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Drug Abuse Prevention: Manual for School Personnel (in Georgian language)

Authors:

Abstract

The book presents bio-psycho-social model for drug miss-use prevention informed by the evidence obtained via relevant research within the frame of prevention science.
jana javaxiSvili
narkotikebis
avadmoxmarebis
prevencia
narkotikebis avadmoxmarebis prevencia
jana javaxiSvili: fsiqologi,
narkotikebze moTxovnis Semcire-
bis sferoSi muSaobs 1990 wlidan
- jer rogorc fsiqoTerapevti,
Semdgom rogorc narkotikebze
informaciis erovnuli koordi-
natori, Semdgom rogorc evro-
kavSirisa da gaeros samxreT kav-
kasiis antinarkotikuli progra-
mis eqsperti informaciisa da
prevenciis dargSi. 1999-2000
wels kolegebTan erTad dawera narkologiis pirveli
qarTuli saxelmZRvanelo, kerZod, wamaldamokide-
bulebis fsiqo-socialuri etiologiis, fsiqodiag-
nostikis, fsiqoTerapiisa da fsiqo-socialuri reabi-
litaiciis Tavebi. mas mere aris 18 samecniero wignis
Tanaavtori qarTul, rusul da inglisur enebze (ga-
mocemulis, Sesabamisad, saqarTveloSi, ruseTSi, nor-
vegiaSi, inglissa da amerikaSi), 9 wignis samecniero re-
daqtori. amJamad muSaobs fondSi globaluri inicia-
tiva fsiqiatriaSi _ Tbilisi, romelic qveyanaSi fsi-
qikuri janmrTelobis dacvis reformas uwyobs xels.
ISBN 978-9941-416-58-3
jana javaxiSvili
narkotikebis
avadmoxmarebis
prevencia
cxovrebis jansaRi stilis damkvidrebis midgoma
saxelmZRvanelo sajaro skolebis pedagogebis,
fsiqologebis, mandaturebis, administraciisa
da sameTvalyureo sabWoebisaTvis
wignSi gadmocemulia fsiqoaqtiuri saSualebebis
arasamedicino mizniT moxmarebis prevenciis meTo-
dologia sajaro skolebisaTvis, romelic eyrdnoba
cxovrebis jansaRi stilis midgomas. mowodebulia sa-
bazo informacia fsiqoaqtiuri saSualebebis moxmare-
basTan dakavSirebul riskebze; gadmocemulia wamalda-
mokidebulebis problemis axsnis ZiriTadi filosofi-
ur-fsiqologiuri paradigmebi, daZlevis strategiebi;
ganxilulia wamaldamokidebulebis prevenciisa da
cxovrebis jansaRi stilis damkvidrebis mecnierulad
dasabuTebuli midgomebi da meTodebi. saxelmZRvanelo
gankuTvnilia sajaro skolebis sameTvalyureo sabWoe-
bis, administraciis, mandaturebis, fsiqologebisa da
pedagogebisaTvis (rogorc moqmedi, aseve momavali).
saxelmZRvanelo, agreTve, daainteresebs im narko-
logebs, fsiqologebsa da socialur muSakebs, visac wa-
maldamokidebulebis prevenciis saqmeSi wvlilis Setana
surT. aseve, am problemaze moRvawe sasuliero pirebs.
stilisturi redaqtori: rusudan CinCalaZe
mxatvari: nato bagrationi
dizaini da dakabadoneba: giorgi bagrationi
gamocemulia fondis `globaluri iniciativa fsiqiatriaSi _ Tbi-
lisi~ mxardaWeriT, proeqtis `fsiqikuri janmrTeloba da aiv\Sidsi~
farglebSi. proeqti dafinansebulia holandiis mTavrobis mier.
meore gamocema
© jana javaxiSvili, 2011
gamomcemloba `nekeri~
ISBN: 978-9941-416-58-3
pirveli gamocema: Tbilisi, 2009, sagamomcemlo kapmania `saunje~,
ISBN: 9788-9941-0-1811-4
saxelmZRvanelos pirveli gamocema ganxorcielda samxreT kavkasiis antinarko-
tikuli programis mxardaWeriT. samxreT kavkasiis antinarkotikuli programa
xorcieldeboda 2001-2009 wlebSi, evrokavSiris finansuri mxardaWeriT, gaeros
ganviTarebis programis mier
_ 3 _
sarCevi
madlobebi ........................................................................... 5
meore gamocemis winasityvaoba .......................................... 7
pirveli gamocemis winasityvaoba ...................................... 8
saxelmZRvanelos koncefcia: wigniereba
da marTva, rogorc prevenciis sabazo principebi ..... 10
nawili pirveli: wigniereba fsiqoaqtiuri saSualebebis
arasamedicino mizniT moxmarebis sakiTxSi ............... 19
1. Tavi pirveli. fsiqoaqtiuri saSualebebi ................... 20
1.1. fsiqoaqtiuri saSualebebi da
maTi moxmarebis saxeebi .......................................... 20
1.2. sxvadasxva fsiqoaqtiuri saSualebis
moxmarebasTan dakavSirebuli riskebi ................. 28
1.2.1. legaluri fsiqoaqtiuri saSualebebi ....... 28
1.2.2. aralegaluri fsiqoaqtiuri saSualebebi ..... 35
1.2.3. araqimiuri damokidebulebis formebi ....... 47
2. Tavi meore. fsiqoaqtiuri saSualebebis
avadmoxmarebis problemis axsna ................................. 49
2. 1. axsniTi filosofiur-fsiqologiuri paradigmebi .. 49
2.2. axsniTi fsiqologiuri faqtorebi .................... 57
3. Tavi mesame. fsiqoaqtiuri saSualebebis
avadmoxmarebis problemis aRwera ............................. 68
3.1. wamaldamokidebulebis doneebis aRwera ........... 68
3.2. sxvadasxva doneze moqmedi riskisa
da damcavi faqtorebi ........................................... 70
3.2.1. biologiuri kapitali biologiuri
risk-faqtorebis winaaRmdeg ............................ 71
3.2.2. fsiqologiuri kapitali fsiqologiuri
risk-faqtorebis winaaRmdeg ............................. 74
3.2.3. socialuri kapitali socialuri
risk-faqtorebis winaaRmdeg ............................ 81
_ 4 _
3.2.4. sulierebis kapitali sulierebaze
moqmedi risk-faqtorebis winaaRmdeg ........... 100
3.2.5. politikuri kapitali politikuri
risk-faqtorebis winaaRmdeg ........................... 103
4. Tavi meoTxe. fsiqoaqtiuri saSualebebis
avadmoxmarebis problemis daZlevis strategiebi .. 105
4.1. mowodeba da moTxovna _ problemis
ori sakvanZo aspeqti ........................................... 105
4.2. mowodebisa da moTxovnis
Semcirebis strategiebi ...................................... 109
nawili meore: fsiqoaqtiuri nivTierebebis
avadmoxmarebis prevenciis marTva sajaro skolaSi ..... 115
5. Tavi mexuTe. prevencia, prevenciis
samizneebi da amocanebi ............................................. 116
5.1. prevenciis raoba da saxeebi ............................. 116
5.2. sajaro skolaSi prevenciuli
muSaobis samizneebi da amocanebi ........................ 120
6. Tavi meeqvse. sajaro skolis politika cxovrebis
jansaRi stilis damkvidrebisa da fsiqoaqtiuri
saSualebebis avadmoxmarebis prevenciis dargSi ... 139
6.1. skolis politikis mniSvneloba ......................... 139
6.2. skolis politikis dokumentis
SemuSavebis principebi da procesi .................... 141
6.3. skolis politikis komponentebi ....................... 146
7. Tavi meSvide. muSaoba bavSvebsa da mozardebTan ...... 157
7.1. sasicocxlod mniSvnelovani
unar-Cvevebis ganviTarebis midgoma .................. 158
7.2. rogor vesaubroT bavSvebs/mozardebs
avadmoxmarebis problemaze ................................ 161
7.3. panaceis Zieba da stigmatizacia: mcdari
midgomebi prevenciis saqmeSi .............................. 164
7.4. SemTxveva praqtikidan ....................................... 169
bolosityva .................................................................... 183
literatura ................................................................... 184
_ 5 _
madlobebi
avtors surs madloba gadauxados Semdeg organiza-
ciebsa da pirebs:
fonds `globaluri iniciativa fsiqiatriaSi~, kerZod,
Tbilisis ofisis direqtors nino maxaSvils, hilversumis
ofisis warmomadgenels, fsiqikuri janmrTelobisa da aiv\
Sidsis proeqtis koordinators ekaterine asoians, Cems
TanamSromlebs _ nino aRdgomelaSvils, maia xundaZes,
Tamar okujavas, irina CofikaSvils, am wignis gamocemis
saqmeSi gaweuli Tanadgomisa da mxardaWerisaTvis;
samxreT kavkasiis antinarkotikul programas, saqarT-
veloSi mis xelmZRvanelebs _ naTia CerqeziSvilsa da
paata nozaZes, wignis pirveli gamocemis saqmeSi gaweuli
organizaciuli mxardaWerisaTvis; programis eqspertebs:
riCard aivss, xaTuna TodaZesa da marine gegelaSvils;
aseve, nevrolog nana tatiSvils, wignze muSaobisas gaweu-
li meTodologiuri rCevebisaTvis;
organizacia PH International-sa da amerikis mTavrobis
saerTaSoriso ganviTarebis saagentos mxardaWeriT mim-
dinare sazogadoebrivi kavSirebis programas, kerZod,
programis direqtors berdia nacvliSvils da koordina-
tors Tamuna fruiZes, prevenciis amerikuli modelebis
gacnobaSi xelSewyobisaTvis;
sajaro samarTlis iuridiul pir (ssip) ganaTlebis
akreditaciis erovnul centrs, mis zogadsaganmanaTleb-
lo dawesebulebaTa akreditaciis sammarTvelos ufross
_ maka korZaZes, amave sammarTvelos eqsperts _ giorgi
gaxelaZes, mocemuli saxelmZRvanelos saskolo praq-
tikaSi danergvis saqmeSi xelSewyobisaTvis;
sajaro samarTlis iuridiul pir (ssip) erovnuli sas-
wavlo gegmebisa da Sefasebis centris eqsperts _ Sorena
saZagliSvils, qarTveli mozardebis sarisko qcevebis kv-
levis Sedegebis mowodebisaTvis;
daavadebaTa kontrolisa da sazogadoebrivi janmrTe-
lobis erovnul centrsa da mozardTa ESPAD gamokiTvis
avtorebs _ levan baramiZesa da lela sturuas, kvlevis
_ 6 _
procesSi gaweuli maRalkvalificiuri Sromisa da kvle-
vis Sedegebis mowodebisaTvis;
Tbilisis 55-e sajaro skolas, mis sameTvalyureo sabWos,
pedkoleqtivsa da direqtors _ Tamuna WabaSvils, erToblivi
muSaobis procesSi mocemuli wignis ideis STagonebisaTvis;
arasamTavrobo organizacia `bemonsa~ da mis Tanam-
Sromels _ fsiqolog maia javaxiSvils, 55-e sajaro sko-
lis sameTvalyureo sabWosa da pedkoleqtivTan muSao-
baSi gaweuli wvlilisaTvis;
samxreT kavkasiis antinarkotikuli programis fargleb-
Si 2005-2006 wlebSi moqmed prevenciis muSa jgufis wevrebs
_ Tamar sirbilaZes, maia javaxiSvils, eka kavTiaSvils, xaTu-
na TodaZes, irma miqaZes, manana beruCaSvils, nino kandelaks,
Tamar meifarians, nona doxnaZes, mocemuli wignis niadagis
SemzadebisaTvis brwyinvale saxelmZRvanelos, `narkomaniis
pirveladi prevencia sajaro skolaSi~, SeqmniT;
mxatvar-dizainers _ giorgi bagrationsa da stilis-
tur redaqtors _ rusudan CinCalaZes, mocemuli wign-
is rogorc pirevli, aseve meore gamocemis momzadebaSi
gaweuli erTguli TanamSromlobisaTvis;
axalgazrda mxatvars, nato bagrations, wignis mxat-
vruli gaformebisaTvis;
Cems moswavleebsa da kolegebs narkomaniis prevenciaSi
_ qeTi xinTibiZes, irma miqaZes, oTo tabataZes, irina iako-
baSvils, qeTi mosaSvils, sofo mosias, 2003-2005 wlebSi,
samxreT kavkasiis antinarkotikuli programis farglebSi,
narkotikebis avadmoxmarebis pirveladi prevenciis erT-er-
Ti uaRresad saintereso proeqtis ganxorcielebisaTvis;
maswavleblebs: narkologiaSi _ gela leJavas, fsiqo-
logiaSi _ nodar sarjvelaZesa da dali farjanaZes,
gaweuli amagisaTvis;
dabolos, dedaCems, eqim guliko kandelaks, romel-
mac, jer kidev gasuli saukunis oTxmociani wlebis da-
sawyisSi, profesor vaxtang aladaSvilTan erTad, dawera
wigni _`ra ziani moaqvs Tambaqos wevas~, ramac narkologi-
is sferoze Cemi profesiuli arCevanis SeCerebaSi mniS-
vnelovani roli Seasrula.
_ 7 _
meore gamocemis winasityvaoba
mocemuli wigni prevenciis mravalfaqtorul models
eyrdnoba. narkomania mravalganzomolebiani problemaa
da mis samarTavad erT romelime calke aRebul doneze
muSaoba ar aris sakmarisi.
amave dros, mniSvnelovania problemis mravalfaqto-
rulobis gacnobierebam mis winaSe uZlurebisa da pasi-
urobis sindroms ar Seuwyos xeli.
ragind globaluri ar unda iyos narkomaniis prob-
lema, misi daZleva TiToeuli Cvenganidan iwyeba: Cveni sa-
kuTari gulisxmierebidan _ gulgrilobis sapirispirod,
faseulobebidan _ nihilizmis sapirispirod, cvlilebis
iniciirebis keTili nebidan _ pasiuri Semgueblobisa da
umoqmedobis sapirispirod, mizanmimarTuli da mizanSe-
wonili cvlilebebis gansaxorcieleblad problemaze
wignierebis amaRlebidan _ varaudebisa da miTebis ty-
veobaSi yofnis sapirispirod.
mniSvnelovania, cvlilebebi daviwyoT sakuTari Tavi-
dan da Cvens garSemo arsebuli socialuri sinamdvilidan
_ iqneba es Cveni ojaxi, samegobro wre, skola romelSic
vswavlobT Tu vaswavliT, samezoblo Temi, raioni, qalaqi
Tu sofeli sadac vcxovrobT da a.S. amitom, SeuZlebelia
TviTmmarTvelobis rolis gadafaseba narkomaniis prob-
lemasTan gamklavebis saqmeSi.
mocemuli wigni swored skolis konteqstSi gansaxor-
cielebel, samecniero mtkicebulebebze dafuZnebul
midgomas gTavazobT.
_ 8 _
pirveli gamocemis winasityvaoba
mocemuli saxelmZRvanelo mowodebulia daexmaros
cxovrebis jansaRi stilisa da narkotikebisagan Tav-
isufali atmosferos SeqmnaSi sajaro skolis yvela im
dainteresebul subieqts, visac saskolo garemoze gav-
lenis moxdenis potenciali da keTili neba gaaCnia. es,
erTi mxriv, aris skolis mmarTveli wre: direqtori, sas-
wavlo nawilebi, zogadad administracia, sameTvalyureo
sabWo (romelTa SemadgenlobaSic, pedagogebis garda,
Sedian mSoblebi da ufrosklaseli moswavleebi). meore
mxriv, wigni gankuTvnilia skolis fsiqologebisa da ped-
agogebisTvis, rogorc amJamad moqmedi, aseve momavali
profesionalebisaTvis (aq Sesabamisi umaRlesi daweseb-
ulebebisa da fakultetebis studentebi igulisxmeba).
saxelmZRvanelo maT, profesiis aTvisebis procesSi, mis-
cems saSualebas Tavidanve gaiazron saskolo garemoSi
cxovrebis jansaRi stilis damkvidrebisa da narkotike-
bis avadmoxmarebis prevenciis pricipebi da mecnierul
mtkicebulebebze dafuZnebuli midgomebi.
CvenSi cxovrebis jansaR stilsa Tu narkomaniaze
msjelobisas, Cveulebriv, eyrdnobian sazogadoebriv
warmodgenebs am sakiTxebis Taobaze. arada, sazogadoe-
brivi warmodgenebi xSirad ver asaxavs saqmis realur
viTarebas, ase vTqvaT, miTologizebulia. magaliTad,
xSirad gaigonebT mosazrebas, rom, `narkotikebis mox-
mareba mZime problemaa, sigaretis moxmareba ki ara~ _
rac udavod, mcdaria da narkotikebis problemis pre-
venciisaTvis Tu sazogadoebaSi cxovrebis jansaRi sti-
lis damkvidrebisaTvis mniSvnelovan dabrkolebebs qmnis.
anda, jer kidev xSirad gavigonebT, rom `narkotikebis
legalizacia narkotikebis problemis gadaWris efeq-
turi gzaa~; am dros, legaluri narkotikuli saSualebe-
biT (isev da isev, Tambaqo da alkoholi) individisaTvis,
sazogadoebisa Tu saxelmwifosaTvis miyenebuli zaralis
_ 9 _
masStabi, moxmarebis masobrivi xasiaTis gamo, aRemate-
ba aralegaluri narkotikuli saSualebebiT miyenebul
analogiur zarals. fsiqoaqtiuri saSualebebis moxmare-
bis Taobaze mravali sxva miTis moyvana SegviZlia, magram
amaze aq aRar SevCerdebiT.
gamomdinare zemoTqmulidan, saxelmZRvanelo eyrd-
noba koncefcias, romlis qvakuTxedsac warmoadgens
Tana medroveobis ori wamyvani principi: wigniereba da mar-
Tva. wigniereba gulisxmobs minimaluri codnis aucileb-
lobas konkretul sferoSi. es adamians mcdari sazoga-
doebrivi, ojaxuri Tu individualuri warmodgenebis/
miTebis tyve obisagan daazRvevs. marTva gulisxmobs am
mi nimaluri codnis cxovrebaSi gasatareblad Sesabamisi
unar-Cvevebis floba-gamoyenebas, raTa codna ar darCes
pasivSi da praqtikaSi amoqmeddes.
amdenad, Cveni wignis paTosi Semdegia: imisaTvis, rom
cxovrebis jansaRi stili danergo, rogorc sakuTar cx-
ovrebaSi, aseve Sen garSemo arsebul socialur sinamd-
vileSi (imitom, rom es ori erTmaneTisagan izolirebu-
lad ver xdeba da arc xdeba) da, Sesabamisad, narkotikebis
avadmoxmarebis problema Tavidan aicilo, ar aris aucile-
beli am saqmis profesori an akademikosi iyo. amave dros,
garkveuli elementaruli codna sakiTxisa _ wigniereba
am sferoSi _ aucilebelia; amis gareSe didia albaToba
imisa, rom sakuTari Tu sxvisi miTebis gavlenis qveS aR-
moCnde da prevenciis mcdelobisas, daarRvio principi _
ar avno. amave dros, wigniereba am sakiTxSi aucilebeli,
magram arasakmarisi pirobaa. saWiroa, agreTve, marTva:
anu, gqondes saimiso unar-Cvevebi, raTa cxovrebaSi am
codnis Sesabamisad imoqmedo, marTo sakuTari cxovreba
da gavlena moaxdino garSemomyof sinamdvileze.
_ 10 _
saxelmZRvanelos koncefcia:
wigniereba, marTva da faseulobiTi aRzrda,
rogorc prevenciis sabazo principebi
Tu gasuli sau-
kunis dasawyisSi
wigniereba, rogorc
cneba, ZiriTadad,
we ra-kiTxvis cod-
nas ukavSirdeboda,
dRe isaTvis mas bev-
rad ufro farTo
gageba da Sesabamis-
ad, gamoyeneba gaaC-
nia. imisaTvis, rom TanamedroveobaSi adamianma efeqtu-
rad ifunqcioniros, mas, wera-kiTxvis garda, mTel rig
sakiTxebSi esaWiroeba wigniereba: igi unda iyos `eno-
brivad wignieri~ _ mSobliuri enis srulfasovan cod-
nasTan erTad, icodes erTi an meti ucxo ena; unda iyos
`kompiuterulad wignieri~ _ flobdes kompiuterisa
da globaluri qselis gamoyenebis elementarul cod-
nas; adamiani unda iyos `moqalaqeobrivad wignieri~ _
icnobdes samoqalaqo faseulobebs (monawileoba, gend-
eruli Tanasworoba, adamianis uflebebi, gamWvirvaloba
da a.S.); icnobdes adamianis uflebebis deklaracias da
amis safuZvelze, gaufrTxildes rogorc sakuTar, aseve
garSemomyof adamianTa uflebebs; icodes, Tu ra aris
Zaladoba, raTa moaxdinos Zaladobrivi qmedebebis sax-
eldeba, rac mas Zaladobis gamklavebasa da prevenciaSi
daexmareba (problemis saxeldeba xom masTan gamklavebis
pirveli nabijia) da a.S.
zemoTqmulTan dakavSirebiT, SegviZlia moviyvan-
oT epizodi erT-erTi arasamTavrobo organizaciis
mier penitenciur sistemaSi muSaobidan: organizaciis
_ 11 _
warmomadgenelTa amocana iyo Tavisuflebis aRkveTis
adgilebSi wamebis prevencia; rodesac isini pirvelad
gaesaubrnen cixis momsaxure personals da hkiTxes _
aqvs Tu ara adgili patimarTa wamebis faqtebs, maT
pasuxad `ara~ miiRes; ramdenadac patimrebis mxri-
dan sawinaaRmdego informacia arsebobda, maT gadaw-
yvites sxva sityvebSi `SeefuTaT~ SekiTxva da hkiTxes
personals _ zogjer patimrebs xom ar `urtyamTo~...
dartymiT rogor ara, vcemT, magram es xom wameba
ar ariso... _ ai, amgvari pasuxi miiRes. es sakmari-
sad Wkuis saswavlebeli magaliTia: sanam personalma
ar gaiazra, rom cemac wamebaa, manam, rasakvirvelia,
is arc dafiqrda am qceviTi stereotipis Secvlis
aucileblobaze. `mwameblis~ roli da saxeli, rbilad
rom vTqvaT, saxarbielo ar aris. aq qcevis saxeldeba
ukve gamodis misi Secvlis erT-erTi stimulis rolSi.
Tumca, qcevis Secvlas, saxeldebis garda, kidev sxva
mniSvnelovani faqtorebi esaWiroeba, rasac qvemoT
ganvixilavT.
meore amgvari magaliTis moyvana SesaZloa ukve
maswavlebeli-moswavlisa Tu mSobeli-Svilis urTier-
Tobebidan: maswavlebelma an mSobelma, an, Tu gnebavT,
bavSvma, rom icodes, rom maSin, rodesac mSobeli Tu
pedagogi bavSvs fizikurad exeba (artyams) _ es Zalado-
baa, is Seecdeboda aRar miemarTa amgvari `aRmzrdelo-
biTi RonisZiebisaTvis~. arada, codva gamxelili sjobs
da, dReisaTvis, saqarTveloSi, gansakuTrebiT qveynis
regionebSi, es sakmaod gavrcelebuli qceviTi stereo-
tipia.
amitom, ama Tu im problemaze muSaobisas, kriti-
kulad mniSvnelovania misi elementaruli codna, raTa
movaxdinoT Sesabamisi problemis swori saxeldeba. ai,
magaliTad, mniSvnelovania, rom pedagogma, romelic
skolaSi moswavleebis Tvalwin sigarets eweva, icodes,
_ 12 _
rom igi moswavlisaTvis legaluri narkotikuli sa-
Sualebis avadmoxmarebis cocxali magaliTia; da rom
misi mxridan, zogadad narkotikebis avadmoxmareba-
ze saubari, SesaZloa, moswavlis mier aRqmul iqnas,
rogorc ormagi standarti. narkomaniis problemaze
wigniereba, meore mxriv, gulisxmobs vicnobdeT am
problemis gadaWris efeqtur strategiebs, raTa mc-
dars Tu araefeqturs Tavi avaridoT. magram strat-
egiebis cxovrebaSi gatarebas ara marto codna, aramed
marTvac esaWiroeba.
dReisaTvis saqarTveloSi sityva `menejeri~, al-
baT, erT-erTi yvelaze popularulia. sazogadoebis
mxridan prestiJulad aRiqmeba menejeris profesia;
igi, xSirad, `direqtorisa~ Tu `ufrosis~ sinonimad ix-
mareba, rac, principSi, Seesabameba sinamdviles. sityva
`menejmentis~ pirdapiri Targmani ki, sworedac, rom
Cveni `marTvaa~.
Tu Zvelad sityva `marTvas~, ZiriTadad, profesi-
uli saqmianobis sferoSi iyenebdnen, Tanamedrove so-
cialur mecnierebasa da praqtikaSi man bevrad ufro
farTo gageba da gamoyeneba hpova. dReisaTvis Cven
vsaubrobT ara marto organizaciul marTvaze, aramed,
problemaTa, konfliqtis, komunikaciis, socialur
cvlilebaTa, agresiis, sakuTari cxovrebis marTvaze
da a.S. anu, marTva farTo gagebiT problemebTan gam-
klavebaSi proaqtiuri poziciis dakavebas, problemis
mogvarebaze orientaciasa da Sesabamisi unar-Cvevebis
gamoyenebiT, situaciis gaumjobesebaze muSaobas gu-
lisxmobs.
wigniereba cxovrebis jansaRi stilisa da narkotike-
bis sakiTxSi, skolis administraciasa da pedkoleqtivs,
erTi mxriv, daanaxvebs Sesabamisi Sida-saskolo politi-
kis SemuSavebis aucileblobas; meore mxriv, aRWurvavs
codniT, Tu rogor gaakeTon es. mas mere, rac skola ukve
_ 13 _
SeimuSavebs politikas, aucilebelia misi marTva, raTa is
cxovrebaSi realurad gatardes.
2008 wels wignis avtors mouwia muSaoba _ narko-
maniis pirveladi prevenciis treningis Catareba _
Tbilisis ramdenime sajaro skolis sameTvalyureo
sabWosa da pedkoleqtivTan. mocemuli saxelmZRvane-
los daweris idea swored am muSaobis procesSi dai-
bada, treningSi monawile enTuziasti pedagogebis
damsaxurebiT. rogorc gairkva, miuxedavad imisa, rom
2007 wlidan samoqalaqo ganaTlebis erT-erT grifire-
bul1 saxelmZRvaneloSi Setanilia cxovrebis jansaRi
stilisa da narkomaniis prevenciis sakiTxebi, peda-
gogebi ar arian mzad, raTa esaubron moswavleebs am
problemis Taobaze. piriqiT, xSirad moswavlem bevrad
meti icis am sakiTxze, ramdenadac internetidan moi-
povebs informacias; maSin, roca pedagogebi, garkveuli
TvalsazrisiT, gaurbian narkotikebze informacias,
rogorc aseTs. aRmoCnda, rom es xdeba sazogadoebaSi
moaruli miTis gamo, romlis Tanaxmadac `rac naklebi
ici narkotikebis Sesaxeb, miT nakleb safrTxes war-
moadgens isini SenTvis… ar mogindeba…~, rac ar aris
marTebuli.
satreningo muSaobis procesSi, agreTve, gairkva,
rom narkomaniis prevenciis saqme, ufro xSirad, iTvle-
ba ara mTlianad skolis atmosferos funqciad, aramed
garkveuli sagnebis pedagogebis saqmed; rogorc gairk-
va, narkomaniis prevenciaze muSaoba iTvleba ara samo-
qalaqo ganaTlebis pedagogebis prerogativad (romelTa
saganSi, im skolebSi, sadac cxovrebis jansaRi wesis
SemcvelTaviani saxelmZRvanelo iswavleba, narkomaniis
prevencia sakiTxad Sedis), aramed _ biologiis maswav-
leblebisa.
1 saqarTvelos ganaTlebisa da mecnierebis saministros mier miRe-
buli/aRiarebuli saxelmZRvanelo.
_ 14 _
aRwerili saqmis viTareba, erTi mxriv, imis maCve-
nebelia, rom saqarTvelos ganaTlebis sistemaSi aris
imis gaazreba/gasigrZeganebis saWiroeba, rom cxovre-
bis jansaRi stilisa da narkomaniis problemebi ara
mxolod ama Tu im sakiTxis swavlebiT, aramed saer-
To-saskolo atmosferos Seqmnis gziTaa dasaZlevi.
meore mxriv, es migviTiTebs imis saWiroebaze, rom
saqarTvelos sajaro skolebSi gamaxvildes yura-
dReba narkomaniis problemis ara mxolod erT _ bi-
ologiur aspeqtze. es Seesabameba gasuli saukunis 60-
iani wlebis midgomas problemis mimarT. dRevandeli
samecniero codnis gadasaxedidan, narkomania bio-
fsiqo-socio-sulier-politikuri fenomenia da misi
prevencia sistemur, mTlianobiT xedvasa da midgomas
saWiroebs.
kidev erTi kanonzomiereba, rasac skolebSi davak-
virdiT, iyo is, rom biologiis maswavleblebi, narko-
tikebis avadmoxmarebis prevenciis TvalsazrisiT, Tavi-
anT misias, ZiriTadad, daSinebiTi teqnologiebis gamoy-
enebaSi xedaven. magaliTad, erT-erTi skolis pedagogma
gagviziara, rom ramdenime moswavle `paTanatomiur Te-
atrSi~ waiyvana maxinji Canasaxebis saCveneblad. es ar
aris mxolod skolis pedagogebis midgoma _ igi narkoma-
niaze Cveni sazogadoebis socialur warmodgenebs/miTebs
Seesabameba.
narkomaniis problemaze sazogadoeba, Cveulebriv,
saSinelebaTa filmebis (`Trileris~) JanrSi msjelobs
xolme. arada, xom viciT, rom saSinelebaTa filmebs sak-
maod didi auditoria gaaCnia _ da bevr adamians (gan-
sakuTrebiT, axalgazrdebs) igi mimzidvelad da amitom,
sasurvelad miaCnia.
ukanasknel wlebSi samxatvro akademiaSi ramden-
jerme gaimarTa antinarkotikuli plakatis gamofena
samxreT kavkasiis antinarkotikuli programis egidiT.
_ 15 _
yvela jerze Zalian Zneli iyo pozitiuri, sicocxlis
ganmamtkicebeli naxatis Tu uwyebis Semcveli plakatis
monaxva; miuxedavad imisa, rom studentebTan special-
uri winaswari Sexvedrebi tardeboda, sadac vTxovdiT
pozitiuri mesijebis Camoyalibebas. studentebi, Ziri-
Tadad, ConCxebs, Spricebsa da kuboebs xatavdnen, ga-
tacebiT.
swored am striqonebis weris procesSi, mocemuli
saxelmZRvanelos avtors daurekes Tbilisis erT-erTi
Teatridan, rCevis sakiTxavad: narkotikebis sawinaaRm-
dego Temaze speqtakls vamzadebT, gvWirdeba 200-mde
Sprici da sad viSovoTo. kiTxvaze, Tu raSi sWirdebodaT
amdeni Sprici, upasuxes _ narkomaniaze speqtakls vdgamT
da dadgmis bolos `Spriceb-garWobili~ adamianis manek-
eni gvesaWiroeba dekoraciado...
narkomaniis prevenciaze mimarTuli samuSaoe-
bi saSinelebaTa momnusxvel Janrad rom ar vaqcioT,
aucilebelia gaviTvaliswinoT samecniero mtkice-
bulebebi, romelic dReisaTvis am sferoSi arsebobs
da asabuTebs, rom narkomaniis prevenciaSi daSinebiTi
teqnologiebis gamoyeneba araefeqturia; rom bevrad
ufro efeqturia sakiTxze gaTviTcnobierebis donis
amaRlebisa (wigniereba) da sakuTari cxovrebis marT-
visaTvis (marTva) aucilebeli unar-Cvevebis ganviTare-
bis meTodebi, gamoyenebuli, rogorc RonisZiebaTa er-
Tiani sistema.
magram wigniereba da marTva, ragind sistemuri, mTli-
anobiTi ar iyos midgoma, mankieria, Tu humanistur da samo-
qalaqo faseulobebze ar iqna dafuZnebuli.
amdenad, narkotikebis avadmoxmarebis prevenciaze se-
riozuli saubari SesaZloa iq, sadac muSaoba mimarTulia
problemis gacnobierebis donis amaRlebaze, am codnis
cxovrebaSi gatarebisaTvis aucilebeli unar-Cvevebis Se-
muSavebasa da faseulobiT aRzrdaze.
_ 16 _
faseulobiTi aRzrda gamoricxavs mxolod `narkoma-
nia cudia/saSiSia~ da sxva am tipis negatiuri uwyebebiT
dakmayofilebas. prevenciis saqmeSi araefeqturia isau-
bro mxolod narkotikebze: es, rogorc wesi, ukuefeqtis
gamowveviT mTavrdeba: Sedegad, an prevenciaa xolme dis-
kreditebuli, an narkotikebis moxmareba _ popularize-
buli. miTumetes araefeqturia mxolod erT calke aRe-
bul narkotikze saubari, rogorc, magaliTad, xdeboda
Cvens qveyanaSi 2000-iani wlebis dasawyisSi, subuteqsis
SemTxvevaSi.
prevenciulma muSaobam narkotikebis avadmoxmarebis
magivrad samizne jgufs garkveuli faseulobebi da maTi
ganxorcielebis gzebi unda SesTavazos. Cvens SemTxvevaSi
es cxovrebis jansaRi stilia, romelic humanistur da
samoqalaqo faseulobebs efuZneba da sistemuri midgomis
ganxorcielebis saSualebas iZleva.
sxva sityvebiT rom vTqvaT, narkomaniis prevencia
efeqturia iq, sadac adamians uziareb ara marto imas, Tu
ra ar unda akeTos (akrZalvaze, iseve, rogorc daSinebaze
mimarTuli strategiebi, naklebad efeqturia prevenciis
saqmeSi). piriqiT, adamians unda mivawodoT alternative-
bis farTo speqtri im TvalsazrisiT, Tu ra aris SesaZle-
beli, rom akeTos; mivceT imis gacnobierebis saSualeba,
Tu ratom SeiZleba gaakeTos esa Tu is (ratom-s miRma
swored faseulobebia); SevuqmnaT pirobebi, rom arCevani
gaakeTos, dabolos, davexmaroT im unarebis ganviTareba-
Si, romlebic sakuTari arCevanis cxovrebaSi gatarebis
saSualebas miscems.
cxovrebis jansaRi stili, narkotikebisagan Tavisu-
fali cxovrebis paralelurad, moicavs, erTi mxriv, iseT
humanistur aspeqtebs, rogoricaa socialuri interesi,
jansaRi socialuri urTierTobebi, gansxvavebulis mi-
marT tolerantoba, urTierTzrunva, erTmaneTis ga-
frTxileba da a.S.; meore mxriv, janmrTelobasTan dakav-
_ 17 _
Sirebul iseT aspeqtebs, rogoricaa higiena, fizikuri
kultura, jansaRi kveba, jansaRi sqesobrivi cxovreba da
a. S.
socialuri interesi da cxovrebis aqtiuri stili _
fsiqologiis klasikosis, alfred adleris[30] mixedviT,
adamianis sulieri janmrTelobis `barometria~ da gu-
lisxmobs adamianis mier iseTi cxovrebiseuli miznebis
dasaxvas da maT ganxorcielebaze muSaoba-zrunvas, rac
sxvaTa keTildReobasa da sazogadoebis ganviTarebaSi wv-
lils Seitans.
Tu skolaSi cxovrebis jansaRi stilis damkvidreba
gvainteresebs, aq, erTi mxriv, moswavleebs unda vaswav-
loT es sakiTxebi: gavuziaroT faseulobebi, jansaRi so-
cialuri urTierTobebis mniSvneloba, vaswavloT Zala-
dobis amocnoba, araZaladobrivi urTierTobis principe-
bi. amave dros, avuxsnaT, Tu ras niSnavs cxovrebis jansa-
Ri wesi (higiena, dRis racionaluri reJimi, jansaRi kveba
da a.S.), davexmaroT imis gagebaSi, Tu ras warmoadgens
fsiqoaqtiuri nivTierebebi da maT moxmarebasTan dakav-
Sirebuli riskebi, avuxsnaT fizikuri varjiSiT sxeulis
daxvewis meTodebi da a.S. magram, yvela am sakiTxze cod-
niT uzrunvelyofis garda, skolam unda izrunos moswav-
leebSi am codnis Sesabamisi unar-Cvevebis ganviTarebaze.
es moswavleebs am mimarTulebiT sakuTari cxovrebis
marTvis unar-Cvevebs ganuviTarebs. amis miRwevis meTodi,
erTi mxriv, unar-Cvevebis treningia. meore mxriv ki _
magaliTis micema.
skolis atmosfero TviTon unda warmoadgendes cx-
ovrebis jansaRi stilis cxovrebaSi gatarebis magaliTs.
da aq, pedagogebis mxridan socialuri interesi, toler-
antoba, keTilganwyobileba, urTierTobisas sakuTari da
mourTierTe mxaris Rirsebis dacvaze zrunva; Semdgom,
fizikuri kultura, jansaRi kveba, fsiqoaqtiuri niv-
Tierebebisagan TavSekaveba _ yovelive aqedan gamomdin-
_ 18 _
are, urTierTobebis xasiaTi pedkoleqtivSi da zogadad,
atmosfero skolaSi _ wamyvani aRmzrdelobiT/prevenci-
uli faqtorebis rolSi gvevlineba.
_ 19 _
nawili pirveli
wigniereba fsiqoaqtiuri saSualebebis
arasamedicino mizniT moxmarebis sakiTxSi
saxelmZRvanelos pirvel nawilSi gadmocemu-
lia minima lu ri informacia, romelic aucile-
belia dRes icodes mo qalaqem fsiqoaqtiuri sa-
Sualebebis avadmoxmarebaze;
gamaxvilebulia yuradReba iseT sakiTxebze,
risi codnac sasargeblo iqneba sajaro skolis
pedagogebis, fsiqologebis, administrator-
ebis, mandaturebisa da sameTvayureo sabWos
wevrebisTvis, raTa problemisa da misi daZle-
vis gzebis xedva SeimuSaon.
_ 20 _
1. Tavi pirveli. fsiqoaqtiuri saSualebebi
mocemul TavSi gansazRvrulia, Tu ra igulisxmeba fsiqoaqti-
uri saSualebebis qveS; daxasiaTebulia fsiqoaqtiuri saSualebebis
moxmarebis gansxvavebuli formebi; aRwerilia saqarTveloSi gavr-
celebuli fsiqoaqtiuri saSualebebi, maTi moxmarebis masStabi 16
wlis asakis mozardebSi, moxmarebasTan dakavSirebuli riskebi.
