ResearchPDF Available

Printer friendly version of SUPPLEMENT - The racers brain how domain expertise is reflected in the neural substrates of driving

Authors:

Abstract

This is, in a more easily printable layout, the contents of the Supplementary Table 1 in Lappi, O. (2015.) The Racer’s Brain – How Domain Expertise is Reflected in the Neural Substrates of Driving. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnhum.2015.00635
Page 1 of 24 !!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
Printer!friendly!version!!
of!Supplementary!Table!1!in:!!
!
!
Lappi,!O.!(2015.)!The!Racer’s!Brain!–!How!Domain!Expertise!is!Reflected!in!the!Neural!Substrates!of!Driving!
!"#$%&'"()&$)*+,-$).'+"#(/&'$/',!24!November!2015!|!http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnhum.2015.00635!
!
!
with!additional!notes!by!the!author!
!
!
!
Academic!references!to!the!dataset!and!to!the!original!work!reviewed!should!cite!the!original!publications.!Please!note!that!“Table!1”!in!
columns!2!and!3!refers!to!Table!1!in!the!main!text!of!the!article,!and!not!to!the!Supplementary!Table!1!(this!dataset).!!
!
The!data!from!the!Results!of!the!original!publications!was!arranged!in!a!unified!format:!Separate!tables!were!prepared!for!the!Left!
Hemisphere!(LH)!and!Right!Hemisphere!(RH)!results!for!each!contrast.!The!anatomical!regions!were!labeled!in!a!consistent!way:!the!verbal!
labeling!and!BA!classification!in!columns!2!and!3!is!based!on!the!labels!given!in!the!original!publications!(name!of!the!region!and/or!BA),!and!
examination!of!the!activity!peak!coordinates!in!Talairach!space!and!the!figures.!The!original!verbal!label!(and!BA!numbers,!if!present)!in!the!
original!papers!are!in!column!4,!followed!by!XYZ!coordinates!of!peak!activation!locations!in!Talairach!space.!!
!
Any!corrections!of!possible!errors,!omissions,!and!other!comments!are!welcome!(otto.lappi@helsinki.fi).!!
!
!
!
!
!
!
Copyright!notice:!This!document!is!Open!Access!under!CC^BY!licence!(http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/)!! !
Page 2 of 24 !!
!"#$%#&'(")(%*+(,-./012(345676892(:";'<%=)'>"(>'"?'$@((
((
((
((
((
!!
[1]$
((
!#%'$(#"@'A$('$(B%C*"(/(
E%;'$@('$()F"(A#'@'$%*(G%G"#(
H(
I(
J(
9A$)#%:)(
EA)":(
LH$
Posterior$cingulate/retrosplenial$
Posterior$Cingulate$
;9$
;47$
12$
Racer$>$Control$ISC$
[2]$
LH$
Posterior$cingulate/retrosplenial$
Cingulate$Cortex$
;11$
;45$
44$
Racer$>$Control$ISC$
$$
LH$
Anterior$cingulate$
Anterior$Cingulate$
;7$
31$
;10$
Racer$>$Control$ISC$
$$
LH$
Prefrontal$
Middle$Frontal$Gyrus$
;35$
17$
38$
Racer$>$Control$ISC$
$$
LH$
Prefrontal$
Inferior$Frontal$Gyrus$
;25$
23$
;2$
Racer$>$Control$ISC$
$$
LH$
Prefrontal$
Inferior$Frontal$Gyrus$
;45$
23$
4$
Racer$>$Control$ISC$
$$
LH$
Parieto;occipital$
Precuneus$
;31$
;75$
30$
Racer$>$Control$ISC$
$$
LH$
Posterior$parietal$
Precuneus$
;9$
;71$
30$
Racer$>$Control$ISC$
$$
LH$
Posterior$parietal$
Supramarginal$Gyrus$
;55$
;39$
32$
Racer$>$Control$ISC$
$$
LH$
Parahippocampal/hippocampal$
Parahippocampal$Gyrus$
;31$
;31$
;10$
Racer$>$Control$ISC$
$$
LH$
Parahippocampal/hippocampal$
Parahippocampal$Gyrus$
;13$
;9$
;12$
Racer$>$Control$ISC$
$$
LH$
Middle$temporal$
Middle$Temporal$Gyrus$
;49$
;55$
4$
Racer$>$Control$ISC$
$$
LH$
Middle$temporal$
Middle$Temporal$Gyrus$
;57$
;35$
0$
Racer$>$Control$ISC$
$$
LH$
Precentral$
Medial$Frontal$Gyrus$
;17$
;9$
50$
Racer$>$Control$ISC$
$$
LH$
Basal$ganglia$
Caudate$
;7$
11$
2$
Racer$>$Control$ISC$
$$
LH$
Thalamus$
Thalamus$
;3$
;11$
8$
Racer$>$Control$ISC$
$$
$$
$$
$$
$$
$$
$$
$$
$$
$$
LH$
!#%'$(#"@'A$(
E%;'$@('$()F"(A#'@'$%*(G%G"#(
H(
I(
J(
9A$)#%:)(
EA)":(
LH$
Occipitotemporal$
Middle$Occipital$Gyrus$
;35$
;77$
;8$
Control$>$racer$ISC$
$$
$
$
(
$
$
$
$
$
(
((
!#%'$(#"@'A$('$(B%C*"(/(
E%;'$@('$()F"(A#'@'$%*(G%G"#(
H(
I(
J(
9A$)#%:)(
EA)":(
RH$
Posterior$cingulate/retrosplenial$
Posterior$Cingulate$
19$
;55$
10$
Racer$>$Control$ISC$
$$
RH$
Anterior$cingulate$
Cingulate$Cortex$
15$
;1$
28$
Racer$>$Control$ISC$
$$
RH$
Posterior$cingulate/retrosplenial$
Cingulate$Cortex$
19$
;35$
24$
Racer$>$Control$ISC$
$$
RH$
Prefrontal$
Superior$Frontal$Gyrus$
23$
53$
12$
Racer$>$Control$ISC$
$$
RH$
Prefrontal$
Middle$Frontal$Gyrus$
37$
21$
28$
Racer$>$Control$ISC$
$$
RH$
Prefrontal$
Inferior$Frontal$Gyrus$
43$
33$
0$
Racer$>$Control$ISC$
$$
RH$
Parieto;occipital$
Precuneus$
29$
;73$
38$
Racer$>$Control$ISC$
$$
RH$
Posterior$parietal$
Supramarginal$Gyrus$
57$
45$
36$
Racer$>$Control$ISC$
$$
RH$
Parahippocampal$
Parahippocampal$Gyrus$
45$
;19$
;16$
Racer$>$Control$ISC$
$$
RH$
Middle$temporal$
Middle$Temporal$Gyrus$
55$
;51$
0$
Racer$>$Control$ISC$
$$
RH$
Precentral$
Precentral$Gyrus$
25$
;15$
50$
Racer$>$Control$ISC$
$$
RH$
Basal$ganglia$
Caudate$
17$
13$
10$
Racer$>$Control$ISC$
$$
RH$
Basal$ganglia$
Lentiform$Nucleus$
13$
3$
;4$
Racer$>$Control$ISC$
$$
RH$
Cerebellum$
Cerebellum$
35$
;51$
24$
Racer$>$Control$ISC$
$$
!
! !
Page 3 of 24 !!
