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Toxicity, monitoring and biodegradation of the fungicide carbendazim

  • Central Ayurveda Research Institute, Jhansi, Ministry of AYUSH, Govt of India


The increasing use of toxic pesticides is a major environmental concern. Carbendazim is a systemic fungicide having wide applications for controlling fungal diseases in agriculture, forestry and veterinary medicines. Carbendazim is a major pollutant detectable in food, soil and water. Carbendazim extensive and repeated use induces acute and delayed toxic effects on humans, invertebrates, aquatic life forms and soil microorganisms. Here, we review the pollution, non-target toxicity and microbial degradation of carbendazim for crop and veterinary purposes. We found that carbendazim causes embryotoxicity, apoptosis, teratogenicity, infertility, hepatocellular dysfunction, endocrine-disrupting effects, disruption of haematological functions, mitotic spindle abnormalities, mutagenic and aneugenic effect. We also found that carbendazim disrupted the microbial community structure in various ecosystems. The detection of carbendazim in soil and reservoir sites is performed by spectroscopic, chromatographic, voltammetric, nanoparticles, carbon electrodes and mass spectrometry. A review of the degradation of carbendazim shows that carbendazim undergoes partial to complete biodegradation in the soil and water by Azospirillum, Aeromonas, Alternaria, Bacillus, Brevibacillus, Nocardioides, Pseudomonas, Ralstonia, Rhodococcus, Sphingomonas, Streptomyces and Trichoderma.
Toxicity, monitoring and biodegradation of the fungicide
Simranjeet Singh
Nasib Singh
Vijay Kumar
Shivika Datta
Abdul Basit Wani
Damnita Singh
Karan Singh
Joginder Singh
Received: 2 April 2016 / Accepted: 17 May 2016
ÓSpringer International Publishing Switzerland 2016
Abstract The increasing use of toxic pesticides is a major
environmental concern. Carbendazim is a systemic fungi-
cide having wide applications for controlling fungal diseases
in agriculture, forestry and veterinary medicines. Carben-
dazim is a major pollutant detectable in food, soil and water.
Carbendazim extensive and repeated use induces acute and
delayed toxic effects on humans, invertebrates, aquatic life
forms and soil microorganisms. Here, we review the pollu-
tion, non-target toxicity and microbial degradation of car-
bendazim for crop and veterinary purposes. We found that
carbendazim causes embryotoxicity, apoptosis, terato-
genicity, infertility, hepatocellular dysfunction, endocrine-
disrupting effects, disruption of haematological functions,
mitotic spindle abnormalities, mutagenic and aneugenic
effect. We also found that carbendazim disrupted the
microbial community structure in various ecosystems. The
detection of carbendazim in soil and reservoir sites is per-
formed by spectroscopic, chromatographic, voltammetric,
nanoparticles, carbon electrodes and mass spectrometry. A
review of the degradation of carbendazim shows that car-
bendazim undergoes partial to complete biodegradation in
the soil and water by Azospirillum, Aeromonas, Alternaria,
Bacillus, Brevibacillus, Nocardioides, Pseudomonas, Ral-
stonia, Rhodococcus, Sphingomonas, Streptomyces and
Keywords Carbendazim Fungicide Soil
microorganisms Biodegradation Monitoring
Pesticides found extensive applications in agricultural and
veterinary practices worldwide since the last four decades.
The global annual consumption of pesticides is *two
million tonnes where Europe accounts for 45 %, USA
accounts for 25 % and other countries account for the
remaining 25 % usage. The total annual consumption of
pesticides in India is in the form of insecticides (80 %),
herbicides (15 %), fungicides (2 %) and other pesticides
(3 %) (De et al. 2014). Fungal pathogens cause significant
damages to the food crops every year resulting in poor
yields, deficient food contents and huge economic loss.
Hence, use of fungicides gains favour to circumvent these
losses (Karlsson et al. 2014; Patel et al. 2015). Carben-
dazim (methyl 1H-benzimidazol-2-ylcarbamate) is a sys-
temic broad-spectrum fungicide having chemical formula
and mol. wt. 191.19 (Table 1). It is also
obtained as degradation products of thiophanate-methyl
and benomyl fungicides (Mazellier et al. 2003; Fang et al.
2012). Carbendazim is used worldwide as pre- and post-
harvest treatment to control the Ascomycetes, Fungi
imperfecti and Basidiomycetes fungal diseases on various
vegetables, fruits and several other plants such as banana,
mango, strawberries, oranges, pineapples, pomes, cereals,
sugar beet, fodder beet, rape seed, ornamental plants,
&Joginder Singh
Department of Biotechnology, Lovely Professional
University, Phagwara 144411, Punjab, India
Department of Chemistry, Lovely Professional University,
Phagwara 144411, Punjab, India
Department of Microbiology, Akal College of Basic
Sciences, Eternal University,
Baru Sahib 173101, Himachal Pradesh, India
Department of Chemistry, Akal College of Basic Sciences,
Eternal University, Baru Sahib 173101, Himachal Pradesh,
Environ Chem Lett
DOI 10.1007/s10311-016-0566-2
medicinal herbs and turf grasses (Tortella et al. 2013; Devi
et al. 2015). Further, carbendazim in combination with
mancozeb exhibited an effective control of sunflower leaf
blight, chilli rots and mango anthracnose (Devi et al.
2015). In addition, carbendazim is also used in paint,
textile, paper and leather industries (Selmanoglu et al.
2001). It is among the top five pesticides used in India with
annual consumption of 1992 metric tonnes (Bhushan et al.
2013). It stands second after mancozeb in terms of most
consumed carbamates in India. It is registered for 18 crops
by The Central Insecticides Board and Registration Com-
mittee (CIBRC) in India. These crops are paddy, wheat,
barley, tapioca, cotton, jute, groundnut, sugarbeet, peas
cluster, beans, cucurbits, brinjal, apples, grapes, walnut,
rose and ber mango (Bhushan et al. 2013).
