Repellency and some biological effects of different ultrasonic waves on Mediterranean flour moth, Ephestia kuehniella (Zeller) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)
Ephestia kuhniella is one of the most important stored pests in the world. Repellency and biological effects of various ultrasonic signals with different frequencies and wave shapes on adult, larvae and pupae of the pest were studied in laboratory conditions. Choice and non-choice tests was performed by an invented signal generator device. In choice tests, different ultrasonic frequencies, and for each frequency, four different waveforms were emitted by the device and numbers of repelled moths were separately calculated. Dispersion patterns, weight and survival of the pest treated by the ultrasound were compared with control in non-choice tests. The choice tests indicated that shape and frequency of ultrasound significantly affected evasive behavior of the moths by the waves. The highest repellency effects of ultrasound were observed at frequencies of 43–45 kHz and wave shapes of Sin (x) and Cos (x). Male moths significantly were more affected by the ultrasound. In non-choice test, weights of the pest larvae and pupae and the larvae survival were significantly reduced when they treated by ultrasound with frequency 40–45 kHz and Sin (x) wave shape that emitted by specific pattern. Also, our findings showed that the larvae and adults considerably tend to avoid from the ultrasound source. Results of the study can be applied for control of the pest in store locations or silage.