1.1. fsiqoaqtiuri saSualebebi da
maTi moxmarebis saxeebi
ramdenadac Cveni meTodologiuri midgoma jansaRi
cxovrebis stils eyrdnoba, mocemul TavSi Cven yvelaze
xSirad termins `fsiqoaqtiuri saSuale-
bebi~ gamoviyenebT. es krebiTi cnebaa, ro-
melic aerTianebs, rogorc akrZalul nar-
kotikul saSualebebs (marixuana, opiumi,
heroini, kokaini da a.S.), aseve fsiqotro-
pul wamlebs (damamSvidebeli, tkivilgama-
yuCebeli, antidepresiuli da sxv.), lega-
lur narkotikul saSualebebs (rogoricaa
alkoholi, Tambaqo) da aseve nivTierebebs,
romlebic sayovelTaod gavrcelebulia
Cvens sazogadoebaSi (magaliTad, yava da Cai)
da romelTac, agreTve, gaaCniaT fsiqoaq-
tiuri efeqti da miCvevis potenciali.
fsiqoaqtiur saSualebebs axasiaTebT
adamianis fsiqikaze (aRqma, yuradReba, azro-
vneba, grZnobebi da emociebi, warmosaxva)
zemoqmedebis, Sesabamisad, cnobierebisa da
qcevis cvlilebis gamowvevis da miCvevis,
anu, wamaldamokidebulebis ganviTarebis
met-naklebi potenciali.
miCvevis potencialis qveS igulisxmeba, rom ama Tu
im fsiqoaqtiur saSualebas aqvs gansxvavebuli unari gam-
oiwvios masze mijaWvuloba. magaliTad, iTvleba, rom
_ 21 _
opiumis jgufis narkotikebs miCvevis yvelaze maRali po-
tenciali aqvs, maSin, rodesac, magaliTad, diskoTekebis
kulturaSi fexmokidebul stimulator eqstazis nakle-
bad axasiaTebs miCveva. miCvevis gamowveva narkotikis ma-
vneobis erT-erTi umniSvnelovanesi indikatoria, magram
mis garda, fsiqoaqtiur saSualebebs mavneobis sxva maCve-
neblebic axasiaTebs, rac, narkotikebTan dakavSirebuli
riskebis Sefasebisas unda iqnes mxedvelobaSi miRebuli.
magaliTad, igive eqstazis, diskoTekaze moxmarebisas,
axasiaTebs adamianis organizmis gauwylovaneba da daR-
lilobis SegrZnebis gaqroba, ramac zemoqmedebis qveS
myofi, SesaZloa, sikvdilamdec miiyvanos.
sxvadasxva saskolo TemTan muSaobaSi gairkva, rom
pedagogebs, xSirad, ar gaaCniaT informacia imis Taoba-
ze, rom Tambaqo da alkoholi farTo gagebiT narkotike-
bs warmoadgens. Cvens sazogadoebaSi es orive SedarebiT
uwyinrad iTvleba, maSin, rodesac grZelvadian perspeq-
tivaSi Tu ganvixilavT, saxelmwifosaTvis maT mier miyen-
ebuli zarali masStabiT bevrad aRemateba aralegaluri
narkotikuli saSualebebiT (magaliTad, opiumis jgufis
preparatebiT) gamowveul zarals. magaliTad, Tambaqos
moxmareba uSualo kavSirSia simsivnuri da gulsisxl-
ZarRvTa daavadebebis statistikasTan da maTi mkurna-
lobis xarjebTan[135,141]; alkoholis moxmareba uSualo
kavSirSia saxmeleTo avariebis ricxvTan.
kvleva
henri saferma ikvlia[124] msoflios 17
qveyanaSi 1970-1983 wlebis manZilze alkoho-
lis tele da radio reklamirebis SezRudvis
gavlena da aRmoaCina, rom amas mohyva am qvey-
nebis mosaxleobaSi alkoholis saerTo mox-
marebis kleba 16%-iT da avtosagzao SemTxve-
vebis gamo sikvdilis kleba 11%-iT.
_ 22 _
moxmarebis masStabis TvalsazrisiT, sxvadasxva fsiqo-
aqtiuri saSualebis mxriv, gansxvavebuli suraTi gvaqvs.
aralegaluri narkotikuli saSualebebis gavrcele-
bis masStabi (da Sesabamiasad, maT mier gamowveuli zia-
ni), ramdenadac eqvemdebareba kontrols saxelmwifo(ebi)s
mxridan, bevrad ufro mcirea, legalur narkotikul sa-
SualebebTan SedarebiT.
kvleva
2008 wels ama Tu im aralegaluri narkoti-
kuli saSualebis ukanaskneli 12 Tvis manZil-
ze erTxel mainc moxmareba dafiqsirda mso-
flio mosaxleobis 5%-ze naklebSi[143], maSin
roca legaluri narkotikuli saSualebebis
moxmarebis masStabi, faqtobrivad, masiuria.
legaluri narkotikuli saSualebebis mier miyenebu-
li zaralis didi masStabi swored maTi masiuri moxmare-
bidan momdinareobs.
fsiqoaqtiuri saSualebebis moxmareba ar aris erTmniS-
vnelovani qceva: aqac, gansxvavebuli riskebis gaTvaliswi-
nebiT, moxmarebis sxvadasxva formis gamoyofa SeiZleba,
romelTac qvemoT davaxasiaTebT. gamomdinare mocemuli
wignis profilidan, ar SevexebiT mxolod samedicino miz-
niT moxmarebas, Tumca igic Seicavs miCvevis potencials.
moxmareba pasuxismgeblobiT
termini _ `moxmareba pasuxismgeblobiT~ gulisxmobs
fsiqoaqtiuri saSualebebis imgvar gamoyenebas, romelic
momxmarebels da mis garSemomyof adamianebs ar uqmnis
raime fizikur, socialur Tu samarTlebriv problemas.
am mxriv, yvela fsiqoaqtiur saSualebas ar gaaCnia
`pasuxismgeblobiT moxmarebis potenciali~. pasuxismge-
blobiT SesaZloa iseTi saSualebebis moxmareba, rogori-
caa Cai, yava (kofeinis Semcveli), alkoholi. aq igulisx-
_ 23 _
meba, rom pasuxismgeblobiT moxmarebis dros adamians Se-
narCunebuli aqvs moxmarebis qcevis kontrolis unari da
ar ayenebs zians arc sakuTar Tavs da arc garSemomyofe-
bs. aviRoT alkoholis magaliTi: cnobilia, rom misi mox-
mareba pirdapir kavSirSia saxmeleTo avariebis ricxvTan
da Zaladobriv qcevasTan (Zaladoba ojaxSi, Tu quCaSi
da a.S.). pasuxismgeblobiT alkoholis moxmarebas adgili
aqvs maSin, rodesac adamiani moixmars iseT raodenobas,
romelic mas `saxes ar akargvinebs~; Tanac, Tu imdenad
Segnebulad moixmars, rom, magaliTad, nasvam mdgomare-
obaSi ar dajdeba saWesTan, ar miva samsaxurSi; Tu moxma-
reba mas da mis axloblebs ar uSlis xels cxovrebiseuli
prioritetebis ganxorcilebaSi da a.S.
Tambaqos SemTxvevaSi pasuxismgeblobiT moxmareba gamo-
ricxulia, ramdenadac igi yvela SemTxvevaSi mavnebelia ada-
mianis janmrTelobisaTvis, iseve, rogorc mis garSemo myofi
aramweveli adamianebis janmrTelobisaTvis[2, 135, 141, 142].
pasuxismgeblobiT moxmareba gamoricxulia arale-
galuri narkotikuli saSualebebis SemTxvevaSic, ramde-
nadac maTi Senaxva Tu SeZena ukve warmoadgens samarTal-
darRvevas.
eqsperimentuli moxmareba
termini _ `eqsperimentuli moxmareba~ gulisxmo-
bs ama Tu im fsiqoaqtiuri saSualebis epizodur moxma-
rebas misi efeqtis gagebisaTvis.
aralegaluri saSualebebidan, saqarTveloSi, eqspe-
rimentulad, yvelaze xSirad, marixuana da e.w. `disko-
Tekis narkotikebi~ (ZirTadad, eqstazi) gamoiyeneba. le-
galuri nivTierebebidan _ Tambaqo, alkoholi. eqsperi-
mentireba gulisxmobs axalgazrdis mier am narkotikebis
gasinjvasa Tu periodul moxmarebas masze mijaWvulobis
ganviTarebis gareSe, erToblivi garTobis situaciebSi.
`narkotikuli karibWis~ hipoTezis Tanaxmad eqsperimen-
_ 24 _
tuli moxmareba regularul moxmarebaSi (SesaZloa, imave,
an sxva fsiqoaqtiuri saSualebis) gadasvlisa da damokide-
bulebis ganviTarebis risks Seicavs2[90,107].
socialuri moxmareba
termini _ `socialuri moxmareba~ gulisxmobs, rom
adamiani damokidebulia ara ama Tu im saSualebazea, aramed
mis moxmarebasTan dakavSirebul socialur situaciaze;
termini socialuri moxmareba, ZiriTadad, gamoiyeneba
Tambaqosa da alkoholis mimarT (Tumca, SesaZloa, arale-
galuri narkotikuli saSualebebis _ vTqvaT, marixuanis,
eqstazis mimarTac iyos naxmari). aq igulisxmeba, rom ada-
miani, Cveulebriv, socialur situaciebSi moixmars Tamba-
qosa Tu alkohols, rodesac momxmareblebis wreSi xvdeba.
sxva SemTxvevaSi mas ar uCndeba moxmarebis moTxovnileba.
rekreaciuli moxmareba
termini _ `rekreaciuli moxmareba~ arsiT axlos dgas
`socialur moxmarebasTan~ (zogierTi avtori maT sinoni-
mebadac iyenebs) da rekreaciis, dasvenebis, garTobis miz-
niT fsiqoaqtiuri saSualebebis moxmarebas aRniSnavs.
aq, SesaZloa, moixmarebodes alkoholi, marixuana,
eqstazi Tu sxva. rogorc socialuri, aseve rekreaciuli
moxmarebis SemTxvevaSi adgili ara aqvs fsiqoaqtiur sa-
Sualebebze damokidebulebas; Tumca, e.w. `narkotikuli
karibWis~ hipoTezis Tanaxmad, Tambaqos, alkoholisa da ma-
rixuanas moxmareba narkokarieris erTgvar `Sesasvlels~
da wamaldamokidebulebis ganviTarebis risk-faqtors
warmoadgens. gamokvlevebis Tanaxmad, amgvari kavSiris
xarisxi gansxvavdeba Taobidan Taobamde da damokidebu-
lia socialur konteqstze[90,107].
moxmarebis zemoT ganxiluli ukanaskneli sami tipi
2 rigi mkvlevarebisa ar eTanxmeba karibWis koncefcias[115,134]
_ 25 _
erTmaneTis msgavsia im TvalsazrisiT, rom ar gulisxmobs
fsiqoaqtiuri saSualebebis mimarT mijaWvulobas, Tu rai-
me sxva saxis mavne Sedegs momxmareblisaTvis. Tumca, `na-
rkotikuli karibWis~ koncefciis Tanaxmad, aq arsebobs wa-
maldamokidebulebaSi Sesvlis safrTxe. rac Seexeba qvemoT
ganxilul moxamrebis tipebs, isini moxmarebis qcevaze kon-
trolis dakargvas gulisxmoben da gansakuTrebulad sazia-
noa rogorc momxmareblisaTvis, aseve sazogadoebisaTvis
(es samarTliania rogorc legaluri _ Tambaqo, alkoholi,
ise aralegaluri fsiqoaqtiuri saSualebebis mimarT).
avadmoxmareba
termini _ `avadmoxmareba~ gulisxmobs fsiqoaqtiu-
ri saSualebebis moxmarebas arasamedicino mizniT, ro-
melic adamians uqmnis fizikur (janmrTelobasTan da si-
cocxlesTan dakavSirebul) da/an fsiqologiur da/an so-
cialur da/an moralur da/an samarTlebriv problemebs.
ama Tu im saSualebis avadmoxmareba, SesaZloa, sxva
problemuri qcevis (vTqvaT, samarTalsawinaaRmdego) na-
wili iyos. es termini nebismieri fsiqoaqtiuri saSuale-
bis arasamedicino mizniT moxmarebas exeba.
problemuri moxmareba
termini _ `narkotikebis problemuri moxmareba~,
evropis narkomaniisa da narkotikebis monitoringis
centris ganmartebiT, warmoadgens `narkotikebis ineq-
ciur3 moxmarebas, an, xangrZlivi drois ganmavlobaSi/
regularulad opiumis jgufis narkotikebis, kokainis
an/da amfetaminebis4 moxmarebas~[150].
SpriciT narkotikuli saSualebebis moxmareba iseT
gansakuTrebul problemebTan aris dakavSirebuli, ro-
3 saineqcio xelsawyoebiT, SpriciT.
4 informacia CamoTvlil narkotikul saSualebebze ixileT Semdgom
qveTavSi (`sxvadasxva fsiqoaqtiuri saSualebis moxmarebasTan
dakavSirebuli riskebi~).
_ 26 _
goricaa C hepatiti, adamianis imunodeficitis virusi/
Sidsi (aiv/Sidsi), Tu sisxlisa da sqesobrivi gziT ga-
damdebi sxva infeqciebi. magaliTad, saqarTveloSi, 2010
wlis agvistosaTvis registrirebuli aiv/Sidsis 2,497 Se-
mTxvevaTa 60%-Si infeqciis gadadeba moxda narkotikis
gakeTebisas ziari saineqcio saSualebebis gamoyenebis
gziT[151]. rac Seexeba C hepatits, saqarTveloSi narko-
tikebis ineqciuri gziT momxmarebelTa Soris C hepati-
tis epidemiaa[27]. kidevac rom ar hqondes adgili Spri-
cis gaziarebis praqtikas, narkotikuli zemoqmedebis
qveS xSiria SemTxveviTi daucveli sqesobrivi kontaqtebi
(ramdenadac adamiani Tavis qcevas srulfasovnad veRar
akontrolebs), rasac, agreTve, mivyavarT aiv/Sidsisa da
C hepatitis gadadebamde. sxva aranakleb mniSvnelovani
riski, romelsac narkotikebis ineqciuri moxmareba Sei-
cavs _ es aris zedozirebis da Sesabamisad, sikvdilis
riski (ix. Semdgom qveTavSi).
wamaldamokidebuleba
termini _ wamaldamokidebuleba, anu `narkomania~
gulisxmobs imas, rom adamiani ama Tu im fsiqoaqtiuri
saSualebis eqsperimentuli, rekreaciuli, avad- Tu
problemuri moxmarebis Sedegad gadavida regularul
moxmarebaze, agrZelebs mas miuxedavad am qcevis gamo
warmoqmnili problemebisa, da ver akontrolebs am
qcevas, radgan ukve ganviTarebuli aqvs damokidebule-
bis sindromi[11].
damokidebulebis sindromi, Tavis mxriv, gulisxmobs
ori tipis _ fsiqologiur da fizikur damokidebule-
bas.
fsiqologiuri damokidebuleba gulisxmobs narko-
tikuli saSualebis mimarT akviatebul ltolvas, mox-
mareba-armoxmarebis Taobaze arCevanis gakeTebis unaris
dakargvas, adamianis fsiqologiur mijaWvulobas narko-
tikebze, rac moxmarebis Sewyvetis SemTxvevaSi gamoixa-
_ 27 _
teba mZafri fsiqologiuri diskomfortis saxiT: depre-
sia, SfoTva, sxvadasxva saxis SiSi, panikuri reaqciebi da
a.S. (specifika met-naklebad gansxvavebulia sxvadasxva
narkotikuli saSualebis SemTxvevaSi).
fizikuri damokidebuleba gulisxmobs adamianis yve-
la sasicocxlo sistemis (gul-sisxl-ZarRvTa, saWmlis
momnelebeli, nervuli da a.S.) CaTrevas daavadebaSi da
vlindeba e.w. `aRkveTis sindromis~ (yofiTad, `lomkis~)
saxiT. im SemTxvevaSi, Tu adamiani wyvets narkotikis mo-
xmarebas, mas uCndeba mZafri fizikuri diskomforti, ga-
moxatuli saxsrebis gausaZlisi tkiviliT, gulisreviT,
faRaraTiT da a.S. aqac, specifika gansxvavebulia ama
Tu im narkotikis Taviseburebidan gamomdinare, magram
diskomforti yvela SemTxvevaSi mZafria.
rig qveynebSi, zogierT samkurnalo dawesebuleba-
Si, arsebobs mkurnalobis midgoma, romlis Tanaxmadac
mkurnalobisas damokidebul pirs ar unda Seumsubuqo
fizikuri `lomka~, raTa man mTeli siZlieriT ganicados
is da amiT damokidebulebis gadalaxvis gadawyvetile-
ba gaumyardes (momdevno recidivis prevenciisaTvis); am
midgomas mTel rig qveynebSi arahumanurad da adamianis
uflebebis Selaxvad miiCneven _ rac kidev erTxel gviCve-
nebs fizikuri abstinenciis mier gamowveuli diskomfor-
tis simZimes.
SekiTxvebi wakiTxulze refleqsiisaTvis:
_ romeli fsiqoaqtiuri saSualebebis moxmarebaa Sesa-
Zlebeli pasuxismgeblobiT?
_ romeli fsiqoaqtiuri saSualebebis moxmarebaa SeuZ-
lebeli pasuxismgeblobiT?
_ riT gansxvavdeba fsiqoaqtiuri saSualebebis avadmo-
xmareba wamaldamokidebulebisagan (narkomaniisagan)?
1.2. sxvadasxva fsiqoaqtiuri saSualebis5
5 mocemul TavSi yuradRebas SevaCerebT mxolod im fsiqoaqtiur sa-
Sualebebze, romelTa moxmarebac gavrcelebulia saqarTveloSi.
_ 28 _
moxmarebasTan dakavSirebuli riskebi
fsiqoaqtiuri saSualebebis moxmarebasTan dakavSire-
buli riskebis codna am sakiTxSi wignierebis mniSvnelovani
aspeqtia. es is informaciaa, romlis marTebulad miwodebasac
ada mianis cxovrebaSi
fsi qoaqtiuri saSu-
alebebis avadmoxma-
rebisgan damcveli
erT-erTi faqtoris
ro lis Sesruleba
Se uZlia[2,95,121].
ami- tom, sxvadasxva
fsi qoaqtiuri saSu-
alebis daxasiaTebi-
sas yu radReba swored maT moxmarebasTan dakavSirebul, mec-
nierulad da sabuTebul riskebze gveqneba gamaxvilebuli.
1.2.1. legaluri fsiqoaqtiuri saSualebebi
alkoholi
alkoholis mimarT saqarTveloSi gansakuTrebuli
damokidebuleba gvaqvs _ igi qarTuli kulturis nawi-
lia. aqedan gamomdinare, CvenSi imTaviTve Zevs alkoho-
lis avadmoxmarebisa da alkoholizmis, rogorc daavade-
bis ganviTarebisagan damcavi meqanizmebi: tradiciulad,
marto sma miRebuli ar aris; adamiani, roca svams _ su-
fris wesebi unda daicvas da amdenad, `formaSi~ iyos; aq
mizani ara Trobis miRweva, aramed urTierToba da drois
Sinaarsianad gatarebaa, gazavebuli saubriT, leqsebiT,
simRerebiTa Tu Tavis gamoxatvis sxva xerxebiT; sufra
3-6 saaTi mimdinareobs, smas axlavs Wama, rac alkoho-
lizaciis efeqts amcirebs; dalevisTvis, winaT, rogorc
wesi, Rvino (da ara spirtiani sasmelebi) gamoiyeneboda;
daTroba qarTul sufraze Seuferebel, samarcxvino saq-
_ 29 _
cielad iTvleboda.
dReisaTvis alkoholizmisagan dacvis es tradiciuli
principebi TandaTanobiT moiSala da alkoholi gadai-
qca avadmoxmarebisaTvis, faqtobrivad, yvelaze xelmi-
sawvdom fsiqoaqtiur nivTierebad. dRevandel saqarTve-
loSi sma TrobisaTvis Cveulebriv yofiT movlenad iqca;
albaT yoveli Cvengani Seswrebia Tavmomwone Sejibris
kiloSi msjelobas imis Sesaxeb, Tu vin rogor _ `ufro
sakaifod gaiTiSa~, rac tradiciulad samarcxvino da da-
samali ambavi iqneboda.
imis gamo, rom smas qarTuli sazogadoeba kultu-
rul tradiciad aRiqvams, smis qcevisa da sazrisis dRe-
vandel am destruqciul cvlilebebs (sma gaTiSvisTvis
da gaTiSvamde, gadasvla spirtian sasmelebze, qalebis
alkoholizacia, daTrobamde sma mozardebis mier da
a.S.) igi ver amCnevs an ar amCnevs da alkoholizmis, ro-
gorc daavadebis xvedriTi wili sxva fsiqikur daava-
debaTa Soris wlidan wlamde matulobs. sazogadoeba,
tradiciis inerciis gamo, ubralod Tvals uxuWavs am
sinamdviles da alkoholis avadmoxmarebis gamo serio-
zuli problemebis mqone adamians, Cveulebriv, `msmel
kacs~ uwodebs, `daleva rom uyvars~. amis gamo adamiani
daavadebis sawyis etapze ver xvdeba, an ar unda rom
dainaxos, rom avadaa da samkurnalod ukve daavadebis
ganviTarebis iseT gviandel stadiaze midis, rodesac
misi Svela bevrad ufro rTulia.
im SemTxvevaSic ki, rodesac saqme daavadebasTan ara
gvaqvs, alkoholis upasuxismgeblo moxmareba Seicavs sxva
saxis riskebs _ nasvam mdgomareobaSi manqanis tarebasa da
saxmeleTo avariebs, ojaxur Tu quCur Zaladobas da a.S.
metyvelia samxreT kavkasiis antinarkotikuli pro-
gramis mxardaWeriT, daavadebaTa kontrolisa da sazo-
gadoebrivi jandacvis erovnuli centris mier 2009 wels
Catarebuli saskolo gamokiTxva, romelSic monawileoba
_ 30 _
miiRo Tbilisis sajaro da kerZo skolebis 469 Teqvsmeti
wlis moswavlem[66]:
kvleva
gamokvleuli mozardebis 50%-s cxovre-
baSi erTxel mainc hqonia alkoholuri into-
qsikacia (mowamvla, garegnulad gamoxatuli
iseTi movlenebiT, rogoricaa fexis aSla,
enis borZiki da Rebineba);
gamokvleulTa 25%-s daTrobis gamocdi-
leba hqonda miRebuli 13 wlis, anda ufro
adreul asakSi;
gamokvleulTa 22%-ma aRiara, rom bolo
dalevisas miiRo spirtiani sasmeli (maTgan:
40%-ma _ Rvino, 38%-ma _ ludi, 29%-ma _ Sam-
panuri);
gamokvleul vaJTa 45%-ma da gogonaTa
33%-ma miuTiTa gasuli erTi Tvis manZilze,
erTxel mainc, xuT Wiqaze metis daleva (rac,
Tanamedrove narkologiuri mecnierebis Ta-
naxmad, warmoadgens, e.w. `epizodur mZime smas~
da faqtobrivad, alkoholis avadmoxmarebis
indikatoria);
gamokvleul vaJTa 21.7%-s hqonia fiziku-
ri Cxubi nasvam mdgomareobaSi; 8.3%-s hqonia
problemebi policiasTan; vaJebis 13.9%-s da
gogonebis 0.9%-s hqoniaT nasvam mdgomare-
obaSi daucveli sqesobrivi kontaqtebi; va-
Jebis 8%-s da gogonebis 0.9%-s _ iseTi sqe-
sobrivi kontaqtebi, romelTa Sesaxeb meore
dRes unaniaT.
amgvarad, kvleva gviCvenebs, rom alkoholis Troba-
mde moxmareba qarTvel mozardebSi iwyeba Zalian adre,
rom maRalia spirtiani sasmelebis moxmarebis done, rom
_ 31 _
xSiria nasvam mdgomareobaSi mozardebs Soris Zalado-
brivi qcevebi (Sesabamisad, problemebi samarTaldamcave-
bTan) da SemTxveviTi sqesobrivi kontaqtebi. amave dros,
gamovlinda, rom mozardebi ver acnobiereben alkoholis
upasuxismgeblo moxmarebasTan dakavSirebul riskebs:
kvleva
kvlevis Tanaxmad, gamokiTxul mozardTa
43.2%-s miaCnia, rom yoveldRiurad 4-5 Wiqa alko-
holuri sasmelis daleva ar Seicavs raime saxis
risks maTi janmrTelobisa Tu keTildReobisa-
Tvis. 50%-s aqvs imis molodini, rom alkoholis
moxmareba maT, pirovnuli TvalsazrisiT, dade-
biT Sedegs moutans; negatiur Sedegs moelis/ac-
nobierebs mxolod 23.2%.
zemoT moyvanili Sedegebi damafiqrebelia, ramde-
nadac cnobilia, rom qcevis ganxorcielebis ganmapiro-
bebeli erT-erTi mniSvnelovani faqtori swored rom
qcevis Sedegis molodinia. es kidev ufro damafiqrebe-
li xdeba saqarTvelos ganaTlebisa da mecnierebis sami-
nistros mier 2007 wels Catarebuli kvlevis monaceme-
bis fonze[17], romelSic monawileoba miiRoa TbilisSi,
quTaissa da baTumSi mcxovrebma 948 mozardma:
kvleva
kvlevam gamoavlina, rom dalevis qcevis safu-
Zvlad mdebare ganzarxvis CamoyalibebaSi gada-
mwyvet rols TamaSobs, erTi mxriv, sazogadoebri-
vi warmodgenebi alkoholis Sesaxeb _ `alkoholi
ar vnebs~, meore mxriv ki mSoblis dadebiTi damoki-
debuleba _ `mama moiwonebda Cems daTrobas~ (`Svi-
li momeswro~ tipis reaqcia).
saqmis aRwerili viTareba TvalnaTliv gviCvenebs, rom
mxolod da mxolod aralegaluri narkotikuli saSuale-
bebis moxmarebis prevenciuli saqmianobis gaweva qarTul
_ 32 _
sazogadoebaSi aramc da aramc ar mogvitans momavali Tao-
bis gajansaRebas. miTumetes, destruqciulia iseTi tipis
`prevenciuli kampaniebi~, rogoricaa `yvelaferi subute-
qsis garda~, romlis avtorebic `Rvino-duduki-qalebi~-s
propagandiT cdilobdnen narkomaniis prevencias.
moyvanili kvlevebi adasturebs, rom saqarTvelos
axalgazrdebisaTvis, fsiqoaqtiuri saSualebebis avadmo-
xmarebis TvalsazrisiT, yvelaze SemaSfoTebel problemas
alkoholis avadmoxmareba warmoadgens[66]. es kidev er-
Txel adasturebs Cvens midgomas, romlis Tanaxmadac na-
rkomaniis pirveladi prevencia unda xdebodes zogadad
fsiqoaqtiuri saSualebebis moxmarebis prevenciis Wril-
Si, cxovrebis jansaRi stilis midgomis farglebSi.
Tambaqo
Tambaqo, alkoholTan erTad, msoflioSi yvelaze ga-
vrcelebuli fsiqoaqtiuri saSualebaa da saqarTveloc
ar warmoadgens am mxriv gamonakliss. Tambaqos moxmareba
masiur masStabs atarebs.
Tambaqo mcenareuli warmoSobisaa (fsiqoaqtiuri in-
gredienti _ nikotini), moixmareba, yvelaze xSirad, mo-
weviT, gaaCnia myisieri fsiqoaqtiuri efeqti da miCvevis
uaRresad maRali potenciali.
metyvelia Tambaqos mowevisa da onkologiuri daava-
debebis urTierTkavSiris statistika: filtvis kibos Se-
mTxvevaTa 90% dakavSirebulia Tambaqos wevasTan[3,135,141].
garda onkologiuri daavadebebis maRali riskisa, Tambaqos
moxmareba dakavSirebulia gul-sisxlZarRvTa, piris Rrus,
sasunTqi sistemis paTologiebTan (iwvevs arteriuli wnevis
matebasa da taqikardias, kariess, xSiria bronqiti, pnevmonia,
garkveul korelaciaSia tuberkulozTan da a.S.)[3,64,135].
Tambaqos moxmarebis winaaRmdeg utyuar arguments
warmoagdens is faqti, rom igi sazianoa ara marto mweve-
_ 33 _
lisaTvis, aramed im adamianisTvisac, vinc ar eweva, magram
imyofeba mowevis velSi _ amasTan dakavSirebiT, medici-
naSi e.w. `pasiuri mwevelis~ cnebac ki dainerga. pasiur
mwevelTa Soris filtvis kibos statistika ramdenjerme
ufro maRalia (sxvadasxva kvlevebis monacemebiT, merye-
obs 20%-dan 70%-mde), vidre zogad populaciaSi[142].
zemoT moyvanili riskebis gamo, moweva dasavleTis
samyaroSi sul ufro da ufro arapopularuli xdeba. Se-
sabamisad, iq igegmeba da cxovrebaSi tardeba mniSvnelo-
vani prevenciuli strategiebi.
rogorc amerikaSi, iseve evrokavSirSi, gaweul iqna
mniSvnelovani samuSao Tambaqos xelmisawvdomobis da-
qveiTebis mimarTulebiT: SeizRuda Sesabamisi reklama,
aiwia fasi Tambaqoze, aikrZala moweva sazogadoebrivi
TavSeyris adgilebSi. cvlilebebi sazogadoebrivi jan-
dacvis perspeqtividan jer sazogadoebriv cnobierebaSi
ganxorcielda, Semdgom ki ukve sakanonmdeblo doneze.
efeqturi preven-
ciis magaliTi
STambeWdavia amerikis SeerTebuli Statebis
ukanaskneli aTwleulis gamocdileba, sadac Tam-
baqos prevenciis multifaqtoruli modeli gan-
xorcielda. strategiebi moicavda sazogadoe-
brivi janmrTelobis kuTxiT mosaxleobis gaTvi-
Tcnobierebas, aramwevelTa uflebebis dacvis
kampaniebs, socialur da kulturul SezRudve-
bs, saxelmwifos mxridan dabegvris politikisa
da reklamirebis regulirebas. Sedegad, Tambaqos
moxmareba Cveuli, yoveldRiuri, misaRebi qcevi-
dan transformirda miuRebel da araprestiJul
qcevad, ramac mniSvnelovnad Seamcira misi mox-
marebis masStabi da Sesabamisad, sazogadoebrivi
janmrTelobis zarali[64,74,83,112,131,139,140].
amgvari magaliTebi adasturebs, rom fsiqoaqtiuri saSu-
alebebiT sazogadoebisaTvis zianis miyenebis prevencia Sesa-
_ 34 _
Zlebelia, Tu amisaTvis arsebobs keTili neba da moqmedeba
xdeba saerTaSoriso praqtikisa da samecniero mtkicebulebe-
bis gaTvaliswinebis safuZvelze, sistemurad, multifaqto-
rulad _ problemis yvela ganzomilebis gaTvaliswinebiT.
imisaTvis, rom saqarTveloSi mozardebs Soris Tam-
baqos moxmarebis problemaze vimsjeloT, kvlav kvlevis
Sedegebs moviSveliebT:
kvleva
samxreT kavkasiis antinarkotikuli programis
mxardaWeriT daavadebebis kontrolisa da sazoga-
doebrivi janmrTelobis erovnuli centris mier
Catarebul mozardTa gamokiTxvis[66] Tanaxmad, ga-
mokiTxulTa 50%-s erTxel mainc aqvs gasinjuli
sigareti; aqedan, 13 welze ufro adreul asakSi _
30%-s (10%-s _ 9 wlis asakSi an ufro adre);
gamokiTxulTa 4%-ma aRiara, rom yoveldRiu-
ri moweva daiwyo 13 wlis asakSi;
dReSi 1-5 Rer sigarets moixmars gamokiTxuli
vaJebis 3.1% da gogonebis 2.5%; dReSi 6-10 Rers _
vaJebis 6.6% da gogonebis 0.8%; dReSi 11-20 Rers _
vaJebis 3.9% da gogonebis 0.4%; dReSi 20 Rerze mets
_ gamokiTxuli vaJebis 1.8% da gogonebis 0.4%; yo-
veldRiurad eweva gamokiTxul vaJTa 15.4% da go-
gonaTa 4.1%. kvlevis Tanaxmad, gamokiTxul mozar-
dTa 43.1%-s miaCnia, rom yoveldRiurad erTi ko-
lofi sigaretis moweva ar warmoadgens did risks
maTi janmrTelobisa Tu keTildReobisaTvis.
mecnierebisa da ganaTlebis saministros kvle-
vis monacemebiT[17]: mozardebis Tambaqos moxmarebis
qcevis safuZvlad mdebare ganzarxvis CamoyalibebaSi
gadamwyvet rols TamaSobs, erTi mxriv, dadebiTi so-
cialuri ganwyobebi am qcevis mimarT da meore mxriv,
molodini imisa, rom am qcevis ganxorcielebis gamo
mSoblis (mamis) mxridan ar iqneba gakicxva Tu dasja.
es kidev erTxel gviCvenebs, rom ama Tu im fsiqo-
aqtiuri saSualebis prevencia SeuZlebelia calke aRe-
_ 35 _
bul mozardTa Tu axalgazrdaTa jgufebTan muSaobiT,
es sazogadoebis yvela doneze muSaobas saWiroebs. sko-
lis SemTxvevaSi, prevenciis miznobrivi jgufis rolSi
ara marto skolis moswavleebi, aramed, pedagogebic da
mSoblebic unda iyvnen; unda ganxorcieldes e.w. saTemo
midgoma, romlis drosac skolis Temis yvela subieqti
iqneba CarTuli prevenciul saqmianobaSi.
1.2.2. aralegaluri fsiqoaqtiuri saSualebebi
mocemul qveTavSi Cven vmsjelobT aralegaluri na-
rkotikuli sa S ualebebis moxmareba sTan dakavSirebul
riskebze; am mxriv, maT
Soris bevria saerTo; ra-
sakvirvelia, aris mniS-
vnelovani specifikuri
gansxvavebebic. magram,
uklebliv yvelasTvisaa
damaxasiaTebeli is, rom
rawams adamiani aralega-
luri narkotikuli saSualebis moxmarebas iwyebs, igi, Sesa-
bamisi kanonmdeblobis Tanaxmad, ebmeba narkotikebis uka-
nono mimoqcevaSi, anu axorcielebs samarTaldarRvevas. es
warmoadgens yvela qvemoT moyvanili narkotikuli saSua-
lebisaTvis moxmarebis saerTo risks. amitom mas mxolod
SesavalSi vaxsenebT, rom yovel mocemul SemTxvevaSi aRar
gavimeoroT.
saqarTvelos dRevandeli kanonmdeblobiT, moqalaqis
mier narkotikebis moxmareba eqvemdebareba administra-
ciul sasjels (jarimis odenoba _ 500 lari); Tu igive
pirovneba SemCneuli iqneba narkotikuli saSualebebis mo-
xmarebaSi gamovlenili faqtidan erTi wlis manZilze, igi
warsdgeba sisxlis samarTlis pasuxismgeblobis winaSe. am
SemTxvevaSi sasjeli SesaZloa iyos an patimroba, an `sul
mcire, gaormagebuli administraciuli jarima~[27].
_ 36 _
marixuana (da zogadad, kanabisis jgufis
narkotikuli saSualebebi)
saqarTveloSi, iseve, rogorc msoflioSi, yvelaze
gavrcelebul aralegalur narkotiks warmoadgenen kana-
bisis jgufis fsiqoaqtiuri saSualebebi, cnobili sxva-
dasxva saxelwodebiT _ marixuana, haSiSi, anaSa, `plani~
da sxva, romlebic mcenare kanafidan mzaddeba (fsiqo-
aqtiuri `ingredienti~ _ tetrahidrokanabinoli). Sesa-
Zlo mimzidveli efeqtebi moxmarebisas moicavs siamov-
nebis gancdas, aRqmis, azrovnebisa da emociuri sferos
cvlilebebs _ uCveulo SegrZnebebs, stresis moxsnas,
problemebis daviwyebas da a S. kanabiss sxvadasxva gziT
moixmaren, saqarTveloSi yvelaze xSirad _ ewevian. xSiria
marixuanas moxmarebis dawyeba mozardobidan, TanatolTa
sxvadasxva erToblivi socialuri aqtivobis procesSi.
kvleva
saqarTvelos mecnierebisa da ganaTle-
bis saministros erovnuli saswavlo gegmisa
da Sefasebis centris mier 2007 wels Cata-
rebuli gamokvlevis Tanaxmad[17], marixuanas
cxovrebaSi erTxel mainc moxmareba miuTiTa
TbilisSi, baTumsa da quTaisSi gamokvleul
13-dan 18 wlamde 948 mozardis 12..5%-ma.
samxreT kavkasiis antinarkotikuli pro-
gramis mxardaWeriT daavadebaTa kontrolisa
da sazogadoebrivi janmrTelobis erovnuli
centris mier Catarebuli axalgazrdaTa ga-
mokiTxvis Tanaxmad, gamokiTxuli 469 Tbili-
seli mozardidan marixuana cxovrebaSi er-
Txel mouxmaria 17%-s (vaJebis 31%-s da go-
gonebis 4%-s).
rogorc fsiqoaqtiuri saSualebebis moxmarebis for-
mebis aRweras miZRvnil TavSi aRvniSneT, gamokvlevaTa
_ 37 _
mTeli rigi adasturebs kavSiris arsebobas marixuanas
moxmarebasa da Semdgom ufro mZime narkotikuli saSua-
lebebis moxmarebaze gadasvlas Soris[90].
iseve, rogorc alkoholisa Tu Tambaqos SemTxve-
vaSi, axalgazrdebs, rogorc wesi, ar aqvT gacnobiere-
buli marixuanas moxmarebasTan dakavSirebuli riske-
bi. gamefebulia mTeli rigi miTebisa, romelTa Tanax-
mad marixuana araTu saziano, aramed sasargebloc kia.
dResdReisobiT kanabisi gamoiyeneba glaukomis mkur-
nalobaSi, simsivnuri daavadebebis dros, rogorc qi-
mioTerapiis gverdiTi movlenebis sawinaaRmdego saSu-
aleba da a.S.[8]
magram, samkurnalo Tvisebebi aranairad ar amcirebs
kanabisis jgufis preparatebis mavneobas arasamedicino
mizniT moxmarebis SemTxvevaSi. aq naklebad xdeba fi-
ziologiuri miCvevis ganviTareba, magram fsiqologiu-
ri miCvevis riski maRalia. garda amisa, gamomdinare aR-
qmis mkveTri cvlilebidan, kanabisis zemoqmedeba zrdis
ubeduri SemTxvevebis risks; kanabisis regularulma an
didi dozebiT moxmarebam SesaZloa gamoiwvios Sizofre-
niismagvari fsiqozi; regularuli moxmareba, aseve, azia-
nebs adamianis SemecnebiT funqciebs (aRqma, azrovneba,
yuradReba), aqveiTebs interesebs da aqtiuri cxovrebis
motivacias[2,8,148].
mniSvnelovania, rom obieqtur informacias am narko-
tikis Taobaze flobdes rogorc pedagogi, aseve moswav-
le/mozardi, raTa maT gacnobierebuli hqondeT moxmare-
basTan dakavSirebuli riskebi. amave dros, saqarTveloSi
Catarebuli gamokvlevebi pirdapir migviTiTebs kanabi-
sis jgufis preparatebis moxmarebasTan dakavSirebuli
riskebis Taobaze mozardTa gaTvicnobierebis aucile-
blobaze:
_ 38 _
kvleva
saqarTvelos mecnierebisa da ganaTlebis
saministros mier Catarebuli kvlevis Tanax-
mad, marixuanas moxmarebis qcevis safuZvla-
dmdebare ganzraxvis formirebaSi gadamwyvet
rols TamaSobs is faqti, rom mozardebi ar
icnoben marixuanas moxmarebasTan dakavSi-
rebul riskebs da am qcevas garTobasa da
drostarebaze mimarTul `Cveulebriv qcevad~
ganixilaven[17].
daavadebaTa kontrolisa da sazogadoe-
brivi janmrTelobis erovnuli centris mier
gamokiTxul mozardTa 41.2%-s miaCnia, rom
marixuanas regularuli moxmareba ar Seica-
vs did risks maTi janmrTelobisa Tu keTil-
dReobis mimarT[66].
rasakvirvelia, moxmarebasTan dakavSirebuli riske-
bis codna erTmniSvnelovnad ar ganapirobebs am qcevisa-
gan Tavis Sekavebas. magram, amave dros, riskebis codna
sarisko qcevisgan damcavi erT-erTi mniSvnelovani fa-
qtoria da amitom, prevenciuli muSobis erT-erTi stra-
tegiuli amocanaa.
eqstazi
es diskoTekebis subkulturaSi gavrcelebuli stimu-
latori halucinogenia, moixmaren gamWvirvale kafsule-
bis, (TeTri, yviTeli an vardisferi) abebis an fxvnilis
saxiT; saqarTveloSi, ZiriTadad, peroralurad (dalevis
gziT). SesaZlo mimzidveli efeqtebi moxmarebisas moi-
cavs guneba-ganwyobilebis awevas, daZabulobis moxsnas,
socialuri kontaqtebis gaadvilebas, energiis moWarbe-
bas, aRqmis uCveulo cvlilebebs, zogadad SegrZnebebis
Secvlasa da gamZafrebas.
saqarTveloSi eqstazis moxmarebam ukanaskneli ram-
_ 39 _
denime wlis manZilze moikida fexi, diskoTekebis kul-
turis ganviTarebasTan erTad:
kvleva
samxreT kavkasiis antinarkotikuli pro-
gramis mxardaWeriT daavadebaTa kontrolisa
da sazogadoebrivi janmrTelobis erovnuli
centris mier Catarebuli gamokiTxvis Tanax-
mad, Tbilisis sajaro skolebSi gamokiTxuli
469 mozardidan 7.46%-s cxovrebaSi erTxel
mainc mouxmaria eqstazi. amave dros, misi
moxmareba ufro gavrcelebulia gogonebSi
(gamokiTxul gogonaTa 12.28%, xolo vaJe-
bis 2.9%), rac migvaniSnebs, rom gogonebi aq
prevenciuli samuSaos sakvanZo miznobrivi
jgufia[66].
eqstazis zemoqmedebisaTvis damaxasiaTebelia wnevis,
pulsisa da temperaturis mateba, organizmis gamoSro-
ba (gauwylovaneba), daRlilobis/smis/Wamis kontrolis
unaris daqveiTeba. socialuri kontaqtebis gaadvile-
bis gamo, eqstazis moxmarebis dros xSiria SemTxveviTi
daucveli sqesobrivi kontaqtebis (da Sesabamisad, aiv/
Sidsisa da sqesobrivi gziT gadamdebi sxva infeqcie-
bis) riski. eqstazis zemoqmedebas SeiZleba Tan daerTos
piris simSrale, pirRebinebis gancda, oflianoba, risi
intensivobac, Cveulebriv, Zlierdeba misi xSiri moxma-
rebis SemTxvevaSi. garTulebisas xSiria panikuri rea-
qciebi. organizmis gamoSrobas, maRal temperaturas,
kontrolis unaris daqveiTebas, maRal daZabulobas Se-
saZloa mohyves sikvdili. eqstazis moxmarebis SemTxve-
vaSi arsebobs dozis gadaWarbebis mizeziT sikvdilis
safrTxec[5,117,147,148].
saqarTveloSi Catarebuli kvelevis monacemebi kvlav
prevenciuli muSaobis aucileblobaze metyvelebs:
_ 40 _
kvleva
daavadebaTa kontrolisa da sazogadoe-
brivi janmrTelobis erovnuli centris kv-
levis monacemebiT, gamokiTxul mozardTa
mxolod 27.6% acnobierebs, rom eqstazis
erTi-orjer moxmareba dakavSirebulia did
riskTan janmrTelobisa Tu sxva problemebis
TvalsazrisiT; gamokiTxulTa 41.2%-s miaCnia,
rom eqstazis regularuli moxmareba aravi-
Tar risks ar warmoadgens.
aqroladi gamxsnelebi
webos Tu sxva aqroladi gamxsnelebis (yofiTi qimiis
saSualebebis) ynosva, dasavleTSi Catarebuli kvlevebis
Tanaxmad, gavrcelebulia 14 wlamde bavSvebSi, ZiriTadad,
socialurad daucvel fenebSi, problemur, keTildReo-
bas moklebuli ojaxebis SvilebSi, quCis bavSvebSi[104].
es pirdapir migviTiTebs imaze, rom am mavne Cvevis pre-
venciis strategiuli xazi mTlianad ojaxebTan (da ara
calke aRebul bavSvebTan) muSaobaze unda gadiodes.
saqarTveloSi aqroladi gamxsnelebis moxmareba ga-
vrcelda gasuli saukunis 90-iani wlebidan. dReisaTvis,
Cvens qveyanaSi avadmoxmarebis am qcevis statistika ar
aris jerovnad Seswavlili. narkologiis samecniero-kv-
leviTi institutis mier 90-iani wlebis bolos Catarda
gamokvleva, romlis mixedviTac aqrolad gamxsnelebs sa-
qarTveloSi ynosaven, ufro xSirad, socialurad dau-
cveli ojaxis Svilebi, `quCis bavSvebi~, rac am sakiTxze
zemoT moyvanil dasavlur statistikas eTanxmeba[9].
aqroladi gamxsnelebiT Trobis efeqti gamoixate-
ba eiforiaSi, uCveulo SegrZnebebSi, aRqmis iluziebSi,
sakuTar warmodgenaTa (fantaziis xatebis) vizualizacia-
Si (xedvaSi), halucinaciebSi. rac Seexeba mavne Sedegebs,
aqroladi gamxsnelebis moxmareba bavSvis fsiqo-fiziku-
_ 41 _
ri ganviTarebis Seferxebis mniSvnelovan risks Seicavs.
