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Repellency and some biological effects of different ultrasonic waves on Mediterranean flour moth, Ephestia kuehniella (Zeller) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

Authors:
  • Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University of Khuzestan

Abstract

Ephestia kuhniella is one of the most important stored pests in the world. Repellency and biological effects of various ultrasonic signals with different frequencies and wave shapes on adult, larvae and pupae of the pest were studied in laboratory conditions. Choice and non-choice tests was performed by an invented signal generator device. In choice tests, different ultrasonic frequencies, and for each frequency, four different waveforms were emitted by the device and numbers of repelled moths were separately calculated. Dispersion patterns, weight and survival of the pest treated by the ultrasound were compared with control in non-choice tests. The choice tests indicated that shape and frequency of ultrasound significantly affected evasive behavior of the moths by the waves. The highest repellency effects of ultrasound were observed at frequencies of 43–45 kHz and wave shapes of Sin (x) and Cos (x). Male moths significantly were more affected by the ultrasound. In non-choice test, weights of the pest larvae and pupae and the larvae survival were significantly reduced when they treated by ultrasound with frequency 40–45 kHz and Sin (x) wave shape that emitted by specific pattern. Also, our findings showed that the larvae and adults considerably tend to avoid from the ultrasound source. Results of the study can be applied for control of the pest in store locations or silage.
... Using ultrasonic signals for lepidopteran pest control (Huang et al. 2003, Huang and Subramanyam 2004, Zha et al. 2013, Salehi et al. 2016) as well as non-lepidopteran insect pests (Kalimuthu et al. 2020, Ozkurt 2021 has been suggested by many researchers. There are numerous sonic and ultrasonic devices such as insect pest repellers and pest ultrasonic suppressers claimed to be effective in controlling a wide range of insect pests. ...
... The signal generator device (SGD) and its intermediate software, Function Generator version 1.1 (manufactured by Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University of Khuzestan, Mollasani, Ahvaz, Iran and Ahvaz Robotic Company, Ahvaz, Iran) which was described by Salehi et al. (2016), were used for generating various ultrasonic frequencies (21-100 kHz) and wave shapes at intensity 50 W/m 2 . ...
... The experiment was performed according to the method adopted by Salehi et al. (2016) in which ultrasound and control glass chambers (0.2 × 0.2 × 0.2 m) were connected using a glass connective tube (40 × 5 × 5 cm). The ultrasound emitter was located on the lateral side of the ultrasound chamber (Fig. 1). ...
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The pink stalk borer, Sesamia cretica Led. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is one of the most important sugarcane pests in many regions of the world, causing severe damage to sugarcane every year. This insect has a specialized form of the auditory organ called the tympanal organ, and ultrasound can be employed as a potential tactic employed in physical control strategy against the pest. The present study evaluates the efficacy of ultrasound in controlling the pest in laboratory conditions. For this purpose, the repellent properties of various ultrasonic frequencies ranging from 21 to 100 kHz with 0.5 kHz intervals and wave shapes, including Sin(x), Cos(x) square, and sawtooth, were studied in choice experiments on the moths. The repellent effects of ultrasonic waves at frequencies 39.5 and 37.5 kHz were more significant than other frequencies in male and female moths, respectively. Furthermore, there was no significant difference between the repellent properties of different wave shapes. In non-choice experiments, the effects of the most repellent ultrasonic treatment, at frequency 37.5 kHz, on biological characteristics of various life stages and distribution patterns of the moths were investigated. The results showed that the ultrasonic treatment causes substantial reductions in many biological parameters of the immature life stages of pests, including longevity, weight, survival rate, and fecundity. Moreover, the pattern indicated that the moths tended to escape from the ultrasound. The findings of this study can be employed for manufacturing the ultrasonic repeller to be used in sugarcane fields.
... Fumigations with biocides including phosphine and methyl bromide have been widely used to control the pests in silo and other similar environments (Zettler and Arthur 2000;Salehi et al. 2016). However, fumigant applications have been restricted in many regions of the world due to their side effects on nontarget organisms and pest resistance (Rajabpour et al. 2019). ...
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... Similar to other lepidopterans and many flies (Swallow & Wilkinson, 2002;Till-Bottraud, Joly, Lachaise, & Snook, 2005), E. kuehniella males produce both eupyrene sperm that can fertilize eggs and apyrene sperm that cannot fertilize eggs (Xu & Wang, 2010a). Some studies suggest that E. kuehniella males produce an ultrasound to persuade females for mating during courtship (Salehi, Rajabpour, Rasekh, & Farkhari, 2016;Trematerra & Pavan, 1995) but whether the ultrasound also functions as a cue of rivalry is unknown. Furthermore, Barth (1937) and Corbet and Lai-Fook (1977) speculate that E. kuehniella males may release a male courtship pheromone from their hairpencils. ...
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Chapter
If we define ears as any structure that can detect sound waves, then a review of auditory receptors in arthropods is faced with the problem of treating a great diversity of sound waves employed in this large taxon, either for social communication, or for the detection of predators or prey. Hearing may then include the detection of sound waves in air or water, the various kinds of waves in solids, at the water/air interface etc. At the same time, there is an enormous variety of mechanoreceptors involved in the detection of sound, and some of these are not even specialized for detecting a particular kind of sound. For example, any arthropod sensillum that usually monitors stress or strain in the cuticle may in addition respond to substrate vibrations. The sensory organ in the second segment of the antenna (Johnston’s organ) may function in the near-field as a displacement sound receptor in mosquitoes and Drosophila (Ewing 1978), as a device for autocommunicative echolocation in gyrinid beetles using water surface waves (Rudolph 1967; Tucker 1969) or as a sense organ involved in the regulation of insect flight or the control of swimming behaviour (Burkhardt and Schneider 1957; Gewecke et al. 1974; Gewecke 1980), to mention only a few. Considerations of space prevent us from reviewing the great variety of receptor types in arthropods, and we will focus here on receptors responding to airborne sound and to substrate vibrations. However, at the end of this chapter we offer the reader a list of articles dealing with aspects of hearing in arthropods that are not covered in this review.