K%*)"#(")(%*+(,-../12(34567LM42(%=)'>"(:';N*%)"&(&#'>'$@(
$$
$$
$$
$$
((
((
((
!#%'$(#"@'A$('$(B%C*"(/(
!D(*%C"*('$(B%C*"(/(
E%;'$@('$()F"(A#'@'$%*(G%G"#(
H(
I(
J(
9A$)#%:)(
EA)":(
LH$
Postcentral$
BA1/3$
Postcentral$gyrus$(BA3)$
;36$
;33$
66$
Driving$>$rest$
[3]$
LH$
Cerebellum$
Culmen$
Cerebellar$hemisphere$
;24$
;54$
;24$
Driving$>$rest$
$$
LH$
Cerebellum$
Vermis$
Vermis$
3$
;72$
;24$
Driving$>$rest$
$$
LH$
Parieto;occipital$
BA19$
Cuneus$(BA19)$
;21$
;87$
;33$
Driving$>$rest$
[4]$
LH$
Posterior$parietal$
BA7$
Precuneus$(BA7)$
;18$
;81$
45$
Driving$>$rest$
$$
(
(
(
$
$
$
$
(
(
((
!#%'$(#"@'A$('$(B%C*"(/(
!D(*%C"*('$(B%C*"(/(
E%;'$@('$()F"(A#'@'$%*(G%G"#(
H(
I(
J(
9A$)#%:)(
EA)":(
RH$
Cerebellum$
Culmen$
Cerebellar$hemisphere$
24$
;51$
;27$
Driving$>$rest$
$$
RH$
Parieto;occipital$
BA19$
Middle$occipital$gyrus$(BA19)$
39$
;81$
9$
Driving$>$rest$
$$
RH$
Parieto;occipital$
BA19$
Cuneus$(BA19)$
27$
;84$
33$
Driving$>$rest$
[5]$
RH$
Posterior$parietal$
BA7$
Precuneus$(BA7)$
21$
;81$
45$
Driving$>$rest$
$$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
((
!#%'$(#"@'A$('$(B%C*"(/(
!D(*%C"*('$(B%C*"(/(
E%;'$@('$()F"(A#'@'$%*(G%G"#(
H(
I(
J(
9A$)#%:)(
EA)":(
LH$
Precentral$
BA4$
Precentral$gyrus$(BA4)$
;30$
;21$
63$
Driving$>$passenger$
$$
LH$
Postcentral$
BA3/1$
Postcentral$gyrus$(BA3)$
;36$
;33$
66$
Driving$>$passenger$
$$
LH$
Cerebellum$
Culmen$
Cerebellar$hemispheres$
;24$
;54$
;24$
Driving$>$passenger$
$$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
((
!#%'$(#"@'A$('$(B%C*"(/(
!D(*%C"*('$(B%C*"(/(
E%;'$@('$()F"(A#'@'$%*(G%G"#(
H(
I(
J(
9A$)#%:)(
EA)":(
RH$
Cerebellum$
Anterior$lobe$
Cerebellar$hemispheres$
24$
;51$
;27$
Driving$>$passenger$
$$
RH$
Cerebellum$
Vermis$
Vermis$
3$
;72$
;24$
Driving$>$passenger$
$$
(
(
(
$
$
$
$
(
(
((
!#%'$(#"@'A$(
!D(*%C"*(
E%;'$@('$()F"(A#'@'$%*(G%G"#(
H(
I(
J(
9A$)#%:)(
EA)":(
LH$
Occipitotemporal$
BA36/37$
Fusiform$gyrus$
;21$
;45$
;15$
Passenger$>$rest$
$$
LH$
Occipital$
BA17/18$
Primary$visual$cortex$
(BA17/18)$
;15$
;99$
;3$
Passenger$>$rest$
$$
LH$
Middle$temporal$
BA19/37$
Occipitotemporal$(BA31,MT)$
;45$
;75$
;3$
Passenger$>$rest$
$$
LH$
Parieto;occipital$
BA19$
Middle$occipital$gyrus$(BA19)$
;27$
;84$
24$
Passenger$>$rest$
$$
LH$
Parieto;occipital$
BA7/19$
Precuneus$(BA7)$
;18$
;88$
42$
Passenger$>$rest$
$$
LH$
Posterior$parietal$
BA40/7$
Superior$parietal$cortex$(BA7)$
;36$
;51$
54$
Passenger$>$rest$
$$
)
) )
Page 4 of 24 !!
0-1%'")'%)-12)/#$%&$+'3)
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
((
!#%'$(#"@'A$(
!D(*%C"*(
E%;'$@('$()F"(A#'@'$%*(G%G"#(
H(
I(
J(
9A$)#%:)(
EA)":(
RH$
Occpitotemporal$
BA37$
Fusiform$gyrus$
27$
;42$
;15$
Passenger$>$rest$
$$
RH$
Occipital$
B17/18$
Primary$visual$cortex$
(BA17/18)$
6$
;96$
;3$
Passenger$>$rest$
$$
RH$
Middle$temporal$
BA37$
Occipitotemporal$(BA31,$MT)$
42$
;63$
3$
Passenger$>$rest$
$$
RH$
Parieto;occipital$
BA19$
Middle$occipital$gyrus$(BA19)$
36$
;84$
9$
Passenger$>$rest$
$$
RH$
Posterior$parietal$
BA7$
Precuneus$(BA7)$
15$
;78$
42$
Passenger$>$rest$
$$
RH$
Posterior$parietal$
BA7$
Superior$parietal$cortex$(BA7)$
24$
;60$
57$
Passenger$>$rest$
$$
!
((
!#%'$(#"@'A$(
!D(*%C"*('$(B%C*"(/(
E%;'$@('$()F"(A#'@'$%*(G%G"#(
H(
I(
J(
9A$)#%:)(
EA)":(
LH$
Posterior$parietal$
BA7$
Precuneus$(BA7)$
;6$
;66$
36$
Passenger$>$driving$
$$
LH$
Occipitotemporal$
BA36$
Fusiform$gyrus$
;18$
;36$
;15$
Passenger$>$driving$
$$
LH$
Parahippocampal$
BA20$
Parahippocampal$gyrus$
;30$
;12$
;24$
Passenger$>$driving$
$$
LH$
Anterior$cingulate$
BA24/32$
Cingulum$(BA23/24)$
;6$
6$
30$
Passenger$>$driving$
$$
LH$
Posterior$
cingulate/retrosplenial$
BA31$
Cingulum$(BA31)$
;10$
;45$
27$
Passenger$>$driving$
$$
LH$
Superior$temporal$
BA22$
Superior$temporal$gyrus$
(BA22)$
;63$
;51$
15$
Passenger$>$driving$
$$
LH$
Superior$temporal$
BA38$
Superior$temporal$gyrus$
(BA38)$
;33$
6$
;27$
Passenger$>$driving$
$$
LH$
Middle$temporal$
BA21$
Middle$temporal$gyrus$(BA27)$
;54$
;24$
;9$
Passenger$>$driving$
$$
LH$
Middle$temporal$
BA39$
Middle$temporal$gyrus$(BA39)$
;42$
;72$
24$
Passenger$>$driving$
$$
LH$
Precentral$
BA6/8$
$Middle$frontal$cortex,$
superior$frontal$gyrus,$dorsal$
frontal$gyrus,$preSMA$(BA8)$
;30$
15$
48$
Passenger$>$driving$
$$
LH$
Prefrontal$
BA46$
Inferior$frontal$cortex$(BA46)$
;42$
33$
6$
Passenger$>$driving$
$$
LH$
Prefrontal$
BA47$
Inferior$frontal$cortex$(BA47)$
;48$
36$
;9$
Passenger$>$driving$
$$
LH$
Prefrontal$
BA46$
Inferior$frontal$cortex$
(BA45/46)$
;39$
27$
21$
Passenger$>$driving$
$$
LH$
Posterior$parietal$
BA40$
Inferior$parietal$cortex$(BA40)$
39$
;51$
39$
Passenger$>$driving$
[6]$
LH$
Prefrontal$
BA10$
Frontopolar$cortex$(BA10)$
9$
69$
6$
Passenger$>$driving$
[7]$
LH$
Precentral/postcentral$
BA8$
Superior$frontal$gyrus$(BA8)$
;24$
39$
48$
Passenger$>$driving$
$$
!
! !
Page 5 of 24 !!
0-1%'")'%)-12)/#$%&$+'3)
!