Tu dasawyisSi gverdiTi efeqtebi Tavis tkiviliTa da sa-
erTo sisustiT Semoifargleba, regularuli moxmarebis
SemTxvevaSi mniSvnelovnad qveiTdeba SemecnebiTi fun-
qciebi (yuradReba, aRqma, azrovneba), labiluri xdeba
emociuri sfero, ziandeba TiTqmis yvela sasicocxlod
mniSvnelovani organo, SesaZloa ganviTardes toqsikuri
encefalopaTia, fsiqoorganuli sindromi (nervuli sis-
temis mZime daavadebebi) da a.S.
aqroladi gamxsnelebis regularul momxmarebel ba-
vSvebs garegnulad etyobaT misi mavne zegavlena: isini
arian gamxdari, fermkrTali, ver icaven higienur nor-
mebs, moZraobebi Senelebuli aqvT da cudad orientir-
debian garemoSi, daqveiTebuli aqvT sazrianoba da sa-
erTod, inteleqtualuri funqciebi, SesaZloa adgili
hqondes emociur ganurCevlobas da apaTiurobas, Sesa-
Zloa piriqiT _ siaves, feTqebadobas, sadistur qcevas.
erT-erTi mniSvnelovani riski, dakavSirebuli aqro-
ladi gamxsnelebis moxmarebasTan, garda zemoT aRweri-
lisa, aris intoqsikaciiT gamowveuli sikvdili. saqarTve-
loSi dafiqsirebulia aqroladi gamxsnelebis moxmarebis
gamo TanatolTa jgufis gardacvalebis SemTxveva.
opioidebi
opioidebi opiumis yayaCosgan damzadebuli saSua-
lebebis aRmniSvneli krebiTi saxelwodebaa. saukuneebis
win aRmoCenil iqna opiumis tkivilgamayuCebeli unari;
gasuli saukunis dasawyisamde igi evropasa da amerikaSi
farTod gamoiyeneboda da Tavisuflad iyideboda; meo-
ce saukunis dasawyisidan, maTi Zlieri narkogenuri efe-
qtis gamo, opiumis jgufis preparatebi mkacr konrols
dauqvemdebares. dReisaTvis arsebobs bunebrivi (magali-
Tad, opiumi, morfiumi), naxevrad sinTezuri (heroini) da
sinTezurad Seqmnili (magaliTad, meTadoni, subuteqsi)
_ 42 _
opioidebi. opioiduri Trobis ZiriTadi efeqti gamoixa-
teba siamovnebis mZafr gancdaSi, eiforiaSi.
saqarTveloSi opioidebi, ZiriTadad, ineqciurad moi-
xmareba: 2000 wlamde, umetesad, nedli opiumis (e.w. `Sa-
vis~) moxmareba Warbobda; 2000 wlidan heroins yvelaze
didi xvedriTi wili hqonda ineqciebis gziT moxmarebul
narkotikebs Soris; 2004 wlidan daiwyo opioiduri wamal-
damokidebulebis samkurnalod Seqmnili sinTezuri prepa-
ratis _ subuteqs®-is avadmoxmareba. mas tabletebis for-
ma aqvs; mkurnalobisaTvis am tabletebs peroralurad
iReben (svamen). saqarTveloSi mas, garkveuli damuSavebis
Semdeg, ineqciis saxiT moixmaren (`nemsiT ikeTeben~)[27].
opioidebs miCvevis Zalian maRali potenciali axasia-
Tebs, moxmarebis SemTxvevaSi e.w. paTologiuri ltolva
da damokidebulebis sindromi6 Zalzed swrafad viTar-
deba. aRkveTis sindromi (`lomka~) Zalian mtkivneulad
mimdinareobs. opioidebis SemTxvevaSi, agreTve, gansaku-
Trebul mniSvnelobas iZens e.w. tolerantoba7. adamians,
opioidebis regularul moxmarebasTan erTad, sul ufro
meti doza esaWiroeba imisaTvis, raTa Trobis uwindel
efeqts miaRwios. daavadebis garkveul stadiaze igi sa-
erTod veRar iRebs sasurvel efeqts da moixmars mxo-
lod imisaTvis, raTa Tavi naklebad avad igrZnos da ele-
mentaruli cxovelqmedeba SeZlos.
narkotikis moxmarebis Sewyvetis SemTxvevaSi tole-
rantoba TandaTan qreba. es, garkveulwilad, zrdis ze-
dozirebis risks: vTqvaT, adamianma imkurnala da Sewyve-
tili aqvs narkotikebis miReba; Tu igi iseT situaciaSi
moxvda, sadac ver uZlebs cdunebas da kvlav iRebs na-
6 igive, daavadeba wamaldamokidebuleba, anu narkomania
7 tolerantoba, met-naklebad, mraval fsiqoaqtiur saSualebas axa-
siaTebs; misi arsi mdgomareobs SemdegSi: regularuli moxmarebis
SemTxvevaSi Trobis efeqtis misaRebad adamians saSualebis igive
odenoba aRar akmayofilebs da iZulebulia gazardos doza.
_ 43 _
rkotiks, mkurnalobamdeli doziT narkotikis moxmare-
bas igi zedozirebamde (da SesaZloa, sikvdilamde) miyavs,
ramdenadac tolerantoba gamqralia.
zedozireba da sikvdili ara marto Tavis danebebis
procesSi tolerantobis klebis Sedegad xdeba. arale-
galuri narkotikebis SeZenis adgili Savi bazaria; win-
dawin aravin icis, Tu `Semotanil saqonelSi~ rogoria
narkotikuli nivTierebis koncentracia, ramac agreTve
SesaZloa gamoiwvios zedozireba.
SemTxveva CexeTSi
CexeTSi, gasuli saukunis 90-ian wlebSi,
ramdenime Tvis manZilze, dafiqsirda opiu-
mis momxarebelTa zedozirebiT sikvdilobis
naxtomiseburi zrda; policiis, eqspertizis
samsaxurisa da jandacvis struqturebis mier
Catarebuli gamokvlevis Tanaxmad aRmoCnda,
rom im droisaTvis Sav bazarze gavrcelebul
opiumis jgufis erT-erT nivTierebaSi narko-
tikis koncentracia aRemateboda im odeno-
bas, rasac varaudobdnen momxareblebi Tavisi
gamocdilebis Sesabamisad[13].
saqarTveloSi narkotikebTan dakavSirebuli sikvdi-
lis SemTxvevebi sakmarisad ar aRiricxeba, magram, minima-
luri monacemebi am sakiTxis Taobaze mainc oipoveba:
kvleva
samxreT kavkasiis antinarkotikuli pro-
gramis farglebSi 2004 wels Catarebulma
kvlevam gamoavlina, rom sikvdiloba narko-
tikebis momxmarebel mamakacebSi, sul co-
ta, orjer maRalia, vidre aramomxarebel
mamakacebSi[27].
sxva mniSvnelovani riski, romelic axasiaTebs opioi-
debis ineqciur moxmarebas _ aris sisxlis gziT gadamdebi
_ 44 _
infeqciebis gadadebis riski. gavixsenoT, rom saqarTve-
loSi, rogorc zemoT aRvwereT, dReisaTvis registrire-
bul aiv-Sidsis SemTxvevaTa 60%-Si virusi gadacemulia
narkotikebis ineqciuri moxmarebis gziT.
opioidebis qronikuli moxmareba iwvevs fsiqikur
daavadebas, pirovnebis dasusteba-ganadgurebas, socia-
luri urTierTobebis/kavSirebis rRvevas da Sesabamisad,
simartoves, janmrTelobasTan dakavSirebul mravlobiT
problemas: opioidebis qronikul momxmareblebSi xSiria
respiratoruli daavadebebi (tuberkulozi, filtvebis
anTeba), saWmlis momnelebeli sistemis aSliloba (sa-
Wmlis monelebisa da kuWis moqmedebis problemebi), sqe-
sobrivi, reproduqciuli sistemis problemebi da sxva;
garegnulad SesamCnevia kanis sifermkrTale, siyviTleSi
gadasuli, dazianebuli kbilebi (SesaZloa kbilebis Camo-
cvena, zogjer tkivilisa da anTebis gareSe) da a.S.[10]
kvleva
samxreT kavkasiis antinarkotikuli pro-
gramis farglebSi daavadebaTa kontrolisa
da sazogadoebrivi janmrTelobis erovnuli
centris mier ganxorcielebuli mozardTa
gamokiTxvis Sedegebis Tanaxmad, heroinis mo-
xmareba cxovrebaSi erTxel mainc miuTiTa ga-
mokiTxuli 16 wlis 469 mozardidan mxolod
erTma vaJma (0.4%) da orma gogonam (0.8%),
mTlianobaSi, gamokiTxuli axalgazrdebis
0.6%-ma[66].
kvlevis Sedegebze dayrdnobiT, SesaZloa davaskvnaT,
rom sazogadoebaSi moaruli azri mozardebs Soris opio-
idebis ineqciuri gamoyenebis sayovelTao gavrcelebis
Taobaze problemis garSemo sazogadoebriv warmodgene-
bSi damkvidrebuli erT-erTi miTia. Tumca, gamovlenili
statistika damSvidebisa da umoqmedobis sababs mainc ar
_ 45 _
gvaZlevs da kvlav prevenciuli samuSaoebis miazanmimar-
Tuli, gegmazomieri warmarTvis saWiroebas usvams xazs.
stimulatorebi
stimulatorebi axdens gamaaqtivebel zemoqmedebas
adamianis centralur nervul sistemaze. efeqti aq ga-
moixateba daRlilobis moxsnaSi, SimSilis grZnobis da-
TrgunvaSi, fizikuri aqtivobis intensifikaciaSi da a.S.
arsebobs rogorc mcenareuli stimulatorebi _ magali-
Tad, mcenare kokadan miRebuli kokaini, aseve maTi qimiu-
ri analogebi _ magaliTad, amfetaminebi, metamfetamine-
bi. stimulatorebis miReba SesaZloa rogorc peroralu-
rad, aseve ynosviTa da ineqciebis gziT.
aRsaniSnavia, rom Zvel droSi mcenare kokas iyene-
bdnen plantaciebsa Tu sabadoebze monebis Sormisuna-
rianobis gasazrdelad. xangrZlivi gamoyenebis istoria
aqvT stimulatorebs medicinaSi _ dawyebuli depresiebis
mkurnalobidan, damTavrebuli tkivilgamayuCebeli efe-
qtis miRweviT. magram, arasamedicino mizniT stimula-
torebis moxmareba gamanadgureblad moqmedebs adamianis
organizmsa da fsiqikaze[5].
stimulatorebi xasiaTdeba maRali narkogenuro-
biT da miCvevis potencialiT. stimulatorebis mimarT
damokidebuleba (paTologiuri ltolva) viTardeba Za-
lian swrafad; aseve swrafad viTardeba tolerantobac
(ara erTjeradi dozis, aramed moxmarebis sixSiris ga-
zrdis xarjze). am fonze, xdeba organizmis fsiqo-fizi-
kuri gamofitva, Trobidan gamosvlisas damaxasiaTebelia
uZlurebis gancda, Zilianoba da amavdroulad, daZine-
bis SeuZlebloba, rac kidev ufro qancavs organizms;
braleulobis grZnoba da depresia, romelmac SesaZloa,
TviTmkvlelobamdec miiyvanos adamiani.
abstinenciis mdgomareobaSi, paTologiuri ltolvis
gamo, adamiani Sepyrobilis STabeWdilebas tovebs, igi
_ 46 _
yvelaferze midis, raTa narkotiki moipovos da moixma-
ros, am dros SesaZloa iyos agresiuli da sastiki.
daavadebis ganviTarebasTan erTad, wamaldamoki-
debuli ukve veRar aRwevs Trobis sasurvel efeqts;
igi agrZelebs stimulatorebis miRebas ukve imisaTvis,
rom ubralod SeZlos elementaruli cxovelqmedeba da
`lomka~ Tavidan aicilos; aq Cndeba pirovnebis degra-
daciis aSkarad gamoxatuli niSnebi: azrovneba qveiTde-
ba, xSiria seqsualuri disfunqcia, Cndeba bodviTi ide-
ebi da Sesabamisi moCvenebiTi aRqmebi da a.S. Semdgom mas
ukve stimulatorebis miRebac aRar SeuZlia, radgan sa-
pasuxod, eiforiis nacvlad, SiSisa da SfoTvis gancdebi
uviTardeba. stimulatorebis miRebisas, SesaZloa, ganvi-
Tardes intoqsikaciuri fsiqozi, romlis drosac damaxa-
siaTebelia halucinozi, bodva, SiSis afeqti da sxv.
saqarTveloSi legaluri stimulatorebidan Cveni sa-
zogadoebisaTvis kargadaa nacnobi (da Cveuli) yava da
Cai, romelTa pasuxismgeblobiT moxmareba adamians ex-
mareba cxovrebaSi da komfortis erT-erTi, arc Tu ise
umniSvnelo, wyaroa. rac Seexeba aralegalur stimula-
torebs, maT mimarT samarTliania yvela is problema da
riski, rac zeda abzacSi aRvwereT.
aralegaluri stimulatorebidan, saqarTveloSi amJa-
mad kokainis gamoyeneba TiTqmis ar SeiniSneba. es, erTi
mxriv, ganpirobebulia imiT, rom mcenare koka CvenTan ar
xarobs; meore mxriv, rogorc Cans, ar xdeba misi masSta-
buri importi qveyanaSi. amas kokainis amoRebis umniSvne-
lo maCveneblebic adasturebs: 2007 wels, saqarTvelos
Sinagan saqmeTa saministros mier, ukanono brunvidan
amoRebuli iyo sul 0.558 gr. kokaini, 2008 wels _ 1.375
gr., 2009 wels _ 0.78 gr.[27].
amisagan gansxvavebiT, wamaldamokidebulTa zrdas-
rul populaciaSi sakmaod gavrcelebulia afTiaqSi xel-
misawvdomi garkveuli medikamentebis qimiuri gadamuSave-
_ 47 _
bis gziT kustarulad damzadebuli metamfetaminis (`vin-
ti~) an metkantinonis (`jefi~) jgufis stimulatorebis
ineqciuri moxmareba[15]. maTze damokidebuleba swrafad
viTardeba, miCvevis potenciali maRali aqvT. amave dros,
janmrTelobaze zemoqmedeba _ damangreveli: yalibdeba
centraluri nervuli sistemis Seuqcevadi cvlilebebi;
viTardeba iseTi mZime qronikuli daavadeba, rogoricaa
parkinsonizmi; ziandeba SemecnebiTi unarebi, azrovneba,
metyveleba; xSiria intoqsikaciuri fsiqozebi; moxmare-
bas mosdevs pirovnebis degradacia[5].
saqarTveloSi am narkotikuli saSualebebis proble-
muri moxmareba wamaldamokidebulTa zrdasrul popula-
ciaSi amJamad izrdeba, rac mniSvnelovani problemaa sa-
zogadoebrivi janmrTelobis TvalsazrisiT. amitom, ga-
davwyviteT, rom es mokle informacia CagverTo mocemul
TavSi, imis miuxedavad, rom saskolo asakis mozardebSi
maTi moxmareba SedarebiT umniSvneloa:
kvleva
samxreT kavkasiis antinarkotikuli pro-
gramis mxardaWeriT daavadebaTa kontrolisa
da sazogadoebrivi janmrTelobis erovnuli
centris mier Catarebuli kvlevis Tanaxmad,
TviTnakeTi stimulatorebis moxmareba ga-
mokiTxul axalgazrdaTa 0.04%-ma aRiara.
1.2.3. araqimiuri damokidebulebis formebi
zemoT Cven ar aRvwereT jansaRi cxovrebis stilis
sawinaaRmdego, damokidebulebis ganviTarebis maRali po-
tencialis mqone iseTi qcevebi, rogoricaa kompiuteris
Tu kompiuteruli TamaSebis gadaWarbebuli gamoyeneba,
azartuli TamaSebi, televizoris Warbi yureba, fulis
Warbi flangva da a.S. savaraudoa, rom Tu ar iqna yura-
_ 48 _
dReba gamaxvilebuli, uaxloes momavalSi yvela es, erTi
SexedviT, uwyinari qceva, sazogadoebrivi janmrTelobis
TvalsazrisiT, seriozul problemebad Semoubrundeba
Cvens qveyanas. samwuxarod, dReisaTvis ar Catarebula
kvleva, romelic am problemuri qcevebis gavrcelebis
masStabsa da kanonzomierebebs Seiswavlida da dagvana-
xvebda. es uaxloesi momavlis amocanaa da imeds vitove-
bT, rom mocemuli wignis Semdgom gamocemaSi Cven ukve
SevZlebT mkiTxvelisaTvis am qcevebis Sesaxeb informa-
ciis mowodebasa da gaanalizebas.
SekiTxvebi wakiTxulze refleqsiisaTvis:
_ ras gulisxmobs fsiqoaqtiuri saSualebis moxmare-
basTan dakavSirebuli riski?
_ ra ufro mavned xdis fsiqoaqtiur saSualebas: saku-
Triv saSualebis Tvisebebi, misi moxmarebis saxe, Tu misi
xelmisawvdomoba?
_ romeli fsiqoaqtiuri saSualebebis moxmarebaa gan-
sakuTrebiT gavrcelebuli saqarTvelos mozardebSi? ro-
mel riskebTan aris es dakavSirebuli?
_ 49 _
2. Tavi meore. fsiqoaqtiuri saSualebebis
avadmoxmarebis problemis axsna
TavSi gadmocemulia fsiqoaqtiuri saSualebebis avadmox-
marebis problemis axsnis midgomebi Tanamedrove fsiqologiasa
da filosofiaSi; ganxilulia problemis Camoyalibebasa Tu mis
prevenciaSi iseTi axsniTi socialur-fsiqologiuri faqtoreb-
is roli, rogoricaa: motivacia, ganwyobebi, molodinebi; aRwer-
ilia problemis doneebi da TiToeul doneze moqmedi riskisa da
damcavi faqtorebi.
2. 1. axsniTi filosofiur-fsiqologiuri paradigmebi
arsebobs miTi, romlis Tana-
xmadac, Tu gavigebT, ratom moi-
xmars adamiani narkotikebs, mi-
vagnebT avadmoxmarebis Tavidan
acilebis panaceas8. albaT, swo-
red amitomaa, rom narkomaniis,
rogorc fenomenis axsnas, dRe-
mde mravali mkvlevari, fsiqo-
logi, eqimi, pedagogi cdilobs,
magram erTaderTi amxsnelobiTi
faqtoris moZieba, erTaderTi
pasuxis gacema SekiTxvaze _ `ra-
tom~ _ dReisaTvis jerac ar ar-
sebobs da rogorc zeda abzacSi
aRvniSneT, arc SeiZleba rom iarsebos. es miTia. pro-
blema imdenad mravalganzomilebiania, rom mis erTaderT
mizezze, an, Tundac, mizezTa jgufze, an mogvarebis ro-
melime erT meTodze imedis damyareba fuWia. problemis
daZleva, rogorc qvemoT aRvwerT (ix. Tavi `narkomaniis
problemis daZlevis strategiebi~), mravalplanian siste-
mur midgomas saWiroebs.
zemoTqmulidan gamomdinare, mocemul TavSi axsniTi
8 universalur uebar wamals
_ 50 _
midgomebis gadmocemis Semdgom, momdevno TavSi, pro-
blemis doneebis da maT Soris urTierTkavSiris deta-
lur aRweras SemogTavazebT, raTa mowodebuli masalis
safuZvelze, problemis Tqveneuli xedva da gageba Seimu-
SavoT.
problemis axsna, rogorc wesi, damokidebulia im fi-
losofiur msoflmxdvelobaze da Sesabamis cnebiT apa-
ratze, romelsac iziarebs avtori. qvemoT SevecdebiT
fsiqoaqtiuri saSualebebis avadmoxmarebisa da wamalda-
mokidebulebis problemis gaazrebas sami sakvanZo filo-
sofiur-fsiqologiuri paradigmis WrilSi.
fsiqodinamikuri paradigma
upirveles yovlisa, fsiqodinamikuri fsiqologiis
paradigmas ganvixilavT, romelic zigmund froidis fsi-
qoanalizis moZRvrebidan iRebs saTaves[45,46,47]. fsiqo-
dinamikuri midgomis Tanaxmad, pirovnebas gaaCnia ro-
gorc cnobieri fsiqikuri cxovreba, aseve aracnobieri
(romlis Sesaxebac informacias is, Cveulebriv, ver flo-
bs). aracnobieri Tavs iCens sizmrebisa da fantaziis Si-
naarsebis, avtomaturi qmedebebis, iumoris, SemTxveviTi
(meqanikuri) wamocdenebis, ukidures SemTxvevaSi _ fsi-
qopaTologiuri simptomebis saxiT. xSirad aracnobieri
swrafvebi ewinaaRmdegeba pirovnebis zneobriv normebs,
da amis gamo adamiani Sinagan konfliqtebsa da travme-
bs ganicdis, ramac, SesaZloa, Seaferxos misi pirovnuli
ganviTareba da garkveul fsiqopaTologiur problemebs
daedos safuZvlad.
fsiqodinamikuri midgomis mixedviT, wamalda-
mokidebuleba, anu narkomania aris fsiqikuri daava-
deba, romelic viTardeba bavSvobis gaucnobierebeli
travmebis, Sinagani konfliqtebisa da pirovnuli gan-
viTarebis Seferxebis Sedegad [45,46,47].
am WrilSi, nebismier fsiqopaTologiur simptoms
_ 51 _
gaaCnia sazrisi da is garkveul aracnobier tendencias
asimboloebs: magaliTad, froidisaTvis, alkoholizmi
adamianis ganviTarebis adreul (e.w. oralur) stadiaze
miRebuli travmis Sedegad ganviTarebuli fsiqopaTo-
logiaa, romlis simptomebic (peroralurad alkholis
moxmareba) adreul bavSvobaSi daukmayofilebeli moTxo-
vnilebebis simbolur dakmayofilebas warmoadgens; rigi
avtorebisa narkotikebisa Tu alkoholis moxmarebas la-
tenturi homoseqsualizmis da, Sesabamisad, ganviTarebis
analur stadiaze fiqsaciis simbolod miiCnevs; sxvani
wamaldamokidebulebas qronikuli TviTmkvlelobis da
Sesabamisad, TviTganadgurebisken swrafvis simbolod
ganixilaven.
amgvarad, fsiqodinamikuri midgomis Tanaxmad, wamal-
damokidebuleba, Tu ama Tu im fsiqoaqtiuri nivTierebis
avadmoxmareba, erTgvarad, samedicino-fsiqologiuri
problemaa, dakavSirebulia adamianis ganviTarebasTan,
saTaves adamianis cxovrebis pirveli wlebidan iRebs. am
problemisgan ganTavisuflebis gza mis safuZvlad mde-
bare Sinagani konfliqtebisa Tu travmebis gacnobiereba
da gadalaxvaa.
qcevaTmecnieruli paradigma
qceviTi, anu bihevioristuli fsiqologia, anu igive,
qcevaTmecniereba, amerikaSi iRebs saTaves, rac logiku-
ria _ gamomdinare amerikelebis `dro _ fulia~ azrovne-
bis stilidan. bihevioristebma gadawyvites `ar iqeqon Sav
yuTSi~ (anu adamianis fsiqikaSi, rogorc amas fsiqodina-
mikuri mimdinareoba gvTavazobs) da Seqmnan mecniereba,
romelic maT adamianis qcevis winaswarmetyvelebis SesaZ-
leblobas miscems. klasikuri biheviorizmi adamians qce-
viTi stereotipebis jamad ganixilavda, xolo qcevas ki
_ rogorc reaqcias ama Tu im stimulze. Tu gvecodineba
ra stimuli romel reaqcias iwveevs, SevZlebT qcevis wi-
_ 52 _
naswarmetyvelebas _ ai, amgvarad JRerda maTi kredo.
biheviorizmis centraluri cnebaa daswavla: adamia-
ni axorcielebs ama Tu im qcevas da imis mixedviT, Tu
ras iRebs Sedegad _ dajildovebas Tu dasjas, igi mas
an daiswavlis, an `amoiRebs Tavisi qceviTi repertuari-
dan~.
ufro konkretulad rom vTqvaT, Tu qcevis ganxor-
cilebas mosdevs adamianisaTvis mniSvnelovani moTxovni-
lebis dakmayofileba (e.i. `dajildoveba~), maSin es qceva
daiswavleba. Tu qcevas mosdevs ganmaxorcieleblisaTvis
mniSvnelovani moTxovnilebis frustracia9 (e.i. `dasja~),
maSin igi, savaraudoa, aRar gaimeorebs amgvar qcevas.
magaliTad, Tu Tambaqos gasinjvisas morcxv axalga-
zrdas gauadvilda qaliSvilTan urTierToba (aRar Se-
awuxa saubarSi pauzebma, xelebi daakava da gauqra imis
gancda, rom ar icis sad waiRos, amis gamoisobiT moa-
xerxa urTierTobaSi dauZabavi tonis daWera da a.S.), es
niSnavs, rom man Tambaqos mowevis Sedegad `dajildoveba~
miiRo, ramdenadac daikmayofila afilaciis10 moTxovni-
leba; aqedan gamomdinare, igi Tambaqos avadmoxmarebis
qcevis daswavlis gzazea (anu, ikvreba pirobiTi refle-
qsi Tambaqos moxmarebasa da dadebiT emociebs Soris, an
socialur situaciebSi yofnasa da Tambaqos moxmarebas
Soris).
fsiqoaqtiuri saSualebebis arasamedicino miz-
niT moxmarebas qcevaTmecniereba ganixilavs, rogorc
daswavlil aramizanSewonil qcevas.
avadmoxmarebisagan gasaTavisufleblad saWiroa aR-
mocenebuli pirobiTi refleqsis Caqroba (qcevis `ga-
daswavla~) da axali, mizanSewonili qcevis (pirobiTi re-
fleqsebis) daswavla _ magaliTad, qcevebis iseTi kom-
pleqsisa, rogoricaa efeqturi komunikacia da sxva.
9 imedgacrueba, gamowveuli ama Tu moTxovnilebis daukmayofile-
blobiT
10 urTierTobis, emociur kavSirebSi CarTulobis moTxovnileba
_ 53 _
Savi yuTis `brma~ midgoma qcevaTmecnierebis wiaRSi
TandaTanobiT gadailaxa da e.w. neobiheviorizmis tal-
RaSi. meoce saukunis meore naxevridan, yuradReba mieqca
qcevis miRma mdebare SemecnebiT (azrebi, warmodgenebi,
rwmenebi) da motivaciur faqtorebs. dReisaTvis wamal-
damokidebulebis mkurnalobis sferoSi gansakuTrebuli
efeqturoba daadastura e.w. kognitur-bihevioristulma,
anu SemecnebiT-qceviTma midgomam. am midgomis Tanaxmad,
ama Tu im stimulze adamianis reaqcias gansazRvravs am
stimulis aRqmis dros aRmocenebuli SemecnebiTi proce-
sebi. Tu SemecnebiTi procesebiT informaciis gadamuSa-
veba arasworad xorcieldeba, adamians eqmneba araswori
warmodgenebi (kogniciebi) samyarosa da sakuTari Tavis
Sesaxeb, rac safuZvlad edeba mraval sxvadasxva pirov-
nul problemas, maT Soris wamaldamokidebulebasac.
kognitur-bihevioristuli (SemecnebiT-qceviTi) mid-
gomis Tanaxmad, iseTma arasworma warmodgenam, rogoricaa
`Tu SeTavazebul sigaretze uars vityvi, dedikos biWad
CamTvlian~, SesaZloa mozardi Tambaqos avadmoxmarebam-
de miiyvanos. anda, SesaZloa adamians, romelmac sasmels
Tavi daaneba, uWirdes sasmelis SeTavazebis situacieb-
Si uaris Tqma imis gamo, rom aqvs warmodgena (SesaZloa,
gaucnobierebeli), romlis Tanaxmadac `Tu uars vetyvi,
marto davrCebi, Tu marto davrCebi, daviRupebi...~ da a.S.
imisaTvis, raTa Semcirdes recidivis riski, kognitur-
bihevioristuli fsiqoTerapia exmareba adamians amgva-
ri destruqciuli, dalevisa Tu mowevis mamotivirebeli
warmodgenebis gacnobierebasa da gadalaxvaSi.
SemecnebiT-qceviTi midgoma fsiqoaqtiuri saSua-
lebebis avadmoxmarebis problemas uyurebs, rogorc
araswori warmodgenebis/azrebis/rwmenebis (kognicie-
bis) gavleniT ganxorcielebul da daswavlil arami-
zanSewonil qcevas[67,82,89,111].
_ 54 _
kognitur-bihevioristuli
midgoma
avadmoxmarebis problemis daZlevas Semec-
nebiT-qceviTi midgoma xedavs SemdegSi:
a. araswori kogniciebis gacnobiereba-ga-
dasinjva-cvlileba;
b. arasworad daswavlili qcevebis safu-
Zvlad mdebare pirobiTi refleqsebis Caqroba:
magaliTad, socialuri urTierTobebis situ-
aciebSi Tanmxlebi Cveuli SfoTvis moxsna da
amiT dalevis impulsis daZleva;
g. dabolos _ mizanSewonili qcevebis daswa-
vla: arasasurvel SeTavazebaze uaris Tqmis,
efeqturi komunikaciis, problemisa da kon-
fliqtis marTvis Tu sxva sasicocxlod mniSv-
nelovani unar-Cvevebis ganviTareba.
humanistur-egzistencialuri paradigma
humanistur-egzistencialuri filosofiisa da fsi-
qologiisaTvis adamianuri yofna centraluri cnebaa.
adamianuri yofna arCevanis Tavisuflebas, gakeTebuli
arCevanisTvis pasuxismgeblobis Rirseul tarebas, Sesa-
bamis moqmedebas da am gziT sakuTari Tavis ganxorcie-
lebas, TviTrealizacias gulisxmobs.
adamianuri yofna, arseboba, amasTan dakavSirebu-
li piradi pasuxismgebloba _ mZime tvirTia. aq adamiani
erTi erTzea samyaros winaSe, ramac SesaZloa gamoiwvios
e.w. egzistencialuri (arsebobis) SiSi/SfoTva, dakavSi-
rebuli martoobasTan da sxva rTuli sulieri gancdebi.
Tu mas, am gancdebis gavleniT, ar eyo gambedaoba, uars
ityvis Tavisufal arCevanze da masTan dakavSirebul pi-
_ 55 _
rovnul pasuxismgeblobaze, igi, faqtobrivad, Tavisu-
flebidan ltolvilis rolSi aRmoCndeba. am SemTxvevaSi
igi ver hpovebs cxovrebis sazriss, ver erkveva sakuTar
TavSi, garemomcvel samyaroSi da xdeba ucxo _ gaucxo-
ebuli, rogorc sakuTari Tavidan, aseve garSemomyofi
sinamdvilidan.
humanistur-egzistencialuri fsiqologiis Ta-
naxmad, wamaldamokidebuleba Tu fsiqoaqtiuri saSu-
alebebis avadmoxmareba Tavisuflebidan gaqcevis erT-
erTi gzaa [44,48,49,53,54,55,61].
wamaldamokidebulebis SemTxvevaSi, adamiani, erTi
mxriv, gaurbis adamianuri yofnis tvirTs; meore mxriv,
gaqceuls, mas ukve aRar scalia imisaTvis, rom sakuTa-
ri Tavi ganaxorcielos. igi an `smaSia wasuli~, an narko-
tikuli saSualebebis moxmareba-mopovebis mankier wreSia
damwyvdeuli. am ukanasknel SemTxvevaSi, narkotikebis sa-
Sovnelad mimarTuli `Sromatevadi~ aqtivobebis jaWvi mas
cxovrebis sazrisis uqonlobis gamo aRmocenebul arsebo-
bis (e.w.egzistencialur) vakuums uvsebs, dasaqmebulobisa
Tu sazrisis qonis fsevdo-gancdebs (iluzias) uqmnis.
narkoaqtivobis
ciklii
aralegaluri narkotikebis mop-
oveba, ro gorc wesi, did drosa da
Zalisxmevas moiTxovs (`wamlis~ say-
ideli fulis `Sovna~, `barigis~ monax-
va, masTan misvla, aralegaluri SeZena,
moxmareba da moxmarebis Semdgom igive
ciklis xelaxla dawyeba). momxmareb-
els, faqtobrivad, aRar scalia cx-
ovrebis sxva aspeqtebisaTvis da es mas
saqmiT dakavebulobis iluzias uqmnis.
adamiani damokidebulia, rogorc wesi, ara marto ni-
_ 56 _
vTierebaze, aramed mis SovnasTan dakavSirebuli aqtivo-
bebis jaWvzec (mTlian ciklze). Tavis danebebis SemTxve-
vaSi igi ara marto fizikur Tu fsiqologiur `lomkas~
ganicdis, aramed realuri vakuumis winaSe dgeba, sru-
liad dabneulia _ aq mas Semdegi SekiTxva uCndeba: `ra
vakeTo imis magivrad, rasac adre vakeTebdi?~[35,36]; ra-
mdenad warmatebiT da realisturad SeZlebs adamiani
upasuxos am SekiTxvas, mniSvnelovanwilad gansazRvravs
misi remisiis11 xarisxsa da xangrZlivobas. am SekiTxvaze
pasuxis gacemaSi misi daxmareba (ojaxis, sazogadoebis,
saxelmwifos mxridan) Zalian mniSvnelovania.
humanistur-egzistencialuri midgomis Tanaxmad,
fsi qoaqtiuri saSualebebis avadmoxmarebis Tavis dane-
bebis saqmeSi adamianis daxmareba SesaZlebelia Rirsebis
dacvaze, mimReblobasa da ndobaze dafuZnebul, araSe-
fasebiT, paritetul, Terapiul urTierTobebSi misi
CarTvis gziT. es miscems adamians saSualebas, moiZios
Tavisi WeSmariti me, gabedos iyos is rac aris, anu gabe-
dos yofna, daiwyos zrunva TviTgamoxatvaze, cxovrebis
sazrisis moZiebaze, TviTrealizaciaze. aq autenturi12
adamianuri urTierTobebi problemis daZlevis saqmeSi
gadamwyvet faqtors warmoadgens.
integrirebuli midgoma
amgvarad, fsiqodinamikuri paradigma narkotikebis
avadmoxmarebas ganixilavs, rogorc gaucnobierebeli Si-
nagani konfliqtebisa da travmebis mizeziT gamowveul
fsiqo-paTologias; qceviTi paradigma _ rogorc daswa-
vlil problemur, aramizanSewonil qcevas; egzistencia-
lur-humanisturi paradigma _ adamianis TviTrealiza-
ciis blokirebis Sedegad gamowveuli egzistencialuri
11 naTeli periodi qronikuli daavadebebis mimdinareobaSi
12 WeSmariti, namdvili
_ 57 _
vakuumis gadalaxvis araproduqtiul gzad, Tavisufle-
bidan gaqcevad. TiToeuli es midgoma sxvadasxva (arac-
nobier, qceviT da egzistencialur) doneze arsebuli
problemebiT xsnis wamaldamokidebulebas. garkveuli
TvalsazrisiT, es axsnebi erTmaneTs ar ewinaaRmdegeba.
am doneebze arsebuli problemebis erToblivad gaazre-
ba, integrirebuli midgoma, problemis `Tavsatexis nawi-
lebis~ SeerTebisa da gamTlianebuli suraTis danaxvis
saSualebas gvaZlevs.
SekiTxvebi wakiTxulze refleqsiisaTvis:
_ romeli axsniTi midgomaa Tqvens msoflmxedvelobas-
Tan ufro axlo? riT?
_ ra miniSnebebs gvaZlevs TiToeuli aRwerili midgoma
avadmoxmarebis problemis prevenciis (Tavidan acilebis)
TvalsazrisiT?
_ skolaSi romeli midgomis principebis gamoyeneba
SeiZleba prevenciis mizniT?
2.2. axsniTi fsiqologiuri faqtorebi
pirovnuli wyoba (`vin?~)
mecnierebi didi xnis manZilze cdilobdnen daedgi-
naT, Tu ra tipis pirovnebas gaaCnia narkotikebis ava-
dmoxmarebisa da wamal-
damokidebulebis ganvi-
Tarebis maRali riski.
aRmoCnda, rom erTmniSv-
nelovani kavSiri ama Tu
im pirovnul tipsa da
narkotikebis moxmarebas
Soris ar arsebobs. maga-
liTad, ver vityviT, rom
_ 58 _
eqstravertul pirovnebas narkotizaciis ufro meti
riski aqvs, vidre introverts, miuxedavad imisa, rom maT
fsiqoaqtiuri saSualebebis moxmarebis dawyebis gansxva-
vebuli motivacia axasiaTebT (ix. Semdeg qveTavSi).
