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Tactical urbanism: Short-term action for long-term change

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Abstract

Short-term, community-based projects–from pop-up parks to open streets initiatives–have become a powerful and adaptable new tool of urban activists, planners, and policy-makers seeking to drive lasting improvements in their cities and beyond. These quick, often low-cost, and creative projects are the essence of the Tactical Urbanism movement. Whether creating vibrant plazas seemingly overnight or re-imagining parking spaces as neighborhood gathering places, they offer a way to gain public and government support for investing in permanent projects, inspiring residents and civic leaders to experience and shape urban spaces in a new way. Tactical Urbanism, written by Mike Lydon and Anthony Garcia, two founders of the movement, promises to be the foundational guide for urban transformation. The authors begin with an in-depth history of the Tactical Urbanism movement and its place among other social, political, and urban planning trends, and a detailed set of case studies demonstrate the breadth and scalability of tactical urbanism interventions. Finally, the book provides a detailed toolkit for conceiving, planning, and carrying out projects, including how to adapt them based on local needs and challenges. Tactical Urbanism will inspire and empower a new generation of engaged citizens, urban designers, land use planners, architects, and policymakers to become key actors in the transformation of their communities. © 2015 The Streets Plans Collaborative, Inc. All rights reserved.
... Given these distinctions, Tactical Urbanism falls within that category of Public Art that is not only art in public spaces, but also, and especially, art in the public sphere: a kind of art that raises social, political and economic issues and that is able to activate the public debate. In choosing art and culture as an engine for the regeneration and gentrification of urban spaces, it is fundamental to not consider the public space as an empty space to be filled with whatever work of art, and to consider citizenship as an active part of the aesthetic processes (Lydon, Garcia, 2015). As said, cultural projects have played an important role in urban regeneration since the mid-1980s, and nowadays the increasing interest in participatory arts programmes can be explained by their low-cost nature, that is flexible and responsive to local needs. ...
... In the realm of Public Art, we can consider Tactical Urbanism as a citizen's acquired right to design site-specific inter- Short-term Action for Long-term Change" (Lydon, Garcia, 2015) it is described as consisting of five pillars: ...
... It shows how, with little imagination and the resources at hand, cities can unlock the full potential of their streets" -Janette Sadik-Khan, 2015, Commissioner of the New York City Department of Transportation (2007-2013)The virtuous cycle that inspired Tactical Urbanism to flourish comes from a series of first temporary and then permanent urban experiments. New York City was the first metropolis to experiment with tactical urbanism projects, even before the expression was coined byLydon and Garcia (2015). The pedestrianisation of Times Square(Fig. 1) and the introduction of walkable plazas, by Janette Sadik-Khan, are two examples. ...
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It is becoming clearer nowadays how space and time in the contemporary city still are designed, organized and governed mainly according to the needs of an ideal type of inhabitant: adult, male, healthy, rich, educated and self-provided. This archetype, however, is as dominant as poorly representative of the real communities living in the cities. Therefore, it is time to recognize the dysfunctionality of the conventional urban planning rules and procedures, and the urgent need to rethink the role of urban design, which has to become a tool for citizens’ self-determination. The leading role of every inhabitant has to rise, especially the ones that are usually harder to involve in the discussion, like women, elderly, children, people with disabilities and marginalized communities. Learning from the experience of the most disadvantaged will lead to the inspiration and empowerment of a new generation of engaged citizens, new key actors in the transformation of their communities. This process demands re-making the city by micro-transforming and taking care of the spaces and services located below people's homes, on a neighbourhood scale. Consequently, in this socio-cultural context, urban art and acts play a key role. Creative Activism and the so-called Tactical Urbanism have positive outcomes because they take “small” efforts in terms of expenses and completion time, and yet are able to unleash virtuous mechanisms, and reactivate the potential inherent in the social interaction, creating a wide wave of positive change towards safety and integration. Considering the temporary and reversible nature of these actions, they are continuously subjected to evaluation by the citizens themselves, establishing a real social and viable impact, consequently leading to decisions on what to make effectively permanent. Participatory art has the ability to transform the living environment, regardless of whether it is a small town in the suburbs or a neighbourhood in a large metropolis. Looking at case studies such as “Mural activism: Breaking the walls of gender inequality” a project by the UN Women Organization, or the “Favela Painting” by Jeroen Koolhaas and Dre Urhahn, it’s easy to understand how these artistic practices improved the living conditions of undeveloped or underdeveloped areas. In this paper we want to highlight how Tactical Urbanism methods can have a big impact even in highly developed realities, focusing our attention on the city of Milan, in Italy. The municipality has given life to experimental interventions of urban requalification, through initiatives put in place by citizens and associations, like the projects "Piazze Aperte", or “TréntaMi in Verde”, reviving busy public spaces, taking space away from the dominance of cars, creating new open street meeting places for youths and increasing security for pedestrians and cyclists. Case studies like the regeneration of the area outside Parco Trotter, the newly designed Piazza Dergano, or the No.Lo. neighbourhood are perfect to highlight how creative activism is effective in transforming areas traditionally considered problematic, through short-term, community-based projects, that have the power to drive lasting improvements in the city. Keywords: Creative Activism, Tactical Urbanism, Social Change, Urban Regeneration, Citizens, Community
... Taktiksel kentleşme, kent sorunlarının iyileştirilmesinde küçük ölçekli, düşük maliyetli eylemler üreten ve mekânın şekillendirilmesinde geçici çözümler geliştirerek uzun vadeli değişimi kurgulayabilen bir süreçtir (Alisdairi, 2014;Berg, 2012;Camponeschi, 2010;Colinday, 2018;Dube, 2009;Lara-Hernandez ve Melis, 2018;Lydon ve Garcia, 2015;Purcell, 2008;Silva, 2016). Aynı zamanda kentlerde kullanılabilir mekân ve araziler yaratması açısından yerel odaklı bir yenileme türü olarak tanımlanmaktadır (Derslandes, 2013;Marshall, Duvall ve Main, 2016). ...
... Aynı zamanda kentlerde kullanılabilir mekân ve araziler yaratması açısından yerel odaklı bir yenileme türü olarak tanımlanmaktadır (Derslandes, 2013;Marshall, Duvall ve Main, 2016). Kentsel mekânlarda estetiği iyileştirmesi, kentsel açık alanların çekiciliğini ve işlevselliğini geliştirmesi ve yaşanabilir mekânlar elde etmek için de yardımcı araç olduğu ifade edilmektedir (Lydon ve Garcia, 2015;Talen, 2014). Aynı zamanda ölçeklenebilir ve izin alınmadan yapılabilir bir küresel hareket (Bermann ve Marinaro, 2014;Tavares, 2016) olma özelliği nedeniyle de kentsel tasarım ve planlama süreçlerinde önem taşımaktadır. ...
