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Der Ausbau des Bunjewatzischen zu einer südslavischen Mikroliteratursprache

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Abstract

Against the background of Slavonic microlinguistics, the Bunjevac dialect in the Autonomous Province of Vojvodina in Serbia is particularly interesting, and its sociolinguistic status is not very clear. The Bunjevci speak a Neo- Shtokavian Ikavian dialect, which has developed its own tradition of writing, but it is not standardized yet. Especially after 1990, language codification has become one of the main goals of some activists, and currently, it is questioned whether we should consider Bunjevac to be a dialect or a separate language. In contrast to this fundamental question, the possibility that Bunjevac could be classified as a microlanguage is rarely discussed.

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In the year of 1869, Ivan Antunović, the clergyman of Kalocsa decided to act in behalf of national survival of Croats from Banat. His efforts were supported by J. J. Strossmayer, the bishop of Đakovo, who was a personal acquaintance of Ivan Antunović since 1872. Strossmayer’s help was evident in many segments of Antunović’s endeavours. Apart of his occasional fi nancial aid, Strossmayer introduced Antunović with many prominent members of Croatian political, cultural and scientifi c elite. Moreover, by his infl uence Strossmayer protected his work from any possible political persecution. Therefore, Antunović, as he often emphasized, considered Strossmayer as his true leader and sponsor. Under Strossmayer’s infl uence, Antunović thought that in the cultural sense Croats from Bačka should rely on Croatia and accept Croatian linguistic standard as their own. At the same time, regarding the politics he maintained that Bunjevci and Šokci from Bačka should support union between Serbs and Croats. Nevertheless, later he was, together with Strossmayer, disappointed since all their effort regarding the Serbo-Croatian union was often misunderstood and judged as proselytical, especially among Serbs. Therefore, during 80s of the nineteenth century Antunović became supporter of the political Croatism of Bunjevci and Šokci. However, at the end of the 80s results of Storssmayer’s and Antunović’s collaboration were visible in all the segments of life of Croats in Bačka. Their support helped in making a stable bond between Croats of Bačka and Croats from Croatia, Dalmatia and Slavonia, together with Croats from Bosnia and Istria regarding culture, politics and economy. With the help of Strossmayer, bishop Antunović managed to promote Croatian language and culture. Moreover, he managed to educate a considerable number of young Croatian intellectuals and to organize many cultural and educational institutions in Bačka. Therefore, even today he is considered as a leader of national movement among Croats in Bačka. At the same time, Strossmayer’s role in this movement proves once again his exceptional part in Croatian history.
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