`narkomaniis midrekilebis mqone pirovnuli tipis~ kv-
levebma amgvaris arseboba ar daadastura, Tumca garkveu-
li kanonzomierebebic gamoavlina. magaliTad, aRmoCnda,
rom zrdasrulobaSi wamaldamokidebulebis problemis
mqone pirebs bavSvobaSi xSirad axasiaTebdaT hiperaqti-
voba da yuradRebis deficiti, skolaSi dabali moswreba,
socialuri normebis gagebisa da gaTavisebis sirTuleebi,
emfatiis deficiti, agresiuloba, impulsuroba, sificxe,
safrTxis mudmivi molodini/gancda; mozardobis asakSi _
dabali TviTSefaseba, mniSvnelovani gansvla pretenziisa
da miRwevis doneebs Soris, sirTuleebi socialur adapta-
ciaSi, SesaZlo asocialuri tendenciebi[11,76,81,92,129].
zemoTqmuli ar unda gavigoT ise, TiTqos amgvari
problemebis mqone bavSvebsa da mozardebs wamaldamoki-
debuleba erTmniSvnelovnad ganuviTardebaT. an, rom maT
narkotikebis avadmoxmarebis midrekileba aqvT[92,106].
ar vavnoT !
am konteqstSi arasasurvelia cneba `mi-
drekilebis” gamoyeneba. tardeba kvlevebi,
sadac nacadia fsiqoaqtiuri saSualebebis
avadmoxmarebis biologiuri, fsiqologiu-
ri Tu socialuri prediktorebis (winaswari
maniSneblebis) dadgena; kvlevebi iZleva sa-
mecniero mtkicebulebas imisa, rom fsiqoa-
qtiuri saSualebebis avadmoxmarebis mimarT
erTmniSvnelovani midrekilebis dadgena-wi-
naswarmetyveleba ar SeiZleba da Tanac, Se-
saZloa ziani moutanos adamians, miTumetes
arasrulwlovans[102, 123,138].
_ 59 _
aq saubari, mxolod da mxolod, biologiur da fsi-
qologiur doneze arsebul risk-faqtorebs exeba. ma-
gram, rogorc wignis momdevno TavebSi davinaxavT, yo-
veli konkretuli bavSvis/mozardis/adamianis cxovrebaSi
bio-fsiqo-socio-sulier-politikur doneze riskisa da
damcavi faqtorebis mTeli sistema moqmedebs da, rogori
iqneba waamaldamokidebulebis TvalsazrisiT (keTilsai-
medo Tu ara) maTi `mozaika~ yovel konkretul SemTxve-
vaSi _ es individualuri midgomisa da grZelvadiani Se-
fasebis sagania[106,123].
zrdasrulebis SemTxvevaSi gamoikveTa erTgvari pi-
rovnuli stili _ e.w. `kontroldaqveiTebuli~ qceviTi
stereotipi[11, 88,94,105,132], romelic wamaldamokidebu-
lebis ganviTarebis maRali riskis Semcvelad ganixileba.
mas axasiaTebs pirovnuli araTanmimdevruloba, impul-
suri moTxovnilebebis da Sesabamisad, qcevis kontrolis
dabali done, emociuri aramdgradoba, gauwonasworeblo-
ba, azrovnebis Secdomebi (romelTa miRmac informaciis
gadamuSavebis xarvezebi dgas), zneobrivi normebisadmi
arasakmarisi angariSis gaweva (zneobrivi moumwifebloba)
da a.S.
motivacia (`ratom~?)
rogorc mocemuli Tavis dasawyisSive vaxseneT, yvela-
ze xSirad ganmeorebadi SekiTxva, romelic fsiqoaqtiuri
saSualebebis avadmoxmarebis Tu wamaldamokidebulebis
(narkomaniis) konteqstSi gaismis xolme, aris `ratom moi-
xmars adamiani fsiqoaqtiur saSualebebs?~; es SekiTxva
aqtualuri da marTebuli moxmarebis sawyis stadiazea _
rodesac adamianis nebazea damokidebuli, moixmaros Tu
ara fsiqoaqtiuri saSualeba. daavadebis ganviTarebasTan
erTad, SekiTxva `ratom~, faqtobrivad, kargavs azrs,
radganac aq moxmareba ukve ara individualuri arCevanis
sakiTxi, aramed daavadebis ganviTarebis Sedegad gaCeni-
_ 60 _
li paTologiuri ltolvis funqciaa da TviT daavadeba
(da ara adamiani) xdeba ama Tu im saSualebis moxmarebis
mizezi.
zemoTqmulidan gamomdinare, mocemul qveTavSi, Se-
vCerdebiT moxmarebis sawyisi motivaciis TvalsazrisiT
arsebul gansxvavebebze.
sainteresoa wamaldamokidebulebis kvlevebis erT_
erTi klasikosis, volfram keupis[98] gamokvleva, ro-
melmac retrospeqtuli TviTangariSebis safuZvelze,
wamaldamokidebul pirTa klasifikacia moaxdina. imis
mixedviT, Tu ra warmoadgens adamianisTvis moxmarebis
`motivators~ narkokarieris dasawyisSi, keupma gamoyo
5 gansxvavebuli pirovnuli stereotipi _ konformisti,
dioniseli, mkvlevari, eqsperimentatori da gaumaZRari.
qvemoT davaxiasiaTebT TiToeul maTgans:
konformisti _ iwyebs fsiqoaqtiuri saSualebebis
moxmarebas mibaZviT, jgufTan Tanaziarobis gancdis mi-
saRwevad. igi jgufzea damokidebuli, axasiaTebs indi-
vidualuri pasuxismgeblobisagan Tavis aridebis ten-
dencia. inteleqti, Cveulebriv, saSualo aqvs; ara aqvs
midrekileba raime seriozuli fsiqikuri paTologiis
mimarT, erideba fsiqoaqtiuri saSualebebis intensiur
moxmarebas; amitom wamaldamokidebulebis sindromi iS-
viaTad uviTardeba. imisaTvis, rom moxmarebas Tavi daa-
nebos, zogjer sakmarisia, ubralod, misi jgufidan Camo-
Soreba da axali interesis gaCena.
dioniseli _ fsiqoaqtiuri saSualebebis moxmarebas
siamovnebisa da garTobisaTvis misdevs. mas axasiaTebs
eqstravertoba (garemoze mimarTuloba), upasuxismge-
bloba, praqtikuloba. inteleqti, Cveulebriv, saSualo
aqvs, interesebi _ farTo diapazonis da cvalebadi. fsi-
qikuri paTologiis SemTxvevaSi SesaZloa adgili hqondes
erTgvar infantilizms, isteriuli wris13[41,42] xasiaTis
13 demostraciuli qcevebi, `gaTvlili mayurebelze~
_ 61 _
paTologias. wamaldamokidebulebaSi advilad Sedis. Ta-
vis danebebis mxriv prognozi SedarebiT keTilsaimedoa.
mkvlevari _ iwyebs fsiqoaqtiuri saSualebebis mox-
marebas sakuTari pirovnuli problemebis Semsubuqebis
mizniT. mas axasiaTebs introvertoba (sakuTar Tavze
mimarTuloba), socialuri urTierTobebis gaZneleba,
daucvelobis gancda, SfoTvis maRali done, midreki-
leba depresiisadmi, konfliqturoba. aq, fsiqologiur
darRvevaTa miRma, biologiuri darRvevebi unda vigu-
lismoT, xSir SemTxvevaSi saqme gvaqvs Sizoiduri14 an
fsiqasTeniuri15[41,42] wris xasiaTis paTologiasTan. wa-
maldamokidebulebis ganviTarebis riski aq Zalian maRa-
lia, radgan mkvlevari Tanmimdevrulad unacvlebs erT
nivTierebas meores, raTa TviTdaxmarebis efeqtur saSu-
alebas miagnos, xolo am problemuri qcevis siRrmiseu-
li mizezebi ki, faqtobrivad, miuxedavi rCeba.
eqsperimentatori _ iwyebs fsiqoaqtiuri saSualebe-
bis moxmarebas cnobismoyvareobis gamo, is sistematurad
sinjavs axal saSualebebs axali mdgomareobis gancdisa
da Semecnebis mizniT. mas xSirad saSualoze maRali inte-
leqti aqvs, axasiaTebs aqtiuroba, cnobismoyvareoba da
gakvirvebis unari, qolerikuli temperamenti, urTierTo-
bebSi _ lideroba. im SemTxvevaSi, Tu fsiqopaTologias-
Tan gvaqvs saqme, mosalodnelia adaptaciuri sirTuleebi
da protestis reaqciebi. wamaldamokidebulebis ganviTa-
rebis riski aq SedarebiT dabalia, eqsperimentirebas Tavs
daanebebs, Tu monaxavs TavisTvis faseul, saintereso saq-
mes. rac ufro maRalia inteleqti, miT metia amis albaTo-
ba da Sesabamisad, miT ufro dadebiTia prognozi.
14 sakuTar TavSi CaRrmaveba, pirovnebis araTanmimdevruloba da par-
adoqsuloba, emociuri sicive Sexamebuli daucvelobasTan, origi-
naluri azrovneba
15 simorcxve, gaubedavoba, braleulobis gancda, maRali SfoTva, Si-
nagani daZabuloba, socialuri kontaqtebis SiSi da a.S.
_ 62 _
gaumaZRari _ miRebaze (da ara gacemaze) orienti-
rebuli adamiania. igi gaumaZRaria siamovnebis gancdis
mimarT. inteleqti mas, xSirad, saSualoze dabali aqvs.
mas uyvars socialuri urTierTobebi, magram sapasuxod
ver imsaxurebs imave damokidebulebas, ramdenadac ur-
TierTobebisas agresiuloba da despotizmi axasiaTebs
(SesaZloa, agreTve, antisocialuri tendenciebi). warmo-
SobiT, ufro xSirad, dabali socialuri fenidanaa. aq ma-
Ralia riski, rogorc wamaldamokidebulebis ganviTare-
bis, ise, narkotikebis ineqciuri moxmarebis SemTxvevaSi,
dozis gadaWarbebis (letaluri gamosavliT). fsiqopaTo-
logiis SemTxvevaSi SesaZloa epileptoiduri16[41,42] wris
xasiaTis paTologia, xSiria toqsikuri fsiqozebi. Tavis
danebebis TvalsazrisiT prognozi arakeTilsaimedoa.
ganwyobebi17 da molodinebi (`rogor?~)
sinamdvilis ama Tu im movlenis mimarT dadebiTi
ganwyoba zrdis Sesabamisi qcevis ganxorcielebis alba-
Tobas, uaryofiTi _ amcirebs. amave dros, ganwyoba mxo-
lod da mxolod erT-erTi faqtoria, romelic qcevaze
zemoqmedebs. am sxva faqtorebs Soris, erTob gavleniania,
magaliTad, is, Tu adamiani, konkretuli qcevis ganxor-
cielebis SemTxvevaSi, ra Sedegs elis (molodini) an rea-
lurad ra Sedegs iRebs (`dajildoveba18~ an `dasja19~).
16 negatiuri emociebiT datvirTuloba, feTqebadoba, wvrilmanebze
yuradRebis gamaxvilebis tendencia, samarTlianobis gamZafrebu-
li gancda da sxv.
17 ganwyobis qveS vgulisxmobT e.w. socialur ganwyobas, attitude-s[43]
18 raime qcevis ganxorcielebis SemTxvevaSi adamianisaTvis mniS-
vnelovani sabazo moTxovnilebis dakmayofileba
19 raime qcevis ganxorcielebis Sedegad adamianisaTvis mniSvnelo-
vani sabazo moTxovnilebis frustracia
_ 63 _
qcevis
prognozi
socialuri fsiqologiis klasikosi, ju-
lian roteri gvTavazobs qcevis prognozis
formulas[43]:
qcevis potenciali (anu qcevis ganxor-
cielebis albaToba) = molodini (an ganwyoba)
+ ganmtkicebis (`dajildovebis~ an `dasjis~)
Rirebuleba.
adamiani iqceva ganwyobis Sesabamisad im SemTxvevaSi,
Tu im momentSi masze/situaciaze sxva faqtorebis gavle-
na minimaluria da Tu ganwyoba sakmarisad Zlieria. ama-
ve dros, fsiqologiaSi cnobilia, rom ara marto ganwyoba
moqmedebs qcevaze, aramed piriqiTac: qceva aranakleb (Tu
metad ara) moqmedebs ganwyobaze. ganxorcielebuli qceva
aZlierebs mis Sesabamis ganwyobas[50].
yovelive es garkveul orientirebs iZleva problemis
gaazrebisa da prevenciuli samuSaoebisaTvis. qvemoT Se-
vecdebiT konkretul magaliTebze gavarCioT aRwerili
kanonzomierebebi.
aviRoT, magaliTisaTvis, alkoholis moxmarebis qce-
va: misi albaToba izrdeba, Tu gvaqvs dadebiTi ganwyoba
alkoholis mimarT.
ganwyobis
komponentebi
socialuri fsiqologiis Tanaxmad, ganwyo-
ba moicavs 3 komponents [43]:
- SemecnebiTs (magaliTad, informacia imis
Sesaxeb, Tu ra aris alkoholi, ra efeqti aqvs
mas, rogor Sedegebs iwvevs);
- emociurs (ra damokidebuleba maqvs me
alkoholis mimarT, im informaciis safuZvel-
ze, rac mis Sesaxeb vici);
- qceviTs (ras vakeTeb me alkoholTan mi-
marTebaSi).
_ 64 _
vTqvaT, mozards alkoholze mxolod dadebiTi in-
formacia aqvs (magaliTad is, rom igi qarTuli kultu-
ris nawilia, rom Cveni winaprebi svamdnen, rom zrdasru-
lebTan erTad sufrasTan jdoma niSnavs, rom Sen ukve,
garkveuli gagebiT, sazogadoebis srulfasovani wevri
xar d a.S.). aseT SemTxvevaSi, gamomdinare am dadebiTi
informaciidan, mas dadebiTis molodini da emociuri
damokidebuleba uCndeba alkoholis mimarT da aqvs Se-
sabamisad misi moxmarebis tendenciac. dadebiTi ganwyoba
saxezea. amave dros, rogorc zemoT aRvniSneT, dadebiTi
ganwyoba erTmniSvnelovnad ar gansazRvravs qcevas. Tu
mozardze sxva faqtorebic, sxva gavlenebic moqmedebs
_ magaliTad, Seyvarebuli hyavs, romelsac ar moswons,
rodesac vaJi svams, anda icis, rom mSobeli ar mouwone-
bs am saqciels da mSoblis azrs angariSs uwevs _ maSin,
alkoholis mimarT dadebiTi ganwyobis miuxedavad, igi
mas ar moixmars. magram, Tu mioxmars, maSin ganwyobac Se-
sabamisad, alkoholis moxmarebis sasargeblod daiwyebs
cvlilebas.
aviRoT sapirispiro magaliTi. vTqvaT, mozards ua-
ryofiTi informacia aqvs Tambaqos Sesaxeb _ rom Tamba-
qo cudad moqmedebs adamianis janmrTelobaze (SesaZloa,
sportuli miRwevebis mxriv ukan daswios, sainteresos
arafers moutans da saerTodac, sisulele, zrdasrulis
`satyuaraa~). vTqvaT, am informaciis Sesabamisad, uaryo-
fiTi emociuri damokidebuleba aqvs Tambaqos mimarT,
qcevis doneze _ Sesabamisi tendencia. amgvarad, saxezea
uaryofiTi ganwyoba Tambaqos mimarT. miuxedavad amisa,
Tu gaCnda sxva gavlenebi, sxva faqtorebi, SesaZloa, ua-
ryofiTi ganwyobis miuxedavad, vaJma mainc daiwyos mowe-
va. amgvari faqtori, SesaZloa iyos, magaliTad, gogona,
romelsac is Tavs awonebs da romelsac swored iseTi
ymawvilebi moswons, vinc eweva; anda, Tanatolebi, rom-
lebic mas `dedikos biWad~ aRiqvamen imis gamo, rom ar
_ 65 _
eweva da sxva amdagvari. Tu am faqtorebis gavleniT man
moweva daiwyo, ganwyobac Sesabamisad (Tambaqos moxamre-
bis sasargeblod) daiwyebs cvlilebas.
zemoT moyvanili ori magaliTiT imis Cveneba gvinda,
rom ama Tu im nivTierebis mimarT uaryofiTi ganwyoba
erTmniSvnelovnad ar TamaSobs prevenciul rols da ar
gansazRvravs am nivTierebisagan Tavis Sekavebas. arc da-
debiT ganwyobas aqvs pirdapiri kavSiri qcevasTan.
socialuri fsiqologiis ganmartebiT, ganwyoba _ es
aris kavSiri, romelsac Cven vqmniT obieqtsa da Cven mier
am obieqtis Sefasebas Soris (magaliTad, Tambaqosa da
Cven mier Tambaqos Sefasebas Soris). Tu es kavSiri mya-
ria, maSin obieqtTan pirispir Sexvedrisas Cveni ganwyoba
aqtualizdeba da mis Sesabamisad vmoqmedebT. Tu myari
ar aris, an, Tu gavlenis sxva faqtorebi iwyeben moqmede-
bas (rogorc zemoT moyvanil magaliTebSi), maSin ganwyo-
ba gavlenas ver axdens qcevaze. Tavis mxriv, moxmarebis
qceva, ganxorcielebis SemTxvevaSi, gavlenas axdens Se-
sabamis ganwyobaze da amdenad, gamodis avadmoxmarebis
risk-faqtoris rolSi.
amdenad, prevenciuli muSaobis mizani, SesaZlebelia,
iyos fsiqoaqtiuri nivTierebebis avadmoxmarebis mimarT
Sesabamisi uaryofiTi ganwyobebis, rogorc damcavi risk-
faqtorebis, mizandasaxuli SemuSaveba an ukve arsebu-
lis gamyareba. magram, raTa ar movaxdinoT am faqtoris
mniSvnelobis gadafaseba, sasurvelia gaviTvaliswinoT
Semdegi[38,40,50]:
_ ganwyoba ufro myaria, roca igi ara gagonilis/mos-
menilis, aramed gamocdilebis safuZvelzea SemuSavebuli;
am SemTxvevaSi gansakuTrebul mniSvnelobas iZens gamo-
cdilebis miRebis dros ganxorcielebuli qcevis Sedegi:
ra mohyva qcevas, `dajildoveba~ Tu `dasja~ (ix. qveTavi
`qceviTi midgoma~). magaliTad, Tu zemoT moyvanili mo-
zardis mier alkoholis moxmarebas `dajildovebac~ mo-
_ 66 _
hyva _ magaliTad, yuradRebis centrSi yofna da aRiareba,
savaraudoa, rom mas alkoholis moxmarebis mimarT dade-
biTi ganwyoba ganumtkicdeboda da miuxedavad ojaxuri
Tu Seyvarebulis mxridan damcavi faqtorebis arsebobi-
sa, sams ganagrZobda. anda, meore mozardis SemTxvevaSi,
Tu mas sigareti odesme gasinjuli hqonda da gemo ar
moswonebia (gasinjvas `dasja~ mohyva), mas ufro mtkice
uaryofiTi ganwyoba eqneboda, romelic ufro didi al-
baTobiT imoqmedebda qcevis doneze da winaaRmdegobas
gauwevda sxva gareSe gavlenebs;
_ ganwyoba qcevaze axdens gavlenas, Tu ki is specifiku-
ria da qcevis zedmiwevniT Sesabamisi. magaliTad, kvleve-
bis Tanaxmad, Cveni mosaxleobis gamokiTxvisas cxovrebis
jansaRi wesis Taobaze (rac sakmaod araspecifikuri for-
mulirebaa), umravlesoba pasuxebisa dadebiTi ganwyobis
maCvenebelia: respodentebi amboben, rom isini dadebi-
Tad, saWirod da kidev meti _ aucileblad miiCneven cxo-
vrebis jansaRi wesis dacvas. amave dros, kargad viciT,
Tu raoden dabalia Cvens mosaxleobaSi fizkulturuli
aqtivobebi Tu jansaRi kveba da ramdenad maRalia siga-
retis moxmareba. amgvarad, kvlevis Sedegad gamovlenili
zogadi ganwyoba aramc da aramc ar dasturdeba rea-
lobaSi. amave dros, Tu CavatarebT gamokiTxvas jansaRi
cxovrebis wesis romelime konkretuli komponentis Se-
saxeb (magaliTad, xilis moxmarebis done), metia albaTo-
ba, rom iseTi specifikuri ganwyobis amsaxveli pasuxebi
miviRoT, romelsac qcevaze gavlenis potenciali eqneba.
igive kanonzomiereba imuSavebs ama Tu im prevenciuli
ganwyobis SemuSavebis saqmeSi _ rac ufro konkretulia
igi, miT ufro realuria misi gavlena;
_ ganwyoba myardeba, Tu mis safuZvlad mdebare gada-
wyvetileba (ar movwio, ar davlio) adamians Sinagani muSa-
obis Sedegad aqvs miRebuli, Tavis sakuTar gadawyveti-
lebad aRiqmeba da ara Tavs moxveulad gareSe subieqtis
_ 67 _
mier; amitom, prevenciulma muSaobam mza gadawyvetilebe-
bis Cagoneba ki ar unda axorcielos, an SiSis teqnologiebs
ki ar unda mimarTos, aramed pirobebi Seuqmnas mozardebs,
raTa maT sakiTxze sakuTari azri, damokidebuleba Seimu-
Savon da Sesabamisi arCevani gaakeTon;
_ ganxorcielebuli qceva, gaxmovanebuli Sexeduleba
amyarebs mis Sesabamis ganwyobas; es gansakuTrebiT mniSv-
nelovani mtkicebulebaa prevenciuli samuSaoebis Tval-
sazrisiT: Tu adamiani garkveuli (magaliTad, jansaRi
cxovrebis wesis propagandis) mimarTulebiT moqmedebs da
qcevis mocemuli kursis Sesabamis mosazrebebs sajarod
aJRerebs, am procesSi mas Sesabamisi ganwyoba uZlier-
deba da igi Tavad iwyebs Tavisi propagandis Sesabamisad
cxovrebas. amitom, prevenciul kampaniebSi mozardebis
monawileobam, SesaZloa, sxva mozardebs ar gadaafiqre-
binos fsiqoaqtiuri saSualebebis gasinjva, magram TviT
kampaniaSi CarTul mozardebs namdvilad ganumtkicebs
jansaRi cxovrebis wesis Sesabamis konkretul (kampaniis
uwyebebis Sesabamis) ganwyobebs.
SekiTxvebi wakiTxulze refleqsiisaTvis:
_ dadasturda Tu ara kvlevebiT wamaldamokidebule-
bis midrekilebis mqone pirovnuli tipis arseboba?
_ cxovrebaSi xom ar SegxvedriaT piri, romelic vol-
fram keupis mier aRweril romelime stereotips (konfor-
misti, dioniseli, mkvlevari, gaumaZRari, eqsperimentato-
ri) mogagonebT? Tu pasuxi dadebiTia, rogoria Tqveni ur-
TierTobis gamocdileba?
_ ra faqtorebi zrdis qcevis ganxorcielebis albaTobas?
_ rogor moqmedebs ganwyoba qcevaze? konkretulad,
rogor SeiZleba es gamoviyenoT prevenciaSi?
_ rogor moqmedebs qceva ganwyobaze? konkretulad,
rogor SeiZleba es gamoviyenoT prevenciaSi?
_ 68 _
3. Tavi mesame. fsiqoaqtiuri saSualebebis
avadmoxmarebis problemis aRwera
mocemul TavSi aRwerilia fsiqoaqtiuri saSualebebis ava-
dmoxmarebis problemis doneebi/faqtorebi/ganzomilebebi: bio-
logiuri, fsiqologiuri, socialuri, sulieri, politikuri;
daxasiaTebulia TiToeul doneze moqmedi riskisa da damcavi
faqtorebi; naCvenebia, rom problemis gageba aRwerili doneebis
erTobliobaSi ganxilvasa da maTi urTierTqmedebis gaazrebas
moiTxovs.
wamaldamokidebuleba
(narkomania) fsiqoaqtiuri
saSualebebis avadmoxmare-
bis ukiduresi gamovline-
baa. mis magaliTze Seuia-
raRebeli TvaliTac Cans
tipiuri problemebi, rom-
lebic fsiqoaqtiuri saSua-
lebebis arasamedicino miz-
niT moxmarebas axlavs Tan.
amitom, mocemul Tavs swo-
red wamaldamokidebulebis
aRweriT viwyebT. es saSua-
lebas mogvcems ukeT gavigoT momdevno qveTavi, sadac
adamianuri arsebobis TiToeul doneze moqmed, wamalda-
mokidebulebis TvalsazrisiT sarisko da damcavi faqto-
rebis gavlenis analizs vaxdenT.
3.1. wamaldamokidebulebis doneebis aRwera
wamaldamokidebuleba, anu narkomania aris qronikuli
daavadeba, romelic viTardeba narkotikuli saSualebebis
arasamedicino mizniT moxmarebis Sedegad da moicavs xuT
_ 69 _
sxvadasxva _ biologiur, fsiqologiur, socialur, su-
lier, politikur _ doneze mimdinare problemebis jaWvs.
biologiuri done gulisxmobs, narkotikuli saSualebe-
bis fsiqikaze aqtiuri zemoqmedebis gamo, am saSualebebze
adamianis fiziologiuri damokidebulebis ganviTarebas;
fsiqologiuri done gulisxmobs erTi mxriv, narko-
tikuli saSualebebis mimarT adamianis fsiqologiuri
damokidebulebis ganviTarebas;
socialuri done gulisxmobs narkotikebis problema-
Si ara marto calkeuli individis, aramed misi socialu-
ri garemos (ojaxis, samegobros, Temis, dabolos, mTeli
sazogadoebis) CarTulobas. aq igulisxmeba wamaldamoki-
debulebis, rogorc daavadebis gavrceleba, narkotike-
bis gasaRebis qselebis Camoyalibeba, narkomaniis pro-
blemis mimarT sazogadoebis damokidebuleba (gulgri-
loba Tu gulisxmiereba), daavadebulTa mimarT midgoma
(represiuli Tu mzrunveli), problemis daZlevis saqmeSi
cxovrebis jansaRi wesis mniSvnelobis gacnobiereba Tu
ugulvebelyofa da a S.;
sulieri done gulisxmobs, rom narkotikebis avadmo-
xmareba da wamaldamokidebuleba ufro advilad Cndeba
iq, sadac sulieri krizisia, faseulobebis deficitia,
e.w. egzistencialuri vakuumia; Tavis mxriv, wamalda-
mokidebulebis ganviTarebis Sedegad sulieri krizisi,
faseulobebis sistemis ngreva, egzistencialuri vakuumi
Rrmavdeba da anadgurebs sulierebas individis Tu sazo-
gadoebis doneze;
politikuri done gulisxmobs narkotikuli saSuale-
bebis regulaciis samarTlebriv meqanizmebs (ra aris ama
Tu im saxelmwifoSi miCneuli legalur Tu aralegalur
narkotikul saSualebad, rogori saxelmwifo politika
tardeba legaluri narkotikuli saSualebebis mimarT,
rogor xdeba aralegaluri narkotikuli saSualebebis
kontroli da sxv.), misi daZlevis politikuri nebisa da
_ 70 _
erovnuli strategiuli gegmis arsebobas, sakvanZo saxel-
mwifo uwyebebs Soris koordinaciasa da SeTanxmebul moq-
medebas problemis daZlevis saqmeSi da sxva.
zemoT aRwerili yvela donisaTvis SesaZlebelia, fsi-
qoaqtiuri saSualebebis gamoyenebis TvalsazrisiT, rogorc
riskis, aseve damcavi faqtorebis identificireba/aRwera.
prevenciis
strategia
prevenciuli muSaobis strategia unda
efuZnebodes yvela aRweril doneze moqmed
risk-faqtorebTan gamklavebas (maT minimuma-
de dayvanas) da damcavi faqtorebis gaZliere-
bas (maT SeZlebisdagvar maqsimalizacias).
swored aqedan gamomdinareobs prevenciis
mravalfaqtoruli midgomis Sesabamisi stra-
tegisa da samoqmedo gegmis aucilebloba.
SekiTxvebi wakiTxulze refleqsiisaTvis:
_ TiToeuli aRwerili donisaTvis, ra prevenciuli
strategiis dagegmvaa SesaZlebeli?
_ ra mimarTebaSia sajaro skola aRweril doneebTan,
romel doneze SeuZlia prevenciuli muSaobis gaweva?
3.2. adamianuri garemos sxvadasxva doneze moqmedi
riskisa da damcavi faqtorebi
risk-faqtorebis qveS vgulisxmobT im biologiur,
fsiqologiur, socialur, sulier da politikur faqto-
rebs, romlebic adamians mowyvlads, daucvels xdis fsi-
qoaqtiuri saSualebebis avadmoxmarebis TvalsazrisiT.
damcavi faqtorebis qveS, metaforulad rom vTqvaT,
vgulisxmobT, `kapitals~, romelic gaaCnia adamians am
sxvadasxva doneze, viTardeba cxovrebis manZilze, upi-
rispirdeba risk-fatqorebs da garkveulwilad, azRvevs
fsiqoaqtiuri saSualebebis avadmoxmarebisagan.
_ 71 _
qvemoT Cven SevecdebiT biologiur, fsiqologiur, so-
cialur, sulier da politikur doneebze arsebuli kapita-
lisa da riskis faqtorebis analizs. unda aRvniSnoT, rom
analizi xelovnurad acalkevebs am faqtorebs. sinamdvile-
Si isini erTobliobaSi moqmedeben: rigi faqtorebisa siner-
giulia (urTierTgamaZlierebeli) erTmaneTis mimarT, rigi
_ urTierTganmapirobebeli, rigi, piriqiT, urTierTsawi-
naaRmdego da a.S. yovelive es cxovrebaSi maTi urTierTq-
medebisa da urTierTzegavlenis rTul dinamikur sistemas
qmnis. magram, ramdenadac analizi sinamdvilis Semecnebis
erT-erTi efeqturi gzaa, qvemoT Cven SevecdebiT maT erT-
maneTisagan izolirebulad ganxilvas.
3.2.1. biologiuri kapitali biologiuri risk-faqtorebis
winaaRmdeg
biologiur kapitals, yvelaze zogadad rom gan-
vsazRvroT, adamianis janmrTeloba warmoadgens. aq
igulisxmeba janmrTelobis Tandayolili potenciali,
normaluri ganviTareba da cxovrebis
manZilze SeZenili janmrTelobis po-
tenciali. aq SesaZloa CamovTvaloT
gavlenis iseTi faqtorebi, rogori-
caa: jansaRi memkvidreoba, mSoblebis
kargi janmrTelobis mdgomareoba
Casaxvis momentSi, dedis kargi janmr-
Telobis mdgomareoba bavSvis muclad
yofnis periodSi, organizmis ZiriTa-
di sistemebis (gul-sisxl-ZarRvTa,
centraluri nervuli, Sard-sasqeso
da sxv.) jansaRi ganviTareba, normal-
uri mSobiaroba da Semdgomi fsiqo-
fizikuri ganviTareba, cxovrebis istoriaSi Zlieri
travmebis arqona, Zlieri imunuri sistema, nivTierebaTa
normaluri cvla da a.S.
_ 72 _
rac Seexeba wamaldamokidebulebis specifikur bi-
ologiur risk-faqtorebs, mimdinareobs kvlevbi, sadac
cdiloben wamaldamokidebulebis genetikuri, fiziolo-
giuri da neiroendokrinuli markerebis gamovlenas. erT-
mniSvnelovani Sedegebi am mimarTulebiT jerjerobiT
miRweuli ar aris[11, 81, 85, 99].
ar vavnoT
yoveli mocemuli individis SemTxvevaSi sxva-
dasxva donis riskisa da damcavi faqtorebi kom-
pleqsur dinamikur suraTs qmnis, romelic ar iZl-
eva erTmniSvnelovani prognozis gakeTebis saSu-
alebas. kvlevis mixedviT, amgvari prognozi TviT
gamodis damazianebeli faqtoris rolSi mozardis-
aTvis radgan moicavs TviTacxadebadi winaswarme-
tyvelebisa da stigmatizaciis risks[115, 118].
pedagogisaTvis gansakuTrebiT mniSvnelovania bavS-
vis iseTi problemuri mdgomareobebis cnoba, rac misi
mxridan adreul gamovlenasa da Sesabamis reagirebas
saWiroebs. isini xSirad qceviTi da emociuri probleme-
bis saxiT iCens Tavs: uyuradReboba, mousvenroba, hiper-
aqtivoba, agresiuloba, SfoTva, sxvisi uflebebis dar-
Rveva, socialuri normebis daumorCilebloba da a.S. [88,
123, 129]. ar aris gamoricxuli, amgvari qceviTi dar-
Rvevebis miRma met-naklebad gamoxatuli nevrologiuri
komponentis mqone fsiqikuri janmTelobis problemebi
idgas, magaliTad turetes sindromi, yuradRebis defi-
citisa da hiperaqtivobis aSliloba20 da a.S., rac Sesa-
20 Jil de la turetis sindromi: memkvidreobiTi neiro-fsiqiatriuli
daavadeba, Tavs iCens mravlobiTi motoruli (moZraobiTi) da fo-
nuri (xmovani) tikebis saxiT;
yuradRebis deficitisa da hiperaqtivobis aSliloba jerjerobiT
ar aris sakmarisad Seswavlili, dReisaTvis igi bio-fsiqo-social-
ur problemad ganixileba. magram, ramdenadac aSkarad gamokveTi-
li biologiuri komponenti axasiaTebs, Cven mas pirobiTad biolo-
giuri risk-faqtorebisadmi miZRvnil qveTavSi SevexeT.
_ 73 _
bamis specialistTan gadamisamarTebas saWiroebs.
qceviTi darRvevebis mqone bavSvi skolaSi Seuiara-
Rebeli TvaliTac Cans. pedagogebis mxridan igi, Cveu-
lebriv, saklaso oTaxSi situaciis amrevad da amdenad,
`arasasurvel moswavled~ aRiqmeba. aqedan gamomdinare,
pedagogis reaqcia ufro xSirad ara imazea mimarTuli,
Tu rogor daexmaros amgvar bavSvs CaerTos saswavlo
procesSi (e.w. inkluziuri21 midgoma), aramed imaze, Tu
rogor moaxdinos misi `uvnebelyofa~, faqtobrivad _
izolacia, klasis `dacvis~ mizniT. es ki, kvlevebis Tanax-
mad, arc bavSvs rgebs, arc mis Tanatolebs, ramdenadac,
inkluziuri eTikis sawinaaRmdegod, saklaso garemoSi
socialuri gariyvisa da stigma-diskriminaciis atmosf-
eros qmnis[87,130].
mniSvnelovania pedagogs SeeZlos bavSvis problemuri
mdgomareobis amocnoba da marTebuli gadamisamarTeba
Sesabamis specialistTan, raTa mas drouli daxmarebis
gauwion. amave dros, Zalian mniSvnelovania, rom adreuli
gamovlenis Tu gadamisamarTebis procesSi ar moxdes bavS-
vis problemebis sajarod gacxadeba, misi stigmatizacia _
`avadmyofis~ damRis dasma. am SemTxvevaSi hiperaqtivobas,
yuradRebis deficitsa Tu sxva qceviT Tu emociur prob-
lemas sxva socialuri saxis problemebi daemateba, rac
arasasurvelia[115, 118]. es yvelaferi ukve skolis Sida
politikis sakiTxebia, rasac mocemuli wignis meore
nawilSi SevexebiT.
21 Inclusion – inglisuri terminia, sityva-sityviT niSnavs CarTvas; Se-
mosulia humanisturi pedagogikidan da gamoxatavs midgomas _
`skola yvelasaTvis~; es gulisxmobs saskolo garemoSi ama Tu im
fsiqikuri Tu fizikuri disfunqciis mqone bavSvebis gansakuTreb-
uli saWiroebebis gaTvaliswinebas da dakmayofilebas, imisaTvis,
raTa isini srulfasovnad CaerTon saskolo cxovrebaSi (rogorc
saklaso oTaxSi, aseve saTemo saskolo aqtivobebSi). kvlevebis Ta-
naxmad, es sasargebloa rogorc problemebis mqone bavSvebisaTvis,
aseve (da SesaZloa, ufro metadac) maTi TanatolebisaTvis.
_ 74 _
3.2.2. fsiqologiuri kapitali
fsiqologiuri risk-faqtorebis winaaRmdeg
fsiqologiuri kapitalis qveS vgulisxmobT im fsiqo-
logiur potencials, romelic akumulirdeba adamianSi
pirovnuli zrda-ganviTarebis gzaze, sxvadasxva krizi-
sis22 gadalaxvis procesSi. cxovrebaSi adamiani mravali,
sxvadasxva mizeziT gamowveuli krizisis daZlevis amo-
canis winaSe dgeba. magram arsebobs, ase vTqvaT, univer-
saluri krizisebi, romelic, garemoebebis miuxedavad,
yvela adamianis cxovrebaSi, pirovnuli ganviTarebis
gzaze, gardauvalia: e.w. asakobrivi krizisebi.
fsiqologiur mecnierebaSi pirovnebis
ganviTarebis etapebis gansxvavebuli kla-
sifikaciebi arsebobs. qvemoT moyvanil
analizSi Cven ganviTarebis fsiqologiis
klasikosis, erik eriksonis asakobriv peri-
odizacias[60] daveyrdnobiT. aRsaniSnavia,
rom nebismieri asakobrivi periodizacia
erTgvarad pirobiTia, anu qvemoT miTiTe-
buli asakobrivi periodebi, aqseleracias-
Tan dakavSirebiT, SesaZloa met-naklebad
wanacvlebuli iyos, amitom rogorc dogmas
nu miviRebT. amave dros, isini srulfaso-
vnad gviCvenebs ganviTarebis zogad mimar-
Tulebas, etapebsa da kanonzomierebas.
eriksonis mixedviT, adamiani cxovrebis manZilze, da-
badebidan sikvdilamde, ganviTarebis rva periods gadis.
TiToeuli es periodi mis winaSe specifikur amocanebs
ayenebs. Tu adamianma warmatebiT gadaWra konkretuli
asakobrivi periodis ZiriTadi amocanebi _ igi Semdgom
asakobriv periods momzadebuli (Cveni terminologiiT,
garkveuli fsiqologiuri `kapitaliT~) xvdeba. es mas
22 krizisi _ berZnuli warmoSobis sityvaa, niSnavs gardatexas, Semo-
brunebas, gadawyvetilebas, axlis dawyebas.
_ 75 _
xels uwyobs Semdgomi periodisaTvis dasmuli amocanebis
gadaWraSi da Sesabamisad, Semdgomi krizisis daZlevaSi.
yoveli verdaZleuli asakobrivi krizisi adamians mow-
yvlads xdis Semdgomi krizisis daZlevis TvalsazrisiT.
es fsiqologiuri, socialuri Tu sulieri problemebis
(maT Soris, avadmoxmarebis) risk-faqtoria. magram ama Tu
im krizisis verZleva ar aris `ganaCeni~. adreuli asakis
krizisis daZleva cxovrebis Semdgom gzazec SesaZlebe-
lia, rig SemTxvevebSi amas profesiuli (fsiqoTerapiu-
li) daxmareba esaWiroeba. rig SemTxvevebSi _ gonivrul
pedagogiur strategias uaRresad didi daxmarebis gaw-
eva ZaluZs.
pirveli asakobrivi krizisi dabadebidan 18 Tvemde
asakobriv intervalSi xdeba. am periodSi Cvilis winaSe
samyaroSi pirveladi orientaciis amocana dgas da sina-
mdvilisa da sakuTari Tavis mimarT sabazo damokidebu-
leba umuSavdeba. aq mniSvnelovania mSobelma/momvlelma
upirobo pozitiuri yuradReba23[53,54,55] gamoiCinos Cvi-
lis mimarT. Tbili, mzrunveli, daculi urTierTobebis
pozitiuri gamocdileba Cvils samyaros, rogorc sandos,
keTilganwyobilis, imedis momcemis aRqmaSi uwyobs xels
da pirveli asakobrivi krizisic, faqtobrivad, gadala-
xulia. amis sawinaaRmdegod, Tu bavSvi fsiqologiuri
an/da fizikuri ignorirebis, an arahumanuri mopyrobis
obieqtia, igi ver Zlevs kriziss da pasuxad SfoTva, SiSi,
samyaros mimarT undobloba, sakuTari Tavis armimRe-
bloba da uimedoba uCndeba;
meore asakobrivi krizisi 18 Tvidan 3 wlamde asako-
briv intervalSi xdeba. am periodSi bavSvis winaSe dgas
amocana gamoeyos dedasTan erTgvar fsiqologiur sim-
23 huamanistur-egzistencialuri fsiqologiis klasikosis, karl
rojersis mier aRwerili cneba, romelic gulisxmobs erTi ada-
mianis mier meore adamianis mimReblobas, mis mimarT yuradRebas,
keTilganwyobilebasa da dafasebas upirobod _ mxolod imis gamo,
rom is arsebobs da iseTia, rogoric aris.