... Şekil 2. (Lydon ve Garcia, 2015) yararlanarak yazarlar tarafından hazırlanmıştır. ...
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z Kentsel açık alanların taktiksel kentleşme uygulamaları ile müşterekleşme sürecinin değerlendirilmesi üzerine olan bu çalışmanın amaçları; kentleşmeye bağlı olarak değişen kentsel ihtiyaçların karşılanmasında taktiksel kentleşme yaklaşımını incelemek, kolektif üretim sonucunda mekânsal algının değişim sürecini müşterek mekân çerçevesinde değerlendirmek ve yaklaşımın kentsel açık alanlarda uygulanmasına yönelik literatüre girdi sağlamaktır. Çalışmada, artan nüfus ve yapılaşmayla önem kazanan kentsel açık alanları taktiksel kentleşmenin nasıl etkilediği, Kartal Meydan Parkı'nın diğer açık alanlara göre farklılıkları ve alanın mevcut sorunlarına taktiksel kentleşmenin çözüm olup olmayacağı incelenmiştir. Belirlenen temel parametreler üzerinden toplum-kent-çevre ilişkileri ve kentsel açık alanların müşterek mekâna hangi ilkelerle dönüşebileceği sorgulanmıştır. Çalışmanın yöntemi, yapılan literatür çalışmaları ile kentsel açık alanın taktiksel kentleşme olarak değerlendirilmesine yönelik kriterlerin tanımlanması, seçilen alanın bu kriterlere göre fiziki boyut, mekânsal analizler, insani boyutta nitel gözlemlerle değerlendirilmesi ve geçici yaklaşımların mekânı kalıcı biçimde müşterekleştirmesine yönelik taktiksel kentleşme uygulama örneklerinin oluşturulan müşterek mekân kategorilerine göre incelenmesidir. Bu çalışma kapsamı ve sonuçlarıyla, kentsel açık alanların planlanmasında taktiksel kentleşmenin bir araç olarak kullanılabilmesi, daha yaşanılabilir mekânların tasarlanması için açık alanlara yaklaşımı, toplumsal farkındalık ve bilincin oluşturulmasında müşterek mekân etkisinin anlaşılması açısından veri olarak değerlendirilebilir niteliktedir. Anahtar Kelimeler Kentsel açık alan, müşterek mekân, taktiksel kentleşme.
... Therefore, small-scale bottom-up initiatives should be seen as at least "urban catalysts" and be given a chance to scale up their effects [27]. "Tactical urbanism," which is short-term and small-scale by definition, might be efficient and sustainable only when "breaking through the gridlock of what we call the Big Planning process ( . . . ) while never losing sight of long-term and large-scale goals" [28], p. 4. ...
... A simple way to reduce the complexities and "uncertainties" of planning, it was claimed, was to reduce the planning scale [31,68]. Twenty-first-century urban discourse has been dominated by urban ideas such as Everyday [69], Situational [70], Tactical or Guerrilla [28], Agile [71], Pop-up [72], and DIY [73] urbanisms, not to mention the most telling one: Urban Acupuncture [74]. All of these concepts focus their attention on individual places and short timelines-they are all small plans, but just a whole lot of them [75]. ...
... In this sense, even tiny deeds such as the act of planting flowers in public spaces are considered actions of great importance to the urban landscape [73]. Urban guerrillas [28] and urban hackers [81] have pursued this approach deliberately, often acting outside the law, applying methods from the fields of street art (e.g., graffiti), gardening (e.g., seed bombs), and performance, thereby undermining traditional urban planning and development rules and procedures. This has already become a global phenomenon [82,83]. ...
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Amongst various urban crises, some fundamental ones require long-term policies and large-scale developments to be effectively mitigated. Since multiple government-led large-scale projects raised more and more public opposition, the question whether such grand endeavors can be approached by citizen-driven initiatives became urgent. However, large-scale urban planning issues are still believed to be too big, too complex, and too difficult to be solved from the bottom up. This paper examines such recurring belief—here termed the “scale compromise”—and conceptualizes it across two essential dimensions of urban planning: spatial and political. The scale compromise is presented twofold, as each side of the compromise is embedded within a separate strand of urban planning practice: large-scale urban planning as traditionally associated with the authority-led approach, and citizen-driven urbanism as traditionally linked with locality. Regarding each approach, respectively, the causes, consequences, and difficulties of the scale compromise are discussed from both perspectives. Finally, by breaking down the resulting compromise across three integral aspects of planning—the socio-economic, organizational, and technical—the “scale compromise” conceptual framework indicates three scale-related challenges. Accordingly, this paper argues why all the three challenges must be met concurrently, as failing at one squanders the efforts made for the others. Finally, some recent experience in the development of urban greenway projects in the U.S. are discussed as promising points of reference for dealing with the scale compromise and for seeking new solutions to fundamental urban crisis.
... There are different ways to describe temporary use operations: hand-made interventions, doit-yourself (DIY) actions, citizen-led initiatives, tactical interventions, temporary urbanisms, self-organization initiatives, forms of collective action, and provisional, interim, or insurgent public space appropriations (see Gadanho, 2014;Hou, 2010;Lydon & Garcia, 2015;Madanipour, 2017;Rosa & Weiland, 2013). Some of the terms emphasise the role of the agents driving the change, others highlight the forms of making the city or their temporary character. ...
... In contrast, others argue it emerges from the discomfort of citizens about their relationship with the city production (Álvarez Lombardero & González de Canales, 2017). Some scholars claim that this paradigm is emerging as an alternative response to conventional urban design projects, which usually take more time for implementation (Lydon & Garcia, 2015). ...
... The temporary use literature certainly overlaps with the one of unused spaces; however, only some of the literature stretches more emphasis to this connection. The wide range of concepts used to denominate the transient use of spaces are among others: "interim uses" (Colomb, 2012;Haydn & Temel, 2006); "transitional spaces" (Mady, 2012;Webster & Lai, 2003); "borrowed spaces" (Smith, 2014); "temporary use" (Colomb, 2012;Haydn & Temel, 2006;Madanipour, 2017;Oswalt et al., 2013;Temporiuso, 2009Temporiuso, -2012; "temporary urbanism" (Andres & Zhang, 2020;Andres & Zhang, 2017;Ferreri, 2015;Madanipour, 2017;Overmeyer, 2007;Tardiveau & Mallo, 2014), "tactical urbanism" 26 (Brenner, 2017;Gadanho, 2014;Lydon & Garcia, 2015;Webb, 2018;Wohl, 2018),"DIY urbanism" (Fabian & Samson, 2016;Finn, 2014;Sawhney et al., 2015;Spataro, 2016), "hand-made urbanism" (Rosa & Weiland, 2013), "insurgent urbanism" (Hou, 2010) and "collective actions" 27 (Álvarez Lombardero & González de Canales, 2017;Sawhney et al., 2015) -among others. Whereas some terminologies emphasize the idea of impermanent use, others focus on the discipline of urbanism, in the agents driving the actions or in the process of making space. ...