((
!#%'$(#"@'A$((
!D(*%C"*('$(B%C*"(/(
E%;'$@('$()F"(A#'@'$%*(G%G"#(
H(
I(
J(
9A$)#%:)(
EA)":(
RH$
Occipitotemporal$
BA20$
Fusiform$gyrus$
42$
;27$
;18$
Passenger$>$driving$
$$
RH$
Occipital$
BA17$
Primary$visual$cortex$BA17/18$
15$
;96$
0$
Passenger$>$driving$
$$
RH$
Medial$temporal$
BA37$
Occipitotemporal$gyrus$BA37,$
V5/MT$
51$
;63$
6$
Passenger$>$driving$
$$
RH$
Posterior$parietal$
BA7$
Precuneus$BA7$
9$
;57$
39$
Passenger$>$driving$
$$
RH$
Posterior$parietal$
BA7$
Superior$parietal$cortex$BA7$
42$
;60$
48$
Passenger$>$driving$
$$
RH$
Posterior$parietal$
BA40$
Inferior$parietal$cortex$(BA40)$
54$
;48$
45$
Passenger$>$driving$
$$
RH$
Superior$temporal$
BA38$
Uncus$hippocampalis$
33$
3$
;33$
Passenger$>$driving$
$$
RH$
Parahippocampal$
BA35/36$
Parahippocampal$gyrus$
30$
;27$
;6$
Passenger$>$driving$
$$
RH$
Occpitotemporal$
BA37/20/19$
Middle$temporal$gyrus$(BA21)$
51$
;60$
;15$
Passenger$>$driving$
$$
RH$
Superior$temporal$
BA22/40$
Superior$temporal$gyrus$(BA22)$
60$
;48$
21$
Passenger$>$driving$
$$
RH$
Superior$temporal$
BA38$
Superior$temporal$gyrus$(BA38)$
51$
15$
;24$
Passenger$>$driving$
$$
RH$
Inferior$temporal$
BA20/37$
Inferior$temporal$gyrus$(BA37)$
60$
[5]1$
;12$
Passenger$>$driving$
[8]$
RH$
Inferior$temporal$
BA20$
Inferior$temporal$gyrus$(BA20)$
57$
;33$
;15$
Passenger$>$driving$
$$
RH$
Middle$temporal$
BA39$
Temporoparietal$cortex$(BA39)$
48$
;60$
24$
Passenger$>$driving$
$$
RH$
Posterior$parietal$
BA40$
Gyrus$supramarginalis$(BA39)$
60$
;51$
27$
Passenger$>$driving$
$$
RH$
Prefrontal$
BA32$
Ventromedial$frontal$cortex$
(BA24/32)$
6$
39$
3$
Passenger$>$driving$
$$
RH$
Prefrontal$
BA8$
Middle$frontal$gyrus$(BA8)$
45$
27$
45$
Passenger$>$driving$
$$
RH$
Prefrontal$
BA9$
Middle$frontal$gyrus$(BA9)$
42$
36$
33$
Passenger$>$driving$
$$
RH$
Prefrontal$
BA11$
Middle$frontal$gyrus$(BA11)$
38$
48$
;15$
Passenger$>$driving$
$$
RH$
Prefrontal$
BA46$
Inferior$frontal$cortex$(BA46)$
51$
39$
3$
Passenger$>$driving$
$$
RH$
Prefrontal$
BA47$
Inferior$frontal$cortex$(BA47)$
48$
36$
;9$
Passenger$>$driving$
$$
RH$
Prefrontal$
BA46$
Inferior$frontal$cortex$(BA45/46)$
45$
21$
21$
Passenger$>$driving$
$$
RH$
Prefrontal$
BA10$
Frontopolar$cortex$(BA10)$
30$
54$
;9$
Passenger$>$driving$
$$
RH$
Prefrontal$
BA8$
Superior$frontal$gyrus$(BA8)$
33$
30$
48$
Passenger$>$driving$
$$
RH$
Prefrontal$
BA8$
Dorsal$frontal$gyrus$(BA8,$pre;SMA)$
9$
39$
39$
Passenger$>$driving$
$$
RH$
Precentral$
BA6$
Precentral$gyrus$(BA6)$
54$
0$
45$
Passenger$>$driving$
$$
RH$
Postcentral$
BA43$
Postcentral$gyrus$(BA43)$
48$
;9$
18$
Passenger$>$driving$
$$
RH$
Parahippocampal$
BA34$
Amygdala$
27$
3$
;15$
Passenger$>$driving$
$$
RH$
Anterior$cingulate$
BA24/32$
Cingulum$(BA32/24)$
6$
33$
15$
Passenger$>$driving$
$$
RH$
Posterior$cingulate$
BA23/24$
Cingulum$(BA23/24)$
6$
;12$
33$
Passenger$>$driving$
$$
RH$
Retrosplenial$
BA29/30$
Cingulum$(BA30)$
12$
;48$
21$
Passenger$>$driving$
$$
!
! !
Page 6 of 24 !!
9%*FAN$(")(%*+(,-..-12(3456769D2(%=)'>"(:';N*%)"&(&#'>'$@(
$$
$$
$$
$$
$$
$$
((
!#%'$(#"@'A$('$(B%C*"(/(
!D(*%C"*('$(B%C*"(/(
E%;'$@('$()F"(A#'@'$%*(G%G"#(
H(
I(
J(
9A$)#%:)(
EA)":(
LH$
Precentral$
BA6$
Precentral$(BA4/6)$
;33$
;13$
60$
Driving$>$passenger,$control$("red"$ICA)$
$$
LH$
Thalamus$
Thalamus/SN$
Thalamus$
;15$
;20$
;10$
Driving$>$passenger,$control$("red"$ICA)$
$$
LH$
Cerebellum$
Culmen$
Cerebellum$
;6$
;59$
;10$
Driving$>$passenger,$control$("red"$ICA)$
$$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
((
!#%'$(#"@'A$('$(B%C*"(/(
!D(*%C"*('$(B%C*"(/(
E%;'$@('$()F"(A#'@'$%*(G%G"#(
H(
I(
J(
9A$)#%:)(
EA)":(
RH$
Precentral$
BA6$
Precentral$(BA6)$
24$
;11$
65$
Driving$>$passenger,$control$("red"$ICA)$
$$
RH$
Thalamus$
VLN/MDN$
Thalamus$
9$
;14$
5$
Driving$>$passenger,$control$("red"$ICA)$
$$
RH$
Cerebellum$
Declive$
Cerebellum$
6$
;71$
;22$
Driving$>$passenger,$control$("red"$ICA)$
$$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
((
!#%'$(#"@'A$('$(B%C*"(/(
!D(*%C"*('$(B%C*"(/(
E%;'$@('$()F"(A#'@'$%*(G%G"#(
H(
I(
J(
9A$)#%:)(
EA)":(
LH$
Occipitotemporal$
BA19/20/37$
Fusiform,$inferior$occipital$(BA18/19/20/37)$
;48$
;70$
;9$
Driving$>$passenger$>$control$("white"$ICA)$
$$
LH$
Cerebellum$
Culmen$
Cerebellum$
;33$
;50$
;19$
Driving$>$passenger$>$control$("white"$ICA)$
$$
LH$
Occipitotemporal$
BA19/37$
Middle$occipital$(BA18/29/37)$
;33$
;87$
18$
Driving$>$passenger$>$control$("white"$ICA)$
$$
LH$
Parieto;occipital$
BA19$
Lingual,$cuneus$(BA7/18/19)$
;27$
;83$
27$
Driving$>$passenger$>$control$("white"$ICA)$
$$
LH$
Parahippocampal$
BA36/37$
Parahippocampal$(BA19/36/37)$
;24$
;47$
;10$
Driving$>$passenger$>$control$("white"$ICA)$
$$
LH$
Parieto;occipital$
BA19$
Superior$occipital$(BA19)$
;33$
;86$
27$
Driving$>$passenger$>$control$("white"$ICA)$
$$
LH$
Parieto;occipital$
BA19/7$
Precuneus$(parietal)$(BA7/19)$
;27$
;77$
36$
Driving$>$passenger$>$control$("white"$ICA)$
$$
LH$
Occipitotemporal$
BA19$
Inferior$temporal$(BA19/37)$
;48$
;73$
;1$
Driving$>$passenger$>$control$("white"$ICA)$
$$
LH$
Posterior$parietal$
BA7$
Superior$parietal$(BA7)$
;18$
;67$
54$
Driving$>$passenger$>$control$("white"$ICA)$
$$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
((
!#%'$(#"@'A$('$(B%C*"(/(
!D(*%C"*('$(B%C*"(/(
E%;'$@('$()F"(A#'@'$%*(G%G"#(
H(
I(
J(
9A$)#%:)(
EA)":(
RH$
Occipitotemporal$
BA19$
Fusiform,$inferior$occipital$
(BA18/19/20/36/37)$
42$
;74$
;17$
Driving$>$passenger$>$control$("white"$ICA)$
$$
RH$
Cerebellum$
Declive$
Cerebellum$
42$
;74$
;22$
Driving$>$passenger$>$control$("white"$ICA)$
$$
RH$
Occipitotemporal$
BA18/37$
Middle$occipital$(BA18/29/37)$
33$
;87$
18$
Driving$>$passenger$>$control$("white"$ICA)$
$$
RH$
Parieto;occipital$
BA19/7$
Lingual,$cuneus$(BA7/18/19)$
24$
;92$
23$
Driving$>$passenger$>$control$("white"$ICA)$
$$
RH$
Parahippocampal$
BA36/37$
Parahippocampal$(BA19/36/37)$
27$
;44$
;10$
Driving$>$passenger$>$control$("white"$ICA)$
$$
RH$
Parieto;occipital$
BA19$
Superior$occipital$(BA19)$
33$
;86$
23$
Driving$>$passenger$>$control$("white"$ICA)$
$$
RH$
Posterior$parietal$
BA7$
Precuneus$(parietal)$(BA7)$
18$
;70$
50$
Driving$>$passenger$>$control$("white"$ICA)$
$$
RH$
Occpitotemporal$
BA19/37$
Inferior$temporal$(BA19/37)$
48$
;71$
;1$
Driving$>$passenger$>$control$("white"$ICA)$
$$
RH$
Posterior$parietal$
BA7$
Superior$parietal$(BA7)$
18$
;70$
54$
Driving$>$passenger$>$control$("white"$ICA)$
$$
!