_ 76 _
biozs (romelSic muclad yofnis periodidan aris CarTu-
li) da SeigrZnos Tavisi, rogorc damoukidebeli subie-
qtis, avtonomiuroba, rac uacilebelia pirovnuli me-s
ganviTarebisaTvis. am dros is mudmivad upirispirdeba
samyaros _ jiutobs, rac exmareba avtonomiurobis gan-
cdis ganviTarebaSi. mniSvnelovania, mSobeli/aRmzrdeli
amas gagebiT Sexvdes da ar aRiqvas, rogorc Tavis sawi-
naaRmdegod mimarTuli, an bavSvis `uzneobiT~ Tu `cudi
xasiaTiT~ gamowveuli qceva. aq mniSvnelovania bavSvSi
damoukideblobisa da TviTmyofadobis waxaliseba, amave
dros, samarTliani da mkafio limitebis (damoukideblo-
bis sazRvrebis) miTiTeba/daweseba. yovelive es exmareba
bavSvs meore asakobrivi periodis Sesabamisi krizisis ga-
dalaxvaSi da safuZvlad edeba pirovnuli me-s Camoyali-
bebas, dadebiTi TviTSefasebisa da nebisyofis Canasaxebis
ganviTarebas. Tu piriqiT, aRmzrdeli hipermzrunvelia
da Warbi zrunviT axSobs avtonomiurobisken swrafvas,
bavSvi ver Zlevs kriziss, mas sakuTar ZalebSi eWvi Seaqvs,
TviTSefaseba ecema, pirovnuli me-s Zala uqveiTdeba;
mesame asakobrivi krizisi 3-dan 6 wlamde asakobriv
periodSi xdeba. aq bavSvis ZiriTadi amocanebia Tavisi-
ve sqesis mSobelTan/aRmzrdelTan identifikacia, oja-
xSi Tavisi funqciisa da rolis aRmoCena. aq mSoblebis
mxridan iniciativebis waxaliseba (isev da isev, limitebis
mkafiod gansazRvra-dawesebis fonze), funqciis miniWeba
ama Tu im martiv saqmianobaSi, Tavisi qceviT dadebiTi
magaliTis _ e.w. roluri modelis micema (socialuri
daswavlisaTvis24) bavSvs exmareba krizisis daZlevaSi,
mSobelTan identifikaciaSi da masSi iniciativianobis,
mizanswrafulobis, socialuri pasuxismgeblobis Canasa-
xebis ganviTarebas uwyobs xels. amis sawinaaRmdegod, Tu
24 socialuri fsiqologiis klasikosis, albert banduras mier Se-
motanili cnebaa, gulisxmobs swavlas garemomcveli adamianebis
qcevidan, maTi qcevebis gadaReba-gaTavisebis gziT[65].
_ 77 _
mSoblebis mxridan Warbi kontrolia, an Tu mSoblebi Ta-
visi qceviT socialurad dadebiT magaliTs ar warmoad-
genen, bavSvi kargavs spontanurobas, mizanswrafulobas,
socialuri daswavlis unars (rac mSobelTan identifi-
kaciis xelisSemSlel faqtors warmoadgens), mas dabneu-
loba, SiSi da braleulobis gancda uviTardeba;
meoTxe asakobrivi krizisi 6-dan 12 wlamde asakobriv
periodSi xdeba. aq bavSvSi samyaros Semecnebis moTxov-
nileba wamyvania, igi codnis miRebisa da am codnis sa-
fuZvelze, samyaroSi Semdgomi orientaciisaTvis sakuTa-
ri Tavis kompetenturad aRqmis amocanis winaSe dgeba.
am asakobrivi periodis gviandeli xana (10-12 weli) fsi-
qoaqtiuri saSualebebis moxmarebasTan dakavSirebuli
riskebis Taobaze informaciis aRqmisaTvis gansakuTre-
biT keTilsaimedoa[29].
am asakobriv periodSi mSoblebTan da skolasa Tu same-
zoblo TemSi TanatolebTan urTierTobis pozitiuri ga-
mocdileba safuZvlad edeba krizisis gadalaxvas. skolaSi,
TanatolebTan Tu Sin miRweuli warmatebebis safuZvelze
bavSvs kompetenturobisa da sakuTari Rirsebis gancda uvi-
Tardeba. Tu, amis sawinaaRmdegod, adgili aqvs mSoblebTan
urTierTobis negatiur gamocdilebas (ignorireba, Warbi
kontroli Tu sxva) da marcxis gancdas TanatolebTan ur-
TierTobaSi, bavSvi ver Zlevs kriziss da pasuxad daCagru-
lobisa da araadeqvaturobis gancdebi uCndeba;
mexuTe asakobriv kriziss 12-dan 19 wlamde asako-
briv periodSi aqvs adgili da cnobilia e.w. gardamavali
asakis saxelwodebiT. aq, mniSvnelovani fsiqo-fiziolo-
giuri (sqesobrivi momwifeba da a.S.) Zvrebis fonze, mo-
zards uCndeba sakuTar TavSi garkvevis amocana: man unda
gasces pasuxi sakvanZo SekiTxvebis mTel rigs _ vin var
me, ra minda am cxovrebaSi?
mozardoba, faqtobrivad, sakuTari Tavis Ziebisa da
eqsperimentirebis xanaa. aq adamiani cdilobs sakuTar Ta-
_ 78 _
vze sxvadasxva socialuri rolis mosinjva-morgebas, raTa
amis safuZvelze sakuTari Tavi hpovos. identobis Zieba
mtkivneuli egzistencialuri procesia (ix. zemoT qveTa-
vi `egzistencialur-humanisturi paradigma~); imisaTvis,
raTa gaigos Tu ras warmoadgens TviTon, mas esaWiroeba
gaarkvios, Tu ras ar warmoadgens. amitom, aq mozardi emi-
jneba mSoblebsa da `zrdasrulTa samyaros~, axorcielebs
e.w. saprotesto reaqciebs, maT Soris, savsebiT SesaZlebe-
lia, fsiqoaqtiuri nivTierebebis moxmarebas.
kvleva
statistikuri monacemebiT, wamaldamoki-
debulebiT daavadebul pirTa ori mesamedi
avadmoxmarebas swored mozardobis asakidan
iwyebs, amdenad es asaki TavisTavad warmoad-
gens risk-faqtors am TvalsazrisiT[4,57,62,7
8,80,96,118,120,127].
mniSvnelovania, rom mSoblebi gagebiT, moTminebiTa
da upirobo pozitiuri yuradRebiT Sexvdnen mozardis
rTul qcevas, raTa erTi mxriv, konfliqti Tavidan aici-
lon da masTan kontaqti ar gawydes; meore mxriv _ rom
taqtianad, mozardis Rirsebis gafrTxilebiT, Tavze mo-
xvevis (zedmeti dawolis) gareSe, daexmaron.
Tu mozardi ipovis pasuxebs am asakobrivi periodis
ZiriTad egzistencialur SekiTxvebze, igi warmatebiT
daZlevs identobis kriziss da moipovebs iseT fsiqolo-
giur resursebs, rogoricaa erTi mxriv, codna imisa, Tu
vin aris da ra unda (ase vTqvaT, me-koncefcia); meore
mxriv _ pirovnuli me-s Zalas, raTa es cxovrebaSi gana-
xorcielos.
Tu mozardi ganicdis Warb SezRudvebs, ignorirebas
an ormag standartebs ojaxis mxridan, Tu mas ara aqvs
daZleuli gasuli asakobrivi periodebis ZiriTadi amo-
_ 79 _
canebi, Tu mis garSemo arakeTilsaimedo Temia (skola
iqneba es Tu samezoblo) _ mas naklebi Sansi aqvs, rom
gadalaxos identobis krizisi, rac mas cxovrebis winaSe
dabneuli adamianis poziciaSi ayenebs: ar icis, Tu vin
aris, ra unda, sad aris misi adgili sazogadoebaSi. am
SemTxvevaSi maRalia narkotikebis avadmoxmarebis riski;
meeqvse asakobrivi krizisi 19-dan 35 wlamde interval-
Si xdeba. aq axalgazrda stabiluri, faseuli socialuri
kavSirebis damyarebisa da Tavisi cxovrebis saqmis amor-
Cevis amocanebis winaSe dgas. Tu gadaWra es amocanebi,
mas uCndeba garemomcvel adamianebTan SekavSirebulobis
gancda, igi dakavebulia saqmiT da uviTardeba siyvaru-
lis unari; Tu igi, warsuli krizisebis gadalaxvaSi mar-
cxis gamo, dabneulia, ara aqvs sakuTari Zalebis rwmena,
an Tavisuflebis dakargvis SiSi aqvs, maSin ver axerxebs
garemomcvel adamianebTan Rirebul emociur urTierTo-
bebSi Sesvlas, ver irCevs saqmes _ ver sZlevs mocemul
kriziss da fsiqologiur izolaciaSi darCenis safrTxis
winaSe dgas. aq maRalia avadmoxmarebis qcevis riski;
meSvide asakobrivi krizisi 35-dan 64 wlamde asako-
briv periodSi xdeba. aq mTavari egzistencialuri amoca-
na sakuTari cxovrebis sazrisis mopovebaa. Tu adamianma
gasuli asakobrivi krizisebi warmatebiT gadalaxa, Svi-
lebze zrunvis, produqtiulad Sromis, sazogadoebriv
cxovrebaSi CarTulobis saSualebiT igi poulobs cxo-
vrebis sazriss. erT-erTi mniSvnelovani fsiqologiuri
resursi, rac am periodSi viTardeba, aris sxvaze zrunva.
amis sapirisiprod, dabneulobasa da egocentrizms mihya-
vs adamiani sakuTari Tavisgan da cxovrebidan gaqcevis
survilamde, rac, faqtobrivad, avadmoxmarebis mniSvne-
lovani winapirobaa;
merve asakobrivi krizisi 65 wlidan sikvdilamde
asakobriv periodSi xdeba. aq adamiani ajamebs ganvlil
cxovrebis gzas da im SemTxvevaSi Tu uCndeba sakuTari
_ 80 _
miRwevebis, rogorc Rirebulis gancda, Tuki mimReblobs
sakuTar Tavs, igi mzadaa sikvdils Rirseulad Sexvdes.
cxovrebis am periodis sakvanZo fsiqologiur SenaZens,
resurss _ sibrZne warmoadgens. Tu adamiani ukmayofi-
loa ganvlili gziTa da sakuTari TaviT _ mas sinanulis
gancda da dabneuloba tanjavs.
pirovnuli
ganviTareba
amgvarad, rom davajamoT, im SemTxveva-
Si, Tu adamiani warmatebiT gadis pirovnuli
ganviTarebis gzas, mas uCndeba iseTi fsiqo-
logiuri kapitali, rogoricaa ndoba saku-
Tari Tavisa da samyaros mimarT, Zlieri me
(romelic realobas uwevs angariSs), dadebi-
Ti TviTSefaseba da sakuTari Rirsebis gan-
cda, iniciativianoba, socialuri interesi da
aqtiuroba, codna imisa, Tu vin aris da ra
unda, da unari imisa, rom es cxovrebaSi ga-
naxorcielos _ pasuxismgeblobis aRebis una-
ri da Sromismoyvareoba; rogorc adamianebis,
aseve saqmis mimarT siyvarulis, erTgulebis,
zrunvis unari; cxovrebis sazrisis mkafio
gancda, sibrZne.
_ 81 _
pirovnuli
ganviTarebis
blokireba
winaaRmdeg amisa, pirovnuli ganvi-
Tarebis Seferxebis SemTxvevaSi, adgi-
li aqvs: sust pirovnul me-s, romelic
realobas arasakmarisad iTvaliswinebs
da romlis energia midis gadaulaxavi
krizisebis gamo aRmocenebuli negatiu-
ri gancdebis _ SfoTva, dabali TviTSe-
faseba, braleuloba, socialuri pasiu-
roba, sakuTar TavSi da cxovrebiseul
faseulobebSi gaurkvevloba da a.S. _
moTokvaSi. es yvelaferi adamians wa-
maldamokidebulebis mimarT fsiqolo-
giurad mowyvlads xdis.
magram, ama Tu im krizisis verdaZleva ar aris gana-
Ceni: adamians gadaulaxavi krizisebis gadalaxva mTeli
cxovrebis manZilze SeuZlia, ZaluZs; garkveul SemTxve-
vebSi mas amaSi adamianuri Tanadgoma esaWiroeba, rig Se-
mTxvevaSi _ profesiuli daxmareba.
3.2.3. socialuri kapitali socialuri risk-faqtorebis
winaaRmdeg
Tanamedrove socialur mecnierebaSi socialuri
kapitalis cneba SedarebiT axlaxans gaCnda da amJa-
mad ukiduresad popularulia. cneba imdenad axalia,
rom saerTaSoriso samecniero wreebSi jer-jerobiT
ar arsebobs SeTanxmeba misi gansazRvrebis Taoba-
ze. mas, ZiriTadad, ori gansxvavebuli mniSvnelobiT
iyeneben[97,125]:
_ 82 _
socialuri kapitali
avtorTa rigi socialuri kapitalis cne-
biT aRniSnavs ama Tu im adamianTa erTobis
(jgufi, Temi da a.S.) socialur SeWidulobas.
anu Tu Temi Sekrulia, faseulobebi mis we-
vrebs Soris gaziarebulia, gamomuSavebulia
saerTo normebi, Tanacxovrebis SeTanxmebuli
wesebi da a.S. _ igi aRWurvilia socialuri
kapitaliT.
sxva avtorebi socialur kapitals ama Tu
im adamianisaTvis Tu socialuri erTobisaTvis
(TemisaTvis, qselisaTvis, organizaciisaTvis,
sazogadoebisaTvis) xelmisawvdomi socialu-
ri resursebis mniSvnelobiT xmaroben.
ukanasknel SemTxvevaSi socialuri resursebis qveS
igulisxmeba iseTi resursebis xelmisawvdomoba, rogori-
caa samedicino, fsiqologiuri Tu socialuri daxmareba
(eqimis, fsiqologis, socialuri muSakis xelmisawvdomo-
ba), samarTlebrivi daxmareba (advokatis instituti), ama
Tu im inovaciebis lobirebis SesaZlebloba (politikuri
kavSirebis Tu sazogadoebrivi aqciebis gziT), ama Tu
im mowyvladi jgufis interesebis dacvis (advokatirebis)
saSualeba da a.S.
socialuri kapitalis cnebas didi potenciali aqvs
avadmoxmarebis qcevis mecnieruli kvlevisa da prevenciis
dagegmvis TvalsazrisiT. Tumca, mocemul TavSi Cven, so-
cialur doneze moqmedi faqtorebis aRweris gasaadvi-
leblad, gavkadnierdebiT da gavafarTovebT mis mniSv-
nelobas. gamoviyenebT mas, erTi mxriv, zemoT aRwerili
orive gansazRvrebis Sesabamisad, ase vTqvaT, am cnebis
mecnieruli gagebiT. meore mxriv, vixmarT ufro farTo
gagebiTac _ socialuri cxovrebis yvela doneze (ojaxi,
TanatolTa wre, skola, sazogadoeba, saxelmwifo) arse-
buli damcavi faqtorebis krebiT saxelwodebad.
_ 83 _
ojaxi
asakobrivi ganviTa-
rebis aRweris procesSi
TvalnaTliv gamoCnda,
rom adamianis fsiqolo-
giuri kapitalis Camoya-
libebas, mniSvnelovanwi-
lad, ojaxi gansazRv-
ravs. ase rom, mocemul
qveTavSi saTqmeli, mra-
vali ram, zemoT ukve iTqva. amitom, aq SevecdebiT mok-
led aRvweroT gavlenis faqtorebi, romlebic moqmedebs
ojaxur doneze.
funqciuri ojaxi
Tu ojaxSi keTilganwyobili, Ria, gulwr-
felobaze, ndobasa da ojaxis wevrebis mier
erTmaneTis Rirsebis gafrTxilebaze damyare-
buli atmosferoa, es mniSvnelovani damcavi
faqtoris rols asrulebs bavSvis ganviTareba-
Si. am mxriv, agreTve, mniSvnelovania, rom oja-
xSi Tanacxovrebis samarTliani, mkafiod gansa-
zRvruli, gaziarebuli wesebi iyos. mniSvnelo-
vania, rom wesebi ara xisti, gaxevebuli, ucv-
leli, aramed moqnili da ganviTarebadi iyos.
amgvar ojaxs funqciurs uwodeben[33,126].
ojaxi, msgavsad pirovnebisa, ganviTarebis garkveul
stadiebs gadis. TiToeuli stadia Sesabamisi krizisis ga-
dalaxvas gulisxmobs. ojaxuri fsiqoTerapiis Tanaxmad,
TviT ojaxis Seqmna ukve krizisia: aq gansxvavebuli oja-
xuri Tu pirovnuli istoriis mqone ori adamiani erTad
iwyebs cxovrebas, rac maTi mxridan urTierTgacnobas,
urTierTmorgebas, erTmaneTis saWiroebebisa da intere-
_ 84 _
sebis dakmayofilebaze zrunvas, samomavlo gegmebsa da
yoveldRiuri rutinis marTvaze SeTanxmebas gulisxmobs.
bavSv(eb)is dabadebac mniSvnelovani krizisia _ aq `duet-
Si~ urTierTobidan col-qmari `trioze~, `kvartetze~ da
a.S. unda gadaewyos da urTierTobis axali wesebi Seimu-
Savos. Svilis mozardobis xanac mTlianad mTeli ojaxis
krizisia, radganac aq Cveuli mozrdili-bavSvi urTier-
Tobis stereotipidan mSoblebi Svilis, rogorc mozar-
dis (da Semdgom periodSi ukve _ zrdasrulis) aRqmaze
unda gadavidnen da a.S.
saqarTveloSi, xSir SemTxvevaSi, ojaxur urTierTo-
bebSi kidev ufro meti faqtori TamaSobs rols e.w. `sru-
li ojaxebis~ (dedamTil-mamamTili Tu sidedr-simamri da
axalgazrda ojaxi) Tanacxovrebis gamo.
ama Tu im krizisis gadalaxvaSi marcxis gamo ojaxi,
SesaZloa, daiSalos, rac bavSvebisaTvis avadmoxmarebis
qcevis risk-faqtoria. an SesaZloa, ar daiSalos, magram
disfunqciur (gadauwyveteli problemebis mqone) ojaxad
iqces, rac, agreTve, SvilisaTvis ama Tu im avadmoxmare-
bis qcevis risk-faqtoria.
mniSvnelovania, Tu ra aRmzrdelobiT strategiebs
axorcielebs ojaxi. mankieri aRmzrdelobiTi strategie-
bi avadmoxmarebis qcevis seriozuli risk-faqtoria:
zemeurveoba
saqarTveloSi xSiria e.w. zemeurveobis, anu
zemzrunvelobiTi aRzrdis strategia. aq, erTi
SexedviT, mSobeli yvelafers akeTebs imisaTvis,
raTa bavSvi daculi iyos, magram sinamdvileSi
Tavisi gadaWarbebuli zrunviT aferxebs Svilis
pirovnebis ganviTarebas da amiT rogorc Svils,
aseve sakuTar Tavs bevr problemas uqmnis.
_ 85 _
ignorireba
da/an uaryofa
zemoT aRwerilis sapirispiroa ignorire-
bis strategiebi, rodesac mSobels ar scalia
SvilisTvis da bavSvi moklebulia pozitiur
yuradRebasa da sasicocxlo orientirebs.
ufro mZimed aris saqme, Tu bavSvi, ama Tu
im mizeziT (vTqvaT, arasasurveli Svilia),
mSoblis agresiis ganmuxtvis obieqti xdeba.
am SemTxvevaSi adgili aqvs ojaxur Zaladobas
_ an fsiqologiurs, an fizikurs, an orive
formas erTad.
aburduli
gorgali
arsebobs e.w. `aburduli gorgalis~ tipis
strategiebi SvilTan urTierTobaSi, sadac ar
aris daculi saTanado distancia mSobelsa da
Svils Soris (magaliTad, deda Svils Tavis ro-
mantikul gancdebs uziarebs `daqaliviT~, an
mama-Svili `qalebSi erTad dadian~).
aRzrdisa Tu urTierTobis strategiebi SesaZloa
orive mSoblis mier erTnairad xorcieldebodes, an Se-
saZloa sxvadasxva kombinacia sxvadasxva ojaxis wevrs
Soris (deda, mama, Tu erTad cxovroben _ maSin agreTve,
bebia-babuebi).
winaaRmde-
gobrivi
SesaZloa adgili hqondes, agreTve, e.w. ur-
TierTgamomricxav aRmzrdelobiT miTiTebebs
(da Sesabamisad, aRzrdis kurss) sxvadasxva
mSoblis mxridan, rac bavSvs abnevs.
_ 86 _
ormagi
dabma
SesaZloa iyos erTi da imave mSoblis mxri-
dan ormagi komunikacia (e.w. ormagi dabma) _ ori
urTierTgamomricxavi uwyebis (`mesijis~) er-
Tdrouli miwodeba, rac bavSvs Sinaganad `xleCs~,
radgan man ar icis, Tu romel uwyebas endos. es
wamaldamokidebulebis ganviTarebis mniSvnelo-
van risk-faqtors warmoadgens[32,34,35,36].
bavSvs dabadebidan gaaCnia e.w. socialuri daswavlis
unari[65], romelic moqmedebs rogorc ojaxSi, aseve ga-
reT. igi swavlobs ara marto sityvieri aRmzrdelobiTi
miTiTebebidan (magaliTad, `icxovre jansaRad~), aramed
garSemomyofTa qcevidan. da, rogorc wesi, bavSvi socia-
lurad ufro mets daiswavlis, vidre sityvieri aRmzr-
delobiTi miTiTebebidan. amitom, ar-mowevis mowodeba
mweveli mSoblisa Tu pedagogis mxridan ar imuSavebs, da
kidev ufro metic _ bavSvis mxridan ormag standartad
iqneba aRqmuli.
gamomdinare zemoT Tqmulidan, mSoblebis mier fsi-
qoaqtiuri saSualebebis arasamedicino mizniT moxmareba
Svilis SemTxvevaSi avadmoxmarebis qcevis risk-faqtors
warmoadgens; amave dros, samecniero gamokvlevebis Ta-
naxmad, Tu mSobeli socialurad degradirebulia wa-
maldamokidebulebis gamo, aman SesaZloa, sapirispirod
imoqmedos da Svili arasodes gaekaros im konkretul ni-
vTierebas, romelmac mSobeli am mdgomareobamde miiyva-
na. aq, rogorc Cans, rols TamaSobs Svilis swrafva ar
daemsgavsos degradirebul mSobels.
TanatolTa wre
rogorc asakobrivi ganviTarebis stadiebidan vnaxeT,
mozardobamde, bavSvisaTvis ZiriTad socialur garemos
ojaxi warmoadgens da socialur gavlenasac is axorcie-
_ 87 _
lebs. gardamavali asakidan izrdeba TanatolTa wris ga-
vlena. es wre mozardisaTvis, faqtobrivad, priorite-
tuli referentuli jgufi xdeba, romelzec is sworebas
akeTebs.
TanatolTa jgufi mozardisaTvis aRiarebis moTxo-
vnilebis dakmayofilebis erT-erTi mniSvnelovani aspa-
rezia. igi miiswrafvis aRiarebisken swored am socialur
jgufSi (miTumetes, Tu manamde ver hpova aRiareba ojax-
Si). amis gamo man, SesaZloa, iseTi qcevac ganaxorcielos,
rac, garkveulwilad, ewinaaRmdegeba mis faseulobebs.
xolo ganxorcielebuli qceva ki, rogorc viciT, aZlie-
rebs mis Sesabamis ganwyobas da Sesabamisad, momavalSi am
qcevis ganxorcielebis albaTobas. amitomaa, rom ama Tu
im problemur (vTqvaT, asocialuri tendenciebis mqone)
jgufSi gaerTianebis Semdeg mSoblebi amboben, rom `ver
cnoben Svils~. igi marTlac icvleba, mas TanatolTa wre
mniSvnelovanwilad ayalibebs. amave dros, samecniero ga-
mokvlevebi migviTiTebs, rom TanatolTa wreSi mozardi
erTiandeba interesTa, faseulobebis, problemebis msga-
vsebis principiT[22,56,68, 77].
rCeva
mSoblisa Tu pedagogis mxridan mozar-
dis `cud wreSi Cavardnis~ prevenciis erT-
erTi mniSvnelovani xerxia misi daxmareba
sazogadoebrivad sasargeblo interesebis
garSemo socialuri jgufebis/qselebis Se-
qmnasa Tu CarTvaSi da am qselebis socialu-
ri kapitalis ganviTarebaze zrunva.
aRmoCnda, rom fsiqoaqtiuri saSualebebis avadmox-
marebis riskis mxriv, gansakuTrebuli mniSvneloba aqvs
iseT faqtors, rogoricaa mozardis mier aRqma imisa,
moixmars Tu ara misi Tanatoli am saSualebebs.
_ 88 _
kvleva
samecniero gamokvlevebis Tanaxmad, Tu
mozards hgonia, rom misi nacnob-megobrebi
moixmaren fsiqoaqtiur saSualebebs arasame-
dicino mizniT, es zrdis mis mier am nivTie-
rebis moxmarebis albaTobas[77,137].
es, SesaZloa, aixsnas e.w. normalizaciis konceptiT.
moxmarebis sayovelTaobis gancda moxmarebis qcevas er-
Tgvar socialur normad xdis adamianis (Cvens SemTxveva-
Si, mozardis) TvalSi: `Tu Cemi nacnob-megobrebis umrav-
lesoba moixmars narkotikul saSualebebs, maSin es nor-
maluri qcevaa da, me ratom unda viyo gamonaklisi...”.
gazviadeba ar
gvargebs
mni Sv nelovania gavacnobieroT, rom
narkotikebis momxmarebelTa da narkoda-
mokidebulTa raodenobis gazviadebulad
warmoCena, rac Cveuli gaxda qarTul me-
dia sivrceSi Tu qarTul sazogadoebaSi
(aq arc profesiuli Temia gamonaklisi),
arc Tu ise uwyinari qcevaa da qarTul
populaciaSi narkotikebis avadmoxmare-
bis risks zrdis.
am mxriv damafiqrebelia samxreT kavkasiis antinarko-
tikuli programis farglebSi daavadebaTa kontrolisa
da sazogadoebrivi janmrTelobis erovnuli centris
mier Catarebuli saskolo gamokiTxvis Sedegebi[66]:
kvleva
gamokiTxul mozardTa 85.9%-ma miuTiTa,
rom maTi megobrebis umravlesoba moixmars
alkohols; 87.4%-ma miuTiTa, rom maTi mego-
brebis umravlesoba moixmars sigarets; 49.1%-
ma miuTiTa, rom TiTqmis yvela maTi nacnob-
megobari moixmars marixuanas.
_ 89 _
es monacemebi, erTi mxriv, SesaZloa iyos imis maCvene-
beli, rom mozardebma ufro advilad aRiares problema,
rodesac ara sakuTari Tavis, aramed megobrebis Sesaxeb
werdnen. sakuTari moxmarebis gamovlenili maCveneblebi,
rogorc zemoT vaCveneT, mniSvnelovnad ufro dabali iyo
(ix. Tavi pirveli). meore mxriv, es monacemebi, SesaZloa,
imis maCvenebeli iyos, rom mozardebi gadaWarbebulad
afaseben megobrebis mier fsiqoaqtiuri saSualebebis mo-
xmarebas, riTic moxmarebis erTgvar normalizacias ax-
denen, rac sakmaod damafiqrebeli risk-faqtoria.
saskolo Temi
saskolo Temis, rogorc riskisa da damcavi faqto-
rebis Semcveli socialuri garemos, aRweraSi Zalian
gvexmareba socialuri kapitalis zemoT moyvanili Tana-
medrove mecnieruli gageba. sakvanZo sakiTxi aq, albaT,
isaa, Tu ramdenad `socialurad mdidaria~ skola, anu ra
socialuri kapitali gaaCnia mas. amis safuZvelze, sko-
lis TviTSefasebisaTvis, Semdegi kiTxvebis Camoyalibeba
SeiZleba:
• ramdenad SeWidulia saskolo Temi:
_ ra deklarirebuli faseulobebi aqvs skolas? ra-
mdenad aris es gaziarebuli saskolo Temis ZiriTadi
subieqtebis mier (moswavleebi, pedkoleqtivi, direqcia,
sameTvalyureo sabWo)?
_ ra faqtobrivi faseulobebi aqvs skolas (faseulo-
bebi, romelic qcevaSi vlindeba)? arsebobs Tu ara maT-
ze ZiriTadi subieqtebis konsensusi? ramdenad emTxveva
deklarirebuli da realuri/faqtobrivi faseulobebi
erTmaneTs?
_ ramdenad aris Camoyalibebuli skolaSi urTierTo-
bisa da Tanaarsebobis mkafio wesebi? Tu aris, ramdenad
emTxveva isini yoveldRiur praqtikaSi gamovlenil (rea-
_ 90 _
lur/faqtobriv) wesebsa da normebs? ramdenad moqnilia
es wesebi da normebi?
_ ramdenad gaziarebulia es wesebi da normebi Ziri-
Tadi saskolo subieqtebis mier (skolis direqcia, same-
Tvalyureo sabWo, pedagogebi, moswavleebi, mSoblebi)?
_ ra meqanizmebi arsebobs am wesebisa da normebis
cxovrebaSi gatarebisaTvis?
_ ramdenad monawileobs am wesebisa da normebis Seqm-
na-evoluciaSi skolis yvela ZiriTadi subieqti?
_ aRzrdis TvalsazrisiT, ra kursi aqvs aRebuli
skolas _ kontrolisa Tu zrunvis?
• ra socialuri resursebi gaaCnia skolas:
_ ramdenad xelmisawvdomia skolisaTvis samedicino,
fsiqologiuri, socialuri servisebi?
_ ramdenad aqvs skolas axali sasargeblo iniciati-
vebis wamoyenebis, lobirebisa da cxovrebaSi danergvis
SesaZlebloba?
_ ramdenad TanamSromlobs skola socialur proble-
mebze (igive fsiqoaqtiuri nivTierebebis avadmoxmareba,
adamianisa da bavSvTa uflebebi, Zaladoba, genderuli
Tanasworoba, eTnikuri umciresobebi, garemos dacva da
a.S.) momuSave organizaciebTan da ramdenad xelmisawvdo-
mia misTvis am organizaciebis servisebi (Sesabamisi tre-
ningebi, konsultireba da sxv.)?
_ ramdenad SeuZlia skolas garkveuli specifikuri
problemebis (vTqvaT, moswavlis hiperaqtivoba) SemTxve-
vaSi marTebulad gadaamisamarTos moswavle, raTa man
drouli profesiuli daxmareba miiRos da saskolo ga-
remoSi cxovrebis xarisxi gaiumjobesos? anu, gaaCnia Tu
ara skolas sxvadasxva problemis SemTxvevaSi referire-
bis (gadamisamarTebis) sistema da TanamSromloba Sesaba-
mis organizaciebTan?
_ ramdenad gaaCnia skolas Sida-sakomunikacio re-
_ 91 _
sursebi (vTqvaT, Sida-saskolo radio), raTa ama Tu im
mniSvnelovan sakiTxze skolis mTlian TemTan awarmoos
komunikacia?
• da kidev ufro specifikuri SekiTxvebi:
_ ramdenad arian informirebuli skolis ZiriTadi
subieqtebi sakvanZo socialuri problemebis (fsiqoa-
qtiuri saSualebebis avadmoxmareba, Zaladoba, genderu-
li Tanasworoba, eTnikuri umciresobebi da a.S.) Taoba-
ze?
_ ramdenad TanamSromloben skolis ZiriTadi subie-
qtebi am problemebis prevenciis saqmeSi erTmaneTTan?
sxva Sesabamis organizaciebTan?
_ ramdenad Rirebulia skolaSi jansaRi cxovrebis
stilis midgoma?
_ Rirebulia deklaraciis doneze, Tu saqmis done-
zec? ramdenad warmoadgenen pedagogebi moswavleebisa-
Tvis rolur modelebs (mibaZvis magaliTs) jansaRi cxo-
vrebis stilis realobaSi gatarebis TvalsazrisiT?
_ gaaCnia Tu ara skolas jansaRi cxovrebis stilsa
da fsiqoaqtiuri saSualebebis avadmoxmarebis Taobaze
gansazRvruli politika?
_ aris Tu ara saskolo TemSi delegirebuli pasuxis-
mgeblobebi am politikis cxovrebaSi gatarebisaTvis?
_ ramdenad SeuZlia skolas socialuri problemebis
prevenciisaTvis moswavleebSi sasicocxlod mniSvnelo-
vani unar-Cvevebis ganviTarebaze zrunva, Sesabamisi pro-
gramebis danergva?
skolis doneze arsebuli socialuri kapitalis `ga-
saRebi~, faqtobrivad, moyvanili SekiTxvebis CamonaTval-
Sia. Tu skolas maTze dadebiTi pasuxebis gacema SeuZlia,
es niSnavs, rom misi socialuri kapitali mniSvnelovani
damcavi Sris rolSi gvevlineba moswavleebis mier fsiqo-
aqtiuri saSualebebis arasamedicino mizniT moxmarebis
prevenciis saqmeSi. da piriqiT _ uaryofiTi pasuxebi am
SekiTxvebze skolis mowyvladobis maCvenebelia da moce-
muli deficitebis aRmofxvris mimarTulebiT muSaobis
gawevas moiTxovs.
sazogadoeba
am doneze mniSvnelovania, Tu ra socialuri kapita-
li axasiaTebs sazogadoebas: ramdenadaa ganviTarebuli
janmrTelobis, adamianis uflebebis dacvis, socialur
uzrunvelyofaze mimarTuli infrastruqtura, samoqala-
qo seqtori, Sesabamisi kavSirebi da socialuri qselebi.
aq gansakuTrebul rols iZens masobrivi informaciis
saSualebebi: isini, erTi mxriv, sazogadoebis erTgvari
`ruporia~; meore mxriv _ sazogadoebrivi azris formi-
rebis Zlieri iaraRi. aqedan gamomdinare, maT didi so-
cialuri pasuxismgebloba akisriaT. gansakuTrebiT mniS-
vnelovania maTi roli socialuri problemebis gamklave-
bis, Cvens SemTxvevaSi _ fsiqoaqtiuri saSualebebis ava-
dmoxmarebis prevenciis saqmeSi. mediis kvalificiuroba
da profesionalizmi problemis daZlevis erT-erTi mniS-
vnelovani damcavi faqtoria.
demokratiul qveyanaSi sazogadoebas, rogorc amomr-
_ 93 _
Cevels, SeuZlia mniSvnelovani wvlili Seitanos ama Tu
im problemis politikur doneze konstruqciuli mogva-
rebis saqmeSi, sakiTxze socialuri dakveTis formulire-
bis gziT. am mxriv Zalian mniSvnelovania, Tu ra priori-
tetebi aqvs sazogadoebas: ra miaCnia faseulad, ramdenad
SeuZlia ama Tu im socialurad mniSvnelovani problemis
mogvarebis saqmeSi adamianis uflebebze, monawileobaze,
problemis gadaWraze (da ara `damnaSavis Ziebaze~) mimar-
Tuli, gamWvirvale (sazogadoebriv monitoringze dafu-
Znebul) strategiebze socialuri dakveTis Camoyalibeba,
maTi iniciireba, lobireba da mxardaWera.
sazogadoebriv doneze moqmed erT-erT uaRresad ga-
vlenian faqtors warmoadgens reklama _ rasac isev da
isev mediis mniSvnelobis gaazrebamde mivyavarT. reklama
axdens gavlenas ara marto sazogadoebriv warmodgene-
bze, aramed mosaxleobis qcevazec.
kvleva
henri saferma, romelmac 1870 _ 1983 wle-
bSi msoflios Cvidmet qveyanaSi alkoholis
reklamirebis gavlena Seiswavla, daadastu-
ra, rom alkoholis grZelvadiani reklama
mniSvnelovan rols TamaSobs mosaxleobaSi
misi moxmarebis normebisa da standartebis
Camoyalibebaze. qveynebSi, sadac SeizRuda
spirtiani sasmelebis reklama, 16%-iT Sem-
cirda alkoholis saerTo moxmareba, xolo
saxmeleTo avariebis ricxvma 11%-iT iklo.
im qveynebSi, sadac spirtian sasmelebTan er-
Tad, ludisa da Rvinis reklamac SeizRuda,
zemoT motanil qveynebTan SedarebiT, alko-
holis saerTo moxmareba 11%-iT Semcirda,
xolo saxmeleTo avariebis statistikam 23%-
iT iklo[124].
_ 94 _
saferis gamokvleva gasuli saukunis meore naxe-
vars miekuTvneba. am da sxva misTana gamokvlevebisa
da problemis mimarT sazogadoebis aqtiuri poziciis
safuZvelze[128,133] dasavleTis samyaroSi momdevno wle-
bSi marTlac Seicvala legaluri fsiqoaqtiuri nivTie-
rebebis reklamirebis politika.
reklamis regulireba evropaSi
alkoholis satelevizio reklama dasavleTis
qveynebSi regulirdeba 1989 wels SemuSavebuli
`televizia sazRvrebs gareSe” direqtivis me-15-e
muxliT, romlis Tanaxmadac:
- alkoholis reklama ar unda mimarTavdes
arasrulwlovans, arasrulwlovani ar unda iyos
misi samizne jgufi;
- is (alkoholis reklama) ar unda akavSirebdes
erTmaneTTan alkoholis moxmarebasa da gaumjo-
besebul fizikur formas, gansakuTrebiT, manqanis
tarebas;
- is ar unda qmnides STabeWdilebas, rom alko-
holis moxmareba iwvevs socialur Tu seqsualur
warmatebas;
- is ar unda qmnides STabeWdilebas, rom alko-
hols aqvs Terapiuli efeqti, rom is an stimula-
tori, an damamSvidebeli, an pirovnuli probleme-
bis gadaWris saSualebaa;
- is ar unda agulianebdes alkoholis Warbad
moxmarebas, ar unda gamoxatavdes uaryofiT da-
mokidebulebas zomieri moxmarebis Tu TavSekave-
bis mimarT;
- is ar unda qmnides STabeWdilebas, rom alko-
holis maRali Semcveloba sasmels ukeTess xdis.
gansakuTrebiT sainteresoa evrokavSirisa da mso-
flio jandacvis organizaciis iniciativa, romelmac
2005 wlidan evropis regionisaTvis alkoholuri poli-
_ 95 _
tikis CarCo miiRo. CarCo 5 eTikur princips efuZneba,
romelTa Soris erT-erTi amgvarad JRers: `yvela bavSv-
sa da mozards aqvs ufleba gaizardos garemoSi, romelic
daculia alkoholis moxmarebis uaryofiTi Sedegebisagan
da, SesaZleblobis farglebSi, alkoholuri sasmelebis
reklamirebisagan”[153].
mniSvnelovania, rom reklamis esoden mZlavri gavle-
na CvenSiac iqnas gamoyenebuli avadmoxmarebis problemis
prevenciis saqmeSi: erTi mxriv, legaluri fsiqoaqtiuri
saSualebebis (Tu avadmoxmarebis sxva asparezis _ maga-
liTad, azartuli TamaSebis) reklamirebis SezRudvis
gziT; meore mxriv _ jansaRi cxovrebis stilis socia-
luri reklamirebis intensifikaciis gziT. es dasavleTis
aRwerili gamocdilebis gaTvaliswinebiTa da reklamis
fsiqologiis codniT unda gakeTdes, raTa sasurveli (da
ara sawinaaRmdego) efeqti gamoiRos.
sazogadoebis damcav faqtorebze saubrisas gverds
ver avuvliT kulturul tradiciebs. magaliTad, alko-
holis mimarT tradiciuli damokidebuleba saukuneebis
manZilze icavda Cveni qveynis mosaxleobas alkoholizmis
problemisagan (ix. Tavi pirveli). Tumca, dReisaTvis, ro-
gorc zemoT aRvwereT, mdgomareoba Seicvala da saWiroa
alkoholis moxmarebis mimarT sazogadoebis damokidebu-
lebis gadaxedva. am gadaxedvis Sesabamisad, unda Seicva-
los alkoholis reklamirebis strategia da masStabi (ix.
zeda abzaci), risi miRwevac mxolod da mxolod am saki-
Txze socialuri dakveTis Camoyalibebis gziT SeiZleba.
reklamirebis strategiis Secvla, Tavis mxriv, alkoho-
lis moxmarebis normebis transformacias Seuwyobs xels,
rac qveynis mosaxleobis janmrTelobis mdgomareobas
gaaumjobesebs da saxmeleTo avariebiT gamowveuli si-
kvdilis statistikas mniSvnelovnad Seamcirebs.
sazogadoebis nebazea damokidebuli, agreTve, azar-
tuli TamaSebis infrastruqturis regulireba _ is ar
_ 96 _
unda iyos advilad xelmisawvdomi mozardebisa da axal-
gazrdebisaTvis. xelmisawvdomobis Semcireba avadmoxma-
rebis qcevis prevenciis TvalsazrisiT erT-erTi mniS-
vnelovani damcavi faqtoria. dReisaTvis saqarTveloSi
jer-jerobiT ar Catarebula kvleva, romelic avadmox-
marebis am formis masStabs Seiswavlida, magram Tbilisis
centralur quCebze saTamaSo dawesebulebebis swrafi
tempiT gamravleba, masobrivi informaciis saSualebe-
biT maTi intensiuri reklamireba da am dawesebulebebSi
axalgazrdaTa Tvalxiluli xalxmravloba, unda vifi-
qroT, savalalo Sedegebs mogvitans. es iseTi problemaa,
romelsac dRes Tu davuxuWeT Tvali, xval janmrTelo-
bisa da socialuri zaralis saxiT dagvibrundeba.
sazogadoebriv risk-faqtorebze msjelobisas ar gvinda
gamogvrCes socialuri travma, rogorc avadmoxmarebis qce-
vebis erT-erTi mniSvnelovani risk-faqtori[16,58,86,109].