Thesis
Through this study, I investigate the making of temporary spatial practices in the city of Santiago, Chile. I approach those as experimental actions driven by a multiplicity of actors: citizens, civic organizations, and government bodies, conceived to last for some time and determined by a will to produce transformative changes in the city. The wide variety of practices reverberating across different geographies, spaces and scales are bringing fresh prominence to the contemporary debate on public space. However, the topic, widely explored in European and North American cities has been less studied in the Latin American context, and specifically, in Chile, where this research focuses. I reflect critically on the ambiguous character of such temporal operations and their discourses: such practices could defy dominant forms of power in the production of space and could align, through their values and relations, to the structures of power by becoming complicit with forms of capital accumulation. Inquiring about how such practices challenge the making of contemporary public space, I assume that these practices could challenge the production and meaning of ‘the public’ in the city. Therefore, I draw attention to how their making makes the ‘public’, by emphasising the differentiating character of these practices and their political dimension. I interpret such temporary operations through a political lens, for exploring their contradictions and their possibilities to confront the presumed stability and predicted desirability of the contemporary city project. This research is theoretically and methodologically positioned at the crossover between urban design and social science. For framing the theoretical and analytical limits of the research question, I propose to use the locution ‘temporary urban’ which brings together the interrelated dimensions of time, use, and the public. Using an interpretive paradigm of qualitative research, I explore the controversial relationships between temporary spatial practices and the neoliberal urban project of the city of Santiago. Empirically, such examination is driven by an analysis that focuses on the meanings and values that different actors bring to the urban discourse and on the relationships established among them, exploring the contested and changeable power interplay among agents of city-making.
... Over the last few years, informal interventions spontaneously initiated by citizens have become increasingly popular. "Guerrilla", "tactical", "pop-up" and "DIY" urbanism are some of the terms coined to describe this trend (Finn, 2014;Iveson, 2013;Lydon et al., 2015;Hou, 2010). There are some few links between such projects. ...
... Tactical urbanism Lydon et al. (2015) stresses that interventions in cities should go beyond a merely superficial level and have an underlying goals. For example, yarn bombing has a rather decorative character that might involve a degree of appropriation but not a long-term change. ...
... For example, yarn bombing has a rather decorative character that might involve a degree of appropriation but not a long-term change. Lydon et al. (2015) coined the term "tactical urbanism" as a way to describe scattered interventions that nevertheless have underlying long-term visions to transform the city. His idea is that small-scale actions do contribute to achieving a larger purpose, however, with a dynamic that is radically different from that of public departments, which often act in a slow and isolated manner. ...
Thesis
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The current thesis presents research about new methods of citizen participation based on digital technologies. The focus on the research lies on decentralized methods of participation where citizens take the role of co-creators. The research project first conducted a review of the literature on citizen participation, its origins and the different paradigms that have emerged over the years. The literature review also looked at the influence of technologies on participation processes and the theoretical frameworks that have emerged to understand the introduction of technologies in the context of urban development. The literature review generated the conceptual basis for the further development of the thesis. The research begins with a survey of technology enabled participation applications that examined the roles and structures emerging due to the introduction of technology. The results showed that cities use technology mostly to control and monitor urban infrastructure and are rather reluctant to give citizens the role of co-creators. Based on these findings, three case studies were developed. Digital tools for citizen participation were conceived and introduced for each case study. The adoption and reaction of the citizens were observed using three data collection methods. The results of the case studies showed consistently that previous participation and engagement with informal citizen participation are a determinining factor in the potential adoption of digital tools for decentralized engagement. Based on these results, the case studies proposed methods and frameworks that can be used for the conception and introduction of technologies for decentralized citizen participation.
... This method of urban development brings communities together to discuss the merits of a space by acting upon the discussions and bringing about change. There is no requirement for the interventions to be grand or expensive as TU is intended to be an accessible form of community building and enhancement [1]- [3]. This form of revitalization highlights the grassroots, bottom-up approach, which emphasizes new perspectives and has the potential to transform the way individuals navigate and approach the city. ...
... Although many may not have been well-versed in the concept, what they were doing is now recognized as Tactical Urbanism (TU). Mike Lydon and Anthony Garcia coined the term Tactical Urbanism as "an approach to neighbourhood building and activation using short-term, low-cost, and scalable interventions and policies" [3]. TU was born out of people appropriating their surroundings, creating unintended uses, outcomes, and events in particular spaces [2]. ...
... TU was born out of people appropriating their surroundings, creating unintended uses, outcomes, and events in particular spaces [2]. It responds directly to how a space can be perceived and recognizes that what may take place in one location in a city does not translate to another part due to cultural and social nuances within larger populations [3]. Many supporters of TU take the bottom-up approach to this process where they introduce unsanctioned concepts that are developed by reimagining a space [3]. ...
... As cities have become denser and their functional programmes more variable, rather than implementing large-scale transformations unable to deal effectively with the dynamics of contemporary urban developments, smaller "urban catalysts" have pervasively become a preferred mode of intervention for public space building and activation (Oswalt, Overmeyer, and Misselwitz, 2013). Similar to what Vos has observed in the context of Southeast Europe (this volume), these "tactical" modes of intervention have arisen as a counterpart to a classic and strategic notion of planning in the form of everyday and bottom-up approaches to local problems, making use of short-term, low-cost, and scalable interventions and policies (Lydon and Garcia, 2015). ...
... The studio, in other words, decided to develop a spatial device that could have a strong and direct visual character, which people could easily relate to without directly referring to the neighbourhood identity. The creation of a neutral background -which was open for interpretation -was thought of as a scenography for people to build their own narration and claim their role as protagonists belonging to that place (Lydon and Garcia, 2015). All of this was realized through the stylized shape of a small "iceberg", which emerged from the first design phase and guided the whole production of the intervention towards the materialization of a somehow inhabitable sculpture which could offer many possibilities of use: both constituting a sort of entertainment on its own by engaging people on and around its physical configuration and opening a dialogue with citizens aimed at reviving their interest across the whole site. ...
... Les pratiques et interventions des résidents, souvent à très petites échelles (Iveson, 2013 ;Talen, 2015), s'y intégreraient aussi dans leur dimension transformative d'un espace de vie, sans mobiliser l'urbanisme formel. Pour M. Lydon et A. Garcia (2015) cette forme d'urbanisme aurait toujours existé : « the city and placemaking process we now call tactical urbanism is not [new]. Indeed, the development of human settlements has always included, if not required, incremental and self-directed action aimed towards increasing social capital, commercial opportunity and urban livability. ...