Carbendazim is classified in the hazardous category of
chemicals by World Health Organization. Carbendazim
along with carbomyl are classified as possible human
carcinogens (Goodson et al. 2015). The European Com-
mission has categorized it in the priority list of endocrine-
disrupting chemicals (Ferreira et al. 2008). Due to its
severe toxicity and persistent nature, carbendazim has been
banned in Australia, most of European Union and USA
(Zhang et al. 2013; Huan et al. 2016). The orange juices
imported from Brazil to Australia and USA have also
undergone extensive screening before their availability to
the human consumption. However, UK, Portugal (Euro-
pean Union Pesticide Database 2015) and developing
countries such as China, Brazil and India are still permit-
ting the production and use of carbendazim in various
formulations. Its repeated applications lead to accumula-
tion and contamination of various ecosystems with long-
lasting impacts on soil sustainability and human and ani-
mal health. Here, we attempt to summarize the current
status and analyse the trends in in vivo toxicities, envi-
ronmental monitoring and microbial degradation of
Toxicity of carbendazim against living organisms
Widespread usage of pesticides and fungicides in agricul-
ture, industrial and recreational activities resulted in daily
exposure of human, livestock and soil/aquatic animals to
these potentially fatal health hazards (Banyiova et al.
2016). The acceptable daily intake (ADI) of carbendazim
is 0.03 mg/kg/day in India (Sharma 2007). In a recent
study, the foliar use of 12 % carbendazim and 63 %
mancozeb combination on mango fruits was found to be
safe for both crop and consumer health (Devi et al. 2015).
However, the excessive and repeated uses of carbendazim
in agriculture have raised a growing concern for the health
and safety of human, livestock, aquatic animals and non-
target microorganisms. Depending on the nature of the
Table 1 Chemical and physical properties of carbendazim and its derivatives
General name IUPAC name Chemical
Mol. wt.
Solubility in
Log K
25 °C)
Density Henry’s law constant (atm.
Carbendazim Methyl 1H-benzimidazol-2-ylcarbamate C
191.18 8 mg/L 1.49 270 kg/
1.02 910
at 20 °C
2-Aminobenzimidazole 1H-benzimidazol-2-amine C
133.15 \1 mg/mL 0.9 *1.4 g/
Benzimidazole 1H-benzimidazole C
118.13 2010 mg/L 1.32 1.23 g/
3.7 910
at 25 °C
2-Hydroxybenzimidazole 1,3-dihydrobenzimidazol-2-one C
O 134.13 1.1
Benomyl (Parent moiety) Methyl N-[1-(butylcarbamoyl) benzimidazol-2-
290.32 3.8 mg/L 1.36 0.38 g/
4.93 910
at 25 °C
IUPAC: International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry
Environ Chem Lett
soil, residual carbendazim has a half-life of about 3 days to
12 months (Torstensson and Wessen 1984; Jones et al.
2004; Pourreza et al. 2015). Its environmental persistence
is due to the benzimidazolic ring which resists degradation
(Barnett et al. 1996). Carbendazim degradation results in
the formation of 2-amino-benzimidazole, a highly toxic
component, which binds to the spindle microtubules
causing the nuclear division blockade (Yenjerla et al.
Carbendazim is known to manifest embryotoxicity,
germ cell apoptosis, teratogenesis, infertility and develop-
mental toxicity in different mammalian species (Table 4,
Carter et al. 1987; Mantovani et al. 1998; Minta et al. 2004;
Yenjerla et al. 2009; Rama et al. 2014). Microtubules
which are formed by non-covalent bindings of a- and b-
tubulin are responsible for chromosome segregation during
mitosis and meiosis (Rama et al. 2014). Tubulin exists
in vivo as a/bheterodimer, and carbendazim is known to
disrupt the dynamics of assembly and disassembly of
microtubule. Carbendazim inhibits the microtubule poly-
merization in fungal and mammalian cells by acting with
b-tubulin causing disruption of microtubule assembly,
which leads to impaired segregation of chromosomes
during cell division (Lacey and Watson 1985; Davidse
1986; Yenjerla et al. 2009; Pacheco et al. 2012; Rama et al.
2014). Experimental studies in mice and rats revealed that
carbendazim causes hepatocellular dysfunction (Janardhan
et al. 1987: Muthuviveganandavel et al. 2008; Dikic et al.
2012; Salihu et al. 2015), affects hematopoiesis (Zubrod
et al. 2014), increased the oestrogen levels (Morinaga et al.
2004), increased the androgen receptor mRNA levels (Hsu
et al. 2011), exerted endocrine-disrupting effects (Lu et al.
2004; Yunlong et al. 2009; Banyiova et al. 2016), exerted
oxidative stress in Leydig cells and testes (Correa et al.
2002; Rajeswari and Kanmani 2009; Adedara et al. 2013;
Sakr and Shalaby 2014; Rama et al. 2014) and decreased
the total WBC and platelets counts (Salihu et al. 2015).
Carbendazim also affects the reproductive functions in
hamsters (Gray et al. 1990) and Japanese quails (Aire
2005). Chronic or sub-chronic exposure of carbendazim
has been found to cause testicular damage (Prashantkumar
et al. 2012) and disrupt the biochemical, hepatic, renal and
haematological functions in male goats (Prashantkumar
et al. 2012; Daundkar and Rampal 2014).
Humans are exposed to carbendazim either directly (oral
ingestion, inhalation and dermal contact) or indirectly
(ingestion of contaminated water, food items and occupa-
tional exposure) (Bakirci et al. 2014; Salihu et al. 2015;
Olayemi 2015). Carbendazim is reported to inhibit the
proliferation of murine and human cancer cell lines
(Hammond et al. 2001; Yenjerla et al. 2009) and tumour
xenografts (Hao 2002). It is also reported to inhibit the
proliferation of human breast cancer cells (MCF7) by
inducing mitotic spindle abnormalities, metaphase arrest
and suppressing tubulin dynamic instability (Yenjerla et al.
2009). Carbendazim decreased the viability, altered the
gene expression and induced apoptosis in the human tro-
phoblast cell line (Adedara et al. 2013). It is a non-heri-
table gene mutagen (Kosasa et al. 1999) and exerts potent
aneugenic effect on human lymphocytes (Bentley et al.
2000). Lethal dose, 50 % (LD
) values of carbendazim
against different aquatic invertebrates, fishes, rodents and
mammals are shown in Table 2. Industrial production
process and extensive use in agriculture and forestry
facilitate the entry of carbendazim in aquatic systems. Its
concentration in such environments was found to be
4.5 mg/L (Chatupote and Panapitukkul 2005; Silva et al.
2015). It exhibited toxicity to the eggs of prussian carp
Carassius gibelio at a dose of 0.036 mg/L (Ludwikowska
et al. 2013). Its deleterious effects on biochemical param-
eters, embryonic development and gene expression are
known against earthworm Eisenia fetida (Rico et al. 2016;
Huan et al. 2016), milkfish Chanos chanos (Palanikumar
et al. 2014), African clawed frog Xenopus laevis (Yoon
et al. 2008) and zebrafish Danio rerio (Jiang et al. 2015;
Andrade et al. 2016). The research on the mechanistic
aspects and long-term ecological consequences of carben-
dazim on aquatic animals, however, is still in infancy.