Cveni sazogadoeba travmirebuli sazogadoebaa. am travmis
mizezi, erTi mxriv, gasuli saukunis miwuruls, damouki-
deblobis mopovebasTan erTad dawyebuli socialuri, eko-
nomikuri, politikuri krizisi, mosaxleobis cxovrebis
pirobebis myisieri Secvla da daucvelobaa; meore mxriv,
90-ianebSi gadatanili ZmaTa sisxlismRvreli samoqalaqo
omi, eTno-politikuri konfliqtebi, ruseT-saqarTvelos
omi, dakarguli teritoriebi da iqidan gamosaxlebul dev-
nilTa didi populacia.
CamoTvlilis fonze, SeiZleba iTqvas, rom mTeli sa-
qarTvelos mosaxleobaa travmirebuli; magram, am Tval-
sazrisiT gansakuTrebiT mowyvladi, mainc, devnilTa po-
pulaciaa, romelic, erTi mxriv, ukidures siRaribeSia,
xolo meore mxriv _ marginalizebuli. maT, faqtobri-
vad, dakarges sicocxlis manZilze dagrovili socialu-
ri kapitali da misi axlad Seqmnis amocanis winaSe dganan.
bevrma maTganma saomari konfliqtis dros an axlobeli
dakarga, an sicocxlisaTvis saSiSi viTareba gamoiara da
_ 97 _
sazogadoebriv travmas piradi travmebic daemata.
travmirebul adamianebSi, sazogadoebaSi, xSiria tra-
vmasTan gamklavebis mizniT fsiqoaqtiuri saSualebebis
(CvenSi, Tambaqo, alkoholi _ masiurad, kanabisi _ rig Se-
mTxvevebSi) avadmoxmareba. es, garkveul etapze, maT mdgo-
mareobas umsubuqebs. magaliTad, 2008 wlis zafxulSi,
gorSi, agvisto-seqtemberSi, devnilTa droebiTi banakis
erT-erT karavze naxavdiT warweras: `visac daleva unda, aq
Semovides...~. im periodSi, rogorc Cans, amgvari mipatiJeba
da erToblivi sma adamianebs Tavs uyrida, erTmaneTis Wir-
varamis gaziarebis situacias qmnida, daZabulobas uxsnida
da amdenad, exmareboda. magram, miuxedavd imisa, rom amgvar
warweras devnilTa dRevandel, xelovnurad Seqmnil da-
saxlebebSi ver naxavT (is `gansakuTrebuli mdgomareobis~
simbolo iyo), kvlevis Tanaxmad, devnil mamakacebSi dRei-
saTvis maRalia alkoholizaciis done[110].
saxelmwifo
saerTaSoriso gamocdilebis Tanaxmad, fsiqoaqtiuri
saSualebebis moxmarebis risks mniSvnelovnad amcirebs
mosaxleobisaTvis am saSua-
lebebis xelmisawvdomobis Se-
zRudva, rac, Tavis mxriv, am-
cirebs Sesabamis moTxovnas. es
exeba rogorc legalur, aseve
aralegalur fsiqoaqtiur sa-
Sualebebs.
xelmisawvdomoba mowode-
bis saSualebiT regulirdeba.
ekonomikis mecnierebis kanon-
zomierebis Tanaxmad, xelmi-
sawvdomobis Semcirebam, Sesa-
Zloa, ar Secvalos moTxovna
moklevadian perspeqtivaSi (ra-
_ 98 _
mdenadac fsiqoaqtiur saSualebebze moTxovna ar xasia-
Tdeba myisieri elastiurobiT, cvlilebebze swrafi re-
girebiT). magram, grZelvadian perspeqtivaSi is amcirebs
moTxovnas. es xdeba, Tundac, axalgazrdebSi eqsperimen-
tirebis mizniT moxmarebis Semcirebis da, Sesabamisad, na-
rkokarieris dawyebis risk-faqtorebis Semcirebis gziT.
magaliTisaTvis ganvixiloT saxelmwifos mxridan le-
galuri fsiqoaqtiuri saSualebebis xelmisawvdomobis re-
gulaciis ZiriTadi aspeqtebi:
_ finansuri xelmisawvdomoba: kvlevebi adasturebs,
rom rac ufro iafia esa Tu is fsiqoaqtiuri saSualeba,
miT ufro maRalia misi moxmareba qveynis populaciaSi.
amitom, dasavleTis qveynebSi, Tambaqosa Tu alkoholis
avadmoxmarebis erT-erTi prevenciuli strategia maTze
maRali fasebis dawesebaa. aviRoT, magaliTisTvis, siga-
reti: rac ufro dabalia sigaretis fasi, miT metia al-
baToba, rom mas waetanos is bavSvi, mozardi, Tu gnebavT,
mozrdili adamiani, romelsac es, dabali xelmisawvdo-
mobis pirobebSi, azradac ar mouvidoda; da piriqiT: rac
ufro maRalia fasi, miT naklebia albaToba imisa, rom
`SemTxveviTi~ adamiani moixmars mas. garda amisa, rac
ufro maRalia sigaretis fasi, miT met finansur zarals
ganicdis misi momxmarebeli, amitom siZvire, rogorc kv-
levebiT dasturdeba, xSir SemTxvevaSi, Tavis danebebis
erT-erTi mniSvnelovani motivis rols asrulebs;
_ geografiuli xelmisawvdomoba: kvlevebis Tanaxmad,
Tu fsiqoaqtiuri saSualeba `erTi xelis gawvdenis~ man-
Zilze iyideba, metia misi moxmarebis albaToba. amitom,
dasavleTis samyaroSi, prevenciis mizniT, fsiqoaqtiuri
saSualebebis gayidvis geografia mkacri regulirebis sa-
gania: iq ver naxavT skolis ezos siaxloves TiTo Reri
sigaretiT movaWre daxlebsa Tu jixurebs, rac Cveni sko-
lebis moswavleebisaTvis Tambaqos moxmarebis erT-erTi
mniSvnelovani risk-faqtoria; aseve, mTel rig qveynebSi
_ 99 _
SezRudulia alkoholis gayidvis geografiac, araferi
rom vTqvaT saTamaSo biznesze;
_ droSi xelmisawvdomoba: kvlevebis Tanaxmad, Tu
fsiqoaqtiuri saSualebis SeZena droSi SezRuduli ar
aris, es zrdis misi gamoyenebis albaTobas da amdenad,
moxmarebis xelSemwyobi risk-faqtoris rols asrulebs.
swored amis gaTvaliswinebiT, dasavleTis mTel rig qvey-
nebSi alkoholuri sasmelebiT vaWroba garkveul droiT
SezRudvebs eqvemdebareba;
_ asakobrivi xelmisawvdomoba: kvlevebis Tanaxmad,
Tu fsiqoaqtiuri saSualebebis gayidvaze ar aris dawe-
sebuli e.w. `asakobrivi zRurbli~, igi nebismieri asakis
adamians SeuZlia iyidos, rac mniSvnelovanwilad zrdis
misi moxmarebis risk-jgufis masStabs. maSinac ki, rode-
sac asakobrivi zRurbli dawesebulia, Tu mas gamyidveli
formalobad iRebs da realobaSi ar icavs, es savala-
lo Sedegebs iwvevs moxmarebis masStabis gazrdis Tval-
sazrisiT. gavixsenoT, Tundac, zemoT moyvanili TiTo
Reri sigaretis Tu arasrulwlovanTaTvis alkoholis
miyidvis mankieri praqtika.
sainteresoa, Tu rogor aRiqvamen ama Tu im fsiqoa-
qtiuri saSualebis xelmisawvdomobas qarTveli mozarde-
bi. amaSi kvlav dagvxmareba daavadebaTa kontrolisa da
sazogadoebrivi janmrTelobis erovnuli centris mier
mozardebSi Catarebuli gamokvlevis Sedegebi[66]:
kvleva
sigarets, rogorc sakmaod an Zalian advi-
lad xelmisawvdoms (gayidvis adgilebis, drois,
asakis TvalsazrisiT) aRiqvams gamokiTxul mo-
zardTa 60%; luds _ 73.5%, Sampanuris _ 58%,
Rvinos _ 72.5%, spirtian sasmelebs _ 49.4%.
am koteqstSi, wignis pirvel TavSi aRwerili pasu-
xismgeblobiT moxmarebis cnebis analogiurad, gvinda,
_ 100 _
legaluri fsiqoaqtiuri saSualebebisaTvis, SemovitanoT
cneba pasuxismgeblobiT mowodeba, rac niSnavs imas, rom
gamyidveli Tu gnebavT, momwodebeli icavs kanoniT da-
wesebul yvela regulacias ama Tu im legaluri fsiqo-
aqtiuri saSualebis gasaRebis saqmeSi; xolo, Sesabamisi
samarTlebrivi regulaciebi, Tavis mxriv, emyareba samec-
niero mtkicebulebas da efeqturia fsiqoaqtiur saSua-
lebebze moTxovnis SemcirebaSi.
3.2.4. sulierebis kapitali winaaRmdeg sulierebaze moqme-
di risk-faqtorebisa
adamianis sulierebis kapitali gulisxmobs imas, Tu ra-
mdenad iziarebs da gaTavisebuli aqvs adamians zogadsaka-
cobrio faseulobebi, ramdenad atarebs maT cxovrebaSi,
ramdenad moZiebuli da mignebuli aqvs sakuTari cxovrebis
sazrisi[44]. es ar xdeba erTbaSad, an adreul asakSi. Cven ukve
davinaxeT zemoT, asakobriv ganviTarebasTan dakavSirebul
TavSi, Tu rogor TandaTanobiT, nabij-nabij, cxovrebiseu-
li gamowvevebis gadalaxvis, gamocdilebis miRebisa da saku-
Tari Tavis ganxorcielebis procesSi, ugrovdeba adamians
sulierebis kapitali _ cxovrebiseuli sibrZne. manamde ki,
yovel asakobriv periodSi, adamians misi Canasaxebi uCndeba.
magaliTad, 18 Tvis asakSi, Cvilobis krizisis daZlevis sa-
fuZvelze samyaros mimarT gaCenili ndoba, TviT samyaros _
rogorc SesaZleblobebis ganxorcielebis asparezis aRqma,
ukve warmoadgens sibrZnis Canasaxs. pirovnebis ganviTareba,
faqtobrivad, misi sulierebis ganviTarebasac warmoadgens.
sulierebis ganviTareba mWidro kavSirSia adamianis
zneobriv ganviTarebasTan. am mxriv uaRresad saintere-
soa amerikeli fsiqologis, lourens kolbergis pirov-
nebis moraluri ganviTarebis doneebis klasifikacia[103].
kolbergi gamoyofs moraluri ganviTarebis pre-konven-
ciur, konvenciur da post-konvenciur doneebs da Ti-
Toeuli donis Sesabamis safexurebs:
_ 101 _
moraluri ganviTarebis doneebi
pre-konvenciuri done. es done gansakuTrebiT
damaxasiaTebelia bavSvebisaTvis, Tumca mas zrdas-
rulebSic vxvdebiT. ama Tu im saqcielis Sefasebas
aq adamiani am saqcielis uSualo Sedegidan gamomdi-
nare axdens:
pirveli safexuri (sasjelis SiSiT gansazRvru-
li). adamiani emorCileba zneobis normebs im moti-
viT, rom Tavidan aicilos sasjeli;
meore safexuri (sakuTari interesiT gansazR-
vruli). adamiani emorCileba zneobis normebs im
motiviT, rom miiRos garkveuli sargebeli.
konvenciuri done. es done gansakuTrebiT dama-
xasiaTebelia mozardebisaTvis, magram xSiria zrda-
srulebSic. aq adamiani iziarebs da misdevs mis so-
cialur wreSi Tu sazogadoebaSi gamefebul nor-
mebs/wesebs/kanonebs, maTi gansjisa da kritikuli
Sefasebis gareSe:
mesame safexuri (konformizmiT ganpirobebuli).
adamiani iqceva imgvarad, rom sxva adamianebs mo-
ewonos, akeTebs sworebas sxva adamianebis keTil-
ganwyobaze;
meoTxe safexuri (avtoritetiTa da socialu-
ri normebis mimarT morCilebiT ganpirobebuli). aq
adamiani ukritikod emorCileba mis Temsa Tu sazo-
gadoebaSi gamefebul wesebsa da kanonebs.
post-konvenciuri done. aq individi acnobie-
r ebs, rom igi sazogadoebisagan damoukidebeli
subieqtia da amdenad, aqvs ufleba hqondes sazo-
gadoebis aRiarebuli normebisagan gansxvavebuli
xedvebi/principebi da, am principebis Sesabamisad,
ar daemorCilos arsebul wes(eb)s (gavixsenoT, maga-
liTisTvis, vaJa fSavelas aluda qeTelauri):
_ 102 _
lourens kolbegrgis moraluri
ganviTarebis doneebi
mexuTe safexuri (`socialuri kontraqtiT~
gansazRvruli). aq samyaro ganixileba rogorc
diversificirebuli (mravalferovani) _ sxva-
dasxva xedvebis, faseulobebis, SeTanxmebebis
Semcveli; sazogadoebrivi kanonebi da wesebi ga-
nixileba ufro rogorc `socialuri kontraqti~
(SeTanxmeba), vidre rigiduli, ucvleli `zemodan
qvemoT gansazRvruli~ qcevis normebi;
meeqvse safexuri (universaluri eTikuri
principebiT gansazRvruli). am doneze individi
kanonebs ganixilavs universaluri faseulobe-
bis _ magaliTad, sicocxlis, Tavisuflebis, sa-
marTlianobis _ prizmaSi. Tu kanons Seafasebs
rogorc usamarTlos _ maSin mis mimarT urCobis
uflebas aZlevs Tavs, rac mocemuli kanonis Se-
cvlisaTvis qmedebis mastimulirebelia. aq ada-
miani gadawyvetilebas iRebs da moqmedebs ara imi-
tom, rom mas raRacis eSinia (pirveli safexuri), an
anazRaurebas elis (meore safexuri), an cdilobs
sxvisi keTilganwyobileba moipovos da mis mimarT
arsebul molodinebs Seesabamos (mesame safexu-
ri), an kanonmorCili iyos (meoTxe safexuri), an
arsebuli socialuri SeTanxmeba daicvas (mexuTe
safexuri), aramed imitom, rom es sworia univer-
saluri eTikuri principebidan gamomdinare, zo-
gadsakacobrio faseulobebTan mimarTebaSi.
adamianis zneobrivi ganviTareba, erTi SexedviT, Ti-
Tqos pirvelidan meeqvse safexuramde Tanmimdevrul
svlas unda warmoadgendes _ gareSe zneobrivi orienti-
rebis gaSinagnebisa da zogadsakacobrio Rirebulebebis
gaTavisebis gziT. magram realur cxovrebaSi es ase ar
aris. miuxedavad imisa, rom pirveli ori safexuri mar-
Tlac ufro xSirad bavSvebSi gvxvdeba xolme, mainc, Sei-
Zleba iTqvas, rom kolbergis klasifikacia zogadad ada-
_ 103 _
mianebis tipologizaciis instrumentia. igi iZleva ama
Tu im adamianis (ganurCevlad asakisa Tu sqesisa), Temis,
Tu gnebavT, mTlianad sazogadoebis zneobrivi simwifis
xarisxis Sefasebis/gaazrebis saSualebas.
Tu bavSvis/mozardis/axalgazrdis socialur garemos
zneobrivad momwifebuli sazogadoeba warmoadgens, Tu
misi ojaxic agreTve zneobrivi simwifis maRal donezea,
dabolos, rac Cvens SemTxvevaSi gansakuTrebiT mniSvne-
lovania _ Tu skola, romelSiac swavlobs igi da iRzr-
deba, akmayofilebs zneobrivi simwifis moTxovnebs, maSin
mas yvela winapiroba aqvs imisaTvis, rom Tavadac miaRwios
zneobriv simwifes da amgvarad _ aRiWurvos sulierebis
kapitaliT. Tu piriqiT, ojaxSi da/an skolaSi da/an TemSi
da/an sazogadoebaSi sadac arsebobs bavSvi zneobrivi si-
mwifis xarisxi dabalia, es sulierebaze moqmed risk-fqto-
rad unda ganvixiloT. am SemTxvevaSi bavSvis sulierebis
sawyisi kapitali mwiria da mas am TvalsazrisiT daxmareba
esaWiroeba raTa arsebuli deficiti anazRaurdes.
bavSvobasa da mozardobis asakSi adamians mniSvnelo-
vnad exmareba sulieri orientirebis micema, rac yvelaze
advilad, mSoblebisa da pedagogebis paralelurad, re-
ligiasa da moZRvars SeuZlia. aq ara aqvs mniSvneloba,
Tu romel religiur mrwamss iziarebs adamiani, yoveli
religia (Tu is ar Cavarda uzneo pirTa, fanatikosebis,
fundamentalistebisa da/an inkvizitorebis xelSi), zoga-
dsakacobrio humanistur faseulobebs efuZneba.
3.2.5. politikuri kapitali politikur doneze moqmedi
risk-faqtorebis winaaRmdeg
fsiqoaqtiuri saSualebebis avadmoxmarebis Tvalsazri-
siT, politikuri kapitalis qveS vgulisxmobT saxelmwi-
foSi am problemis daZlevis politikur nebas. amis sawi-
naaRmdegod, amave doneze moqmedi sakvanZo risk-faqtori
swored problemis daZlevis politikuri nebis arqonaa.
_ 104 _
politikuri neba uzrunvelyofs efeqtur saxelmwi-
fo strategias problemis daZlevis saqmeSi, dafuZne-
buls samarTlian, efeqtur da moqnil kanonmdeblobaze,
am strategiis Sesabamis erovnul samoqmedo gegmas, masSi
qveynis sakvanZo uwyebebis (ganaTlebis, jandacvis, kultu-
risa da sportis, Sinagan saqmeTa saministroebis) CarTu-
lobasa da koordinacias, gegmis Sesabamisi RonisZiebebis
dafinansebas[64,72,91,108,139]. saqarTvelo dReisaTvis swo-
red am sistemis awyobis procesSia. xolo rogoria sistemis
ZiriTadi komponentebi, amas Semdgom TavSi gagacnobT.
SekiTxvebi wakiTxulze refleqsiisaTvis:
- ra doneebze SeuZlia skolas izrunos saskolo gare-
moSi risk-faqtorebis Semcirebaze? romel doneze ra SeiZ-
leba gakeTdes am TvalsazrisiT?
- rogor SeuZlia skolas izrunos saskolo garemoSi
damcavi faqtorebis Seqmna-gaZlierebaze? romel doneze
ra SeiZleba gakeTdes am TvalsazrisiT?
- gTavazobT, rom asakobrivi ganviTarebis etapebis
WrilSi gaiazroT Tqveni romelime moswavle, romelsac
ukve wlebis manZilze aswavliT: ganviTarebis romel faza-
Sia igi amJamad, SeamCnieT Tu ara erTi fazidan meoreSi misi
gadasvla? konkretulad, ra Seicvala masSi? ra SegiZliaT
gaakeToT, rom amJamindeli asakobrivi fazis ZiriTadi amo-
canebis gadawyvetaSi SeuwyoT xeli?
- rodis unda daiwyos fsiqoaqtiuri saSualebebis ava-
dmoxmarebis prevencia skolaSi (ganvixiloT periodi pir-
veli klasidan skolis damTavrebamde)? ra etapze rogori
amocanebi SeiZleba daisaxos?
- zneobrivi ganviTarebis romel safexurzea (kolber-
gis klasifikaciis mixedviT) Tqveni skola? sazogadoeba?
- rogoria Tqveni skolis socialuri kapitali? ro-
gori gindaT, rom iyos: konkretulad, ra gindaT rom iyos
ukeTesad da rogor SeiZleba amis miRweva?
_ 105 _
4. Tavi meoTxe. fsiqoaqtiuri saSualebebis
avadmoxmarebis problemis
daZlevis strategiebi
mocemul TavSi ganxilulia fsiqoaqtiuri saSualebebis ava-
dmoxmarebis problemis ori ZiriTadi Semadgeneli: mowodeba da
moTxovna; aRwerilia mowodebasa da moTxovnis Semcirebaze mi-
marTuli strategiebi; naCvenebia, rom calke aRebuli, verc erTi
strategia ver iqneba efeqturi, rom saWiroa maTi erTiani, daba-
lansebuli, koordinirebuli ganxorcieleba.
4.1. mowodeba da moTxovna _ problemis ori sakvanZo
aspeqti
xSirad, sazogadoebaSi narkomaniis problemaze msje-
lobisas, midis xolme erTgvari `Sejibri~ da pasuxismge-
blobis ama Tu im uwyebisaTvis calmxrivad dakisrebis ten-
dencia. magaliTad, xSirad gavigonebT, rom `narkomaniis
problemasTan brZola policiis saqmea~. an rom `narko-
maniis prevencia jandacvis saministros prerogativaa~.
samwuxarod, sakmaod iSviaTad gaismis, rom es ganaTlebis
saministros, umaRlesi saswavleblebisa da sajaro sko-
lebis saqmea _ rogorc Cans, dReisaTvis Cvens sazogado-
ebaSi jerovnad ar aris Sefasebuli, zogadad, ganaTlebis
sistemisa da kerZod, skolis roli wamaldamokidebule-
bis prevenciis saqmeSi. problemis gadaWris marTebuli
midgoma yvela am msjelobis gaerTianebas moiTxovs _ na-
rkomaniis problemis daZleva mravaluwyebriv, sistemur,
mTlianobiT, koordinirebul strategias saWiroebs.
jer kidev xSirad gaismis diskusiebSi, satelevizio
Tu radio eTeridan ybadaRebuli dilema: `narkomania da-
naSaulia Tu daavadeba?~ es sakiTxis araswori dayenebaa
da amdenad, xels uSlis problemis mogvarebas. problemis
gadaWris mniSvnelovan winapirobas xom swored kiTxvebis
_ 106 _
marTebulad formulireba, sakiTxis marTebulad dasma
warmoadgens.
eWvs gareSea, rom, damokidebulebis sindromi (anu na-
rkomania), daavadebaa _ is Setanilia daavadebaTa saerTa-
Soriso klasifikaciaTa saTanado dokumentebSi, gaaCnia
rigiTi nomeri, sindromis axsna da aRwera da a.S. amas-
ve miuTiTebs qarTuli narkokanonmdebloba, romelSic
2002 wlidan dafiqsirda, rom narkomania aris qronikuli
daavadeba[152].
rac Seexeba narkomaniis, rogorc danaSaulis aRqmas,
esec mcdaria _ wamaldamokidebuleba, romlis safuZvel-
sac fsiqoaqtiuri saSualebebis miRebis paTologiuri
ltolva warmoadgens, rogorc aseTi, danaSauli ar aris.
amave dros, Tu adamiani aralegalur, saxelmwifos
mier kontrols daqvemdebarebul narkotikul saSualebas
moixmars, igi nebsiT Tu uneblieT erTveba narkotikebis
aralegaluri mimoqcevis saqmeSi (yidvisas, Senaxvisas da
a.S.), rac samarTlebriv pasuxismgeblobas eqvemdebareba.
narkotikebis avadmoxmarebis problema rom mraval-
uwyebriv TanamSromlobas moiTxovs, iqidanac Cans, rom
igi, rogorc problema, Cndeba iq, sadac arsebobs narko-
tikebis mowodeba da sadac aris moTxovna narkotikebze.
narkotikebis mowodebaze roca vsaubrobT, Tavisu-
flad SegviZlia vifiqroT legalur narkotikul saSu-
alebebze _ magaliTad, alkoholsa Tu Tambaqoze, qvey-
nis bazarze maTi mowodebis kanonzomierebebis analizze.
Tumca, rogorc wesi, rodesac narkotikebis mowodebaze
saubroben, gulisxmoben, faqtobrivad, aralegalur na-
rkotikebs, kerZod, maT ukanono Semotanas, gasaRebis mi-
zniT Senaxvas, gasaRebas, moyvanas (kultivirebas), vaWro-
bas. Cvenc mocemuli mniSvnelobiT gamoviyenebT teqstSi
am cnebas. aqedan gamomdinare, mowodebis makontrolire-
beli, udavod, samarTaldamcavi uwyebebia.
narkotikebze moTxovnis qveS igulisxmeba ama Tu im
_ 107 _
narkotikis SeZenis (da Sesabamisad, moxmarebis) mzaoba sa-
zogadoebaSi Tu mis garkveul jgufebSi.
mowodebisa da moTxovnis Semcirebis strategiebi
sainteresoa ekonomisti gregori menqius[12] ana-
lizi, romlis safuZvelzec SeiZleba iseTi daskvna
gamovitanoT, rom moTxovnis Semcirebaze mimarTu-
li strategiebi ufro mdgrad rezultats iZleva,
vidre mowodebis Semcirebaze:
mowodebis SezRudvis (vTqvaT, narkotikuli sa-
Sualebebis qveyanaSi Semodinebis Semcirebis) Se-
mTxvevaSi, moklevadian perspeqtivaSi, narkotike-
bze moTxovnis ucvlelobis pirobebSi, SeZenili
narkotikuli saSualebebis raodenoba ar iklebs.
es, momatebuli fasebis fonze, zrdis momxmarebel-
Ta mier narkotikebis SeZenaSi gadaxdil Tanxas da
Sesabamisad, maRali albaTobiT, kriminalur qmede-
baTa statistikas. amave dros, grZelvadian perspe-
qtivaSi, eqsperimentuli moxmarebis klebis xarjze,
mowodebis SezRudvam SesaZloa Seamciros moTxov-
nis masStabic. Tumca, aseve grZelvadian perspeqti-
vaSi, yovelTvis gamoinaxeba mowodebis alterna-
tiuli gzebi, raTa SezRudvis kompensireba moxdes
da mowodeba kvlav gaizardos, rac, Tavis mxriv,
moTxovnis zrdis pirobebs Seqmnis;
winaaRmdeg amisa, Tu mcirdeba moTxovna (vTqvaT,
saganmanaTleblo programebis saSualebiT), iklebs
narkotikebis moxmareba da dabla ecema fasebi. es
amcirebs momxmarebelTa mier narkotikebis SeZena-
Si gadaxdil mTlian Tanxas da, Sesabamisad, narko-
tikebis SesaZenad saWiro fulis mopovebis mizniT
kriminalur aqtivobasac. es, TavisTavad, cvlis (am-
cirebs) mowodebas da amdenad, uzrunvelyofs gr-
Zelvadian rezultats.
_ 108 _
ukanaskneli msjelobisaTvis igive argumentis dapi-
rispireba SegviZlia, rasac TviT batoni menqiu mowodebis
SemTxvevaSi gvTavazobs: grZelvadian perspeqtivaSi, mo-
Txovnac transformirdeba, iRebs alternatiul formebs,
izrdeba, da Sesabamisad, mowodebis zrdis pirobebs qmnis.
aqedan gamomdinare, moTxovnisa da mowodebis Semcireba-
ze muSaoba erTiani strategiis ori ZiriTadi aspeqtia, arc
maTi dacalkeveba SeiZleba, arc `erTmaneTTan gajibreba”.
gvinda xazi gavusvaT, rom moTxovnis Semcirebaze mi-
marTuli RonisZiebebis jerovnad ar Sefaseba da narko-
maniis problemis, ZiriTadad, Zalovani RonisZiebebiT ga-
mklavebis mcdeloba (rasac wlebis manZilze adgili aqvs
Cvens qveyanaSi da, rac sabWoTa memkvidreobis inerciad
SeiZleba CavTvaloT), faqtobrivad, xelidan gvaclis
problemasTan gamklavebis efeqtur iaraRs.
daskvnis saxiT SeiZleba Semdegi iTqvas:
moTxovna/
mowodebis
cikli
bazris kanonebis Tanaxmad, moTxo-
vna da mowodeba erTian cikls war-
moadgens. narkotikebis SemTxvevaSi
es cikli narkotikuli saSualebebis
ukanono brunvis mankier wreSi ikvre-
ba, romlis garRvevac dabalansebul
strategias saWiroebs.
SekiTxvebi wakiTxulze refleqsiisaTvis:
_ rogor aisaxeba fsiqoaqtiuri saSualebebis mowode-
bis problema Tqvens skolaze?
_ ra situaciaa Tqvens skolaSi sxvadasxva fsiqoaqtiur
saSualeabze moTxovnis TvalsazrisiT?
_ ra strategiis dasaxvaa SesaZlebeli Tqvens skolaSi
fsiqoaqtiur saSualebebze moTxovnis Sesamcireblad?
_ 109 _
4.2. mowodebisa da moTxovnis Semcirebis strategiebi
wamaldamokidebulebis problemis daZlevis strate-
giebi mis orive aspeqts unda pasuxobdes: mimarTuli iyos
rogorc mowodebis,
aseve moTxovnis Semci-
rebaze. ufro metic _
strategia am ori mi-
marTulebiT muSaobis
TvalsazrisiT daba-
lansebuli, Tanabrad
ganviTarebuli unda
iyos, mxolod maSin iq-
neba is efeqturi (da
ara calmxrivi).
narkotikebis mowodebis Semcirebis strategiebi
aq, ZiriTadad, igulisxmeba Zalovani struqturebis
moRvaweoba narkotikebis ukanono brunvis aRkveTis mimar-
TulebiT. am mxriv, Zalian mniSvnelovania qveynis Zalovani
resursebi efeqturad umklavdebodnen brZolas narko-
trafikis winaaRmdeg, akontrolebdnen da maqsimalurad
zRudavdnen narkotikuli nivTierebebis ukanono Semota-
nas, gadazidvas, moSenebas, gasaRebas. mniSvnelovania, agre-
Tve narkotikuli nivTierebebis amoRebac, rac ara marto
am nivTierebebis gavrcelebis winaaRmdeg mimarTuli Ro-
nisZiebaa, aramed, aseve, informacias iZleva qveyanaSi na-
rkotikebis moxmarebis masStabisa da saxeebis Sesaxeb, rac
Tavis mxriv, moTxovnisa da zianis Semcirebaze mimarTuli
RonisZiebebis gonivrulad dagegmvas Seuwyobs xels. Tu
mowodebis sapasuxod mimdinare RonisZiebebi efeqturad
tardeba qveyanaSi, es, bazris kanonebis Tanaxmad, Sesabami-
sad amcirebs narkotikul saSualebebze moTxovnasac.
aralegaluri narkotikuli saSualebebis paralelu-
_ 110 _
rad, saxelmwifoSi mniSvnelovania saTanado yuradReba
eTmobodes legaluri narkotikuli saSualebebis (Tamba-
qo, alkoholi), Tu fsiqotropuli medikamentebis mowo-
debis regulacias. es, ukve, ara Zalovani struqturebis,
aramed, ZiriTadad, Sesabamisi saministroebis da qveynis
sakanonmdeblo organos saqmea. aq unda Sefasdes qvey-
nis Sesabamisi kanonmdebloba, magaliTad, Tambaqosa da
alkoholis avadmoxmarebasTan dakavSirebuli riskebis
TvalsazrisiT, da mxolod amis safuZvelze iqnas SemuSa-
vebuli mowodebis iseTi reJimi, romelic maqsimalurad
Seamcirebs maTi moxmarebiT gamowveul potenciur zians.
aranakleb mniSvnelovania azartuli TamaSebis `mowode-
bis~ (infrastruqtura, reklama da a.S.) daregulireba,
raTa Semcirdes misi xelmisawvdomoba, sul cota, bavS-
vebisa da mozardebisTvis mainc.
narkotikebze moTxovnis Semcirebis strategiebi
a. pirveladi anu universaluri prevencia25
narkotikebis pirveladi prevencia gulisxmobs im Ro-
nisZiebebs, romelsac unda axorcielebdes ojaxi, gana-
Tlebis sistema/skola, Temi, imisaTvis, rom bavSvma/mozar-
dma ar gasinjos narkotikuli saSualebebi, an, gasinjvis
(eqsperimentuli moxmarebis) SemTxvevaSi, ar ganagrZos
maTi moxmareba.
ojaxSi amis miRweva SesaZlebelia bavSvSi sakuTari
Rirsebis grZnobis, zogadsakacobrio faseulobebis ga-
Sinagnebis, moraluri ganviTarebis xelSewyobis, pasu-
xismgeblobis aRebis unaris ganviTarebiT, Tavisufali
drois Sinaarsiani Sevsebisa da jansaRi da moqalaqeo-
brivi cxovrebis wesis damkvidrebiT.
skolaSi amis miRweva SesaZlebelia, erTi mxriv, swo-
25 prevenciis sxva formebs ganvmartavT wignis meore nawilis Sesa-
bamis TavSi.
_ 111 _
ri antinarkotikuli saskolo politikis SemuSavebiT,
meore mxriv, cxovrebis jansaRi stilis damkvidrebiTa
da Sesabamisi programebis danergviT. cxovrebiseulad
mniSvnelovani unar-Cvevebis swavlebis programebma pir-
veladi prevenciis saqmeSi gansakuTrebuli efeqturoba
daadastures.
TemSi pirveladi prevenciis gatareba SesaZlebelia
jansaRi cxovrebis stilis keTili nebis damkvidrebiTa
da Sesabamisi saTemo infrastruqturis (saganmanaTle-
blo, kulturuli, sportuli da sxv.) ganviTarebiT.
b. mkurnaloba da fsiqo-socialuri reabilitacia
wamaldamokidebulebis mkurnaloba daavadebulze
zrunvis uwyvet jaWvs unda warmoadgendes.
mkurnalobis jaWvis sawyisi, nulovani rgoli fizi-
kuri damokidebulebis moxsnas gulisxmobs. es xdeba de-
toqsikaciuri TerapiiT (yofiTad, `sisxlis gawmendiT~);
aseve, organizmis sasicocxlod mniSvnelovani sistemebis
(centraluri nervuli sistema, gulsisxlZarRvTa siste-
ma, saWmlis momnelebeli sistema da a.S.) normaluri fun-
qcionirebis aRdgenaze mimarTuli mkurnalobis gziT.
mkurnalobis Sualeduri rgoli fsiqoTerapias gu-
lisxmobs, rac exmareba wamaldamokidebul pirs fsiqo-
logiuri damokidebulebis gadalaxvaSi, paTologiuri
ltolvis daZlevaSi, egzistencialuri vakuumis gadala-
xvaSi, sakuTari Tavis monaxvasa da gaZlierebaSi.
mkurnalobis saboloo rgoli fsiqo-socialuri rea-
bilitacias gulisxmobs. es narkotikul saSualebebze da-
mokidebul pirTa samedicino da/Tu fsiqologiuri mkur-
nalobis fonze maTTan socialur muSaobas (samarTlebrivi
problemebis daZlevaSi daxmareba, dasaqmebis xelSewyoba
da a.S.), sazogadoebriv cxovrebaSi maTi reintegraciis
mimarTulebiT, recidivis Tavidan acilebis (e.w. reci-
divis prevencia[111]) mizniT. reabilitaciis saqmeSi efe-
_ 112 _
qturia Terapiuli komunis formati, sadac gamojanmrTe-
lebis gzaze mdgomi pacientebi cxovroben Tavisi Cveuli
garemodan izolirebulad, rogorc Temi, romelic maT
gajansaRebasa da resocializaciaze mimarTuli wesebiT
xelmZRvanelobs. aq Zalian mniSvnelovani xdeba, agreTve,
sulierebis ganzomilebaze muSaoba, eklesiis daxmarebiT.
mkurnalobasTan dakavSirebiT, sazogadoebis mxridan
xSirad gaismis pesimisturi msjeloba, imis xazgasma, rom
wamaldamokidebuleba `uimedo senia~, rom mis mkurnalo-
bas azri ara aqvs da a.S. es kidev erTi miTia wamalda-
mokidebulebis Sesaxeb, romelic unda daiZlios Cvens
sazogadoebriv cnobierebaSi. wamaldamokidebuleba erT-
erTi qronikuli daavadebaa da Sesabamisad, mas axasia-
Tebs recidivebis (gamwvaveba) da reemisiebis (naTeli pe-
riodi) monacvleoba, iseve, rogorc nebismier qronikul
daavadebas. magram, wamaldamokidebulebis mkurnaloba
efeqturia, muSaobs.
mkurnaloba
wamaldamokidebulebis mkurnalobis mizania
recidivis sixSirisa da xangrZlivobis Semcire-
ba, remisiis miRweva da gaxangrZliveba, remisiis
dros cxovrebis xarisxis gaumjobeseba[7,20] _
rac recidivis Tavidan acilebisaTvis erT-er-
Ti mniSvnelovani dacviTi faqtoria. garkveul
SemTxvevebSi, remisia imdenad mtkicea, rom
mTeli sicocxlis manZilze grZeldeba.
g. zianis Semcireba
narkotikuli saSualebebis arasamedicino mizniT
momxmarebelTa im kategoriisaTvis, romelic maT Tavs ver
anebebs, Seqmnilia specialuri programebi, mimarTuli na-
rkotikebis moxmarebiT gamowveuli zianis (magaliTad, aiv/
Sidsisa da hepatitebis gavrcelebis) Semcirebaze. zogier-
_ 113 _
Ti avtori zianis Semcirebas mowodebisa da moTxovnis Se-
mcirebis Tanafard, calkeul kategoriad gamoyofs. Cven
zianis Semcirebas, pirobiTad, moTxovnis Semcirebis erT-
erT mimarTulebad ganvixilavT, ramdenadac gvwams, rom
profesiulad warmarTuli zianis Semcirebis RonisZiebebs
wvlili SeaqvT moTxovnis SemcirebaSi.
zianis Semcireba
zianis Semcirebis RonisZiebebi gulisxmobs Se-
mdeg mimarTulebebs:
_ e.w. Spricebis gacvlis programebi, rac na-
rkomaniiT daavadebulTa Soris saineqcio xelsa-
wyoebis ufaso darigebas da maTgan naxmari Sprice-
bis agroveba-ganadgurebas gulisxmobs;
_ aiv-sa Tu hepatitebze nebayoflobiTi testire-
ba-konsultireba, dainficirebis SemTxvevaSi drouli
gamovlenisa da daxmarebis mizniT, xolo daavadebis
arqonis SemTxvevaSi _ virusis gadacemis Tvalsazri-
siT sarisko qcevebis ganxorcielebis albaTobis Sem-
cirebisa da Sesabamisad, prevenciis mizniT;
_ CanacvlebiTi Terapia, magaliTad, meTadonis
programa, romlis pacientebs regularulad aZle-
ven preparat meTadons, individualurad SerCeu-
li im saxiT, rac ar iwvevs narkotikul Trobas da
amave dros, icavs maT aRkveTis sindromis (lomkis)
ganviTarebisagan. es adamians aZlevs simbolur `ya-
varjens~, romelic exmareba damokidebulebisagan
ganTavisuflebaSi. meTadoniT miRweuli sifxizle
adamianma sakuTari cxovrebis wesis konstruqciu-
li cvlilebisaTvis unda gamoiyenos.
d. `Tavsatexis gamTlianeba~ _ sistemuri midgoma
yvela zemoT aRwerili midgoma muSaobs da efeqturia
mxolod kompleqsSi; mowodebisa da moTxovnis Semcire-
bis strategiebTan mimarTebaSi Cven dasawyisSive vaxseneT
maT Soris balansis aucilebloba [146]:
_ 114 _
sistemuri midgoma
calke aRebul arc erT mimarTulebas ar Zalu-
Zs qveyanaSi narkoviTarebis gaumjobeseba. isini ar
arian erTmaneTis mimarT konkurentul damokidebu-
lebaSi: yoveli mimarTuleba iZens mniSvnelobasa da
Rirebulebas danarCenebTan erTobliobaSi.