! !
Page 7 of 24 !!
4-15#+$)'%)-12)/#$%&$+'3)
!
((
!#%'$(#"@'A$('$(B%C*"(/(
!D(*%C"*('$(B%C*"(/(
E%;'$@('$()F"(A#'@'$%*(G%G"#(
H(
I(
J(
9A$)#%:)(
EA)":(
LH$
Occipital$
BA17$
Lingual$(BA17/18/19)$
;9$
;96$
;9$
Driving$>$passenger$>$control$("yellow"$ICA)$
$$
LH$
Occipito;temporal$
BA18$
Fusiform,$middle$occipital$
(BA18/19)$
;9$
;95$
14$
Driving$>$passenger$>$control$("yellow"$ICA)$
$$
LH$
Occipital$
BA17/18/19$
Inferior$occipital$(BA18/19)$
;15$
;91$
;8$
Driving$>$passenger$>$control$("yellow"$ICA)$
$$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
((
!#%'$(#"@'A$('$(B%C*"(/(
!D(*%C"*('$(B%C*"(/(
E%;'$@('$()F"(A#'@'$%*(G%G"#(
H(
I(
J(
9A$)#%:)(
EA)":(
RH$
Occipital$
BA17$
Lingual$(BA17/18)$
18$
;93$
5$
Driving$>$passenger$>$control$("yellow"$ICA)$
$$
RH$
Occipitotemporal$
BA18/19$
Fusiform,$middle$occipital$
(BA18/19)$
18$
;98$
14$
Driving$>$passenger$>$control$("yellow"$ICA)$
$$
RH$
Occipital$
BA18$
Inferior$occipital$(BA18/19)$
21$
;88$
;8$
Driving$>$passenger$>$control$("yellow"$ICA)$
$$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
((
!#%'$(#"@'A$('$(B%C*"(/(
!D(*%C"*('$(B%C*"(/(
E%;'$@('$()F"(A#'@'$%*(G%G"#(
H(
I(
J(
9A$)#%:)(
EA)":(
LH$
Parieto;occipital$
BA17/18/19$
Cuneus$(BA17/1819/23/30)$
;9$
;81$
9$
Transient$response$("green"$ICA)$
$
LH$
Occipital$
BA18$
Lingual$(BA17/18/19)$
;6$
;78$
4$
Transient$response$("green"$ICA)$
$$
LH$
Posterior$
cingulate/retrosplenial$
BA30$
Posterior$cingulate$(BA30/31)$
;12$
;64$
8$
Transient$response$("green"$ICA)$
$$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
((
!#%'$(#"@'A$('$(B%C*"(/(
!D(*%C"*('$(B%C*"(/(
E%;'$@('$()F"(A#'@'$%*(G%G"#(
H(
I(
J(
9A$)#%:)(
EA)":(
RH$
Parieto;occipital$
BA19/19$
Cuneus$(BA17/1819/23/30)$
6$
;78$
9$
Transient$response$("green"$ICA)$
$$
RH$
Occipital$
BA17/18/19$
Lingual$(BA17/18/19)$
15$
;58$
;1$
Transient$response$("green"$ICA)$
$$
RH$
Posterior$
cingulate/retrosplenial$
BA30$
Posterior$cingulate$(BA30/31)$
9$
;67$
8$
Transient$response$("green"$ICA)$
$$
!
! !
Page 8 of 24 !!
4-15#+$)'%)-12)/#$%&$+'3)
!
((
!#%'$(#"@'A$('$(B%C*"(/(
!D(*%C"*('$(B%C*"(/(
E%;'$@('$()F"(A#'@'$%*(G%G"#(
H(
I(
J(
9A$)#%:)(
EA)
":(
LH$
Anterior$cingulate$
BA24$
Anterior$cingulate$(BA10/24/25/32/42)$
;9$
35$
6$
Habituating$response,$rebound$("pink"$ICA)$
[9]$
LH$
Prefrontal$
BA32$
Medial$frontal$(BA9/10/11/25/32)$
;12$
35$
;6$
Habituating$response,$rebound$("pink"$ICA)$
$$
LH$
Prefrontal$
BA11$
Inferior$frontal$(BA11/25/47)$
;9$
40$
;15$
Habituating$response,$rebound$("pink"$ICA)$
$$
LH$
Prefrontal$
BA11$
Middle$frontal$(BA9/10/11)$
;18$
37$
;10$
Habituating$response,$rebound$("pink"$ICA)$
$$
LH$
Prefrontal$
BA11$
Superior$frontal$(BA9/10/11)$
;18$
43$
;11$
Habituating$response,$rebound$("pink"$ICA)$
$$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
((
!#%'$(#"@'A$('$(B%C*"(/(
!D(*%C"*('$(B%C*"(/(
E%;'$@('$()F"(A#'@'$%*(G%G"#(
H(
I(
J(
9A$)#%:)(
EA)
":(
RH$
Anterior$cingulate$
BA32$
Anterior$cingulate$(BA10/24/25/32/42)$
3$
43$
;6$
Habituating$response,$rebound$("pink"$ICA)$
$$
RH$
Prefrontal$
BA32/10$
Medial$frontal$(BA9/10/11/25/32)$
6$
40$
;6$
Habituating$response,$rebound$("pink"$ICA)$
$$
RH$
Prefrontal$
BA11$
Inferior$frontal$(BA11/47)$
12$
40$
;15$
Habituating$response,$rebound$("pink"$ICA)$
[10]$
RH$
Prefrontal$
BA11$
Middle$frontal$(BA9/10/11)$
12$
43$
;15$
Habituating$response,$rebound$("pink"$ICA)$
$$
RH$
Prefrontal$
BA10$
Superior$frontal$(BA9/10/11)$
3$
50$
2$
Habituating$response,$rebound$("pink"$ICA)$
$$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
!
! !
Page 9 of 24 !!
4-15#+$)'%)-12)/#$%&$+'3)
!
((
!#%'$(#"@'A$('$(B%C*"(/(
!D(*%C"*('$(B%C*"(/(
E%;'$@('$()F"(A#'@'$%*(G%G"#(
H(
I(
J(
9A$)#%:)(
EA)":(
LH$
Prefrontal$
BA10$
Superior/medial$frontal$(BA6/8/9/10)$
;9$
62$
15$
Passenger$>$driving$("blue"$ICA)$
$$
LH$
Anterior$cingulate$
BA32$
Anterior$cingulate$(BA10/24/32/42)$
;3$
49$
;2$
Passenger$>$driving$("blue"$ICA)$
$$
LH$
Parieto;occipital$
BA31/23/7$
Precuneus$(parietal)$(BA7/23/31)$
;3$
;54$
30$
Passenger$>$driving$("blue"$ICA)$
$$
LH$
Posterior$parietal$
BA39$
inferior$parietal$(supramarginal,$angular)$
(BA39/40)$
;53$
;59$
35$
Passenger$>$driving$("blue"$ICA)$
$$
LH$
Prefrontal$
BA47$
Inferior$frontal$(BA47)$
;39$
23$
;14$
Passenger$>$driving$("blue"$ICA)$
$$
LH$
Precentral$
BA8$
Middle$frontal$(BA6/8)$
;18$
34$
44$
Passenger$>$driving$("blue"$ICA)$
$$
LH$
Posterior$
cingulate/retrosplenial$
BA31$
Cingulate,$posterior$cingulate$(BA23/30/31/32)$
;3$
;54$
26$
Passenger$>$driving$("blue"$ICA)$
$$
LH$
Anterior$cingulate$
BA32$
Anterior$cingulate$(BA10/24/32/42)$
;9$
38$
3$
Passenger$>$driving$("blue"$ICA)$
$$
LH$
Prefrontal$
BA10$
Medial$frontal$(BA9/10/11/32)$
;6$
38$
;6$
Passenger$>$driving$("blue"$ICA)$
$$
LH$
Prefrontal$
BA10$
Superior$frontal$(BA9/10)$
;9$
52$
;3$
Passenger$>$driving$("blue"$ICA)$
$$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
((
!#%'$(#"@'A$('$(B%C*"(/(
!D(*%C"*('$(B%C*"(/(
E%;'$@('$()F"(A#'@'$%*(G%G"#(
H(
I(
J(
9A$)#%:)(
EA)":(
RH$
Prefrontal$
BA10$
Superior/medial$frontal$(BA6/8/9/10)$
3$
50$
2$
Passenger$>$driving$("blue"$ICA)$
$$
RH$
Anterior$cingulate$
BA32$
Anterior$cingulate$(BA10/24/32/42)$
3$
47$
7$
Passenger$>$driving$("blue"$ICA)$
$$
RH$
Posterior$parietal$
BA7$
Precuneus$(parietal)$(BA7/23/31)$
6$
;54$
30$
Passenger$>$driving$("blue"$ICA)$
$$
RH$
Posterior$parietal$
BA39$
inferior$parietal$(supramarginal,$angular)$
(BA39/40)$
53$
;68$
31$
Passenger$>$driving$("blue"$ICA)$
$$
RH$
Prefrontal$
BA47$
Inferior$frontal$(BA11/45/47)$
48$
26$
;10$
Passenger$>$driving$("blue"$ICA)$
$$
RH$
Precentral$
BA8$
Middle$frontal$(BA6/8)$
27$
40$
49$
Passenger$>$driving$("blue"$ICA)$
$$
RH$
Posterior$
cingulate/retrosplenial$
BA31/7$
Cingulate,$posterior$cingulate$(BA23/30/31/32)$
6$
;57$
30$
Passenger$>$driving$("blue"$ICA)$
$$
RH$
Anterior$cingulate$
BA32$
Anterior$cingulate$(BA10/24/32/42)$
3$
43$
;6$
Passenger$>$driving$("blue"$ICA)$
$$
RH$
Prefrontal$
BA10$
Medial$frontal$(BA9/10/11/32)$
3$
50$
2$
Passenger$>$driving$("blue"$ICA)$
$$
RH$
Prefrontal$
BA9$
Superior$frontal$(BA9/10)$
12$
51$
20$
Passenger$>$driving$("blue"$ICA)$
$$
!