Carbendazim when applied to agricultural crops, forest
areas or turf grasses finally reaches the soil where it is
responsible for alteration in the soil microbial balance via
different pathways. The effect of pesticides on resident
microflora of soil is affected by chemical nature of the
pesticide, dose levels, frequency of use, environmental
persistence, bioavailability and the mechanism of action
(John and Shaike 2015). Soil microflora is directly or
indirectly exposed to lethal doses of carbendazim. Studies
have indicated the negative influence of residual carben-
dazim on soil microbial community composition, microbial
counts and microbial-mediated ecosystem functions
(Yunlong et al. 2009; Wang et al. 2009a,b,2016).
Niewiadomska (2004) found that in the presence of car-
bendazim 20 % and thiram 45 % mixture, the nitrogenase
activity of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv trifolii KGL was
dropped by 80 %. However, 100 % increase was witnessed
in Azotobacter counts. In another study, deleterious effects
on the populations of nitrogen fixing, nitrifying and cel-
lulolytic bacteria were observed following treatment with
carbendazim-mancozeb mixture (Fawole et al. 2010).
Similarly, Wang et al. (2009a,b,2012) reported the dose-
dependent negative influence on the microbial diversity in
carbendazim-treated soils. Further, there was a decrease in
soil enzymatic (cellulose and pectinase) activities. Car-
bendazim either alone or in combination with chloram-
phenicol exhibited inhibitory effect of the fungal:bacterial
ratios and a variable response on soil enzymatic activities
Environ Chem Lett
Table 2 Toxicity profiles of carbendazim against different categories of living organisms
Living organism Common name Category Exposure
time (h)
Anas platyrhynchos Common mallard Aves (Anatidae) 615 mg/Kg Parsons et al. (2010)
Aphidius matricariae Aphid parasite Hexapodia (Braconidae) [30 LR50 g/ha Jansen (1999)
Aphidius rhopalosiphi Braconid parasitic wasp Hexapodia (Braconidae) [3000 LR50 g/ha Bernard et al. (2010)
Apis mellifera Bee Insecta (Apidae) [50 lg/Bee Mullin et al. (2010)
Bithynia tentaculata Mud bithynia Mollusca (Bithyniidae) 96 Daam et al. (2009)
Canis lupus familiaris Domestic dog Mammalia (Canidae) [10,000 mg/Kg Gupta and Aggarwal (2007)
Capra aegagrus Goat Mammalia (Bovidae) 90 days Oxidative stress at 50 mg/Kg Daundkar and Rampal (2014)
Chanos chanos Milk fish Pisces (Chanidae) 96 11.5 lg/L Palanikumar et al. (2014)
Chaoborus obscuriceps Systema Dipterorum Insecta (Chaoboridae) 96 [3435 lg/L Daam et al. (2009)
Chlorella pyrenoidosa Chlorella algae Chlorophyta (Chlorellaceae) 96 340 lg/L Canton (1976)
Danio rerio Zebrafish Actinopterygii (Cyprinidae) 8 days Apoptosis and immunotoxicity Jiang et al. (2015)
Danio rerio Zebrafish Actinopterygii (Cyprinidae) 96 h 0.85–1.6 mg/L 1.75 mg/L Andrade et al. (2016)
Daphnia Magna Water flea Arthropoda (Daphniidae) 96 87 91 lg/L Solomon et al. (2008)
Daphnia magna Water flea Arthopoda (Daphniidae) 48 2.89–23.12 lg/L Silva et al. (2015)
Dero digitata Naiadid worm Annelida (Naididae) 96 980 lg/L Van Wijngaarden et al.
Dugesia lugubris Planarian Platyheminthes (Dugesiidae) 96 25 lg/L 134 lg/L Solomon et al. (2008)
Dugesia lugubris Planarian Platyhelminthes (Planariidae) 96 178 lg/L Van Wijngaarden et al.
Eisenia fetida Earth worm Annelida (Lumbricidae) 336 3.0–35.2 mg/Kg Liu et al. (2012)
Eisenia foetida Earth worm Annelida (Lumbricidae) 14 days 8.6 mg/Kg Huan et al. (2016)
Gammarus pulex Cancer pulex Arthropoda (Gammaridae) 96 55 lg/L 177 lg/L Solomon et al. (2008)
Mus musculus CD-1 mice Mammalia (Rodenta) Toxicity at 300 mg/Kg/day dose Farag et al. (2011)
Rattus norvegicus Brown rat Mammalia (Murids) [2000 mg/Kg Kumar (2001)
Rattus norvegicus Wistar rat Mammalia (Rodents) 14 days Renal and hepatic dysfunction at
50 mg/Kg
Salihu et al. (2015)
Salmo gairdneri Rainbow trout Pisces (Salmonidae) 96 1800 lg/L Canton (1976)
Scenedemus subspicatus Chodat Chlorophyceae
72 – [7.7 mg/L Dang and Smit (2008)
Green algae Chlorophyceae
72 300 lg/L Ma et al. (2002)
Stylaria lacustris Aquatic oligochaete worm Annelida (Tubificidae) 96 1060 lg/L Daam et al. (2009)
Xenopus laevis African clawed frog Amphibia (Pipidae) 5.606 lM Yoon et al. (2008)
=effective concentration, 50 %; LD
=lethal dose, 50 %; LR
=lethal rate, 50 %
Environ Chem Lett
(Yan et al. 2011). Enrichment of carbendazim-adapting
strains in the soil was found to alter the microbial com-
munity balance. However, its repeated applications led to
adaptation of soil microorganisms as revealed by compa-
rable Simpson and Shannon indexes of their community
structure from carbendazim-treated and untreated soils
(Yunlong et al. 2009). Considering the uncultivable nature
of many soil microbes, advance molecular techniques are
required to decipher the multifaceted effects of carben-
dazim on soil microbial health. The studies discussed
above indicate that soil and aquatic life forms are highly
vulnerable to carbendazim. Higher organisms are equally
susceptible to it, and the exact toxicological manifestations
depend on exposure levels and environmental persistence.
Accurate and reliable detection of carbendazim is thus
necessary for safety of human health and environment.