... Ces actions se rapprochent par essence de la définition des politiques urbaines alternatives de V. Béal et M. Rousseau (2014), entendues comme « l'ensemble des initiatives, des démarches ou des projets soutenus par des municipalités et qui cherchent à organiser un développement urbain s'éloignant des canons de l'entrepreneurialisme » (:5). M. Lydon et A. Garcia (2015) considèrent d'ailleurs que cette implication spontanée et directe des citadins à la fabrique de la ville pourrait conduire à un « réinvestissement civique ». Pour P. Nédelec (2017), ce qui fait leur originalité, c'est que « ce mouvement de fond d'actions individuelles (bottomup) n'est pas constitué en réponse à un projet urbain ou à une politique publique d'aménagement imposé dans une logique descendante (top-down), mais bien une force de proposition de la part de citadins désirant prendre en charge eux-mêmes la fabrique de la ville » (:102-103). ...
Thesis
A recherche vise à mettre en évidence les effets d’un renouvellement de l’urbanisme participatif, par les expérimentations de médiation urbaine numérique instrumentées, sur l’intégration des jeunes dans la fabrique de la ville. Dans le contexte d’une double injonction à participer et à co-produire la ville adressée aux habitants, nous interrogeons l’intégration de la jeunesse dans le champ de l’urbanisme participatif comme le signe d’une recomposition de la notion de participation et de sa mise en œuvre sur le territoire. Nous questionnons, dans le même temps, l’effet de la généralisation des expérimentations numériques dans ce processus. La jeunesse constitue, dans cette recherche, le prisme employé pour identifier les référentiels qui sous-tendent l’action publique en faveur d’une démocratie participative dans le cadre du projet urbain. Le travail de terrain, fondé à la fois sur la conduite d’expérimentations et deux enquêtes par entretien, a permis d’étudier concrètement comment les jeunes s’engagent en situation participative, mettant en évidence que les situations de co-production doivent être étudiées à l’interface de plusieurs champs, en mobilisant des approches conceptuelles et disciplinaires complémentaires. Finalement, cette thèse invite à renouveler et multiplier les approches de la participation par la médiation, en ce qu’elles permettent de mettre au jour la complexification et la pluralisation des formes d’engagement dans un triple mouvement d’esthétisation, de généralisation des expérimentations, et d’instrumentation qui traverse l’ensemble des territoires.
... All Innovating Streets funded projects were supported to follow tactical urbanism and co-design principles. Tactical urbanism uses temporary, lower-cost materials to test infrastructure interventions (Dube, 2009;Lydon & Garcia, 2015;Waka Kotahi NZTA, 2020a). The approach provides a relatively low-risk and low-cost way to more quickly deliver change benefits, learn through doing, and inform decision making. ...
... Temporary materials can allow for faster, more costeffective installation (Dube, 2009;Lydon & Garcia, 2015), however, the evaluation found that these can also stoke community opposition. This was particularly the case when the aesthetic, quality, or durability of materials came into question. ...
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The Innovating Streets for People programme supported street space reallocation to enhance the safety, accessibility, and liveability of streets throughout Aotearoa New Zealand. The programme supported the use of tactical urbanism and co-design practices to more easily and quickly deliver temporary solutions that demonstrate and build support for change, bring forward benefits, and enhance permanent solutions. Innovating Streets for People funding (2020-21) supported the delivery of 62 temporary walking and cycling projects across Aotearoa. Approximately 89km of interim street treatments were delivered, including cycleways, safe crossings, parklets, and traffic calming. A mixed-method evaluation showed that Innovating Streets for People projects can accelerate a range of benefits, including safety and accessibility improvements and more supportive environments for active travel. A focus on continuous improvement, sector capability, and addressing system constraints, is needed to realise further programme potential. How evaluation and practice-based learning from Innovating Streets for People has been integrated within the design of the 2021-24 Streets for People Programme, and how responses are expected to support intended outcomes, are discussed.
... This is often generated from direct community participation or the creative performance of formal entities such as non-profit organizations, developers, and governments in creating and activating the built environment. These approaches collectively lead to changes over time such that a short-term action creates long-term change (Lydon, Garcia, and Duany 2015). ...
... This idea leads to the discussion on local resilience and also assists in the joint urgent exploration of the potential of the area according to urban development nuances. The approach predicts long-term transformation and the possibility of adapting to unascertainable changing conditions (Lydon, Garcia, and Duany 2015). Meanwhile, the attraction observed indicates the local resilience of the community in interpreting street space as a place. ...
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The informal aspect of daily activities plays a role in shaping the quality of urban architectural design. This is due to the fact that public open space has become a place for all community-based informal activities, thereby, making the public-private sphere a collective spectrum and using the outdoor as a common space for all. These activities, however, have the ability to create a sense of belonging to the urban community towards a place even though they are temporary. An example of this is the Semarang Chinatown area which is a street space being used as a living outdoor space (sense of place). Therefore, this study was conducted to understand the character of the outdoor living room in the street space through the sense of place dimension. This involved using qualitative methods through field observation data to identify the place identity, place attachment, and place dependence. The findings showed that the informal activities reviewed through the sense of place dimension shape the character of the outdoor living room in the street space and this is expected to increase the quality of the street as a public open space in the Semarang Chinatown area.
... Lydon and Garcia [53] define 'tactical urbanism' as an approach to neighbourhood building and activation using short-term, low-cost, and scalable interventions and policies. In this context, Coyle [27] describes tactical urbanism as a minimal-expense intervention, broadly accessible and adaptable materials, items, and constructions to rapidly make new types of shared spaces of any size. ...
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Several urban agendas related to different urban spaces in cities are documented in the global literature. This research explores social interactions in voids between buildings using tactical urbanism. As part of this study, we examine changes in perceptions of the use of spaces between buildings by comparing critical differentiation factors before and after the outbreak of COVID-19. We conducted an online survey for three months among residents in Egypt using a comparative method based on personal, residential, and district characteristics. The results revealed that during and after the COVID-19 pandemic, the spaces between buildings played a critical role. According to the conclusion, tactical urbanism, rapid and low-cost intervention, material availability, and small-scale pop-ups are essential for reducing the adverse effects of COVID-19. These findings confirmed that the longer the outbreak persisted, the more planning shifted to smaller public spaces within walking distance, resulting in long-term activities rather than large areas of land being planned.
... Elle invite par exemple à considérer l'action aménagiste à la façon d'une grille d'accords, c'est-à-dire comme une grille stratégique donnant des orientations, une tonalité, tout en laissant place non seulement à l'interprétation mais à la création (par opposition à une partition planifiée qu'il ne resterait qu'à exécuter). On trouve dans les écrits sur l'urbanisme tactique (Lydon, 2011 ;Rebar, 2011), du moins dans sa doctrine originelle, une construction théorique intéressante pour aller dans ce sens, toutefois à l'échelle de la construction de la ville et des territoires, la question de la formalisation des savoirs et savoirfaire associés à l'action improvisée et de leur transmission doit être pensée différemment. ...