! !
Page 10 of 24 !!
OA#'P%?%(")(%*+(,-..Q12(RSB2(%=)'>"(:';N*%)"&(&#'>'$@(
$$
$$
$$
$$
!!
$$
((
!#%'$(#"@'A$('$(B%C*"(/(
!D(*%C"*('$(B%C*"(/(
E%;'$@('$()F"(A#'@'$%*(G%G"#(
H(
I(
J(
9A$)#%:)(
EA)":(
LH$
Cerebellum$
Declive$
Cerebellum$
;26$
;60$
;20$
Driving$>$rest$
$$
LH$
Occipitotemporal$
BA19$
Middle$temporal/occipital$
(BA19)$
;30$
;90$
14$
Driving$>$rest$
$$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
((
!#%'$(#"@'A$('$(B%C*"(/(
!D(*%C"*('$(B%C*"(/(
E%;'$@('$()F"(A#'@'$%*(G%G"#(
H(
I(
J(
9A$)#%:)(
EA)":(
RH$
Cerebellum$
Tonsil$
Cerebellum$
42$
;52$
;40$
Driving$>$rest$
$$
RH$
Precentral$
BA6$
Precentral$gyrys$(BA6)$
24$
2$
62$
Driving$>$rest$
$$
RH$
Occipitotemporal$
BA19$
Middle$temporal/occipital$
(BA19)$
42$
;80$
20$
Driving$>$rest$
$$
RH$
Parieto;occipital$
BA17$
Cuneus$(BA17)$
20$
;92$
4$
Driving$>$rest$
$$
(
(
(
$
$
$
$
(
(
((
!#%'$(#"@'A$('$(B%C*"(/(
!D(*%C"*('$(B%C*"(/(
E%;'$@('$()F"(A#'@'$%*(G%G"#(
H(
I(
J(
9A$)#%:)(
EA)":(
RH$
Occipitotemporal$
$$
Middle$occipital$gyrus$(BA19)$
40$
;84$
14$
Passenger$>$rest$
$$
(
(
(
$
$
$
$
(
(
((
!#%'$(#"@'A$('$(B%C*"(/(
!D(*%C"*('$(B%C*"(/(
E%;'$@('$()F"(A#'@'$%*(G%G"#(
H(
I(
J(
9A$)#%:)(
EA)":(
LH$
Cerebellum$
Declive$
Cerebellum$
;26$
;60$
;22$
Driving$>$passenger$
$$
LH$
Cerebellum$
Uvula$
N/A$
;6$
;70$
;32$
Driving$>$passenger$
$$
(
(
(
$
$
$
$
(
(
((
!#%'$(#"@'A$('$(B%C*"(/(
!D(*%C"*('$(B%C*"(/(
E%;'$@('$()F"(A#'@'$%*(G%G"#(
H(
I(
J(
9A$)#%:)(
EA)":(
RH$
Cerebellum$
Tonsil$
Cerebellum$
32$
;42$
;42$
Driving$>$passenger$
$$
!
! !
Page 11 of 24 !!
T"A$@(")(%*+(,-..U12(RSB2(#"%*(&#'>'$@(
$$
$$
$$
$$
((
((
((
!#%'$(#"@'A$('$(B%C*"(/(
!D(*%C"*('$(B%C*"(/(
E%;'$@('$()F"(A#'@'$%*(G%G"#(
H(
I(
J(
9A$)#%:)(
EA)":(
LH$
Precentral$
BA4/6$
Precentral$gyrus$(BA4)$
;10$
;26$
68$
Driving$>$scene$viewing$(control)$
$$
LH$
Precentral$
BA6$
Precentral$gyrus$(BA6)$
;10$
;22$
64$
Driving$>$scene$viewing$(control)$
$$
LH$
Postcentral$
BA3$
Postcentral$gyrus$(BA3/1/2)$
;44$
;18$
52$
Driving$>$scene$viewing$(control)$
$$
LH$
Occipital$
BA17/18$
Primary$visual$cortex$
(BA17/18)$
;2$
;77$
8$
Driving$>$scene$viewing$(control)$
$$
LH$
Posterior$parietal$
BA7$
Precuneus$(BA7/31)$
;10$
;49$
63$
Driving$>$scene$viewing$(control)$
$$
LH$
Parahippocampal$
BA30/35$
Parahippocampal$gyrus$
(BA35)$
;18$
;36$
;2$
Driving$>$scene$viewing$(control)$
$$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
((
!#%'$(#"@'A$('$(B%C*"(/(
!D(*%C"*('$(B%C*"(/(
E%;'$@('$()F"(A#'@'$%*(G%G"#(
H(
I(
J(
9A$)#%:)(
EA)":(
RH$
Postcentral$
BA3$
Postcentral$gyrus$(BA3/1/2)$
38$
;27$
57$
Driving$>$scene$viewing$(control)$
$$
RH$
Occipitotemporal$
BA19/37$
Fusiform$gyrus$(BA19/37)$
30$
;48$
;8$
Driving$>$scene$viewing$(control)$
$$
RH$
Parieto;occipital$
BA7/31$
Precuneus$(BA7/31)$
24$
;78$
28$
Driving$>$scene$viewing$(control)$
$$
RH$
Middle$temporal$
BA19/39$
Medial$temporal$gyrus$(BA39)$
36$
;68$
20$
Driving$>$scene$viewing$(control)$
$$
RH$
Posterior$cingulate$
BA24/31$
Cingulate$gyrus$(BA24)$
10$
;7$
41$
Driving$>$scene$viewing$(control)$
$$
RH$
Thalamus$
VPMN$
Thalamus$
16$
;17$
1$
Driving$>$scene$viewing$(control)$
$$
RH$
Cerebellum$
Dentate$
Cerebellum$
22$
;51$
;24$
Driving$>$scene$viewing$(control)$
$$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
((
!#%'$(#"@'A$((
!D(*%C"*('$(B%C*"(/(
E%;'$@('$()F"(A#'@'$%*(G%G"#(
H(
I(
J(
9A$)#%:)(
EA)":(
LH$
Occipital$
BA17$
Primary$visual$cortex$
(BA17/18)$
;8$
;81$
7$
Passenger$>$scene$viewing$(control)$
$$
LH$
Occipitotemporal$
BA18$
Fusiform$gyrus$(BA19/37)$
;30$
;88$
;12$
Passenger$>$scene$viewing$(control)$
[11]$
LH$
Posterior$parietal$
BA7$
Precuneus$(BA7/31)$
;4$
;54$
51$
Passenger$>$scene$viewing$(control)$
$$
LH$
Cerebellum$
Declive$
Cerebellum$
;22$
;58$
;12$
Passenger$>$scene$viewing$(control)$
$$
(
(
$
$
$
$
$
(
$
((
!#%'$(#"@'A$(
!D(*%C"*('$(B%C*"(/(
E%;'$@('$()F"(A#'@'$%*(G%G"#(
H(
I(
J(
9A$)#%:)(
EA)":(
RH$
Precentral$
BA4$
Precentral$gyrus$(BA4)$
36$
;28$
64$
Passenger$>$scene$viewing$(control)$
$$
RH$
Postcentral$
BA3/1/2$
Postcentral$gyrus$(BA3/1/2)$
42$
;15$
62$
Passenger$>$scene$viewing$(control)$
$$
RH$
Occipital$
BA18$
Primary$visual$cortex$
(BA17/18)$
8$
;76$
4$
Passenger$>$scene$viewing$(control)$
$$
RH$
Occipitotemporal$
BA37/19$
Fusiform$gyrus$(BA19/37)$
30$
;48$
;8$
Passenger$>$scene$viewing$(control)$
$$
RH$
Medial$temporal$
BA39/19$
Medial$temporal$gyrus$(BA39)$
38$
;73$
22$
Passenger$>$scene$viewing$(control)$
$$
!