_ zianis Semcirebis programebis efeqti TiTqmis
myisieria[6]: maTi efeqturi ganxorcielebis SemTxve-
vaSi iklebs zedozirebiT gardacvlil pirTa raode-
noba, wamaldamokidebul pirTa kriminaluri aqtivoba,
infeqciuri daavadebebis statistika da a.S.;
_ mkurnaloba-reabilitacias 3-5-wliani perspeqti-
va esaWiroeba[6], raTa wamaldamokidebuli adamianebis
janmrTelobis TvalsazrisiT situacia gaumjobesdes;
_ magram, rogorc zianis Semcirebis, aseve mkurna-
loba-reabilitaciis programebi, maqsimalurad efe-
qturi ganxorcielebis SemTxvevaSic ki, Tvisobrivad
ver Secvlian narkoviTarebas, Tu paralelurad pre-
venciuli samuSaoebi ar Catarda da ai, ratom:
_ pirveladi prevenciis programebs, Cveulebriv,
drois 10-wliani perspeqtiva esaWiroebaT, rom maTSi
gavlili axalgazrdebis keTildReobis rezultatebi
Tvalxili gaxdes[6]. magram, amave dros, Tu am pirvela-
di prevenciis programebis ganxorcieleba 10 wlis win,
zianis Semcirebisa da mkurnaloba-reabilitaciis stra-
tegiuli xazebis paralelurad ar daiwyo, sul meti da
meti adamiani iqneba CasarTveli zianis Semcirebisa da
samkurnalo-sareabilitacio programebSi da maTi moq-
medeba, faqtobrivad, sizifes uqm Sromas daemsgavseba.
amitom, rogorc Tavidanve aRvniSneT, prevenciis, mkur-
naloba-reabilitaciis, zianis Semcirebis sazrisi mxolod
maT tandemSia da ara calke aRebul TiToeul maTganSi.
SekiTxvebi wakiTxulze refleqsiisaTvis:
_ rogor unda daigegmos strategiebi, rom maT urTier-
gamaZliereblad imoqmedon?
_ moTxovnis Semcirebaze mimarTuli romeli strate-
giis ganxorcieleba SeiZleba sajaro skolaSi?
_ 115 _
nawili meore
fsiqoaqtiuri nivTierebebis avadmoxmarebis
prevenciis marTva sajaro skolaSi
saxelmZRvanelos meore nawilSi gadmocemulia
sajaro skolaSi fsiqoaqtiuri saSualebebis
avadmoxmarebis prevenciis ganxorcielebisa da
marTvisaTvis aucilebeli informacia; daxasia-
Tebulia avadmoxmarebis sakiTxze skolis Sida
politika, rogorc marTvis `samuSao iaraRi~;
gamaxvilebulia yuradReba imaze, Tu konkretu-
lad ra SeuZlia gaakeTos skolam am mimarTule-
biT, raTa problemis winaSe maqsimalurad dacu-
li iyos.
_ 116 _
5. Tavi mexuTe. prevencia, prevenciuli
samizneebi da amocanebi
mocemul TavSi gansazRvrulia prevenciis raoba, daxasiaTe-
bulia prevenciuli muSaobis sxvadasxva done; ganxilulia sko-
laSi pirveladi da meoreuli prevenciis miznobrivi jgufebi,
samizneebi da Sesabamisi amocanebi; naCvenebia, rom prevenciuli
muSaoba unda tardebodes kompleqsurad, yvela miznobrivi jgu-
fisa da samiznes gaTvaliswinebiT.
5.1. prevenciis raoba da saxeebi
prevencia sityva-sityviT problemis Tavidan acile-
bas niSnavs. igi inglisuri sityvidan _ `prevention~ modis
da farTod gamoiyeneba Sesabamis dasavlur literatu-
raSi. saqarTveloSi, narkotikebis avadmoxmarebis pro-
blemis Tavidan acilebis konteqstSi, am sityvis xmareba
2000-iani wlebidan daiwyo, rogorc wamaldamokidebule-
bis problemis movlis saqmeSi dasavluri midgomebis (da
Sesabamisi enis) gaziarebis simbolo. 90-ianebSi sabWoTa
sivrceSi ufro `fexmokidebuli~ termini _ profila-
qtika ixmareboda, aseve Tavidan acilebis mniSvnelobiT.
Tumca, problemis Tavidan acilebas, ZiriTadad, Zalovan
RonisZiebebSi, da kerZod, narkologiuri Trobis Semow-
mebaSi (eqsperti-
zaSi) xedavdnen.
niSandob-
li via, rom ga-
su li saukunis
90-iani wlebi-
dan 2005 wlam-
de, narkoma niis
pro fi laqtikis
sa xlemwifo pro-
gramis Zi riTadi
biujeti swored
_ 117 _
narkologiuri eqs pertizis samsaxurs xmardeboda, imis
fonze, rom moTxovnis Semcirebaze mimarTuli RonisZiebe-
bi qveyanaSi praqtikulad ar finansdeboda. es profesiul
TemSi qmnida mcdar warmodgenas imis Taobaze, rom pre-
vencia yvelaze uxvad dafinansebuli, magram araefeqturi
meTodia, ramac 2000-iani wlebis dasawyisSi prevenciis wi-
naaRmdeg mimarTul erTgvar media kampaniasac ki gaukeTa
provocireba.
dReisaTvis, sabednierod, eWvi ukve aravis epareba,
rom narkologiur eqspertiza `ar udris~ prevencias.
profesiuli Temi erTsulovania prevenciis saWiroebisa
da aucielbobis aRiarebaSi. Tumca, aman jerjerobiT ver
Secvala saqmis viTareba da rogorc iyo, prevencia dRe-
sac rCeba yvelaze ufro uyuradRebod datovebul mi-
marTulebad, rogorc sabiujeto uzrunvelyofis, aseve
instituciuri ganviTarebis simwiris TvalsazrisiT.
evropis narkotikebisa da narkomaniis monitoringis cen-
tris (EMCCDA)klasifikaciis Tanaxmad[150], unda ganvasxva-
voT universaluri (pirveladi), mizanmimarTuli (meoreu-
li) da SerCeviTi (seleqtiuri) prevencia.
pirveladi anu universaluri prevencia
ganmarteba
pirveladi anu universaluri prevencia
warmoadgens `prevencias yvelasaTvis”: zoga-
dad mosaxleobisaTvis, anda, mTlianad samezo-
blo Tu saskolo TemisaTvis da a.S.
universaluri prevenciis magaliTia sko-
laSi narkotikebis Taobaze sagnobrivi swav-
leba. aseve, aRmzrdelobiTi saqmianoba, ro-
melic unda gawion mSoblebma, sabavSvo baRisa
Tu skolis maswavleblebma, moZRvrebma _ imi-
saTvis, rom bavSvma ar daiwyos fsiqoaqtiuri
saSualebebis miReba.
_ 118 _
umcrosi asakis bavSvebTan prevenciuli muSaobisas
sityva `narkotiki~ SeiZleba saerTod ar iyos naxsene-
bi, magram swori aRmzrdelobiTi midgomiT narkotikebis
mimarT mdgradobas seriozuli safuZveli Caeyaros. aq
igulisxmeba bavSvisaTvis zneobrivi orientirebis mice-
ma, sakuTari Tavis pativiscemisa da Rirsebis grZnobis
ganviTareba _ rac misi mxridan sxvisi pativiscemisa da
Rirsebis gafrTxilebis sawindaria; arCevanis gakeTebi-
sa da pasuxismgeblobis aRebis gamocdilebaSi gatareba,
adamianis sicocxlisa da janmrTelobis, rogorc faseu-
lobebis gacnobierebaSi daxmareba, jansaRi cxovrebis
Sesabamisi unar-Cvevebis ganviTareba da a.S.
gviandeli bavSvobisa (10-12 weli) da mozardobis asak-
Si ukve mniSvnelovania fsiqoaqtiuri saSualebebis moxma-
rebasTan dakavSirebul riskebze obieqturi informaciis
miwodeba[2,29,31,93]. mozardebTan mimarTebaSi am mxriv sa-
ganmanaTleblo muSaobas mavne Cvevebis winaaRmdeg `vaqci-
naciasac~ uwodeben (ix. Tavi 7.1). Tu informacia intera-
qtiul formatSi iqneba miwodebuli, es mas am sakiTxebze
dafiqrebasa da swori gadawyvetilebis miRebaSi daexmare-
ba. mozardobis asakSi gansakuTrebul mniSvnelobas iZens,
agreTve, cxovrebiseulad mniSvnelovani iseTi unar-Cve-
vebis ganviTareba, rogoricaa efeqturi komunikacia, pro-
blemis gadaWra, konfliqturi situaciebis mogvareba, ua-
ris Tqma arasasurvel SeTavazebaze da a.S.[144, 145]
meoreuli anu mizanmimarTuli prevencia
ganmar-
teba
meoreuli anu mizanmimarTuli preven-
ciis mizani narkotikebTan dakavSirebuli
problemebis adreuli gamovlena da Sesaba-
misi Carevis ganxorcielebaa: moxmarebis an
misi xelSemwyobi faqtorebis gamovlena da
Sesabamisi daxmarebis gaweva.
_ 119 _
aq mizanmimarTuli xdeba wamaldamokidebulebis gan-
viTarebis riskis mqone bavSvebisa da mozardebis gamo-
vlena da maTTan muSaoba. SesaZloa es iyvnen bavSvebi,
romelTac ukve aqvT fsiqoaqtiuri saSualebebis gamoye-
nebasTan dakavSirebuli problemebi; an isini, vinc mo-
wyvladia biologiuri, fsiqologiuri, socialuri Tu
sxva risk faqtorebis gamo. fsiqoaqtiuri saSualebebis
avadmoxmareba, maT SemTxvevaSi, ara TviT problema, ara-
med problemis simptomia. saWiroa am simptomis mizezebze
muSaoba: bavSvebis/mozardebis profesiuli daxmareba ro-
gorc janmrTelobasTan dakavaSirebul, aseve pirovnul,
ojaxur da yofiT problemebTan gamklavebaSi; faseulo-
baTa gadafasebaSi, problemaTa daZlevis gamocdilebis
SeZenaSi, cxovrebiseulad mniSvnelovani unar-Cvevebis
aTvisebaSi. aq Zalian mniSvnelovania rogorc pedagogis,
aseve fsiqologis (da Tu xelmisawvdomia, socialuri mu-
Sakis) saqmianoba, aseve moZRvris mxarSi dgoma[116].
SerCeviTi anu seleqtiuri prevencia
ganmarteba
SerCeviTi anu seleqtiuri prevencia gulisx-
mobs zogadi populaciidan wamaldamokidebulebis
maRali riskis mqone jgufebis SerCevasa da maTTan
muSaobas. es SesaZloa iyos specialuri programe-
bi wamaldamokidebul mSobelTa SvilebisaTvis, an
ukidures siRaribeSi Tu kriminalur garemocvaSi
mcxovrebi samezobloebisaTvis da a.S.
mocemuli wignis momdevno TavebSi fokusirebas mo-
vaxdenT, ZiriTadad, pirvelad, universalur prevenciaze
da nawilobriv, meoreul anu mizanmimarTul prevenciaze
(adreuli gamovlena da Careva). swored am mniSvnelobiT
prevenciaze visaubrebT qvemoT, amitom saTaursa da te-
qstSi, umeteswilad, aRar gavakeTebT prevenciis tipis
specifikacias.
_ 120 _
SekiTxvebi wakiTxulze refleqsiisaTvis:
_ romeli donis prevenciis ganxorcielebaa mizanSewo-
nili sajaro skolaSi?
_ rogor unda daigegmos prevenciuli muSaoba skola-
Si, rom pirveladma da meoreulma prevenciam urTierTSe-
mavseblad imoqmedon?
5.2. prevenciuli muSaobis samizneebi da amocanebi sa-
jaro skolaSi
prevenciuli samizneebis dasaxasiaTeblad daveyrd-
nobiT informaciis Teoriis meTodologis, gregori
beitsonisa da neiro-lingvisturi programirebis erT-
-erTi sakvanZo avtoris, robert diltsis sistemis lo-
gikuri doneebis sqemis modifikacias (ix. qvemoT)[32,37].
sqema warmogvidgens adamians, rogorc logikuri donee-
bis (qceva, unar-Cvevebi, rwmenebi, faseulobebi, me) mqone
sistemas, CarTuls ufro msxvil socialur sistemaSi,
romelsac, Tavis mxriv, agreTve, logikuri doneebi ga-
aCnia (ojaxi, skola, sazogadoeba, saxelmwifo). TiToeu-
li es done SesaZlebelia warmodgenili iyos, agreTve,
rogorc sistema, romelsac, Ta-
vis mxriv, logikuri doneebi ga-
aCnia. yvela es sistema arsebobs
garkveul fizikur garemoSi _ ga-
rkveul sivrceSi, garkveul dro-
Si.
sqema mosaxerxebelia, erTi
mxriv, imis gasaazreblad, rom pre-
venciuli samuSao unda mimdinareobdes sis-
temurad, yvela doneze; meore mxriv _ yovel
doneze prevenciuli samuSaos amocanebisa da
samizne jgufebis dasaxasiaTeblad. adamianis
logikuri doneebis Sesabamisi prevenciuli
amocanebis daxasiaTebisas samizne jgufebis
_ 121 _
rolSi gaazrebuli gvyavs bavSvebi da mozardebi. yoveli
Semdgomi logikuri donis samizne jgufebs ukve Sesabamis
qveTavebSi ganvsazRvravT.
prevenciul amocanebze msjelobisas, yuradRebas ga-
vamaxvilebT, upirveles yovlisa, saskolo garemoSi ar-
sebul prevenciul saWiroebebsa da maT sapasuxo midgo-
mebze, romelTa ganxorcielebazec unda izrunon skolis
ZiriTadma subieqtebma _ pedagogebma, administraciam,
sameTvalyureo sabWom, mSoblebma, moswavleebis monawi-
leobiT. socialur doneze prevenciis gaazrebisas, dava-
xasiaTebT imas, Tu rogor SeuZlia skolas miiRos mona-
wileoba am doneebze prevenciis TvalsazrisiT aucile-
beli, konstruqciuli cvlilebebis miRwe vaSi.
fizikuri garemo
skola garkveul fizikur garemoSi arsebobs, rome-
lic moicavs mis garSemo arsebul sivrcesa da infras-
truqturas. es garemo fsiqoaqtiuri saSualebebis avad-
_ 122 _
moxmarebis TvalsazrisiT, Seicavs konkretul riskebs,
romelTa SemCneva da uvnebelyofa skolis prevenciuli
muSaobis erT-erT mniSvnelovan aspeqts warmoadgens.
rogorc ukve aRvwereT problemis riskisa da damcavi
faqtorebis analizisas (ix. wignis pirveli nawili), fizi-
kuri garemos doneze avadmoxmarebis erT-erT ZiriTad
xelSemwyobs warmoadgens fsiqoaqtiuri saSualebebis
xelmisawvdomoba.
aqedan gamomdinare, garemos doneze skolis preven-
ciuli muSaobis amocanaa narkotikebis xelmisawvdomobis
Semcireba. aqedan gamomdinare, prevenciuli muSaoba am
doneze SesaZloa gulisxmobdes Semdegs:
saskolo garemos dacva
_ skolis garemos analizs fsiqoaqtiuri sa-
Sualebebis (vTqvaT, sigareti, alkoholi, SeZ-
lebisdagvarad _ esa Tu is kontrols daqvemde-
barebuli narkotikic) xelmisawvdomobis Tval-
sazrisiT;
_ am analizis safuZvelze, maTi xelmisa-
wvdomobis Semcirebaze zrunva: vTqvaT, Rera-
Rera sigaretebis gayidvis praqtikis aRmofxvra
skolis midamoebSi da a.S.
ukanaskneli moiTxovs TanamSromlobas ad-
gilobrivi TviTmmarTvelobis struqturebTan
Tu Sesabamis samarTaldamcav organoebTan, rac,
agreTve, skolis socialur kapitalTan dakavSi-
rebuli sakiTxebia (ix. qvemoT, qveTavi _ skola).
qceva
qcevis doneze prevenciuli muSaobis amocanaa bavS-
vebisa da mozardebis CarTva iseT aqtivobebSi, romelic
maTSi fsiqoaqtiuri saSualebebis moxmarebis risks Sea-
mcirebs.
_ 123 _
am amocanis Sesruleba SeiZleba, upirveles yovli-
sa, maTi CarTviT sportul TamaSebSi, TviTga-
moxatvisa Tu SemecnebiT-gasarTob wreebSi da
a.S. sasurvelia, es moxdes ukve mozardobam-
de, ara ugvianes mesame-meoTxe klasis asakisa.
sportuli TamaSebi bavSvs mianiWebs xalissa da
siamovnebas (aswavlis siamovnebis miRebas fsi-
qoaqtiuri saSualebebis gareSe), ganuviTarebs
gundurobis gancdas, xels Seuwyobs mis fsiqo-
-fizikur ganviTarebas, aswavlis mogebis sixaruls, Rir-
seulad wagebas, wagebidan gakveTilis gamotanas, am gamo-
cdilebis safuZvelze, Semdgom gamarjvebaze/miRwevaze
orientacias da a.S. TviTgamoxatvisa da Semecnebis sxva-
dasxva wre aswavlis siamovnebis miRebas SemoqmedebiTi
aqtivobebidan Tu `insaiTebidan26~, sakuTari interesis
dasakmayofileblad moqmedebas da a.S.
ufro specifikuri qceviTi prevenciuli strategia,
SesaZloa, iyos bavSvebisa da mozardebis CarTva cxovrebis
jansaRi stilis damkvidrebis iseT aqtivobebSi, rogori-
caa sainformacio kampania TanatolebisaTvis. aq igulisx-
meba principi `Tanatoli _ Tanatols~[93,101,136,147,148],
rodesac mozardi TviT xdeba jansaRi wesis populari-
zatori Tavis TanatolebSi, garkveuli sainformacio
saSualebebis gamoyenebiT; gamocdileba gvkarnaxobs, rom
TanatolTa mier miwodebuli informacia mozardebis mier
ufro sandod aRiqmeba da gavlenis didi potenciali aqvs[].
am SemTxvevaSi, agreTve, imoqmedebs prevenciuli prin-
cipi, romelic aRvwereT ganwyobebsa da molodinebs mi-
ZRvnil qveTavSi: ganxorcielebuli qceva aZlierebs mis
Sesabamis ganwyobas. anu, bavSvebis mier jansaRi cxovre-
bis wesis dasabuTebuli popularizacia-propaganda am
cxovrebis wesis dacvis maTsave ganwyobas gaaZlierebs,
26 Insight – inglisuri sityvaa, niSnavs ama Tu im movlenis arsis uecar
wvdomas, romelic Zlier inteleqtualur emocias iwvevs.
_ 124 _
rac maT mier cxovrebis jansaRi stiliT cxovrebis al-
baTobas gazrdis.
qceva, rogorc samizne, gulisxmobs, agreTve, skola-
Si pedagogebis mxridan meoreul prevencias: moswavleebSi
problemebis momaswavebeli qcevebis (qceviTi darRveve-
bis) adreul amocnobasa da Sesabamisi daxmarebis gawevas.
es, SesaZloa iyos hiperaqtivoba, fsiqoaqtiuri saSuale-
bebis moxmareba, agresiuloba da a.S. iq, sadac pedagogiu-
ri daxmareba arasakmarisia, saWiroa qceviTi darRvevebis
mqone bavSvebis marTebulad gadamisamarTeba, rogorc es,
magaliTad, hiperaqtivobis SemTxvevaSi aRvwereT (ix. Tavi
meore).
dabolos, gvinda aRvniSnoT, rom TviT pedagogTa
qceva, rogorc aseTi, SesaZloa iyos prevenciuli faqto-
ri moswavleebisaTvis: rogorc wina TavebSi aRvwereT,
socialuri daswavlis unaris meoxebiT, bavSvi swavlobs
ufrosebis qcevebs, iTvisebs maT. amitom, Tu pedagogebi
TviTon iqnebian cxovrebis jansaRi stilis gamtareble-
bi, es mniSvnelovanwilad daexmareba bavSvebs Sesabamisi
qcevebis aTvisebaSi.
unar-Cvevebi
unar-Cvevebis doneze prevenciuli muSaobis amocanaa
bavSvebsa da mozardebSi iseTi unar-Cvevebis ganviTare-
ba, romelic maT fsiqoaqtiuri saSualebebis moxmarebi-
sagan daicavs, damcavi faqtorebis rols Seasrulebs.
kvlevebiT dasabuTebulia, rom mozardebSi fsiqoa-
qtiuri saSualebebis avadmoxmarebis prevenciis Tvalsa-
zrisiT, gansakuTrebiT efeqturia e.w. sasicocxlo unar-
Cvevebis programebi[116,144,145]. es programebi tardeba,
rogorc wesi, skolis bazaze (Tumca, es ar aris aucile-
beli) da gulisxmobs trenings iseT sakiTxebSi, rogori-
caa: efeqturi komunikacia, problemebis gadaWra, kon-
fliqtebis marTva, stresis marTva da a.S.
_ 125 _
sasicocxlod mniSvnelovani unar-Cvevebis trenin-
gis nawili sasurvelia iyos e.w. asertiulobis treningi.
asertiuloba gulisxmobs urTierTobisas adamianis mier
sakuTari interesebis dacvis unars mourTierTe adamia-
nis/mxaris interesebis Selaxvis gareSe. asertiulobis
treningis erT-erTi mniSvnelovani komponentia ara-s
Tqmis treningi (`rogor vTqvaT ara iseT SemoTavazebaze,
romelic CvenTvis sasurveli ar aris~). ara-s Tqmis unari
iTvleba gansakuTrebiT mniSvnelovan damcav faqtorad
fsiqoaqtiuri saSualebebis avadmoxmarebis prevenciis
TvalsazrisiT.
rwmenebi (codna)
aq rwmenebis qveS igulisxmeba ara religiuri rwmena,
aramed is subieqturi codna, romelic adamians gaaCnia sa-
myaros Sesaxeb: ra ra aris, ra rasTan aris dakavSirebu-
li mizez-Sedegobrivad da a.S. sityva `rwmena~ aq ixmareba
codnis nacvlad mxolod imitom, rom am doneze SesaZloa
adgili hqondes ara marto cnobier, aramed, agreTve,
gaucnobierebel codnasac. magaliTad, gavixsenoT ada-
mianis asakobrivi ganviTareba: 18 Tvis Tavze, asakobrivi
krizisis daZlevis Sedegad, Cvils uviTardeba rwmena imis
Taobaze, rom samyaro sandoa da keTilganwyobili; faqtia,
rom Cvils ara aqvs imdenad ganviTarebuli azrovneba, rom
es gaacnobieros; amitom am codnas igi gaucnobierebelad,
rwmenis saxiT iZens da inaxavs da es rw-
mena mis Semdgom ganviTarebaze mniSvne-
lovan gavlenas axdens[1,22,23,34,39,52].
rwmenebis/codnis doneze pirveladi
prevenciuli muSaoba gulisxmobs cxo-
vrebis jansaRi stilisa da fsiqoaqtiu-
ri saSualebebis avadmoxmarebis Sesaxeb
gviandeli asakis bavSvebisa da mozar-
debis informirebas. jansaRi cxovrebis
_ 126 _
stilis (ra aris jansaRi kveba, fizikuri varjiSis mniS-
vneloba da a.S.) Sesaxeb informacia bavSvebs ukve pirve-
li klasidan unda miewodos, im periodisaTvis misaRebi
formiTa da ulufiT. fsiqoaqtiuri saSualebebis avad-
moxmarebaze saubari 10-11 wlis asakidan SeiZleba, aqac
Sesabamisi formiTa da ulufiT, garkveuli socialur-
-fsiqologiuri principebis dacviT.
rac Seexeba am doneze meoreul prevencias, es proble-
muri rwmenebis mqone bavSvebisa da mozardebis gamovle-
nas da maTSi am prolemuri rwmenebis koreqciaze muSao-
bas egulisxmobs.
problemuri rwmenebi, xSirad, qcevis saxiT iCens Tavs
(zedmeti pasiuroba, an piriqiT, agresiuloba da a.S.),
maTi amocnoba pedagogis saqmea. daxmarebis strategia
unda yoveli konkretuli SemTxvevisaTvis ganisazRvros:
sakmarisia mxolod pedagogiuri Careva, Tu saWiroa ba-
vSvis gadamisamarTeba Sesabamis specialistTan (vTqvaT,
bavSvis fsiqologTan an fsiqoTerapevtTan), an, SesaZloa
Sesabamis treningSi (magaliTad, agresiis marTvis) Car-
Tvam moagvaros problema.
agresiis marTvis treningis modulis erT-erTi Zi-
riTadi komponenti agresiuli qcevis miRma mdebare
azrovnebis 4 tipiuri Secdomis gamovlenas da trenin-
gis monawileTa mier maT gacnobiereba-daZlevaSi dax-
marebas gulisxmobs[89]. es Secdomebia:
- garSemomyofi movlenebis mizezad mudmivad sakuTa-
ri Tavis aRqma. magaliTad, Tu azrovnebis amgvari Secdo-
mis matarebel bavSvs/mozards/zrdasruls nacnobi ar mie-
salma, igi amas aucileblad sakuTari Tavidan gamomdinare
axsnis (`fexebze vkidivar~, `unda, rom gamabrazos~, `zedac
ar Semomxeda, kacad ar Camagdo~ da a.S.). mizezi ki Sesa-
Zloa sul sxva iyos (magaliTad _ adamiani cud gunebazea,
an daRlili da uyuradReboa mocemuli momentisaTvis, Ca-
fiqrebulia raimeze, cudad xedavs da a.S.);
_ 127 _
- movlenebis minimizacia da araswori saxeldeba. ma-
galiTad, SesaZloa mozardma Tavisi klaseli sisxlamde
scema, magram amaze Semdegnairad msjelobs: `ra moxda,
magra gaverTeT, cota vibRlarZuneT ra, araferia~. am
msjelobis miRma movlenis araswori aRqma da saxelde-
ba, misi simZafrisa da mniSvnelobis nivelireba, faqto-
brivad, informaciis gadamuSavebis xarvez(eb)i da azro-
vnebis Sesabamisi Secdoma dgas;
- sakuTari saqcielis gamo pasuxismgeblobis sxvis-
Tvis miwera. magaliTad, bavSvi mamas sistematurad pa-
ravs fuls Sarvlis jibidan da ase msjelobs: `misi bra-
lia, specialurad debs Sarvals iseT adgilas rom ad-
vili misawvdomi iyos; imedia, mixvdeba bolo-bolo, rom
fuli saimedo adgilas unda Seinaxos _ madloba unda
miTxras, rom Wkuas vaswavli~;
- uaresis molodini. es is SemTxvevaa, rodesac ba-
vSvs/mozards/zrdasruls hgonia, rom araferi gamouva
(vTqvaT, gamocdaSi CaiWreba, an klaselebi dascineben,
samsaxuris gasaubrebas ver gaivlis da a.S.), an rom mis
garSemo adamianebi erTnairad `cudebi~ arian (`yvela
adamiani egoistia~ da a.S.). nebismieri samomavlo amo-
canis Sersulebis win azrovnebis amgvari Secdomis ma-
tarebel bavSvs/adamians windawin yvelaze sauareso
scenaris ganxorcielebis rwmena uCndeba. es rwmena ki,
Tavis mxriv, mas bumerangiviT _ e.w. TviTaRsruleba-
di winaswarmetyvelebis saxiT ubrundeba: uaryofiT wi-
naswarmetyvelebas ganxorcielebis tendencia aqvs, ra-
mdenadac igi adamians marcxis mimarTulebiT ganawyo-
bs. misi ganxrocieleba, Tavis mxriv, adamians umyarebs
mcdar rwmenas (`vicodi, rom araferi gamomividoda~)
da, amgvarad, mankieri wre ikvreba.
agresiis marTvis treningi monawileebs swored azro-
vneba-qcevis amgvari mankieri wreebis garRvevasa da ze-
_ 128 _
moT aRwerili azrovnebis Secdomebis gadalaxvaSi exma-
reba da amdenad, meoreuli prevenciis efeqtur instru-
ments warmoadgens.
faseulobebi
faseulobebis doneze prevenciuli muSaoba gamWol
xazad unda gasdevdes mTel skolis periods. zemoT Cven
bevri vimsjeleT zogadsakacobrio da samoqalaqo faseu-
lobebis gaTavisebis mniSvnelobasa da sulierebaze, ro-
gorc damcav faqtorze. amitom aq mxolod specifikuri
faseulobebis aRzrdaze SevaCerebT yuradRebas.
pirveladi prevenciuli muSaoba am doneze gulisx-
mobs ukve pirveli klasidan bavSvebis daxmarebas sico-
cxlisa da janmrTelobis, rogorc TavisTavadi faseu-
lobebis gacnobierebaSi; Zalian mniSvnelovania, agreTve,
sakuTari sxeulis, rogorc unikaluris _ gacnobiereba,
mis mimarT zrunvis damokidebulebis gamomuSaveba.
TerTmeti-Tormeti wlidan Zalian mniSvnelovania
warmatebisa da miRwevis, rogorc sakuTari Tavis ganxor-
cielebis `samuSao iaraRebis~ gacnobiereba. aucilebelia,
skolas hqondes warmatebisa da miRwevis stimulirebisa
da waxalisebis sistema; rom skolaSi miRweva, warmateba
`modaSi Semovides~. am konteqstSi, uaRresad, kritiku-
lad mniSvnelovania, rom warmateba `rCeulTa xvedri~ ki
ar iyos, aramed potenciurad nebismier bavSvs, survilis
SemTxvevaSi, SeeZlos misi miRweva. am meqanizmis SemuSave-
ba da danergva skolis Sida politikis sakiTxia.
faseulobaTa deficiti, xSirad, qcevis doneze iCens
Tavs asocialuri qcevebisadmi midrekilebis saxiT, rac
specialur yuradRebas moiTxovs pedagogebis mxridan[]. aq
saWiro xdeba meoreuli prevencia: magaliTad, problemu-
ri mozardebis gadamisamarTeba socialuri gadawyvetile-
bebis unar-Cvevebis ganviTarebis treningSi[89] monawileo-
bis misaRebad, romelic, aseve, agresiis marTvis swavlebis
_ 129 _
nawilia[]. amgvari treningis moduli moicavs zneobrivi
gadawyvetilebis misaReb problemur situaciebze marTul
jgufur diskusiebs, zneobriv arCevanze jgufSi konsen-
sunsis miRwevas. amgvari interaqtiuli muSaobis procesSi
mozardebs nabij-nabij umuSavdebaT socialuri gadawyve-
tilebebis miRebis unar-Cvevebi. meoradi prevencia, gar-
da amisa, gulisxmobs problemuri bavSvebis mSoblebTan/
ojaxebTan muSaobas, saWiroebis SemTxvevaSi _ saTanado
specialistTan (magaliTad, fsiqoTerapevtTan) gadamisa-
marTebas, TanamSromlobas eklesiasTan da a.S.
skolis roli
faseulobiTi aRzrdis TvalsazrisiT, skolis
yvelaze mZlavri iaraRi TviT skolis `piradi ma-
galiTia~. rogorc zemoT aRvwereT, socialu-
ri daswavlis Teoriis Tanaxmad, bavSvi swavlobs
garSemomyofi adamianebis (skolis SemTxvevaSi _
pedagogebis) qcevidan. amitom, skolis TiToeuli
calkeuli pedagogis, pedkoleqtivis _ rogorc
mTlianis, dabolos, skolis, rogorc Temis zneo-
briv mowifulobas (gavixsenoT kolbergis moralu-
ri ganviTarebis doneebi) uaRresad didi mniSvne-
loba aqvs. aq TviT skolis klimati unda gamovides
moswavleebisaTvis (iseve, rogorc maswavleblebi-
saTvis) prevenciuli damcavi faqtoris rolSi.
me (identoba)
identobaze muSaobac gamWol xazad unda gasdev-
des saskolo cxovrebas. skolam, erTi mxriv, xeli unda
Seuwyos moswavles pozitiuri me-koncefciis Camoyali-
bebaSi. aq mniSvnelovania bavSvebisa da mozardebis mi-
marT upirobo pozitiuri yuradReba: mimRebloba da ke-
Tilganwyobileba; araSefasebiTi damokidebuleba: `cudi
biWi~ Tu `kargi biWi~ tipis SefasebiTi iraliyebisagan
Tavis arideba; paritetuli, magram Sesabamisi distanciis
_ 130 _
dacvaze damyarebuli keTilganwyobili komunikacia da
a.S. es yvelaferi moswavleebs miscems saSualebas Tavi
daculad igrZnon skolis garemoSi, rac mniSvnelovania
maTi ganviTarebisaTvis.
rac Seexeba specifikur Tematur muSaobas, ukve pirveli
klasidan SeiZleba zrunva imaze, rom bavSvma Tavis Camoya-
libebis procesSi myof me-s koncefciaSi Seitanos sakuTari
Tavis, rogorc jansaRi cxovrebis wesis damcvelis, aRqma.
am doneze muSaobas gansakuTrebuli yuradReba esa-
Wiroeba mozardobis asakSi. aq skola, erTi mxriv, unda
exmarebodes mozards axali, socialurad produqtiuli
rolebis mosinjva-morgebaSi. es SesaZlebelia Sida sasko-
lo, saerTo-saTemo klasgareSe aqtivobebis organizebiT
(koncertebi, ualkoholo diskoTekebi, Teatraluri wre,
laSqrobebi, literaturuli saRamoebi da a.S.).
meore mxriv, skolam unda upasuxos mozardobis asaki-
saTvis damaxasiaTebel swrafvas dajgufebisaken da socia-
lurad sasargeblo interesebiT gaerTianebuli wreebis
Seqmnas Seuwyos xeli (ekologia, TanatolebSi Zaladobis
prevencia, cxovrebis jansaRi wesi Tu mravali sxva).
kargi samsaxuris gaweva SeuZlia aq saskolo radios
_ masSi mozardebis intensiur monawileobas; efeqturia,
agreTve, mozardebis dakavSireba sxvadasxva socialur
problemebze momuSave organizaciebTan an qselebTan,
sadac isini, survilis SemTxvevaSi, samoxaliseo saqmia-
nobas gasweven da a.S. am TvalsazrisiT SesaZleblobebis
Seqmnas xeli unda Seuwyos skolis socialurma kapital-
ma, romlis erT-erTi aspeqti swored amgvar organiza-
ciebTan TanamSromloba SeiZleba iyos.
garda amisa, mniSvnelovania, rom pedagogebma SeamC-
nion identobis krizisis Tu, SesaZloa, sxva mizezebis
gamo qceviTi problemebis mqone (agresiuloba, fsiqoa-
qtiuri nivTierebebis moxmareba, Warbi simorcxve da a.S.)
mozardebi, SeZlebisdagvarad daexmaron maT, saWiroe-
_ 131 _
bis SemTxvevaSi, imuSavon maT ojaxebTan; xolo iq, sadac
profesiuli Carevaa saWiro (fsiqoTerapiuli Tu sxva),
marTebulad gadaamisamarTon. yvela im SemTxvevaSi, sa-
dac gadamisamarTebaze vsaubrobT, isev da isev skolis
socialur kapitals vgulisxmobT: am SemTxvevaSi, imas,
Tu ramdenad aqvs skolas awyobili gadamisamarTebis sis-
tema, anu ramdenad kavSirSia/TanamSromlobaSia moswav-
leebisaTvis specifikuri samedicino, fsiqologiuri Tu
sxva saxis servisebis gamwev organizaciebTan.
ojaxi
am doneze prevenciuli muSaobis samiznes ojaxebi da
mSoblebi warmoadgenen. aq SesaZlebelia cxovrebis jansaRi
stilis dacvaze mimarTuli saskolo-saTemo programebis
iniciireba, sadac mSoblebi bavSvebisa da mozardebis para-
lelurad, aqtiurad iqnebian CarTulebi; aseve, sasurvelia
cxovrebis jansaRi stilisa da fsiqoaqtiuri saSualebebis
avadmoxmarebis sakiTxSi mSoblebis gaTviTcnobierebis do-
nis amaRlebaze mimarTuli programebis ganxorcieleba.
meore mxriv, Tu skolaSi pedagogma ama Tu im bavSvis
fsiqoaqtiuri saSualebebis moxmarebasTan dakavSirebuli
Tu sxva qceviTi darRvevebis adreuli gamovlena moaxdina,
man specialuri samuSao unda Caataros am bavSvis mSobel-
Tan, daiwyos masTan TanamSromloba Svilis keTildReobis
dacvis mizniT; Tu ojaxuri problemebi scildeba pedago-
gis kompetencias, mniSvnelovania, rom man SeZlos ojaxis
marTebuli gadamisamarTeba (SesaZloa, fsiqologTan an
narkologTan da a.S.), razec zemoT ukve visaubreT.
skola
aq igulisxmeba skolis daxmareba socialuri kapita-
lis ganviTarebaSi (ix. Tavi `socialuri kapitali socia-
luri risk-faqtorebis winaaRmdeg~). es SesaZloa, iyos
skolis daxmareba SemdegSi:
_ 132 _
skolis roli
_ jansaRi cxovrebis stilisa da fsiqoaqtiuri sa-
Sualebebis avadmoxmarebis sakiTxebze saskolo poli-
tikis SemuSaveba (skolis administraciisa da pedkole-
qtivis Sesabamisi treningi, politikis SemuSavebisaTvis
arCeuli muSa jgufis saqmianobis fasilitacia, poli-
tikis saskolo cxovrebaSi gatarebis monitoringis me-
qanimzebis danergva da a.S.)[18,63];
_ cxovrebis jansaRi stilisa da fsiqoaqtiuri sa-
Sualebebis avadmoxmarebis prevenciaSi pedkoleqtivis
kompetenciis gazrda (Sesabamisi treningis gziT);
_ moswavleebSi qceviTi darRvevebis (fsiqoaqtiu-
ri saSualebebis avadmoxmareba, Zaladoba, hiperaqti-
voba Tu sxva) adreuli gamovlenisaTvis, pedkoleqti-
vis kompetenciis gazrda (Sesabamisi treningis gziT);
_ `sasargeblo kontaqtebis~ gabma da TanamSromlo-
ba Sesabamis _ samedicino, fsiqologiuri, ojaxuri Za-
ladobisa Tu sxva servisebis uzrunvelmyof organi-
zaciebTan, problemebis mqone moswavleebis efeqturi
gadamisamarTebisaTvis;
_ TanamSromloba ama Tu im mniSvnelovani proble-
mis (ekologia, adamianis uflebebi, fsiqo-socialuri
daxmareba da a.S.) garSemo gaerTianebul profesiul da
sazogadoebriv kavSirebTan, skolis moswavleebis sazo-
gadoebrivad sasargeblo saqmianobebSi CarTvis mizniT;
_ jansaRi cxovrebis stilis saerTo-saTemo pro-
gramebis danergva;
_ bavSvebisa da mozardebisaTvis sasicocxlod mniSv-
nelovani unar-Cvevebis treningis programebis danergva;
_ jansaRi cxovrebis wesisa da fsiqoaqtiuri saSu-
alebebis avadmoxmarebis prevenciis saskolo saswavlo
gegmis da Sesabamisi aqtivobebis ganviTareba;
_ da a.S.
mocemul sakiTxebs ufro dawvrilebiT Semdgom Tave-
bSi SevexebiT.