... La Walking House of Cultures si potrebbe definire dunque un'esperienza di urbanismo tattico (Lydon & Garcia 2015), in cui ogni individuo è chiamato a intervenire sul proprio territorio di appartenenza in modo attivo e propositivo: "l'idea è che tutti agiscano per apportare modifiche all'ambiente costruito; tutti possono essere costruttori di città" (Simpson 2015). Tuttavia, l'esperienza della Walking House of Cultures fa un passo avanti in questo senso. ...
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Il contributo delle discipline umanistiche si rivela oggi più che mai essenziale per poter leggere e interpretare la complessità del mondo contemporaneo. Le molteplici crisi che hanno segnato la storia moderna e contemporanea hanno fatto (ri)emergere pericolose narrative di esclusione che intellettuali ed artisti si sono sentiti chiamati a decostruire. A fronte di diverse forme di marginalizzazione, pratiche di censura e di disuguaglianza sociale, la produzione culturale e artistica ha tentato di (ri)costruire nuove forme di solidarietà e di offrire nuove prospettive di miglioramento comune. Il numero 2/2022 della rivista DIVE-IN-An International Journal on Diversity and Inclusion contiene otto contributi, uniti dal fil rouge dell'inclusione, che offrono una interessante panoramica dei tentativi di (ri)costruzione che si articolano in diversi campi espressivi a varie latitudini geografiche e tematico-disciplinari. Il primo contributo, di Fernanda Fischione, è un viaggio nel campo ancora in gran parte inesplorato dell'industria discografica araba indipendente, volto in particolare a decostruire il paradigma della music of resistance. L'autrice mostra infatti quanto questo paradigma, oltre a sottostimare le funzioni estetiche e di intrattenimento delle produzioni musicali, riguardi spesso solo un'élite localmente percepita come occidentalizzata e risulti pertanto escludente nei confronti di artisti e generi musicali non impegnati politicamente, rappresentando per molti artisti una ennesima forma di potere cui resistere. Al contempo, anche attraverso una precisa ricostruzione della storia dell'industria discografica araba dalle origini ad oggi, Fischione mette in
... Jednocześnie te interwencje, polegające na sprytnym planowaniu i manewrowaniu, często okazują się niezwykle skuteczne. Właśnie dlatego motto urbanizmu taktycznego brzmi: "Krótkoterminowe działania -długoterminowa zmiana" (Short--term action, long-term change) (Lydon et al., 2012). Należy wszakże podkreślić, że nazwa urbanizm taktyczny bywa błędnie używana, kiedy określa się nią wszelkie niskobudżetowe, tymczasowe interwencje. ...
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Współczesne oblicze urbanistyki, które ma swoje źródła w krytyce zjawisk obserwowanych w miastach od przełomu lat 50. i 60. XX wieku, jest niejednorodne. W praktyce zawodowej oraz w dyskusjach akademickich zazębiają lub ścierają się ze sobą różne podejścia do projektowania urbanistycznego. W konsekwencji, struktury przestrzenne miast są w tym samym czasie uzupełniane realizacjami urbanistycznymi wychodzącymi z nurtów o różnych założeniach i metodykach. Wydaje się jednak, że w literaturze przedmiotu brakuje stosownego przeglądu i klasyfikacji tych nurtów. Celem rozdziału jest zatem przedstawienie, porównanie i sklasyfikowanie wybranych nurtów urbanistyki, które wyłoniły się i zostały upowszechnione w ostatnich dekadach po obu stronach Północnego Atlantyku. Uwaga skierowana jest w szczególności na nowy urbanizm, urbanizm krajobrazowy oraz urbanizm „zrób to sam”. Rozdział wyjaśnia źródła, które stały za zarysowaniem się wskazanych nurtów. Przedstawia ich najważniejsze założenia, a także ilustruje je przykładami zrealizowanych projektów urbanistycznych. Przeprowadzona analiza doprowadziła do identyfikacji dwóch kluczowych osi rozgraniczających nurty urbanistyki współczesnej pod względem doktrynalnym i metodycznym. Pierwsza z tych osi to STRUKTURA vs PROCES, pozwalająca odróżnić efekty zorientowane na stworzenie nowej formy lub uruchomienie nowych działań w miastach. Druga oś to TAKTYKA vs STRATEGIA, która pozwala odróżnić drobne, oddolne interwencje urbanistyczne od wielkich inwestycji realizowanych odgórnie. Rozdział kończy się wskazaniem, iż przyszłe oblicze urbanistyki będzie zmierzało w kierunku synkretycznego łączenia założeń i metod różnych nurtów.
... Uma dessas maneiras consiste no uso de estratégias de urbanismo tático 11 , que são basicamente iniciativas capitaneadas pela classe criativa e pautadas na cultura de placemaking. Essas ações são caracterizadas como intervenções no espaço urbano no estilo bottom-up, partindo da apropriação e ressignificação de espaços abandonados ou subutilizados de forma conjunta e colaborativa, por meio de intervenções artísticas, e criação de mobiliário urbano e de espaços como bosques, parques e hortas comunitárias (Lydon & Garcia, 2015;Santana, 2016;Fantini, 2018). Em Curitiba, um dos precursores do urbanismo insurgente foi o movimento "Salvemos o Bosque da Casa Gomm". ...
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A política da cidade de Curitiba em relação à agricultura urbana é destacada como caso de sucesso no Brasil, mas há na cidade outros movimentos em torno do tema que partem da sociedade civil. O presente estudo teve por objetivo identificar e caracterizar as diferentes categorias de praticantes de agricultura urbana em Curitiba. Para tal, foi realizada uma pesquisa descritiva mediante análise bibliográfica e documental. Primeiramente, foram levantados os principais aspectos do Programa Municipal de Hortas Comunitárias e o perfil dos seus beneficiários. Observou-se que as atividades se concentram nas áreas periféricas da cidade, e a maioria dos participantes possui renda familiar mensal de até 2 salários mínimos. Também foram mapeadas outras duas categorias de praticantes: a primeira conforma uma comunidade epistêmica, cuja reivindicação de uso do espaço urbano para práticas de agricultura urbana deu origem à Lei Municipal de Agricultura Urbana de Curitiba. Há também aqueles que têm na agricultura seu meio de reprodução social, mas que apresentam tendência ao desaparecimento em virtude da expansão urbana sobre áreas antes rurais. Assim, apesar da ampla gama de atores que desenvolvem essas práticas em todo o território, sua visibilidade e inserção na agenda política ocorrem de maneira assimétrica.
... United under the core principles of community vision, cost-effectiveness, collaboration, and citizen-led change, this exciting movement goes by many names-action-planning, guerrilla urbanism, popup projects, city repair, D.I.Y. Urbanism, and Tactical Urbanism (Bazzu and Talu 2017;Lydon and Garcia 2015). All are seen as important tools and catalysts for larger community-based placemaking processes (Gildner et al. 2014). ...