Environmental detection of carbendazim
Due to slow degradation, carbendazim persists in bare soils
for a long time (half-life of 6–12 months). In water, how-
ever, it dissipates rather rapidly as indicated by short half-
life of about 2-25 days (FAO 1998). Several techniques
such as gas chromatography, UV-visible spectroscopy,
capillary electrophoresis, high-performance liquid chro-
matography (HPLC) (Bicchi et al. 1989), ultraperformance
liquid chromatography, liquid chromatography/time-of
flight mass spectrometry, tandem mass spectrometry and
voltammetric methods have been utilized for reliable and
accurate quantitative estimation of carbendazim in various
commodities, soil samples and aquatic reservoirs (Alvarez
et al. 1997) (Table 3). Micellar electrokinetic chromatog-
raphy in conjunction with solid-phase extraction was used
to detect carbendazim residues in rice and wheat grains
with a detection limit of 0.05 ppm (Wu et al. 1997). (Patel
et al. 2015) used a colorimetric sensor based on
4-aminobenzenethiol functionalized silver nanoparticles
for detection of carbendazim in water, fruits and vegeta-
bles samples. Other techniques such as ELISA (Itak et al.
1993; Mountfort et al. 1994), cross section fluorimetry
(Zhu et al. 2008) and surface-enhanced Raman scattering
(Strickland and Batt 2009) have also been utilized for
carbendazim determination. Similarly, Furini et al. (2015)
assayed the carbendazim by adsorption onto the surface of
nanoparticles by surface-enhanced Raman scattering. UV-
visible spectroscopy was useful in detecting the complex
formation of carbendazim with 2, 2-Bipyridyl-Fe(III) or
potassium ferricyanide (Naidu et al. 2011). Zebrafish
(Danio rerio) and fresh water flea (Daphnia magna) have
Table 3 Analytical techniques applied for the detection and quantitative estimation of carbendazim or its derivatives in different type of samples
Technique Resource/medium References
1. UV-visible spectroscopy Soil, water Naidu et al. (2011)
2. High-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC/MS) Culture medium Fang et al. (2012)
3. Cross section fluorimetry Soil, water Zamora et al. (2000)
4. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) Fruit and vegetables Mountfort et al. (1994)
5. Micellar electrokinetic chromatography Grains Wu et al. (1997)
6. Gas chromatography mass spectrometry (supercritical fluid extraction method) Fruit and vegetables Anastassiades and
Schwack (1998)
7. Poly-pyrrole modified glassy carbon glass Soil, water Manisankar et al. (2005a;
8. Sodium montmorillonite clay-modified glassy carbon electrodes Manisankar et al. 2005b
9. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering Soil, water Strickland and Batt
10. Colorimetric technique using 4-aminobenzenethiol-functionalized silver
nanoparticles (ABT-Ag NPs)
Fruits, vegetables, soil
and water
Patel et al. (2015)
11. Nanoparticles with surface-enhanced Raman scattering Furini et al. (2015)
12. Voltammetric determination with carbon electrode modified with multi-walled
carbon nanotubes
Orange juice Petroni et al. (2016)
13. Square wave voltammetric determination with carbon electrode containing
fullerene/multiwalled carbon nanotubes
Soil Teadoum et al. (2016)
14. Liquid chromatography coupled with Orbitrap high-resolution mass spectrometry
Air, soil and water Lopez et al. (2016)
Environ Chem Lett
also received significant attention as an environmental
monitoring model for studying the deleterious effects of
carbendazim on various groups of living organisms
(Schaack 2008; Segner 2009; Stollewerk 2010; Jiang et al.
2015). In a recent study, carbendazim was detected by
liquid chromatography coupled with Orbitrap high-
Table 4 Adverse and toxic
effects of fungicide
carbendazim on the metabolic
and physiological processes of
vertebrates, invertebrates and
Category Adverse and toxic effects
Vertebrates and invertebrates including human Birth deformities- hydrocephalus and lack of eyes
Testicular atrophy
Potent aneugen
Inhibition of polymerization of tubulin
Hormone disruption
Mitotic spindle abnormalities
Reduces metaphase and inter-centromere distance
Structural changes in liver
Deformation in kidney
Malformed testis
Microorganisms Distortion of the cellular structure
Reduction in enzymatic activities
Disruption of microbial community structure
Table 5 Microorganisms
involved in the biodegradation
of carbendazim under in situ
and experimental conditions
Microbial species Geographical location/region References
Aeromonas hydrophila Poland Kalwasinska et al. (2008a)
Alternaria alternata Israel Yarden et al. (1990)
Alternaria alternata Israel Yarden et al. (1985)
Azospirillum brasilense XJ-H China Lin et al. (2011a,b)
Bacillus pumilus NY97-1 China Zhang et al. (2009)
Bacillus subtilis TL-171 India Salunkhe et al. (2014)
Bacillus subtilis TS-204 India Salunkhe et al. (2014)
Bipolaris tetramera Israel Yarden et al. (1985)
Brevibacillus borstelensis India Arya and Sharma (2015)
Burkholderia cepacia Poland Kalwasinska et al. (2008a)
Nocardioides soli China Sun et al. (2014)
Nocardioides sp. strain SG-4G Australia Pandey et al. (2010)
Pseudomonas fluorescens Poland Kalwasinska et al. (2008b)
Pseudomonas luteola Poland Kalwasinska et al. (2008a)
Pseudomonas sp. CBW China Fang et al. (2012)
Pseudomonas sp. China Xiao et al. (2013)
Ralstonia sp. 1-1 China Zhang et al. (2005)
Rhodococcus erythropolis CB11 USA Holtman and Kobayashi (1997)
Rhodococcus erythropolis djl-11 China Zhang et al. (2013)
Rhodococcus jialingiae djl-6-2 China Wang et al. (2010a,b)
Rhodococcus qingshengii China Xu et al. (2007)
Rhodococcus qingshengii djl-6 China Xu et al. (2007)
Rhodococcus sp. China Xiao et al. (2013)
Rhodococcus sp. djl-6 China Jing-Liang et al. (2006)
Sphingomonas sp. China Xiao et al. (2013)
Sphingomonas paucimobilis Poland Kalwasinska et al. (2008b)
Streptomyces albogriseolus India Arya and Sharma (2015)
Trichoderma sp. T2-2China Tian and Chen (2009)
Environ Chem Lett
resolution mass spectrometry (Lopez et al. 2016). The
analysis of available reports indicates significant advance-
ment in the detection of carbendazim in environmental
samples. However, there is still an immense need to
develop ultrasensitive, real-time and robust detection
methods (Table 4).