! !
Page 12 of 24 !!
6'#$7)'%)-12)/#$%&$+'3)
!
((
!#%'$(#"@'A$('$(B%C*"(/(
!D(*%C"*('$(B%C*"(/(
E%;'$@('$()F"(A#'@'$%*(G%G"#(
H(
I(
J(
9A$)#%:)(
EA)":(
LH$
Precentral$
BA10$
Prefrontal$gyrus$(BA10)$
;2$
63$
;10$
Control$(real$scene$viewing)$>$real$driving$
$$
LH$
Prefrontal$
BA47/45$
Inferior$frontal$gyrus$
(BA45/47)$
;50$
21$
;1$
Control$(real$scene$viewing)$>$real$driving$
$$
LH$
Medial$temporal$
BA21$
Medial$temporal$gyrus$(BA21)$
;46$
3$
;27$
Control$(real$scene$viewing)$>$real$driving$
$$
LH$
Prefrontal$
BA25$
Subcallosal$gyrus$(BA25)$
;8$
17$
;14$
Control$(real$scene$viewing)$>$real$driving$
$$
(
(
(
$
$
$
$
(
(
((
!#%'$(#"@'A$('$(B%C*"(/(
!D(*%C"*('$(B%C*"(/(
E%;'$@('$()F"(A#'@'$%*(G%G"#(
H(
I(
J(
9A$)#%:)(
EA)":(
RH$
Prefrontal$
BA10$
Prefrontal$gyrus$(BA10)$
34$
61$
;7$
Control$(real$scene$viewing)$>$real$driving$
$$
RH$
Prefrontal$
BA45/44$
Inferior$frontal$gyrus$
(BA45/47)$
57$
20$
16$
Control$(real$scene$viewing)$>$real$driving$
$$
RH$
Prefrontal$
BA11$
Orbital$gyrus$(BA11)$
2$
43$
;19$
Control$(real$scene$viewing)$>$real$driving$
$$
RH$
Medial$temporal$
BA21$
Medial$temporal$gyrus$(BA21)$
59$
4$
;20$
Control$(real$scene$viewing)$>$real$driving$
$$
!
! !
Page 13 of 24 !!
8G'"#:(V(4%@N'#"(,-..U12(34567LM42(G#A)A=A*(%$%*W:':2(%=)'>"(:';N*%)"&(&#'>'$@(
$$
$$
$$
((
$
((
!#%'$(#"@'A$('$(B%C*"(/(
!D(*%C"*('$(B%C*"(/(
E%;'$@('$()F"(A#'@'$%*(G%G"#(
H(
I(
J(
9A$)#%:)(
EA)":(
LH$
Cerebellum$
Tuber$
Cerebellum$
;30$
;69$
;30$
Action$planning$>$coasting$(control)$
[12]$
LH$
Posterior$parietal$
BA7$
Precuneus/superior$parietal$cortex$
;3$
;54$
48$
Action$planning$>$coasting$(control)$
$$
LH$
Parieto;occipital$
BA19$
Middle$occipital$gyrus$
;35$
;75$
12$
Action$planning$>$coasting$(control)$
$$
LH$
Postcentral$
BA40$
Postcentral$gyrus$
;45$
;30$
42$
Action$planning$>$coasting$(control)$
$$
LH$
Precentral$
BA6$
Middle$frontal$gyrus$(posterior)$
;33$
;6$
54$
Action$planning$>$coasting$(control)$
$$
LH$
Precentral$
BA6$
Superior$frontal$gyrus$
;21$
9$
60$
Action$planning$>$coasting$(control)$
$$
LH$
Prefrontal$
BA47$
Inferior$frontal$gyrus$
;45$
15$
0$
Action$planning$>$coasting$(control)$
$$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
((
!#%'$(#"@'A$('$(B%C*"(/(
!D(*%C"*('$(B%C*"(/(
E%;'$@('$()F"(A#'@'$%*(G%G"#(
H(
I(
J(
9A$)#%:)(
EA)":(
RH$
Precentral$
BA6$
Superior$frontal$gyrus$(pre;SMA)$
3$
6$
54$
Action$planning$>$coasting$(control)$
$$
RH$
Cerebellum$
Culmen$
Cerebellum$
36$
;51$
;30$
Action$planning$>$coasting$(control)$
$$
RH$
Parieto;occipital$
BA19$
Middle$occipital$gyrus$
36$
;81$
6$
Action$planning$>$coasting$(control)$
$$
RH$
Posterior$parietal$
BA40$
Postcentral$gyrus$
63$
;27$
30$
Action$planning$>$coasting$(control)$
$$
RH$
Precentral$
BA8$
Middle$frontal$gyrus$(dorsolateral$PFC)$
51$
9$
42$
Action$planning$>$coasting$(control)$
$$
RH$
Prefrontal$
BA6$
Superior$frontal$gyrus$
12$
27$
51$
Action$planning$>$coasting$(control)$
$$
RH$
Middle$temporal$
BA21$
Middle$temporal$gyrus$
57$
;51$
3$
Action$planning$>$coasting$(control)$
$$
RH$
Superior$temporal$
BA40$
Superior$temporal$sulcus$
57$
;45$
27$
Action$planning$>$coasting$(control)$
$$
RH$
Prefrontal$
BA9$
Insula$
42$
;6$
;21$
Action$planning$>$coasting$(control)$
$$
!
! !
Page 14 of 24 !!
89&'"():);-7+&"')/#$%&$+'3)
!
((
!#%'$(#"@'A$('$(B%C*"(/(
!D(*%C"*('$(B%C*"(/(
E%;'$@('$()F"(A#'@'$%*(G%G"#(
H(
I(
J(
9A$)#%:)(
EA)":(
LH$
Prefrontal$
BA9$
Middle$frontal$gyrus$(lateral$PFC)$
;42$
18$
30$
Spontaneous$route$planning$>$coasting$(control)$
$$
LH$
Prefrontal$
BA10$
Superior$frontal$gyrus$(anterior$PFC)$
;18$
57$
0$
Spontaneous$route$planning$>$coasting$(control)$
$$
LH$
Posterior$
cingulate/retrosplenial$
BA31/30$
Retrosplenial$cortex$
;15$
;63$
15$
Spontaneous$route$planning$>$coasting$(control)$
$$
LH$
Parieto;occipital$
BA19$
Angular$gyrus$(PPC)$
;36$
;84$
24$
Spontaneous$route$planning$>$coasting$(control)$
$$
LH$
Posterior$parietal$
BA40$
Inferior$parietal$gyrus$
;48$
;51$
51$
Spontaneous$route$planning$>$coasting$(control)$
$$
LH$
Prefrontal$
BA47$
Anterior$insula/ventrolateral$PFC$
;39$
24$
;6$
Spontaneous$route$planning$>$coasting$(control)$
$$
LH$
Cerebellum$
Pyramis$
Cerebellum$
;36$
;69$
;33$
Spontaneous$route$planning$>$coasting$(control)$
$$
LH$
Precentral$
BA6$
Superior$frontal$gyrus$(posterior)$
30$
0$
60$
Spontaneous$route$planning$>$coasting$(control)$
$$
LH$
Precentral$
BA4$
Precentral$gyrus$
;51$
;9$
42$
Spontaneous$route$planning$>$coasting$(control)$
$$
(
(
(
$
$
$
$
(
(
((
!#%'$(#"@'A$('$(B%C*"(/(
!D(*%C"*('$(B%C*"(/(
E%;'$@('$()F"(A#'@'$%*(G%G"#(
H(
I(
J(
9A$)#%:)(
EA)":(
RH$
Prefrontal$
BA8$
Superior$frontal$gyrus$(dorsomedial$PFC)$
9$
18$
48$
Spontaneous$route$planning$>$coasting$(control)$
$$
RH$
Prefrontal$
BA13$
Middle$frontal$gyrus$(lateral$PFC)$
48$
9$
4$
Spontaneous$route$planning$>$coasting$(control)$
$$
RH$
Prefrontal$
BA10$
Middle$frontal$gyrus$(anterior$PFC)$
36$
63$
6$
Spontaneous$route$planning$>$coasting$(control)$
$$
RH$
Posterior$
cingulate/retrosplenial$
BA30$
Retrosplenial$cortex$
18$
;45$
0$
Spontaneous$route$planning$>$coasting$(control)$
$$
RH$
Posterior$parietal$
BA7$
Superior$parietal$gyrus$(PPC)$
3$
;75$
51$
Spontaneous$route$planning$>$coasting$(control)$
$$
RH$
Posterior$parietal$
BA39$
Angular$gyrus$(PPC)$
45$
;69$
27$
Spontaneous$route$planning$>$coasting$(control)$
$$
RH$
Posterior$parietal$
BA7$
Superior$parietal$gyrus/precuneus$
6$
;54$
57$
Spontaneous$route$planning$>$coasting$(control)$
$$
RH$
Posterior$parietal$
BA40$
Inferior$parietal$gyrus$
42$
;45$
57$
Spontaneous$route$planning$>$coasting$(control)$
$$
RH$
Prefrontal$
BA47$
Anterior$insula/ventrolateral$PFC$
33$
21$
;15$
Spontaneous$route$planning$>$coasting$(control)$
$$
RH$
Cerebellum$
Tuber$
Cerebellum$
33$
;60$
;30$
Spontaneous$route$planning$>$coasting$(control)$
$$
RH$
Middle$temporal$
BA21$
Middle$temporal$gyrus$
63$
;60$
6$
Spontaneous$route$planning$>$coasting$(control)$
$$
RH$
Brain$stem$
n/a$
Brain$stem$
6$
;18$
;39$
Spontaneous$route$planning$>$coasting$(control)$
$$
RH$
Superior$temporal$
BA22$
Superior$temporal$sulcus$
54$
;39$
0$
Spontaneous$route$planning$>$coasting$(control)$
$$
RH$
Occipitotemporal$
BA18$
Inferior$occipital$gyrus$
12$
;84$
;15$
Spontaneous$route$planning$>$coasting$(control)$
$$
RH$
Anterior$cingulate$
BA32$
Anterior$cingulate$cortex$
9$
36$
12$
Spontaneous$route$planning$>$coasting$(control)$
$$
!