Chapter
This chapter introduces the definition of the social dimension of public places; it sheds light on the two poles of the influence of the physical environment on human behaviour as well as the human agency and social influences on urban spaces. Moreover, it brings sociability to the fore as one identifiable attribute of successful public places as discussed in the previous chapter, the cultural and economic influences on the liveability of public spaces, as well as the weight of public life as identified by observation of the occurrence of cultural activities and social events. This chapter intentionally raises the questions of sociability’s impact on public life and users’ activities, whether it affects the public space or shapes the public space, especially green spaces.KeywordsPlacemakingUrban designSociabilityUrban regeneration
... United under the core principles of community vision, cost-effectiveness, collaboration, and citizen-led change, this exciting movement goes by many names-action-planning, guerrilla urbanism, popup projects, city repair, D.I.Y. Urbanism, and Tactical Urbanism (Bazzu and Talu 2017;Lydon and Garcia 2015). All are seen as important tools and catalysts for larger community-based placemaking processes (Gildner et al. 2014). ...
Chapter
The focus of this chapter is to identify the definitions of public spaces and the role they play in daily life, whether cultural or social. In addition to that, the chapter aims to analyse placemaking as an approach “in practice” to better regenerate public spaces in contemporary cities, and how the different implementation techniques and strategies used for placemaking have proven to provide diverse economic and social results. Thus, placemaking is not an easy topic to wrestle with; the implementation policies differ widely between European and US contexts. Definitions are tricky and fundamentally intertwined with the execution level to which strategies lead, whether that be a top-down approach from a governmental agency or a bottom-up approach from grassroots or citizen movements.KeywordsPublic spacesPlacemakingUrban regeneration
... United under the core principles of community vision, cost-effectiveness, collaboration, and citizen-led change, this exciting movement goes by many names-action-planning, guerrilla urbanism, popup projects, city repair, D.I.Y. Urbanism, and Tactical Urbanism (Bazzu and Talu 2017;Lydon and Garcia 2015). All are seen as important tools and catalysts for larger community-based placemaking processes (Gildner et al. 2014). ...
Chapter
In this chapter, public life/public space metrics—as introduced by Gehl (Gehl Institute, The public life diversity toolkit 2.0., 2016) are used to identify different sets of and/or methods for collecting both qualitative and quantitative data on people’s usage, behaviour, frequency, age, and gender, as well as physical site observations in the first phase. The reason for this mixed approach is to capture all the aspects of public spaces that affect people and places and vice versa. In addition to the designated Public Space Index in this chapter, using Gehl’s framework it is possible to categorise the qualities of public space that make the space work the space is used, and those that make it desirable—where the user experience is a “good” one and where people prefer to linger and socialise. The Application case study in this research is on what is referred to as the North End Park and Plaza, it falls in the Rose Fitzgerald Kennedy Greenway of Boston, MA. The reason for the selection of the North End Park in the city of Boston is that it fulfils the criteria of being a public space formed after a regeneration project that involved different stakeholders as well as having transformed an eyesore to a vital liveable destination in the heart of the city.KeywordsPlacemaking frameworkPublic Space IndexMixed-methods research
... Tactical urbanism encompasses small-scale and short-term urban interventions projects, with the goal to inspire long-term transformation aiming to recover urban spaces. These interventions may take into account the participation of society [2,3], aiming to facilitate and encourage the testing of new concepts before being linked to important financial or political decisions, taking into account that the changes in question may or may not be accepted and/or adjusted, depending on the results obtained. ...
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This article aims to explore the relationship between social innovation and opportunities for innovation in public services, focusing on a range of initiatives intended to improve services and infrastructure for pedestrians in the city of São Paulo, the largest Brazilian megacity, namely: Reduced Speed Zone, Safe Routes to School, and Complete Street. We apply the multiagent framework for innovation in services, incorporating nine variables that characterize social innovation. As for the main results, in the local context, there is the role of third-sector organizations in creating and introducing solutions for active mobility services through co-creation. Co-creation was identified as a key process and is highlighted in actions to obtain community involvement, interviews to measure the acceptance of the project and detect potential points of improvement not foreseen in the pilot project, participatory workshops, installation of informative and interactive panels, preparation and approval of the temporary intervention project, and joint discussion and analysis with municipal agencies about the points that could receive the temporary intervention. The initiatives are recent and cover specific geographic–temporal boundaries. There is a need to deepen the dialogue between social innovation and service innovation with the co-design and co-construction approaches proposed in this paper, applied in different political, economic, urban, and social contexts. In addition, some barriers are highlighted relating to the lack of public funding, compliance with national regulations, political will, non-partisan actions, and long-term vision. There are potentials for the continuous introduction of innovations for the improvement of public services for pedestrians, promoting participatory restructuring as a form of (re)appropriation of urban public spaces.
... Since bottom-up urbanism is "a radical repositioning of the designer, a shifting of power from the professional expert to the ordinary person" (Crawford, 2008) there are opportunities for planners to learn from citizen's projects. This contribution is inhabitant in the perspective of Tactical Urbanism with its mantra "short-term action for long-term change" (Lydon & Garcia, 2015). It is seen as a way to provide new insights of citizens through their activities and clarify the meanings by providing physical evidence (Silva, 2016). ...
Conference Paper
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Citizens around the world are changing their urban environment through bottom-up projects. They are increasingly using digital platforms to come together. From the perspective of smart city research, this form of participation and interaction with city administrations has not yet been researched and defined. In our study we suggest a conceptualisation of bottom-up urbanism participatory platforms and analysed 143 platforms. We identified 23 platforms as our study sample. They vary in their focus from implementation to funding or discussion. Therefor we found a broad range of participation mechanisms. A wide range of employment or voluntary work of staff members was shown. A heterogeneous picture also emerged regarding other characteristics (e.g. funding size, users or number of projects). One thing they have in common is their good cooperation with cities and regional actors.
... While some focus on vacancies as a facilitator of temporary space, others suggest that temporary spaces develop as a result of social agency (Haydn and Temel, 2006;Franck and Stevens, 2007;Hou, 2010). The concept of 'temporary urbanism' has also focused mostly on North America and Europe (Groth and Corijn, 2005;Haydn and Temel, 2006;Lauinger et al., 2007;Bishop and Williams, 2012;Colomb, 2012;Andres, 2013;Iveson, 2013;Oswalt et al., 2013;Lydon et al., 2015;Moore-Cherry, 2016;Madanipour, 2018) rather than on the Global South. There are, however, exceptions: Hou (2016) and Andres et al. (2021a), for instance, understand it as constituting a form of insurgent planning. ...