_ 133 _
sazogadoeba
sazogadoebis doneze muSaobis TvalsazrisiT, sko-
lis mTavari amocanaa sxvadasxva socialur qselSi Cabma,
sasargeblo kontaqtebis mopoveba, mTel rig organiza-
ciebTan da pirebTan TanamSromlobis damyareba, Zalian
mokled rom vTqvaT _ isev da isev, socialuri kapitalis
kumulireba. qvemoT SevecdebiT gavakeToT mokle Camo-
naTvali TanamSromlobis potenciuri subieqtebisa:
_ eklesia [erT-erT sa-
jaro skolasTan fsiqoa-
qtiuri saSualebebis moxma-
rebis prevenciis treningis
Catarebisas pedkoleqtivma
gagviziara, Tu rogor Ta-
namSromlobs marTlmadi-
debeli eklesiis erT-erT
moZRvarTan, romelic re-
gularulad dadis skolaSi
da bavSvebis faseulobiT
aRzrdaSi exmareba, CarTulia qceviTi darRvevebis mqone
bavSvebze zrunvaSi, exmareba skolas klimatis gajansa-
RebaSi da a.S. am magaliTidan Cans, Tu rogori resur-
sis SeZena SeuZlia skolas eklesiasTan TanamSromlobis
awyobiT];
_ saerTaSoriso fondebi da saqvelmoqmedo organi-
zaciebi [xdeba xolme, rom pedkoleqtivi, moswavleebi da
mSoblebi saintereso iniciativebiT gamodian, magram, Za-
lian xSirad, skolaSi ar arsebobs am iniciativebis gan-
xorcielebis materialuri resursi; saerTaSoriso fon-
debTan da saqvelmoqmedo organizaciebTan TanamSromlo-
bis damyareba skolas ufro moqnils gaxdis sasargeblo
iniciativebis cxovrebaSi gatarebis TvalsazrisiT];
_ adgilobrivi mmarTvelobis struqturebi [Tbilisis
skolebSi muSaobisas adgilobrivi mmarTvelobis stru-
_ 134 _
qturebTan TanamSromlobis ramdenime magaliTi vnaxeT:
garkveuli sasargeblo socialuri aqciebis dafinanseba
da erToblivi Catareba, skolisaTvis sportuli moednis
gamarTvaSi daxmareba da a.S. es TvalsaCinos xdis am mi-
marTulebiT TanamSromlobis awyobis mniSvnelobas];
_ sportuli asociaciebi da kavSirebi [2009 wlis ga-
zafxulze saqarTvelos xelburTis federaciam, spor-
tis saqalaqo samsaxurTan erTad, samxreT kavkasiis an-
tinarkotikuli programis mxardaWeriT, mini xelburTis
Cempionati Caatara Tbilisis sami skolis mesame-mexuTe
klasebis moswavleebisaTvis; Cempionats win uZRoda ba-
vSvebisaTvis mini xelburTis swavleba, Sesabamisi fi-
zkulturis gakveTilebi _ federaciis TanamSromelTa
daxmarebiT; sakuTriv CempionatSi moswavleebi azartiT,
xalisiTa da sixaruliT monawileobdnen; am gamocdile-
bam bavSvebSi cxovrebis jansaRi stilis mimarT dadebiTi
ganwyoba gaamyara. es magaliTi gviCvenebs, rom Tu skolas
ara aqvs sakuTari resursi, raTa amgvari RonisZieba ga-
naxorcielos (da xSirad ara aqvs xolme), ama Tu im spor-
tul federaciasTan TanamSromlobam SesaZloa es defi-
citi aunazRauros];
_ samedicino, fsiqologiuri, ojaxuri Zaladobis,
fsiqo-socialuri daxmarebis servis-organizaciebi [ro-
gorc ukve zemoT aRvwereT, skolaSi xSirad dgeba ama
Tu im problemis gamo moswavlis daxmarebisaTvis misi
gadamisamarTebis saWiroeba. arsebobs mTeli rigi orga-
nizaciebi, romelnic Sesabamis servisebs axorcieleben.
mniSvnelovania skolam moiZios es resursebi da iTana-
mSromlos maTTan, raTa problemis winaSe ar daibnes da
bavSvs daexmaros];
_ sazogadoebrivi organizaciebi [saqarTveloSi mTe-
li rigi arasamTavrobo da saerTaSoriso organizaciebi-
sa muSaobs socialur problemebze: adamianis uflebebze,
fsiqoaqtiuri saSualebebis prevenciaze, garemos dacva-
_ 135 _
ze, Zaladobis prevenciaze da a.S. mniSvnelovania am orga-
nizaciebTan TanamSromloba, raTa, erTi mxriv, maT, Tavi-
si kompetenciis Sesabamisad, treningi SesTavazon skolis
pedkoleqtivs (xSirad amgvari organizaciebi eZeben `mre-
vls~ treningis Casatareblad. maT mniSvnelovani codnis
gaziareba SeuZliaT); meore mxriv _ raTa ufrosklaselma
moswavleebma, survilis SemTxvevaSi, ardadagebis dros
internatura gaiaron am organizaciebSi. erTi mxriv, isi-
ni Tavis interesebs daikmayofileben, meore mxriv, Caer-
Tvebian sazogadoebrivad sasargeblo saqmianobaSi;
_ da a.S.
es CamonaTvali mxolod umniSvnelo nawilia im didi
potenciuri siisa, romelic SeiZleba warmovidginoT
skolisaTvis sasargeblo kontaqtebis TvalsazrisiT.
skolam TviTon unda izrunos Tavisi socialuri kapita-
lis gamdidrebaze, mis magivrad amas sxva veravin gaakeTe-
bs. es mniSvnelovan resursebs SesZens skolas ara marto
narkotikebis avadmoxmarebis prevenciis, aramed mTeli
rigi sxva problemebis mogvarebis TvalsazrisiT.
gansakuTrebuli yuradReba gvinda gavamaxviloT same-
Tvalyureo sabWoze _ rogorc socialuri kapitalis da-
grovebis potencialis mqone struqturaze. sajaro sko-
lebSi fsiqoaqtiuri saSualebebis avadmoxmarebis saki-
Txebze muSaobisas davrwmundiT, rom arsebobs skolebi,
romlebic sameTvayureo sabWos formalobad aRiqvamen
da Sesabamisad, mis potencials ver iyeneben; winaaRmdeg
amisa, aris skolebi, sadac sameTvalyureo sabWo rea-
luri, moqmedi, aqtiuri, produqtiulia. saqme isaa, rom
sameTvalyureo sabWo skolisa da sazogadoebis kavSi-
ris gamaSualebeli rgolia. misi yoveli wevri SesaZloa
ganvixiloT, rogorc Tavisi wili socialuri kapitalis
warmomadgeneli: misi saxiT xom sazogadoebis garkveuli
segmenti, misi profesiuli Tu adamianuri kavSirebi, misi
samsaxuri da SesaZloa, sxva resursic Semodis skolis si-
_ 136 _
namdvileSi. rasakvirvelia, sabWos wevrebi gansxvavdebian
gavlenis potencialis mixedviT, Sesabamisi socialuri
resursebis masStabiT, magram sabWos siZliere swored
misi wevrebis gansxvavebulobaSia. aqedan gamomdinare, ki-
dev erTxel gvinda gavimeoroT, rom sajaro skolis sa-
meTvalyureo sabWo, marTvaSi daxmarebis garda, SeiZleba
ganvixiloT, rogorc socialuri kapitalis `akumulato-
ri~. mTavaria, rom skolas es gacnobierebuli hqondes da
srulad iyenebdes mis potencials.
saxelmwifo
am donezec SeuZlia skolas garkveuli wvlili Seita-
nos. imisaTvis, raTa qveyanaSi fsiqoaqtiuri saSualebebis
avadmoxmarebis prevencia efeqturad ganxorcieldes, au-
cilebelia prevenciis mravaluwyebrivi (ganaTlebis, jan-
dacvis, kulturisa da sportis saministroebi da a.S.) sa-
xelmwifo strategiisa da Sesabamisi samoqmedo gegmis ar-
seboba. maTi SemuSaveba, erTi mxriv, `zevidan qveviT~ xdeba
_ anu, Sesabamisi uwyebebi saxaven strategias, Tanxmdebian
samoqmedo gegmaze, zrunaven mis dabiujetebaze, koordini-
rebul ganxorcielebasa da amis safuZvelze, sajaro sko-
lebisaTvis am mimarTulebiT sakeTebelsac sazRvraven.
magram, arsebobs meore, aRwerilis Semavsebeli, gza
_ `qvevidan zeviT~; efeqturi strategia am ori gzis
SerwymiT iqmneba xolme. aq skolam unda Seafasos Tavi-
si, rogorc zogadsaganmanaTleblo dawesebulebis sa-
Wiroebebi, Cven SemTxvevaSi, fsiqoaqtiuri saSualebebis
avadmoxmarebis TvalsazrisiT; miitanos es saWiroebebi
saministromde, amasTan erTad, miawodos gamovlenili
saWiroebebis dakmayofilebis meqanizmebisa da saSuale-
bebis Tavisi xedva. es strategias ufro realisturs da
mdgrads gaxdis. am gziT, skolas SeuZlia monawileoba
miiRos saxelmwifo doneze prevenciis strategiis Semu-
Savebis saqmeSi. es ar aris lozungi, es cxovrebis mier
_ 137 _
dasmuli realuri amocanaa: monawileoba Seni interese-
bis dacvis aucilebeli pirobaa.
pirveladi da meoreuli
prevenciis institucionalizacia
dRevandel dRes SeuiaraRebeli TvaliTac
Cans, Tu ra unda gakeTdes sawyis etapze Cvens
qveyanaSi fsiqoaqtiuri saSualebebis pirveladi
da meoreuli prevenciis instituciuri meqaniz-
mebis Seqmnis TvalsazrisiT. aq mxolod mokle
CamonaTvals moviyvanT:
_ cxovrebis jansaRi stilisa da fsiqoa-
qtiuri saSualebebis avadmoxmarebis prevencia
unda iswavlebodes umaRles saswavleblebSi,
gansakuTrebiT skolis momavali administrato-
rebis, pedagogebisa da fsiqologebisaTvis;
_ unda Seiqmnas cxovrebis jansaRi stilisa
da fsiqoaqtiuri saSualebebis avadmoxmarebis
prevenciis sakiTxebSi pedagogTa uwyveti gana-
Tlebis meqanizmebi;
_ cxovrebis jansaR stilsa da fsiqoaqtiu-
ri saSualebebis avadmoxmarebaze skolaSi Sida
politikis SemuSaveba da ganxorcieleba unda
iyos damokidebuli ara mxolod skolis keTil
nebaze, aramed Sediodes ganaTlebisa da mecnie-
rebis saministros mier skolis Sefasebis mo-
TxovnebSi, rogorc skolis usafrTxoebis erT-
erTi mniSvnelovani indikatori;
_ cxovrebis jansaRi stili samoqalaqo gana-
Tlebis erovnuli saswavlo gegmisa nawili unda
iyos da aisaxebodes Sesabamis standartebSi;
_ sasicocxlo unar-CvevaTa programebis
ganxorcieleba ar unda atarebdes fragmentul
xasiaTs da skolis saswavlo gegmis nawili unda
iyos;
_ da a.S.
_ 138 _
skolas SeuZlia qmediTi roli Seasrulos yvela am
aucilebeli konstruqciuli cvlilebis danergvaSi, mo-
nawileobis gziT. esec prevenciuli saqmianobaa.
SekiTxvebi wakiTxulze sarefleqsiod:
_ konkretulad, ra SeuZlia gaakeTos Tqvenma skolam
fsiqoaqtiuri saSualebebisagan daculi fizikuri gare-
mos Seqmnis mimarTulebiT (ra aris realisturi)?
_ konkretulad, ra SeuZlia gaakeTos Tqvenma skolam
moswavleebTan prevenciuli muSaobis TvalsazrisiT (ra
aris realisturi)?
_ konkretulad, ra SeuZlia gaakeTos Tqvenma skolam
prevenciul saqmianobaSi ojaxebis CasarTavad (ra aris re-
alisturi)?
_ konkretulad, ra SeuZlia gaakeTos Tqvenma skolam
socialuri kapitalis ganviTarebis mimarTulebiT (ra aris
realisturi)?
_ konkretulad, ra SeuZlia gaakeTos Tqvenma skolam
prevenciisaTvis sazogadoebasTan urTierTobis mimarTu-
lebiT (ra aris realisturi)?
_ konkretulad, ra SeuZlia gaakeTos Tqvenma skolam
prevenciis erovnuli strategiis SemuSavebaSi monawileo-
bis TvalsazrisiT (ra aris realisturi)?
_ 139 _
6. Tavi meeqvse. saTemo midgoma: cxovrebis
jansaRi stilisa da fsiqoaqtiuri
saSualebebis avadmoxmarebis
prevenciis skolis politika
mocmeul TavSi aRwerilia, Tu risTvis aris saWiro cxovre-
bis jansaRi stilis damkvidrebisa da fsiqoaqtiuri saSualebe-
bis avadmoxmarebis prevenciis politika, Tu ra samsaxuris gawe-
va SeuZlia mas sajaro skolis usafrTxoebis uzrunvelsayofad;
aRwerilia misi SemuSavebis procesi, dafuZnebuli skolis, ro-
gorc Temis, ZiriTadi subieqtebis monawileobaze; naCvenebia, Tu
ra komponentebisagan unda Sedgebodes da ra amocanebs wyvetdes
igi. lakonurobisaTvis teqstSi vixmarT sityvas `politika~ da
`skolis politika~.
6.1. skolis politikis mniSvneloba
jansaRi cxovrebi stilis damkvidreba da fsiqoa-
qtiuri saSualebebis avadmoxmarebis prevencia Sesabamis
samuSao iaraRs moiTxovs. skolisaTvis amgvar samuSao
iaraRs, upirveles yovlisa, am sakiTxze skolis Sida po-
litika warmoadgens[18,63,79].
politikis SemuSaveba skolas saSualebas miscems,
erTi mxriv, Camoayalibos problemisa da misi gadawyvetis
gzebis xedva, principebi, miznebi, amocanebi _ erTgvarad,
dakvaliandes am sakiTxSi.
meore mxriv, politikis cxovrebaSi danergva skolis
usafrTxoebis sakiTxis garSemo saskolo Temis yvela su-
bieqtis gaerTianebas, zrunvis erToblivi meqanizmebis
SemuSavebasa da cxovrebaSi gatarebas Seuwyobs xels, rac
gazrdis skolis SeWidulobasa27[43] da Sesabamisad, gaa-
27 SeWiduloba _ socialur-fsiqologiuri cneba, aRniSnavs social-
uri erTobis SekavSirebulobis xarisxs: imas, Tu ramdenad axasi-
aTebs mas gaziarebuli faseulobebi, qcevis normebi da a S.
_ 140 _
mdidrebs mis socialur kapitals. es ki, rogorc zemoT
davinaxeT, erT-erTi yvelaze mZlavri damcavi faqtoria
avadmoxmarebis prevenciis saqmeSi.
roca fsiqoaqtiuri saSualebebis avadmoxmarebis
prevenciaze vsaubrobT, rogorc wignis pirvel nawilSi
aRvwereT, Sesabamisi muSaoba ar SeiZleba iyos agebuli
`negatiuris Tavidan acilebis~ midgomaze. es aramdgradi
midgomaa da amitom, ver iqneba efeqturi. prevencia gu-
lisxmobs, negatiuri movlenis sawinaaRmdegod, konstru-
qciuli alternativebis _ pozitiuris SeTavazebas. po-
zitiuris aSenebis procesSi, negatiuri, rogorc arami-
zaSewonili da sazriss moklebuli alternativa, bevrad
ufro efeqturad daiZleva.
zemoTqmulidan gamomdinare, fsiqoaqtiuri saSuale-
bebis avadmoxmarebis prevenciis skolis politika cxo-
vrebis jansaRi stilis filosofias unda efuZnebodes. aq
vgulisxmobT ara viwro gagebiT cxovrebis jansaR wess,
rogorc is xSirad mxolod fizkulturuli varjiSebis
kompleqssa Tu dacul seqsamde dahyavT, aramed humanis-
tur msoflmxedvelobas, romlis Tanaxmadac, erTi mxriv,
adamianis sicocxle _ ukve TavisTavadi faseulobaa; xolo
meore mxriv, cxovrebis jansaRi stili, jansaRi socia-
luri urTierTobebi da socialuri interesi28 _ adamianis
fsiqikuri janmrTelobis maCvenebelia[30].
amgvarad, farTo gagebiT cxovrebis jansaRi stilis
faseulobebia: adamianis sicocxle, janmrTeloba, sxeu-
lisa da sulis erTianoba, jansaRi urTierTobebi, eko-
logiuroba am sityvis pirdapiri da gadataniTi mniSvne-
lobiT, urTierTzrunva, tolerantoba da a.S. es yoveli-
ve, Tavis mxriv, efuZneba zogadsakacobrio, humanistur,
28 socialuri interesi da cxovrebis aqtiuri stili _ fsiqologiis
klasikosis, alfred adleris mixedviT, adamianis sulieri jan-
mrTelobis maCveneblebia da gulisxmobs aqtiur cxovrebiseul
pozicias sazogadoebis sakeTildReod.
_ 141 _
samoqalaqo fasulobebs. amgvari filosofia uzrunvel-
yofs skolas im pozitiuri midgomiT, rac aucilebelia
mavne Cvevebis Tavidan acilebaze zrunvisaTvis.
6.2. skolis politikis dokumentis SemuSavebis
principebi da procesi
imisaTvis, rom skolis politika iyos realisturi,
mdgradi, gaziarebuli da gaTavisebuli skolis ZiriTadi
subieqtebis (moswavleebi, mSoblebi, pedagogebi, skolis
administracia da sameTvalyureo sabWo) mier, igi unda
eyrdnobodes garkveul principebs. qvemoT SemogTava-
zebT am principebis aRweras da TiToeuli principisaT-
vis, misi cxovrebaSi gatarebis SesaZlo meqanizms:
_ saWiroebebis gaTvaliswinebis principi da misi ganxor-
cieleba. politika unda pasuxobdes im realur saWiroe-
bebs, rac arsebobs
skolis TemSi. ami-
tom, mis SemuSave-
bas win un da uZ-
Rodes skolis
saWiroebaTa Se-
faseba jansaRi
cxovrebis stilisa
da fsiqoaqtiuri
saSualebebis avad-
moxmarebis pre-
venciis Tval saz-
risiT. es mis real-
isturobasa da sas-
kolo TemisaTvis
sasargeblo obas
uzrunvelyofs.
_ 142 _
saWiroebebis Seswavla SesaZloa pedagogTa, moswav-
leTa, mSoblebisa da direqciis gamokiTxvis gziT. gamok-
iTxvis Casatareblad, Tu skolas saTanado finansuri
resursebi gaaCnia, SesaZloa, SeirCes miukerZoebeli
jgufi _ vTqvaT, Sesabamisi organizacia an eqsperti; Tu
skolas saamiso resursi ara aqvs, maSin mocemuli mini-
gamokvlevisaTvis pasuxismgeblobis delegireba Sesa-
Zloa moxdes skolis SigniT, am mizniT specialurad
arCeul mcire (2-3 kacian) jgufze, romelic Seecdeba
maqsimalurad miukerZoeblad gamokiTxos ZiriTadi subi-
eqtebi imis Taobaze, Tu (a) rogor afaseben isini skolaSi
saqmis viTarebas avadmoxmarebisa da cxovrebis jansaRi
stilis TvalsazrisiT, (b) risi Secvla miaCniaT mizanSe-
wonilad da (g) maTi azriT, rogor unda ganxorcieldes
es cvlileba. faqtobrivad ai, am sami kiTxvis pasuxebi
unda Segrovdes da gaanalizebul iqnas.
gamokiTxva konfidencialuri29 unda iyos. gamokiTx-
ulTa raodenoba TiToeuli subieqtisaTvis _ SemTx-
veviTobis principiT SerCeuli 10-15 piri (moswavleebi,
mSoblebi, pedagogebi) da direqciis 2-3 warmomadgeneli,
daaxloebiT 50 adamiani. es iqneba, rogorc ingliseli
mkvlevarebi uwodeben, `swrafi da WuWyiani~30 kvleva,
romelmac politikis SeqmnisaTvis garkveuli orientire-
bi unda gamoavlinos.
SesaZloa meore gzac _ TiToeulma klasis damrige-
belma wamoayenos fsiqoaqtiuri saSualebebis moxmarebis
prevenciis TvalsazrisiT, skolis gaZlierebis sakiTxi
mSobelTa krebaze da Tavis klasTan, moisminos da daafiq-
siros, Tu ra ideebi gamoiTqmeba am sakiTxze, miRebuli
informacia ganxilul iqnas pedkoleqtivis krebaze da
29 ar iqnas miTiTebuli, Tu konkretulad vin ra Tqva; sajaro ganx-
ilvis sagani mxolod Sejamebuli informacia unda iyos.
30 Quick and dirty _ inglisuri terminia, qarTulad, albaT, sityva `Ta-
Tariaxni~ gamoxatavs mis mniSvnelobas.
_ 143 _
Sesabamisad, moxdes SeTanxmeba politikis SemuSavebasa da
mis mimarTulebebze.
_ pasuxismgeblobebis delegirebis principi da misi
ganxorcieleba. mniSvnelovania, rom skolis politika-
ze pasuxismgebloba daekisros konkretul jgufs, raTa
misi marTva SesaZlebeli gaxdes. pedkoleqtivis krebaze
unda konsensusiT airCes 3-5 kaciani jgufi, romelmac
SemdgomSi unda marTos politikis SemuSavebisa da ganx-
orcielebis procesi. am jgufs SeiZleba skolis janm-
rTelobis jgufi vuwodoT, rogorc es SemogvTavaza
samxreT kavkasiis antinarkotikuli programis fargleb-
Si moqmedma eqspertTa sabWom31[18].
janmrTelobis jgufma unda aiRos pasuxismgebloba,
erTi mxriv, arsebuli kvlevis rezultatebis safuZ-
velze, politikis dokumentis pirveli versiis daweraze;
meore mxriv, am dokumentis Semdgomi daxvewis procesis
organizebaze. Semdgomi nabijebi gulisxmobs dokumentze
ZiriTadi subieqtebis ukukavSiris akrefas (damrigebleb-
is mier) da am informaciis safuZvelze, janmrTelobis
jgufis mier, dokumentisaTvis saboloo saxis micemas.
garda politikis dokumentis SemuSavebisa, janmrTe-
lobis jgufs ekisreba am politikis marTva: funqciebis
delegireba pedkoleqtivSi politikis ama Tu im kompo-
nentis Sesrulebaze, problemuri incidentebis marTvaze
da a.S.
31 samxreT kavkasiis antinarkotikuli programis farglebSi 2005-
2006 wlebSi moqmedma pirveladi prevenciis eqspertTa sabWom (sir-
bilaZe, T., javaxiSvili, m., kavTiaSvili, e., TodaZe, x., miqaZe, i.,
beruCaSvili, m., kandelaki, n., meifariani, T., doxnaZe, n.) sajaro
skolaSi pirveladi prevenciis sakiTxis mimarT miZRvnil saxelmZ-
RvaneloSi SemogvTavaza am jgufisaTvis `janmrTelobis jgufis~
saxelwodeba, rasac zedmiwevniT veTanxmebiT, radganac es moce-
muli jgufis muSaobis pozitiur mniSvnelobas usvams xazs.
_ 144 _
_ monawileobis principi da misi ganxorcieleba. poli-
tikis SeqmnaSi monawileobas unda iRebdes saskolo Temis
yvela ZiriTadi subieqti. es skolas miscems saSualebas,
gaiTvaliswinos yvela ZiriTadi subieqtis saWiroebebi
da interesebi, rac politikas mdgradobas SesZens. amas-
Tan erTad, monawileoba ZiriTad subieqtebs politikis
SemuSavebaSi Tavisi wvlilis Setanis saSualebas da Sesa-
bamisad, kuTvnilebis gancdas Seuqmnis.
wina paragrafSi aRwerili saWiroebebis kvlevaSi sko-
lis Temis monawileoba ukve qmnis, faqtobrivad, poli-
tikis SemuSavebis saqmeSi monawileobis precedents _ es,
ase vTqvaT, kargi startia da amgvarad unda gagrZeldes
politikis Semdgom etapebzec. politikis jgufis mier Se-
muSavebuli dokumentis pirveli varianti unda ganxilul
iqnas ZiriTadi subieqtebis mier _ es, SesaZloa, moxdes isev
klasis damrigebelTa daxmarebiT; moswavleebis, mSobleb-
isa da pedagogebis ukukavSiri unda gaTvaliswinebul iq-
nas dokumentisTvis saboloo saxis micemisas.
_ gamWvirvalobis principi da misi ganxorcieleba.
mniSvnelovania, rom politikis rogorc SemuSavebis,
aseve ganxorcielebisa da Sefaesebis procesi iyos gam-
Wvirvale: skolis janmrTelobis jgufi angariSval-
debuli unda iyos skolis direqciis, pedkoleqtivisa
da mSobelTa mimarT, rogorc politikis dokumentis
SemuSavebis, aseve misi skolis cxovrebaSi danergvis
saqmeSi. angariSvaldebuleba unda iyos rogorc gegmi-
uri (garkveuli regularobiT angariSis wardgenis gziT),
aseve, moTxovnis Sesabamisi: survilis SemTxvevaSi, sko-
lis nebismier subieqts unda SeeZlos miiRos informacia
misi moRvaweobis Taobaze.
_ konfidencialobis principi da misi ganxorcieleba.
gamWvirvalobis principis ganxorcielebis paralelurad,
_ 145 _
skolam unda uzrunvelyos im SemTxvevebis konfidencia-
lobis dacva, sadac muSaoba konkretuli moswavleebisa
da maTi ojaxebis problemebis gadawyvetaSi daxmarebaze
iqneba mimarTuli. ar SeiZleba am problemebis Taobaze
informaciis gasajaroveba, daxmareba unda midiodes kon-
fidencialobis principis mkacri dacviT.
_ moqnilobis principi da misi ganxorcieleba. fsiqoaq-
tiuri saSualebebis avadmoxmarebis saqmeSi moqmedi sk-
olis politika ar unda iyos xisti. politikis ganxor-
cielebis procesis erT-erTi mniSvnelovani mimarTuleba
unda iyos skolaSi, avadmoxmarebis problemis Tvalsaz-
risiT, situaciis monitoringi. pedagogebis, mSoblebisa da
moswavleebis mxridan Semosuli informaciis safuZvelze,
janmrTelobis jgufi unda axdendes axali saWiroebebis
gamovlenas da Sesworebebi Sehqondes politikis doku-
mentsa da Sesabamisad, strategiul kursSi; politikis
ganxorcielebis yoveli wlis dasasruls unda tardebodes
saWiroebaTa gamovlenis axali kvleva da Sesabamisad, ix-
vewebodes politika da misi ganxorcielebis meqanizmebi.
_ socialuri kapitalis kumulirebis principi da misi
ganxorcieleba. cxovrebis jansaRi stilisa da fsiqoaq-
tiuri saSualebebis avadmoxmarebis prevenciis Sida
saskolo politikis kursi unda mimarTuli iyos sko-
lis socialuri kapitalis ganviTarebaze _ samedicino,
fsiqologiuri, fsiqoTerapiuli, socialuri servisebis
organizaciebTan, socialur problemebsa da adamianis
uflebebis dacvaze momuSave organizaciebTan, sportul
federaciebTan, kulturis sferoSi moRvawe organiza-
ciebTan da sxva resursul uwyebebsa da profesiul Tu
sazogadoebriv gaerTianebebTan TanamSromlobis gziT.
_ 146 _
6.3. skolis politikis komponentebi
qvemoT aRvwerT, Tu ra da ra komponentebs, SesaZloa,
Seicavdes cxovrebis jansaRi stilisa da avadmoxmarebis
prevenciis saskolo politika da Sesabamisi dokumenti. es
CamonaTvali `moqnilia~ _ skolas, Tavisi saWiroebebis, pri-
oritetebis, faseulobebis mixedviT, SeuZlia airCios am
komponentebidan yvela, an zogierTi, an gamoaklos Tu daama-
tos sxva. skolis amocanaa sakuTari politikis SemuSaveba.
Cven mier qvemoT gadmocemuli versia mxolod nimuSia.
I. jansaRi skolis xedva saskolo Temis ZiriTadi sub-
ieqtebis mier
mocemuli komponenti aRwers imas, Tu saiT mi-
iswrafvis skola, rogori unda rom gaxdes:
_ moswavleebis mxridan pedagogebis xelSeyoba saswav-
lo da aRmzrdelobiTi procesis erovnuli saswavlo geg-
mis Sesabamisad, efeqturad da sainteresod warmarTvaSi;
_ pedagogebis mxridan moswavleebis xelSewyoba
erovnuli saswavlo gegmiT gaTvaliswinebuli codnisa
da unar-Cvevebis aTvisebaSi;
_ moswavleebis, mSoblebis, maswavleblebis, skolis
direqciisa da sameTvalyureo sabWos TanamSromloba
skolaSi jansaRi cxovrebis stilis damkvidrebaSi;
_ saskolo Temis yvela subieqtis mier erTmaneTis
Rirsebisa da adamianuri uflebebis pativiscema;
_ saskolo Temis subieqtebs Soris urTierTdaxmare-
ba da urTierTzrunva;
_ saskolo Temis yvela wevris mier saskolo disci-
plinis wesebisa da normebis dacva;
_ da a.S.: is, Tu sasurveli mdgomareobis ra formu-
lirebebi iqneba CarTuli skolis politikis dokumentis
am nawilSi, rogorc ukve vTqviT, damokidebulia skolis
faseulobebze, prioritetebsa da xedvaze, amitom zemoT
moyvanili CamonaTvali pirobiTia.
_ 147 _
II. sajaro skolaSi cxovrebis jansaRi stilis damkvi-
drebisa da fsiqoaqtiuri saSualebebis avadmoxmarebis
prevenciis politikis zogadi mizani:
es komponenti aRwers imas, Tu jansaRi cxovrebis
stilisa da avadmoxmarebis prevenciis politikis cx-
ovrebaSi gatarebiT, ra unda skolas, rom SesZinos qveya-
nas, sazogadoebas, raSi surs wvlilis Setana. magaliTi-
saTvis, moviyvanT Semdeg nimuSs:
_ qveynis sazogadoebaSi cxovrebis jansaRi stilis
damkvidreba.
SesaZloa nebismieri sxva formulirebac, romelic
skolis sakuTar Tavze muSaobas sazriss sZens _ es, isev
da isev, mis prioritetebzea damokidebuli.
III. sajaro skolaSi jansaRi cxovrebis stilis damkvi-
drebisa da fsiqoaqtiuri saSualebebis avadmoxmarebis
prevenciis politikis konkretuli mizani:
politikis konkretuli mizani SesaZloa Zalian la-
konurad JRerdes:
_ jansaRi skola
IV. sajaro skolaSi jansaRi cxovrebis stilis damkvi-
drebisa da fsiqoaqtiuri saSualebebis avadmoxmarebis
prevenciis politikis konkretuli amocanebi:
qvemoT daxasiaTebuli konkretuli amocanebi, faqto-
brivad, politikis ZiriTadi mimarTulebebia. isini, met-
naklebad, universaluria, ar icvleba skolidan skolamde:
imisTvis, rom cxovrebis jansaRi stilis damkvidreba mar-
Tos, skolas sWirdeba Sesabamisi wesebi; imisTvis, rom
fsiqoaqtiuri saSualebebis avadmoxmarebasTan dakavSire-
buli incidenti marTos, skolas sWirdeba Tavisi reagire-
bis strategiebis winaswari gaazreba; imisTvis, rom skolis
moswavleTa usafrTxoeba akontrolos, skolas sWirdeba
Tavisi fizikuri garemos dacva; imisTvis, rom jansaRi cx-
_ 148 _
ovrebis stilis damkvidreba da fsiqoaqtiuri saSualebe-
bis prevencia moaxdinos, skolas sWirdeba Sesabamisi so-
cialuri kapitali; imisTvis, raTa icodes, Tu ramdenad
efeqturia yvela am mimarTulebiT ganxorcielebuli
muSaoba, sWirdeba situaciis monitoringi. es yvelaferi
saerToa yvela skolisaTvis. magram is, Tu rogor gadaw-
yvets TiToeul am amocanas, damokidebulia, yovel konk-
retul skolaze, isev da isev, problemis miseul xedvaze,
prioritetebsa da faseulobebze. qvemoT gTavazobT Ti-
Toeuli amocanis Sesabamis rekomendaciebs.
IV.I. fsiqoaqtiur saSualebebTan dakavSirebuli saer-
To saTemo wesebis SemoReba da dacva
skolam Tavad unda gansazRvros, Tu fsiqoaqtiuri sa-
Sualebebis moxmarebis mxriv ra damcavi wesebi da qcevis
normebi unda SeimuSavos. Tumca, gamomdinare iqidan, rom,
rogorc mocemuli wignis pirvel nawilSi aRvwereT, Tam-
baqos SemTxvevaSi, ar arsebobs pasuxismgeblobiT moxmare-
ba, sasurvelia, rom skolis Temi mivides skolis terito-
riaze Tambaqos mowevis akrZalvis gadawyvetilebamde.
arsebuli praqtika
dReisaTvis sajaro skolaTa umravleso-
baSi situacia imgvaria, rom moswavleebisaT-
vis moweva skolis teritoriaze akrZalulia,
magram pedagogebisaTvis _ ara. marTalia,
arsebobs specialuri `mosawevi adgilebi~
da pedagogebi iq ewevian, magram moswavleebi
mainc arian amis mowmeni, rac cxovrebis jan-
saRi stilis damkvidrebaSi mniSvnelovani
xelis SemSleli faqtoria. sanam pedagogebi
ewevian, rTulia moswavleebTan Tambaqos
moxmarebis winaaRmdeg muSaoba.
_ 149 _
Tambaqos weva fsiqologiur Tu fizikur mijaWvulobas
gulisxmobs da mwevel pedagogebs ver vetyviT, rom we-
vas Tavi myisierad daanebon; magram realisturia, Tu amis
keTili neba arsebobs pedkoleqtivSi, daisaxos garkveuli
drois perspeqtiva, romlis periodSic skola gaxdeba _
aramweveli skola; mwevelma pedagogma Tu moswavlem an
unda moaxerxos Tavis danebeba am periodSi, an aRar mow-
ios skolaSi yofnis dros. es midgoma ar aris axali, igi
wlebis manZilze xorcieldeba dasavleTis qveynebSi.
amgvarad, sasurvelia, rom wesad Semovides skolis
teritoriaze (aq Semogarenic igulisxmeba) sigaretis mow-
evis akrZalva. aseve, unda moxdes SeTamnxmeba im sanqciebze,
rac am wesis darRvevis SemTxvevaSi daedeba damrRvevs.
igive iTqmis alkoholis moxmarebis Sesaxeb: aq zog-
adi wesi unda gulisxmobdes skolis teritoriaze al-
koholis moxmarebisa Tu nasvam mdgomareobaSi gamoCenis
akrZalvas; aseve, skolis Temma unda SeimuSavos alkoho-
lis reglamentirebis wesebi saerTo-saTemo zeimebisa Tu
socialuri TavyrilobebisaTvis; wesebis xasiaTi, isev da
isev, skolis xedvaze, prioritetebsa da arCevanzea damok-
idebuli. rogorc ukve vaCveneT wignis pirvel nawilSi,
mozardebis mier alkoholis avadmoxmareba, samecniero
kvlevis Tanaxmad, saqarTveloSi seriozul problemas
warmoadgens. am problemis mogvarebaSi wvlilis Setana
skolis mxridan mniSvnelovani da aucilebelia.
is, rom aralegaluri fsiqoaqtiuri saSualebebis
moxmareba dauSvebelia skolis teritoriasa Tu moswav-
leTa skolis gareT Sexvedrebis dros, TavisTavad igu-
lisxmeba, ramdenadac samarTaldarRvevas warmoadgens;
amitom, aq specifikuri wesis SemoReba aucileblobas ar
wardmoagens. magram, sasurvelia dafiqsirdes wesad, rom
fsiqoaqtiur saSualebasTan dakavSirebuli incidentis
SemTxvevaSi, mas marTavs janmrTelobis jgufi.
_ 150 _
IV.II. fsiqoaqtiur saSualebebTan dakavSirebuli
SemTxvevebis marTva
fsiqoaqtiur saSualebebTan dakavSirebuli incident-
ebisaTvis, janmrTelobis jgufs unda hqondes konkretu-
li strategiebi, romliTac is swraf reagirebas moaxdens
incidentSi CarTuli moswavlis/eebisa da mTlianad, sko-
lis Temis usafrTxoebis uzrunvelsayofad. `reagirebis
algoriTmis~ arseboba ar niSnavs, rom skola mas Tavidan
bolomde zustad unda mihyves _ situaciam, SesaZloa,
gansxvavebuli reagireba moiTxovos da am SemTxvevaSi,
janmrTelobis jgufi sakmarisad moqnili unda iyos, rom
imoqmedos saWiroebisda mixedviT. algoriTmis qonas, aq,
ufro simboluri mniSvneloba eniWeba: igi, erTi mxriv,
reagirebis principebis mudmivi Sexsenebaa da amdenad,
maTi dacvis erTgvari garantia, rac Zalian mniSvnelo-
vania. meore mxriv, reagirebis algoriTmis arseboba sko-
las TviTdarwmunebulobas Sematebs realuri incidentis
SemTxvevaSi, rac imis garantia, rom sirTuleebis sapa-
suxod adgili ar eqneba panikur Tu dabnevis reaqciebs.
es ki, maTi gadawyvetis aucilebeli pirobaa.
mniSvnelovania, rom moswavleebma, skolis politi-
kis gamWvirvalobis safuZvelze, windawin icodnen, Tu
rogori reagireba mohyveba ama Tu im incidents. qvemoT
gTavazobT potenciuri incidentebis CamonaTvals:
• moswavle gakveTilze fsiqoaqtiuri saSualebis
zemoqmedebis qveS imyofeba…
• erT-erTi pedagogisTvis gaxda cnobili, rom esa
da es moswavle aralegalur fsiqoaqtiur saSualebebs
regularulad moixmars…
• moswavles, skolis teritoriaze, SemTxveviT aR-
mouCines aralegaluri fsiqoaqtiuri saSualeba, CanTaSi…
• skolis teritoriaze ipoves nivTiereba, romelic
garegnulad narkotikul saSualebas hgavs…
• pedagogma skolis sardafSi ramdenime biWis regu-
_ 151 _
larulad Casvla SeniSna, Cavida iq, rodesac biWebi ar
iyvnen da webos ramdenime kolofi da polieTilenis pak-
etebi daxvda…
• ukve ramdenime gakveTilia, erT-erTi moswavle
araadeqvaturad iqceva _ pedagogs gauCnda eWvi, rom is
fsiqoaqtiur saSualebas iyenebs…
• pedagogs Seatyobines, rom skolis teritoriaze Se-
mosulia ucxo axalgazrda, romelic yidis raRac abebs…
• da a.S.
Cven ar daviwyebT yoveli situaciisaTvis reagirebis
algoriTmis Camoyalibebas _ es TiToeuli, calke aRe-
buli skolis, janmrTelobis jgufis saqmea. aq mxolod
im principebs CamovayalibebT, romliTac sasurvelia
xelmZRvanelobdes janmrTelobis jgufi, reagirebis
strategiebis dasaxvisas:
_ 152 _
incidentis marTvis principebi
_ upirveles yovlisa, unda vizrunoT moswav-
lis usafrTxoebaze: Tu gvgonia, rom is zemoqmede-
bis qveSaa (gakveTilze agznebulia, an piriqiT, zed-
metad relaqsirebuli, TavisTvis uCveulod metyve-
lebs, an sxva saxis simptomebi aqvs), mniSvnelovania
Tavi davizRvioT da saqmeSi CavrToT skolis eqimi;
_ Tu mdgomareoba eqimis gadaudebel Carevas
ar saWiroebs, aucilebelia moswavlesTan calke
saubari, imisTvis, rom gaverkveT problemaSi; gar-
da