides, in culture, the buffering strategy like positive psychology reinforced by social, moral, ethical and religious values moderates the relationship between predictor and criterion. Furthermore, the indirect effect of PsyCap as a mediating variable in the two cultures in the relationship of job stress and burnout are partially working and in some magnitudes of PsyCap are effecting mildly. The findings show that there is a significant negative relationship between the teachers’ positive psychology and stress in terms of both total scores and sub-dimensions. The results also indicate that how PsyCap has a remarkable positive impact on the teachers of these two countries. The findings of this research show the strong positive relationship between teachers PsyCap and well-being. Commonsensically, when the positive emotions are high as (self-efficacy, hope, optimism, and resilience) the early childhood teachers life is less affected by stressful situations or stressors (emotional demand, role conflict, role-family conflict, and workload), Burnout (emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and reduced personal accomplishment). Apart from this, the characteristics of positive psychology have its implications, which were related to the antecedents and precedents of early childhood teacher’s professional and social life. Similarly, the relationship between cultural values and related aspects of human life is a constructive emotion that enhances people's well-being. Deeply and accurately, culture is the source of positive or negative psychology in the life of early childhood teachers. Culture, like informal education, can bring long-lasting influence to members of society. In this regard, the conclusions of this study demonstrate that teachers' positive psychology and well-being are the best harvest of cultural beliefs, ethics, standards, moral values and religions. In addition, these findings provide unique recommendations for the use of actual resources in organizational practice, as reflected in employee recruitment, compensation, performance evaluation, and social resource management strategies. Keywords Early Childhood Teachers; Job Demand Stress; Burnout; PsyCap; Positive Psychology & Wellbeing
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Environmental pollution is a global phenomenon that affects all continents and dozens of types of pollutants with highly different properties can be found on Earth. These pollutants may result in detrimental environmental conditions with clear negative effects on fitness, but they can also induce more pernicious and subtle effects by triggering maladaptive responses to environmental conditions. Importantly, the impact of pollutants on organismal systems is often also exacerbated during the developmental stage. Indeed, developmental conditions are known to affect the ontogeny of multiple integrative organismal systems, and notably the ontogeny of stress-coping mechanisms. These mechanisms involve cognition, the fight or flight response and the HPA axis; they are crucial to consider in the context of pollution because they govern the ability of the individual to adjust to the environmental perturbations that may arise from physical pollutants. In addition, they may also be disrupted by chemical pollutants, resulting in a maladaptive response to environmental conditions and in pathologies. In this chapter, we first provide an example of how developmental exposure to a chemical pollutant (lead, Pb) may disrupt stress-coping mechanisms with detrimental consequences later in life. Then, we illustrate the impact of physical pollutants on performance by focusing on the example of noise pollution. We especially aim to highlight the importance of stress-coping mechanisms and their flexibility in determining the ability of individuals to cope with noise pollution. Finally, we propose several avenues of research to better understand how wild species may adapt to this polluted world. We emphasize (1) the importance of considering the cumulative and interactive effects of physical and chemical pollutants on stress-coping mechanisms and performance; (2) the potential importance of priming hormesis in adjusting the functioning and the flexibility of stress-coping mechanisms to a polluted environment; (3) the need to consider microevolution to assess whether selection acts on stress-coping mechanisms and favors specific stress-coping traits that are beneficial in a polluted world.
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Background: Stress at work and gender differences are still some of the most researched phenomena in psychology. Cultural stereotypes and social roles somehow define gender roles, but mostly the past research does not offer common ground, whether gender differences have a biological dimension. In this study, it is argued that perception itself differs in gender due to cognitive differences between male and female biology. As interpersonal trust and stress are perceptions dependent, their interaction should show significant differences. Trust and stress are negatively correlated and change in the trust is reflected in stress-change. There is no common ground on how gender affects stress or trust, which gender is more affected by stress, or whether there is an actual biological difference. Objective: To study the gender differences in stress perception at work while controlling for trust. Design: The sample consisted of 63 participants, 33 males and 30 females, ages 26 to 65 (M = 43.82, SD = 10.075). The data collecting instruments included the PSS inventory and the TRUST-ME inventory. The analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) statistical procedure was performed using SPSS 24. Results: After the adjustment for trust scores, there was a medium size effect (ƞₚ²= .064) and significant difference between male’s and female’s PSS scores F(1,59) = 4.061, p = .048 while controlled for trust. There was a negative, but large and significant F(1,59) = 8.820, p > .004, ƞₚ²= .130) relationship between TRUST-ME and PSS scores. Conclusion: The medium size effect of gender is statistically significant in stress perception, while covariate interpersonal trust is significantly correlated with both, perceived stress and gender. Although the results showed a significant effect of gender on perceived stress, the power of study required a large effect in order to determine meaningful results. The biological dimension of gender should be further explored as a cognitive embodiment of stress has a weak explanatory power as a new discipline. The gender debate is a contextual issue – evidence suggests that a holistic approach with a focus on the contextual dimension provides knowledge that is non-discriminant and meaningful for all stakeholders.
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Emotions underlie human behavior and have considerable relevance for automobility. This chapter discusses functions of emotions from (evolutionary) social psychology viewpoints and draws linkages to automobile culture. Considerable attention is paid to anxieties, which permeate the automotive system on a wide range of levels and have received limited attention in the literature so far. It is argued that anxieties have great relevance for car attachment, because they address fundamental needs, necessitating car travel—obesity, old age, and an insecure outside world all require automobility. As the automobile is an unsafe space in itself, anxieties related to risk exposure (accidents, car reliability) are regularly addressed in advertisements. This soothes, but also confirms fears, and results in growing car attachment. Emotions also have great relevance in other contexts, including anger, revenge, rebellion, and escape, which represent flight-fight-fright reactions. While this confirms that negative emotions can influence transport behavior, findings also suggest that these can arise out of neglect, abuse, and trauma. To understand and change (reckless) driver behavior requires consideration of the social conditions underlying and activating such behavior.
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