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This article is an illustration on how the people of Amman have created temporary urban spaces as a means of coping with COVID-19 restrictions, particularly how they have appropriated spaces in the city normally not used as public spaces to socialize and find refuge outside their homes. The first section explores the lens of temporary urbanism across the Global North–South as an entry point to explore COVID-19 temporary spaces. The second turns to the context of Amman: first, by relating temporary urbanism to a wider understanding of it as a culturally permanent phenomenon and then by moving to a more speci fic understanding of the phenomenon. This is followed by three case studies of temporary spaces used during the pandemic in Amman: a parking space; sections of the Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) lane; and a vacant plot of land. The discussion and concluding sections place the narratives of the temporary spaces of Amman/Global South and Global North in juxtaposition and point to the need to rethink planning practices.
... To date, there has been little systematic critical analysis of the varied assemblages of actors and interests within different t/t approaches, or of how they engage with the wider public interest (Pagano 2013, Groth andCorijn 2005). A range of benefits has been claimed for t/t urbanism, including the enhancement of urban intensity, community engagement, innovation, resilience and local identity (Ferguson 2014, Lydon and Garcia 2015, PPS 2018. But t/t urbanism also raises significant problems and questions. ...
Article
Unauthorised activities, sometimes called informal activities, have long been part of urban life. Although there is a wide range of studies focusing on urban informality using different approaches, its spatial production is still relatively underexamined. This paper explores typological variations of produced public spaces and their relation to the urban context. Using a quantitative approach and drawing on empirical evidence from Piura, Peru, it considers morphological patterns as an analytical key. Thus, the type is taken as a tool for interpreting the connections between elements that make up a space, demonstrating how residents shape their public environments. Direct observation and urban mapping were the key research methods. A dataset of 496 produced spaces allowed the analysis of different parameters and variations of each space. As a result, ten types that demonstrate different modes or processes of informal space production were identified. The findings contribute to the growing interest from different areas of knowledge that, until now, have been discussed separately, namely the typologies of produced public space and the field of urban informality research.
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Los autores agradecen los comentarios y sugerencias realizados por los evaluadores anónimos, que han contribuido a mejorar y enriquecer el manuscrito original. "(…) lidiar con la ciudad actual es la búsqueda de espacio y tiempo infrautilizado y su readaptación para la tarea deseada. Podemos explorar el uso de calles como zonas de juego, o las posibilidades de utilizar las azoteas, las tiendas vacías, los edificios abandonados, los terrenos baldíos, los pequeños espacios variopintos o las grandes zonas actualmente esterilizadas por monoculturas como los aparcamientos, las autopistas, los nudos ferroviarios y los aeropuertos". (Lynch, 1995, p. 776) Resumen: El elevado número de edificios abandonados existentes en la mayoría de las ciudades euro-peas exige una respuesta específica para su incorporación en nuevos ciclos de vida. La reactivación de estas piezas, necesarias estratégicamente para desencadenar procesos de regeneración urbana, en-tran a menudo en conflicto con la planificación urbana. Ante esta problemática, lastrada por la crisis económico-financiera, se están ensayando procesos flexibles de reactivación de edificios a través de los usos temporales que dan una respuesta a la coyuntura del "mientras tanto". Lejos de mostrarse como procesos incompatibles con el planeamiento, cabe entenderlos como un sistema complementa-rio, que debería disponer de un marco normativo que permita su inserción en la planificación urbana.
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During the COVID-19 pandemic, many parklets have been deployed onto kerbside carparking spaces throughout Melbourne, Australia, by street-fronting hospitality businesses, to provide socially-distanced outdoor dining spaces. These temporary parklets provide useful indicators of the varying capacities of urban streets to support street life and commercial activity. By examining the distribution of Melbourne’s parklets, this paper identifies numerous urban design factors that provide capacity for parklets, or inhibit them. The analysis shows parklets thrive on traditional, pedestrian-friendly shopping streets with narrow frontages and good access but low through-traffic. Car-dependent outer-suburban shopping streets and strip shopping centres also support numerous parklets. Key hindrances include commercial streets serving as arterial commuter routes and streets that already have extensive traffic-calming features. Minor side streets can provide parklet capacity, but many design conditions inhibit this. The paper challenges policy-makers, planners and designers to address a variety of impediments to creating more pedestrian-friendly street environments.
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Este artigo propõe uma discussão sobre os desdobramentos de intervenções urbanas realizadas em espaços públicos do Conjunto Jardim Maguari, Belém/PA, como medida decorrente da sensação de insegurança em relação ao espaço público. Nesse sentido, a pesquisa busca compreender a percepção dos usuários sobre a sensação de segurança no local e o impacto das intervenções na dinâmica urbana. No geral, a discussão se concentra sobre dois padrões de intervenção reincidentes no conjunto habitacional: intervenções a partir de soluções temporárias e de baixo custo que buscam qualificar espaços ociosos e o fechamento de vias locais, no qual são formados aglomerados semelhantes a condomínios fechados. Para alcance do objetivo deste trabalho, realizou-se visitas exploratórias e a observação direta do espaço, além de entrevistas semiestruturadas e questionário para coleta de dados analíticos que contribuíram para a fundamentação das discussões apresentadas neste trabalho.
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This paper describes group and community intervention work with individuals currently or formerly experiencing homelessness to create mutual connection and support using art, poetry, stories, pop-up porches, and photobooks. The group and community intervention work was enhanced by International Association of Social Work with Groups (IASWG) SPARC endorsement and funding to create photobooks which served to visualize the life stories and accomplishments of persons identifying as currently or formerly homeless. The two-decade journey of the author’s work with individuals experiencing homelessness will be described to illustrate and celebrate how creative group and community interventions addressing homelessness (including photobooks) can connect individuals experiencing homelessness with people who have never experienced homelessness to facilitate group dialogue and mutual understanding.
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Traffic evaporation – i.e. the opposite of induced traffic – is acknowledged as a well-established phenomenon which presents important implications for local urbanism and mobility policies, but there continue to be few academic studies which explore this issue in detail. This paper explores relative levels of traffic evaporation following the implementation of multiple tactical urbanism interventions on 11 streets in Barcelona in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. Based on the analysis of publicly available traffic count data, the findings provide empirical support for the existence of significant levels of traffic evaporation following road space reduction. On average, traffic levels on streets with interventions diminished by -14.8% relative to streets in the rest of the city. In the wider vicinity of intervention streets, traffic levels also decreased slightly on average (-0.9%) compared to the rest of the city, except on immediately adjacent parallel streets to those affected by interventions, which reported a small relative traffic increase (+0.7%). Overall, these findings provide further support for street redesign policies which entail the reduction of road space for motor vehicles, and suggest that fears of traffic congestion following such schemes may often be unfounded. From a methodological standpoint, this study also offers a transparent method of evaluating traffic evaporation which could be replicated in future studies.
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This research addresses how the COVID-19 pandemic affected neighborhood engagement by exploring the use of streets, sidewalks, and driveways as sociable spaces for informal and uncoordinated creative expression. We assessed practices occurring in three diverse City of Phoenix neighborhoods before and during the pandemic through visual analysis. We show that residents used these spaces in novel and more intensive ways during the pandemic, including for self-care and care of others, celebrations, children’s play, and property-spanning games and communication. These findings reveal the importance of these interstitial spaces in helping neighbors to cope and connect during societal disruptions.