Photolytic degradation of carbendazim
Carbendazim applied on the crops and fields reaches the
soil ecosystem and subsequently is met with different
disposal or transfer fates. It is usually transferred to the
whole plant through roots, stem or leaves. As repeated
applications of carbendazim at high dose are usually
required to control fungal diseases, a serious environmental
risk for human, livestock, aquatic animals and soil micro-
flora is being faced, which needs immediate attention.
Photolytic degradation is one of the several pathways
responsible for carbendazim derivatization. The hydroxyl
radicals generated by UV photolysis of H
are quenched
by hydrogeno-carbonate and carbonate ions leading to
formation of carbonate (CO
) ions which are highly effi-
cient in carbendazim degradation (Mazellier et al. 2003).
The degradation of carbendazim is also feasible via com-
bination of TiO
-based photo-catalysis, ozonation and UV
light action (Rajeswari and Kanmani 2009). In another
study, two different types of titanium dioxide were studied
where aeroxide P25 showed better efficiency than LR.
Addition of catalyst resulted in complete mineralization
within 60 min (Kaur et al. 2015). Iron (Fe)-doped TiO2
nanoparticles (size 25–34 nm) showed better photocat-
alytic degradation of carbendazim due to the presence of Fe
as measured by UV-vis spectrophotometer (Kaur et al.
Microbial biodegradation of carbendazim
Several research reports indicate that accelerated efforts are
being taken to develop convenient, environmental friendly
and economically feasible methods for pesticides detoxi-
fication such as bioaugmentation by utilizing resident
microflora or supplementation with specific microbial
culture or consortia (Javorekova et al. 2010). Microbial
degradation of carbendazim is affected by several biotic
factors (presence of the plants, competing microbes) and
abiotic factors (pH, salts, type of soil, humidity, etc.). Only
few microbial strains are capable to tolerate and degrade
carbendazim in situ or under experimental conditions as
depicted in Table 5. Bacteria and fungi usually cleaved the
methyl carbamate side chain of carbendazim parent struc-
ture leading to the generation of 2-amino-benzimidazole,
benzimidazole and 2-hydroxybenzimidazole derivatives
(Table 1, Figs. 1and 2).
Genus Rhodococcus is endowed with extraordinary
abilities to utilize numerous recalcitrant and toxic com-
pounds for its growth and metabolism. Several strains of
Fig. 1 Common biodegradation pathway of carbendazim (with added
3D property). RMS (root mean square; line), exclusion sphere (range
in A
˚), centroid (average position) drawn with Chemdraw Ultra ver.
8.0. MW represents molecular weight
Environ Chem Lett
Rhodococcus viz. R. erythropolis CB11 (Holtman and
Kobayashi 1997), R. erythropolis djl-11 (Zhang et al.
2013), R. jialingiae djl-6-2 (Wang et al. 2010a,b), R.
qingshengii djl-6 (Xu et al. 2006,2007) and Rhodococcus
sp. (Jing-Liang et al. 2006; Xiao et al. 2013) showed
degradation of carbendazim in contaminated soils, in lab-
oratory pot experiments and in culture media. Pseu-
domonas is another bacterium having magnificent genetic
ability to utilize diverse carbon sources for its survival, and
it has already been exploited for bioremediation purposes.
P. luteola (Kalwasinska et al. 2008a) and P. fluorescens
(Kalwasinska et al. 2008b) are reported for carbendazim
mineralization activity. In another study, Pseudomonas sp.
strain CBW utilizing carbendazim as sole carbon and
nitrogen source was identified on the basis of 16 s rRNA
sequence homology and biological assays (Fang et al.
2012). Several species of Nocardioides, a filamentous
actinomycete, have been implicated in biodegradation of
Nocardioides sp. strain SG-4G isolated from carbendazim
contaminated area exhibited hydrolysis of carbendazim into
2-amino-benzimidazole (Pandey et al. 2010). Further, N. soli
Fig. 2 Microorganism-mediated degradation of fungicide carben-
dazim in in situ and under experimental conditions. The initial
cleavage of methyl carbamate side chain of parent moiety by
microbes leads to the generation of 2-aminobenzimidazole,
2-hydroxybenzimidazole and benzimidazole derivatives which are
then further degraded to through a series of intermediate steps
depending on microbial species involved
Environ Chem Lett
strain mbc-2(T) was isolated from the soil in China which has
undergone repeated applications of carbendazim (Sun et al.
2014). Apart from these, Ralstonia sp. 1-1 (Zhang et al. 2005),
Bacillus pumilus NY97-1 (Zhang et al. 2009), B. subtilis
(Salunkhe et al. (2014), Aeromonas hydrophila,Burkholderia
cepacia (Kalwasinska et al. 2008a), Sphingomonas pauci-
mobilis (Kalwasinska et al. 2008b), Azospirillum brasilense
XJ-H (Lin et al. 2011a,b)andSphingomonas sp. (Xiao et al.
2013) were also found to be potent carbendazim metabolizing
organisms from the soils of China, India and Poland (Table 5).
Some fungal strains, Alternaria alternata,Bipolaris tetramera
(Yarden et al. 1985;1990)andTrichoderma sp. T2-2 (Tian
and Chen 2009) have also been associated with degradation of
carbendazim in experimental studies. In a recent study, Sedum
alfredii (a Cd hyperaccumulator plant) reportedly enhanced
the carbendazim-degrading action of bacterial strains
belonging to B. subtilis, Paracoccus sp., Flavobacterium and
Pseudomonas sp. in pot experiments. This enhanced degra-
dation was attributed to the stimulation of microbial activity
and community structure by S. alfredii in rhizosphere soil
(Xiao et al. 2013). Another study revealed that Brevibacillus
borstelensis and Streptomyces albogriseolus were degrading
98 and 91 % carbendazim, respectively, in 24 h. Their com-
bined inoculation was, however, even more effective as
indicated by 97 % degradation in just 12 h (Arya and Sharma
2015). It is evident from the above that only limited microbial
strains have the potential to utilize and hence dispose car-
bendazim from the environment. Carbendazim exhibits long-
term environmental persistence;therefore, highly efficient,
competent and ecologically competitive microbes are needed
to bioremediate the severely contaminated soil and water
reservoirs. Encouragingly, new strains are being increasingly
isolated from diverse resources endowed with superior
bioremediation characteristics. Future strategies based on
genetically engineered microorganisms, immobilized micro-
bial carriers, bioaugmentation and the use of activated soil are
expected to offer eco-friendly and sustainable solutions for
carbendazim bioremediation.