! !
Page 15 of 24 !!
89&'"():);-7+&"')/#$%&$+'3)
!
((
!#%'$(#"@'A$(
!D(*%C"*('$(B%C*"(/(
E%;'$@('$()F"(A#'@'$%*(G%G"#(
H(
I(
J(
9A$)#%:)(
EA)":(
LH$
Parahippocampal/hipp
ocampal$
BA35$
Hippocampus$
;30$
;27$
;21$
Customer$driven$route$planning$>$coasting$(control)$
$$
LH$
Parahippocampal$
BA35/36$
Parahippocampus$
;27$
;30$
;24$
Customer$driven$route$planning$>$coasting$(control)$
$$
LH$
Posterior$
cingulate/retrosplenial$
BA30$
Retrosplenial$cortex$
;6$
;63$
9$
Customer$driven$route$planning$>$coasting$(control)$
$$
LH$
Precentral$
BA6$
Superior$frontal$gyrus$(dorsomedial$PFC)$
0$
18$
60$
Customer$driven$route$planning$>$coasting$(control)$
$$
LH$
Prefrontal$
BA47$
Inferior$frontal$gyrus$(lateral$PFC)$
;48$
24$
;6$
Customer$driven$route$planning$>$coasting$(control)$
$$
LH$
Superior$temporal$
BA41/22$
Superior/middle$temporal$gyrus$
;57$
;21$
3$
Customer$driven$route$planning$>$coasting$(control)$
$$
LH$
Cerebellum$
Tonsil$
Cerebellum$
0$
;54$
;39$
Customer$driven$route$planning$>$coasting$(control)$
$$
(
(
(
$
$
$
$
$
(
((
!#%'$(#"@'A$(
!D(*%C"*('$(B%C*"(/(
E%;'$@('$()F"(A#'@'$%*(G%G"#(
H(
I(
J(
9A$)#%:)(
EA)":(
RH$
Parahippocampal/hipp
ocampal$
BA35$
Hippocampus$
27$
;24$
;18$
Customer$driven$route$planning$>$coasting$(control)$
$$
RH$
Posterior$
cingulate/retrosplenial$
BA30/18$
Retrosplenial$cortex$
9$
;63$
6$
Customer$driven$route$planning$>$coasting$(control)$
$$
RH$
Precentral$
BA6$
Superior$frontal$gyrus$(dorsomedial$PFC)$
0$
18$
60$
Customer$driven$route$planning$>$coasting$(control)$
$$
RH$
Prefrontal$
BA47$
Inferior$frontal$gyrus$(lateral$PFC)$
45$
24$
3$
Customer$driven$route$planning$>$coasting$(control)$
$$
RH$
Middle$temporal$
BA21$
Superior/middle$temporal$gyrus$
60$
;33$
;3$
Customer$driven$route$planning$>$coasting$(control)$
$$
RH$
Brain$stem$
n/a$
Brain$stem$
3$
;33$
;39$
Customer$driven$route$planning$>$coasting$(control)$
$$
RH$
Cerebellum$
Tonsil$
Cerebellum$
0$
;54$
;39$
Customer$driven$route$planning$>$coasting$(control)$
$$
RH$
Occipitotemporal$
BA37$
Fusiform$gyrus$
48$
;54$
;27$
Customer$driven$route$planning$>$coasting$(control)$
$$
!
! !
Page 16 of 24 !!
8G'"#:(V(4%@N'#"(,-..X12(34567LM42(%=)'>"(:';N*%)"&(&#'>'$@(
((
!#%'$(#"@'A$('$(B%C*"(/(
!D(*%C"*('$(B%C*"(/(
E%;'$@('$()F"(A#'@'$%*(G%G"#(
H(
I(
J(
9A$)#%:)(
EA)":(
LH$
Precentral$
BA6$
Pre;SMA/SMA$
;3$
0$
60$
Turning$>$coasting$(control)$
$$
LH$
Cerebellum$
Pyramis$
Cerebellum$
;21$
;72$
;28$
Turning$>$coasting$(control)$
$$
LH$
Parieto;occipital$
BA19$
Middle$occipital$gyrus$
;42$
;81$
9$
Turning$>$coasting$(control)$
$$
LH$
Prefrontal$
BA44$
Middle$frontal$gyrus$
;57$
9$
9$
Turning$>$coasting$(control)$
$$
LH$
Prefrontal$
BA47$
Anterior$insula/ventrolateral$PFC$
;39$
21$
;3$
Turning$>$coasting$(control)$
$$
LH$
Posterior$parietal$
BA40$
Inferior$parietal$gyrus$
;60$
;30$
27$
Turning$>$coasting$(control)$
$$
LH$
Parieto;occipital$
BA19$
Posterior$parietal$cortex$
;24$
;81$
36$
Turning$>$coasting$(control)$
$$
LH$
Precentral$
BA6$
Precentral$gyrus$
;39$
;9$
57$
Turning$>$coasting$(control)$
$$
(
(
(
$
$
$
$
(
(
((
!#%'$(#"@'A$('$(B%C*"(/(
!D(*%C"*('$(B%C*"(/(
E%;'$@('$()F"(A#'@'$%*(G%G"#(
H(
I(
J(
9A$)#%:)(
EA)":(
RH$
Occipitotemporal$
BA18$
Medial$occipital/calcarine$sulcus$
9$
;75$
;6$
Turning$>$coasting$(control)$
$$
RH$
Posterior$parietal$
BA7$
Precuneus/posterior$cingulate$
9$
;51$
54$
Turning$>$coasting$(control)$
$$
RH$
Cerebellum$
Declive$
Cerebellum$
27$
;66$
;21$
Turning$>$coasting$(control)$
$$
RH$
Occipitotemporal$
BA37$
Middle$occipital$gyrus$
48$
;69$
;3$
Turning$>$coasting$(control)$
$$
RH$
Prefrontal$
BA9$
Middle$frontal$gyrus$
48$
9$
36$
Turning$>$coasting$(control)$
$$
RH$
Prefrontal$
BA47$
Insula$
45$
12$
;3$
Turning$>$coasting$(control)$
$$
RH$
Prefrontal$
BA10$
Frontopolar$gyrus$
0$
66$
18$
Turning$>$coasting$(control)$
$$
RH$
Thalamus$
VPLN$
Thalamus$
15$
;15$
6$
Turning$>$coasting$(control)$
$$
RH$
Posterior$
cingulate/retrosplenial$
BA31$
Posterior$cingulate$
9$
;27$
45$
Turning$>$coasting$(control)$
$$
RH$
Posterior$parietal$
BA7$
Posterior$parietal$cortex$
18$
;81$
36$
Turning$>$coasting$(control)$
$$
RH$
Precentral$
BA6$
Precentral$gyrus$
24$
;3$
60$
Turning$>$coasting$(control)$
$$
!