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Most people in the United States began to alter their decisions and actions beginning in March 2020 due to the Covid-19 pandemic, when the closures and ‘pause’ on most work were established. Studying the transforming urban conditions in New York City specifically presents a lens through which to understand how we quickly adapted to new spatial conditions as measures were put in place for keeping people healthy and encouraging businesses to stay open and approachable. Immediately, the need for social distancing asked us to consider how to navigate exposure as we moved beyond the home. Necessities for businesses to survive became a priority for the city and coalesced with people’s desire for seeking ways to do things outdoors. A focus on using city streets as urban public spaces resulted. Policies such as Open Restaurants and Open Streets were developed by the Department of Transportation to mitigate pandemic circumstances and to stir dynamic and optimistic possibilities for street use. Open Restaurants called for food/drink establishments to quickly reimagine their adjacent pavement or available street space. Open Streets initiated new ways for creating pedestrian zones in previously trafficked areas. This article highlights fieldwork documentation comparing a Cluster and Line of food/drink establishments with a newly pedestrian Avenue, in connected Brooklyn neighbourhoods. Diagrams, photographs and maps document the ingenious street constructions and the observed and felt psychological or phenomenal transformations taking place. An urban interiorism grew out of the imposed formalisation of rules for movement patterns and compact constructions, while the ad hoc or serendipitous conditions allowed for other intimate conditions. Notions of ‘village cafés’ or ‘urban beaches’ evolved through myriad forms and materials inviting unusual seating configurations and interactions. Speculations on what these internal/external spatial experiences, changing identities and continued urban freedoms are teaching us are also explored through a multidisciplinary set of voices.
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The application of strategic process to community-led initiatives is important in sustainable townmanagement. This study aims to apply a spiral-led process composed of 4 steps, i.e. mobilization,organization, implementation and learning/feedback, to the formative years (2014-2015) of Nishiki 2District Low Carbon Community Development Project. The project is structured by the followingthree areas: "(I) Planning and Management" by Nishiki 2 Low Carbon District Council integrates andcoordinates individual projects, "(II) Individual Projects" implemented by the project teams and "(III)Public Events" for property owners, residents and workers in the district. The authors point out thatthe 4 steps of the spiral-led process can be recognized in each of 3 areas of the project and that theframework of spiral-led process might be applicable to community-led initiatives not only in Nishiki 2District but also in other urban areas.
Chapter
Promoting health equity is a place-based issue that goes way beyond the health sector alone. Urban planning plays a key role in addressing inequities in the social, economic, built, and physical determinants of health. The WHO and EU have been stressing the need of placing health equity at the core of urban policies to ensure that everyone has fair access to resources and opportunities to be healthy. Currently, there is more guidance than ever before, with a wealth of frameworks, tools, guides, and best practices. However, for most city governments, the integration of a health equity into urban planning processes remains a challenge. The chapter begins with an overview of the relationship between urban planning and health equity, how it evolved across time, and how it shaped emerging research and practice on healthy urban planning. Then, a set of guiding points are presented considering the added value of informing health equity-oriented urban planning: (i) conceptual frameworks addressing complexities of urban health, (ii) urban health assessment tools, (iii) inclusive and participatory urban planning, (iv) Health Equity in All Policies approach and participatory governance, (v) innovative urbanism and networking, and (vi) new urban models changing the urban design for health.KeywordsUrban healthEquityHealthy urban planningFrameworks
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The COVID-19 pandemic has severely hit urban areas around the world, where approximately 55% of the world’s population lives. It has tested the ability of their authorities and residents to respond to multiple challenges and not fail in terms of public health, social, economic and political aspects. This chapter questions the role of urban environments in the context of the COVID-19 crisis. In particular, we examine (i) how urban environments and their characteristics have accelerated or slowed the progression of the virus and are associated with a greater or lower incidence of the virus; (ii) how their characteristics have contributed to the strengthening or to the reduction of pre-existing socio-spatial inequalities of their inhabitants, with particular attention to social and psychological resilience; and (iii) what interventions have been carried out locally to enhance the resilience of cities when responding to future pandemics.
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From the early 2000s onwards, the emergence of digital technology and social media has motived to a questioning of the value of public space, as the relevance of physical places is eroded in the digital age. In recent years, the development of concepts such as media architecture, digital placemaking and the playable city has reignited interest in physical places and opened a discussion about the future, harmonious symbiosis amid the public space and virtual space. Plenty of digital placemaking interventions in public spaces proves how digital interventions can have significant potential for future urban design. Currently, literature on placemaking and human–computer interaction (HCI) showcases the need for a new interdisciplinary approach to evaluate how digital and mobile technologies can be used to enhance the sense of place in a locale. This paper proposes a theoretical framework to investigate digital placemaking, supporting the review of basic attributes of public spaces and the potential of mobile technologies in augmenting places. Further, it reveals how digital placemaking provides an opportunity to generate tension and meaning.
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Nelle città contemporanee aumentano spazi abbandonati e in disuso che spesso trovano nuova vita nelle azioni dal basso. Il contributo si concentra sul tema del riuso informale dei vuoti della città come strumento di sviluppo sociale e urbano, aprendo una riflessione sul ruolo dell'azione spontanea dei cittadini nelle logiche formali della città. Le pratiche urbane informali di riuso possono attivare processi di ricomposizione semantica e ri-territorializzazione in risposta all'odierna frammentazione socio-spaziale. Esse si connettono alle finalità dei processi di rigenerazione urbana e richiamano l'idea di un progetto collettivo per la città. Il contributo analizza il caso del riuso informale di Porto Fluviale a Roma.
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La città fluida costituisce una delle recenti concettualizzazioni utilizzate per identificare i processi che attraversano la città contemporanea. La trasposizione del concetto di fluidità nella pianificazione e nella morfologia urbana consente di osservare come il dinamismo, la temporaneità, la flessibilità siano adottate come categorie per la rifunzionalizzazione, la risignificazione degli spazi, la creazione dei luoghi e la diffusione di nuove pratiche. Il contributo propone una riflessione sull'esigenza di individuare un approccio alla pianificazione urbana capace di gestire la fluidità e la complessità urbana contemporanea.
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In this paper, I analyze the governmentality of workshops in town management. “Community Design” proposes methods to take the problems of the town as one’s own and to solve the problems while managing the team by oneself. “Design Thinking” is completely workshop-like, the idea being to feed on the mistakes and criticisms of the process for the next step forward. These elements are incorporated in today’s town management, especially in creative space design. It appears difficult for sociologists to become involved in situations where there is no “outside” of the workshop. However, I think what sociologists can do is offer a standard and ambiguous description.
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