As the demand for pesticides is rapidly increasing world-
wide, environmental accumulation, contamination and life-
threatening effects on living organisms are inevitable. The
increasing use of carbendazim and its serious toxic effects
are considered ever-increasing threat to the ecological
balance of the environment. There is an urgent need for
concerted efforts to minimize the worldwide use of
fungicides, and at the same time, it is equally important to
recognize their impact of the living organisms, soil
ecosystem and microorganisms. The laboratory-scale and
on-field monitoring of carbendazim and its derivatives is
facilitated mainly by spectroscopic, chromatographic and
voltammetric techniques. Recently, colorimetric and
nanoparticles-based methodologies have been recognized
to offer increased accuracy and sensitivity. With the rapid
advancements in ‘omics’ technologies, further insights into
microbial community structure and intra- or inter-microbial
interactions in microenvironments of polluted soil and
water are expected to be revealed. Another promising
factor in carbendazim degradation will be to generate
transgenic organisms having improved enzymatic reper-
toire, broad substrate range and superior adaptability in
toxic environments. Nanotechnology is poised to give
greater contribution towards sensitive, rapid and repeat-
able monitoring and degradation of carbendazim and its
metabolites. The future availability of biofungicides and
biopesticides will certainly add to our efforts for curtailing
environmental pollution by minimizing the reliance on
chemical pesticides, herbicides and fungicides including
Compliance with ethical standards
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... 2-chloro-N 4 -N 6 -isopropyl-1,3,5-trizine-4,6-diamine or atrazine (Atr) is a broad spectrum herbicide [1][2][3][4][5][6][7][8] . It inhibits photosynthesis and interferes with other enzymatic processes of weeds. ...
... It inhibits photosynthesis and interferes with other enzymatic processes of weeds. It is the member of triazine family, and it is still used in about 90 countries all over the world [5][6][7][8][9][10][11][12] . Annual use of atrazine was estimated to be 80,000 tons worldwide. ...
... All the studies have demonstrated that dechlorination process enhanced at low pH values from 2 to 5, where, zero-valent metal ions get oxidized [24][25][26][27][28][29] . In the literature, there are detailed studies about the dechlorination of various organic compounds and atrazine have been reported [5][6][7][8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15] . In recent studies, the reported degradation products of atrazine were 2-ethylamino-4-isopropylamino-1,3,5-triazine, hydroxyatrazine (2-ethylamino-4-isopropylamino-6-hydroxy-s-triazine) and 2,4-bis(ethylamine)-6-methyl-s-triazine [11][12][13][14][15][16][17][18][19][20][21][22][23][24][25][26][27][28] . ...
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Atrazine is a broad spectrum herbicide of triazine family. It is a chlorine-containing molecule and it can persist in environment. Chemical and biochemical techniques are the main techniques used to decompose the chemicals. In pre-sent study, the dechlorination of atrazine (Atr) via reaction with Sn(II) ion under aqueous media at neutral pH condi-tions was studied. The observed dechlorinated metabolite was 4-Ethylamino-6-isopropylamino-[1,3,5]triazin-2-ol. Identification of dechlorinated product of Atr was performed by using spectroscopic (FTIR) and mass (ESI-MS) spectrometric analysis. The kinetics of the dechlorination of Atr was measured by using pseudo-first order kinetics. The observed reaction constants was, kobs = 6.11x10-2 (at 430 mg/ L of Atr), and kobs = 6.14 x10-2 (at 215 mg/ L of Atr). The calculated half-life (t1/2) period was, t1/2 = 0.204 d (at 430 mg/ L of Atr), and t1/2 = 0.205 d (at 215 mg/ L of Atr).
... Carbendazim is moderately persistent and showed DT 50 values of 26 to 40 days under laboratory conditions (EFSA 2010). Additionally, carbendazim and its metabolites are both toxic (Fang et al. 2010;Singh et al. 2016). For these reasons, microbial biomass, and microbial degradation of carbendazim may play a subordinated role in the OECD 222 (2016) test were time for mating and cocoon production is set to 28 days. ...
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Soil sorption properties can influence the bioavailability of substances and consequently the toxicity for soil organisms. Current standardised laboratory testing for the exposure assessment of pesticides to soil organisms uses OECD artificial soil that does not reflect the high variation in chemical-physical soil properties found in natural agroecosystems. According to guideline OECD 222, earthworm reproduction tests with Eisenia fetida and the pesticide carbendazim were performed in four natural soils and OECD artificial soil. By using pF 1.6, which ensures a uniformity in actual soil water availability, the control reproduction performance of E. fetida in all natural soils was at the same level as OECD artificial soil. In a principle component analysis, the variation in toxicity between the tested soils was attributable to a combination of two soil properties, namely total organic carbon content (TOC) and pH. The largest difference of 4.9-fold was found between the typical agricultural Luvisol with 1.03% TOC and pH 6.2 (EC10: 0.17 (0.12-0.21) mg a.i. kg-1 sdw, EC50: 0.36 (0.31-0.40) mg a.i. kg-1 sdw) and OECD artificial soil with 4.11% TOC and pH 5.6 (EC10: 0.84 (0.72-0.92) mg a.i. kg-1 sdw, EC50: 1.07 (0.99-1.15) mg a.i. kg-1 sdw). The use of typical agricultural soils in standardised laboratory earthworm testing was successfully established with using the measure pF for soil moisture adjustment. It provides a more application-oriented approach and could serve as a new tool to refine the environmental risk assessment at lower tier testing or in an intermediate tier based approach.
... The chemical fungicides Prochloraz and Carbendazium are effective against tomato wilt but despite their low toxicity, the likely impacts of these fungicides on animal and human health have not been taken into consideration (Yang et al. 2021). Carbendazim's toxic traits are detectable in food, soil and water and its continuous use has negative impacts on humans, invertebrates, aquatic life forms and soil microorganisms (Singh et al. 2016). Carbendazim is employed as a soil drencher, however, drenching is not viable for large-scale use (Shankar et al. 2014). ...
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Fusarium oxysporum f.sp Lycopersici is a serious plant pathogen responsible for over 80% yield loss in tomatoes. The disease is mainly controlled by use of synthetic chemicals which may be harmful to bothhumans and the environment. In this study, we report on the potential use of antagonistic bacteria in controlling fusarium wilt. First, we isolated and characterized fungi from tomato plants with wilt symptoms. Analysis of the ITS gene showed that they were affiliated to the genus Fusarium, Alternaria, Plectosphaerella , Aspergillus , Gibellulopsis , Trichoderma , Papiliotrema , Rhodotorula , Mucor , Ustilago , Sporothrix and Cumuliphoma . We then then screened 20 bacterial isolates recovered from soils collected around the tomato plants for antagonistic activity against F.oxysporum using soft agar overlay method. Bacterial isolates showing inhibition zone diameters >3mm and consistent in reducing mycelial growth of the pathogen were characterized further and subsequently used for field experiments which were conducted during the short rain season in 2021 and 2022. Phylogenetically, they were affiliated to Bacillus subtilis , Paenibacillus polymyxa , Brevibacillus laterosporus , Bacillus velezensis , Bacillus amyloliquefaciens and Paenibacillus poriae whereas one of the isolates was identified as Myroides odoratimimus . The isolates grew at an optimum salt concentration of 5 - 10 % (w/v), pH range of 5 - 8 and a temperature of 30 °C. Results from the field experiments showed that all selected strains provided a significant reduction in disease incidence on average for both years from day 14 [14.4% (s.e. 3.49)], day 28 [15.9% (s.e. 3.44)] and day 42 [15.2% (2.825)] respectively. Therefore, these isolates are good candidates for the development of effective biocontrol agents against F. oxysporum f.sp Lycopersici affecting tomatoes.
Wastewater management has emerged as an uprising concern that demands immediate attention from environmentalists worldwide. Indiscriminate and irrational release of industrial and poultry wastes, sewage, pharmaceuticals, mining, pesticides, fertilizers, dyes and radioactive wastes, contribute immensely to water pollution. This has led to the aggravation of critical health concerns as evident from the uprising trends of antimicrobial resistance, and the presence of xenobiotics and pollutant traces in humans and animals due to the process of biomagnification. Therefore, the development of reliable, affordable and sustainable technologies for the supply of fresh water is the need of the hour. Conventional wastewater treatment often involves physical, chemical, and biological processes to remove solids from the effluent, including colloids, organic matter, nutrients, and soluble pollutants (metals, organics). Synthetic biology has been explored in recent years, incorporating both biological and engineering concepts to refine existing wastewater treatment technologies. In addition to outlining the benefits and drawbacks of the current technologies, this review addresses novel wastewater treatment techniques, especially those using dedicated rational design and engineering of organisms and their constituent parts. Furthermore, the review hypothesizes designing a multi-bedded wastewater treatment plant that is highly cost-efficient, sustainable and requires easy installation and handling. The novel setup envisages removing all the major wastewater pollutants, providing water fit for household, irrigation and storage purposes.
The adaptive responses to moderate environmental challenges by the biological systems have usually been credited to hormesis. Since the hormetic biphasic dose-response illustrates a prominent pattern towards biological responsiveness, the studies concerning such aspects will get much more significance in risk assessment practices and toxicological evaluation research. From this point of view, the past few epochs have witnessed the extending recognition of the notion concerning hormesis. The extraction of its basic foundations of evolutionary perspectives-along with the probable underlying molecular and cellular mechanisms followed by the practical implications to enhance the quality of life. To get better and more effective output in this regard, the present article has evaluated the various observations of previous investigations. The intent of integrating the novel inferences concerning the hormesis-tempting stressors driven by predominant evolutionary factors for mitigating the adverse impacts that were prompted over frequent and continuous exposure to the various chemical elements. Such inferences can offer extensive insight into the implications concerning the risk assessment of hormesis.
Increased concentrations of toxic compounds such as metals and metalloids pollutants have created an alarming situation in the environment, especially in soil and water. As these toxic contaminants cannot be broken down into nontoxic forms, they have long‐term consequences on the ecosystem. The discipline of biotechnology has designed and developed new techniques for biological remediation of toxic contaminants or, more accurately, bioremediation, which is the transformation or breakdown of pollutants by use of microorganisms. A simple, particular, sensitive, quick, and portable approach for analyzing and observing environmental security threats is need of the hour. Use of biosensors is one such utility. Biosensing is a flourishing analytical field for the detection of various pollutants. In this chapter, we discuss unique types of biosensors and their working to make readers understand the biochemical potential along with the application.
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A glassy carbon electrode (GCE) was modified with a fullerene/Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes (MWCNTs)/Nafion composite and applied to the determination of carbendazim, a fungicide. The voltammetric behavior of the analyte was investigated using Cyclic Voltammetry (CV), on the bare GCE and on the same electrode coated by a thin film of the composite material. The electrode response was more than fourfold important on the modified electrode, due to electrical conductivity of fullerene and MWCNT and to favorable electrostatic interaction between the negatively charged Nafion and the protonated fungicide. A sensitive electroanalytical procedure based on Square Wave Voltammetry (SWV) was then developed to detect the analyte. Under the optimum conditions, a linear relationship was obtained between the peak current and the concentration of carbendazim, in the range from 2.0 × 10 −8 mol/L to 3.5 × 10 −7 mol/L, leading to a detection limit of 1.7 × 10 −8 mol/L and to a quantification limit of 5.57 × 10 −8 mol/L. The developed procedure was successfully applied to detect carbendazim upon adsorption by some ferritic soils.
This biennial review summarizes much of Particle Physics. Using data from previous editions, plus 1900 new measurements from 700 papers, we list, evaluate, and average measured properties of gauge bosons, leptons, quarks, mesons, and baryons. We also summarize searches for hypothetical particles such as Higgs bosons, heavy neutrinos, and supersymmetric particles. All the particle properties and search limits are listed in Summary Tables. We also give numerous tables, figures, formulae, and reviews of topics such as the Standard Model, particle detectors, probability, and statistics. A booklet is available containing the Summary Tables and abbreviated versions of some of the other sections of this full Review.
The toxicity of five pesticides typically used in rice farming (trichlorfon, dimethoate, carbendazim, tebuconazole and prochloraz) was evaluated on different lethal and sub-lethal endpoints of the earthworm Eisenia fetida. The evaluated endpoints included: avoidance behaviour after an exposure period of 2 days; and mortality, weight loss, enzymatic activities (cholinesterase, lactate dehydrogenase and alkaline phosphatase) and histopathological effects after an exposure period of 14 days. Carbendazim was found to be highly toxic to E. fetida (LC50=2mg/kg d.w.), significantly reducing earthworm weight and showing an avoidance response at soil concentrations that are close to those predicted in rice-fields and in surrounding ecosystems. The insecticide dimethoate showed a moderate acute toxicity (LC50=28mg/kg d.w.), whereas the rest of tested pesticides showed low toxicity potential (LC50 values above 100mg/kg d.w.). For these pesticides, however, weight loss was identified as a sensitive endpoint, with NOEC values approximately 2 times or lower than the calculated LC10 values. The investigated effects on the enzymatic activities of E. fetida and the observed histopathological alterations (longitudinal and circular muscle lesions, edematous tissues, endothelial degeneration and necrosis) proved to be sensitive biomarkers to monitor pesticide contamination and are proposed as alternative measures to evaluate pesticide risks on agro-ecosystems.
This report describes by the first time the use of a commercial screen-printed carbon electrode modified with multi-walled carbon nanotubes for voltammetric determination of the fungicide carbendazim in the presence of an anionic surfactant. The oxidation of the pesticide showed two anodic and two catodic peaks over a quasi-reversible system. The quantitative studies were performed using square-wave voltammetry technique at anodic direction, in that an oxidation peak was observed at +0.98 V vs. Ag/AgCl. Buffer, pH and voltammetric parameters were investigated and optimized. The use of the anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulphate provided a significative improvement on analytical sensitivity and its influence also was evaluated. The best conditions for analysis were achieved using a medium of 0.04 mol L−1 Britton-Robinson buffer at pH 4.00 containing 6.04×10−4 mol L−1 of surfactant. A calibration curve with good linearity (R=0.999) was obtained and the limit of detection achieved was 1.40×10−8 mol L−1 (2.7 ppb). Lastly, the developed method was successfully applied for determination of carbendazim in a spiked orange juice sample and a recovery of 101.7 % was obtained. The results were compared with HPLC technique with good agreement. Based on the data presented, the proposed method shows great promise to be applied in routine analysis of carbendazim in food samples and the approach based on the anionic surfactant effect can be an improvement for other applications.
Two simple, sensitive, rapid, accurate and precise spectrophotometric methods were developed for the analysis of parts per million levels of widely used carbamate pesticide Carbendazim. The first proposed method A is based on the Oxidation followed by complex formation product with 2,2-Bipyridyl - Fe(III) to form orange colored chromophore exhibiting absorption maximum at 512 nm with apparent molar absorptivity 3.82x10 3 L mol - 1cm -1 and obeyed Beer's law in the concentration range of 10 - 60μg/ml. The second method B is based on the extraction of pesticide and potassium Ferricynide - Fe (III) to form bluish green colored product exhibiting absorption maximum at 478 nm with apparent molar absorptivity 4.46x10 3 L mol -1cm -1 and obeyed Beer's law in the concentration range 4- 40 μg/ml. The high percent recoveries indicates the accuracy and reliability of the validate methods. The proposed methods are highly sensitive, precise and accurate and therefore can be used for determination of carbendazim in its formulations and environmental samples.
Iron (Fe) doped TiO2 nanoparticles were synthesized by surface impregnation method. The synthesized nano particles were characterized by Field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), Electron dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction spectroscopy (XRD). The XRD and TEM measurement show that the size of crystallite is in the range of 25–34 nm. The narrowing of band gap energy from 3.2 eV to 2.8 eV and increase in the λmax was confirmed by UV Vis spectrophotometer. The photocatalytic efficiency of the prepared catalyst was evaluated by means of degrading the fungicides carbendazim and propiconazole and analyzed by UV spectrophotometer. Fe synergistically improves the photocatalytic activity of TiO2 under sunlight. The optimum Fe loading in doped TiO2 was observed to be 2 wt% which delivers 98.5% and 92% of carbendazim and propiconazole respectively under sunlight conditions. Chemical oxygen demand (COD) reduction was measured in order to confirm the mineralization of fungicides.
Tebuconazole and carbendazim are the main fungicides in agricultural practice, and their potential toxicological effects have received considerable attention. However, very little is known about the combined effect of both the fungicides on soil microbial activity. Therefore, a mesocosm experiment was performed to ascertain the dissipation and effects of tebuconazole and carbendazim individual and combined applications on microbial properties (i.e., basal respiration, urease, alkaline phosphatase, invertase, and dehydrogenase) in soil. The results indicated that the dissipation of tebuconazole and carbendazim was affected by concentration applied when the two fungicides were applied individually. However, the degradation of both fungicides accelerated at low concentrations (1 mg kg-1) and slowed down at moderate (10 mg kg-1) to high (100 mg kg-1) concentrations. Whether applied individually or in combination, low doses of both fungicides did not impart negative effects on soil respiration and enzymatic activities after seven days. However, increasing concentrations of moderate and high doses of tebuconazole significantly inhibited soil respiration and enzymatic activities. Apart from moderate doses of carbendazim which stimulated urease and invertase activities, other soil microbial activities were significantly inhibited by the moderate and high doses of carbendazim after seven days. The combined effects of the two fungicides at moderate and high concentrations were additive throughout the entire incubation time.
This study evaluates the biodegradation of carbendazim (1 mg/l) by homogeneous cultures of planktonic (N=25) and benthic (N=25) bacteria as well as by heterogeneous cultures (N=1) containing a mixture of 25 bacterial strains. The bacteria were collected from a 25 cm subsurface water layer and a 5-10 cm surface layer of bottom sediments of lake Chelmżyńskie. Results indicate that bacterioplankton are better able to decompose carbendazim than benthic bacteria (p<0.05). In the case of decomposition by planktonic bacteria, the mean half-life of carbendazim equaled 40 days. Benthic bacteria, on average, required 60 days to reduce the concentration of fungicide by 37%. The level of biodegradation of carbendazim in mixed cultures of benthic and planktonic bacteria after a 20-day incubation period was lower than the average value of its biodegradation in homogeneous cultures. Forty-and 60-day homogeneous cultures of planktonic bacteria were characterized by a higher mean level of carbendazim biodegradation than that of the mixed culture. Decomposition of the fungicide in 40- and 60-day mixed cultures of benthic bacteria was higher than the mean value of biodegradation of this compound in homogeneous cultures. We demonstrated that among planktonic bacteria, the species Sphingomonas paucimobilis, Aeromonas hydrophila, and Pseudomonas fluorescens were the most efficient in reducing the concentration of carbendazim, while among benthic bacteria, Burkholderia cepacia and two unidentified strains of bacillus were the most efficient.