! !
Page 17 of 24 !!
89&'"():);-7+&"')/#$%&$+'3)
!
((
!#%'$(#"@'A$('$(B%C*"(/(
!D(*%C"*('$(B%C*"(/(
E%;'$@('$()F"(A#'@'$%*(G%G"#(
H(
I(
J(
9A$)#%:)(
EA)":(
LH$
Occipital$
BA18$
Medial$occipital/calcarine$sulcus$
0$
;75$
3$
Swerving$>$coasting$(control)$
$$
LH$
Precentral$
BA4$
Precentral$gyrus$
27$
;24$
57$
Swerving$>$coasting$(control)$
$$
LH$
Posterior$parietal$
BA40$
Postcentral$gyrus$
;60$
;24$
21$
Swerving$>$coasting$(control)$
$$
LH$
Posterior$parietal$
BA40$
Supramarginal$gyrus$
;57$
;39$
27$
Swerving$>$coasting$(control)$
$$
LH$
Cerebellum$
Vermis$
Mid$cerebellum$
0$
;66$
;33$
Swerving$>$coasting$(control)$
$$
LH$
Cerebellum$
Anterior$lobe$
Cerebellum$
;30$
;48$
;30$
Swerving$>$coasting$(control)$
$$
LH$
Anterior$cingulate$
BA24$
Mid$cingulate$
;6$
3$
42$
Swerving$>$coasting$(control)$
$$
LH$
Posterior$parietal$
BA19$
Intraparietal$sulcus$
;15$
;81$
39$
Swerving$>$coasting$(control)$
$$
LH$
Middle$occipital$
BA37$
Middle$occipital$gyrus/pSTS$
;39$
;69$
3$
Swerving$>$coasting$(control)$
$$
LH$
Brain$stem$
Pons$
Brainstem$
;9$
;33$
;33$
Swerving$>$coasting$(control)$
$$
(
(
(
$
$
$
$
(
(
((
!#%'$(#"@'A$('$(B%C*"(/(
!D(*%C"*('$(B%C*"(/(
E%;'$@('$()F"(A#'@'$%*(G%G"#(
H(
I(
J(
9A$)#%:)(
EA)":(
RH$
Occipital$
BA18$
Medial$occipital/calcarine$sulcus$
0$
;75$
3$
Swerving$>$coasting$(control)$
$$
RH$
Middle$temporal$
BA37$
Middle$occipital$gyrus/pSTS$
48$
;69$
0$
Swerving$>$coasting$(control)$
$$
RH$
Precentral$
BA6$
SMA/mid$cingulate$
9$
;15$
51$
Swerving$>$coasting$(control)$
$$
RH$
Precentral$
BA4$
Precentral$gyrus$
27$
;24$
57$
Swerving$>$coasting$(control)$
$$
RH$
Postcentral$
BA1$
Postcentral$gyrus$
63$
;15$
24$
Swerving$>$coasting$(control)$
$$
RH$
Cerebellum$
Vermis$
Mid$cerebellum$
0$
;66$
;33$
Swerving$>$coasting$(control)$
$$
RH$
Cerebellum$
Culmen$
Cerebellum$
30$
;42$
;30$
Swerving$>$coasting$(control)$
$$
RH$
Prefrontal$
BA13$
Inferior$frontal$gyrus$
45$
12$
0$
Swerving$>$coasting$(control)$
$$
!
! !
Page 18 of 24 !!
89&'"():);-7+&"')/#$%&$+'3)
!
((
!#%'$(#"@'A$('$(B%C*"(/(
!D(*%C"*('$(B%C*"(/(
E%;'$@('$()F"(A#'@'$%*(G%G"#(
H(
I(
J(
9A$)#%:)(
EA)":(
LH$
Cerebellum$
Tuber$
Cerebellum$
;45$
;57$
;27$
Action$planning$>$coasting$(control)$
$$
LH$
Posterior$parietal$
BA7$
Superior$parietal/precuneus$
;3$
;57$
51$
Action$planning$>$coasting$(control)$
$$
LH$
Occipitotemporal$
BA19$
Inferior$occipital$gyrus$
;48$
;66$
;12$
Action$planning$>$coasting$(control)$
$$
LH$
Posterior$parietal$
BA7/19$
Intraparietal$sulcus$
;17$
;78$
33$
Action$planning$>$coasting$(control)$
$$
LH$
Middle$temporal$
BA39$
Middle$occipital$gyrus$
;45$
;75$
12$
Action$planning$>$coasting$(control)$
$$
LH$
Occipital$
BA19$
Lingual$gyrus$
;27$
;60$
;15$
Action$planning$>$coasting$(control)$
$$
LH$
Precentral$
BA6$
Superior$frontal$gyrus$
;21$
9$
60$
Action$planning$>$coasting$(control)$
$$
LH$
Precentral$
BA6$
Middle$frontal$gyrus$(posterior)$
;36$
;6$
54$
Action$planning$>$coasting$(control)$
$$
LH$
Middle$temporal$
BA37$
Middle$temporal$gyrus$
;54$
;60$
6$
Action$planning$>$coasting$(control)$
$$
(
(
(
$
$
$
$
(
(
((
!#%'$(#"@'A$('$(B%C*"(/(
!D(*%C"*('$(B%C*"(/(
E%;'$@('$()F"(A#'@'$%*(G%G"#(
H(
I(
J(
9A$)#%:)(
EA)":(
RH$
Cerebellum$
Culmen$
Cerebellum$
39$
;51$
;30$
Action$planning$>$coasting$(control)$
$$
RH$
Precentral$
BA8$
Middle$frontal$gyrus$(dorsolateral$PFC)$
51$
9$
42$
Action$planning$>$coasting$(control)$
$$
RH$
Occipitotemporal$
BA18$
Middle$occipital$gyrus$
42$
;84$
;9$
Action$planning$>$coasting$(control)$
$$
RH$
Occipital$
BA18$
Medial$occipital/calcarine$sulcus$
9$
;84$
;9$
Action$planning$>$coasting$(control)$
$$
RH$
Precentral$
BA6$
Superior$frontal$gyrus$
18$
6$
66$
Action$planning$>$coasting$(control)$
$$
RH$
Middle$temporal$
BA21$
Superior$temporal$sulcus$
57$
;51$
3$
Action$planning$>$coasting$(control)$
$$
RH$
Occipitotemporal$
BA37/19$
Middle$temporal$gyrus$
48$
;66$
;9$
Action$planning$>$coasting$(control)$
$$
RH$
Posterior$parietal$
BA7$
Posterior$parietal$cortex$
21$
;81$
48$
Action$planning$>$coasting$(control)$
$$
!
! !
Page 19 of 24 !!
4%&"#(")(%*+(,-..Y12(34567LM42(G%::'>"(:';N*%)"&(&#'>'$@(
$$
((
!#%'$(#"@'A$(
!D(*%C"*(
E%;'$@('$()F"(A#'@'$%*(G%G"#(
H(
I(
J(
9A$)#%:)(
EA)":(
LH$
Occipital$
BA18/19$
Middle$temporal$BA$39$
;41$
;71$
;8$
"Unfamiliar"$
[13]$
LH$
Precentral$
BA6$
Middle$frontal$BA6$
;30$
0$
62$
"Unfamiliar"$
$$
LH$
Precentral$
BA6$
Superior$frontal$BA6$
;18$
;8$
64$
"Unfamiliar"$
$$
LH$
Posterior$parietal$
BA7$
Superior$parietal$
;18$
;66$
64$
"Unfamiliar"$
$$
LH$
Occipitotemporal$
BA19/37$
Fusiform$
;30$
;54$
;10$
"Unfamiliar"$
$$
LH$
Occipitotemporal$
BA19$
Middle$occipital$
;42$
;72$
;10$
"Unfamiliar"$
$$
LH$
Occipital$
BA18/19$
Middle$occipital$BA18$
;34$
;94$
14$
"Unfamiliar"$
$$
LH$
Parietooccipital$
BA17$
Cuneus$
;20$
;94$
;2$
"Unfamiliar"$
$$
LH$
Cerebellum$
Culmen$
Cerebellum,$culmen$
;40$
;56$
;26$
"Unfamiliar"$
$$
$$
$$
$$
$$
$$
$$
$$
$$
$$
RH$
Occipitotemporal$
BA19/37$
Middle$temporal$BA39$
42$
;70$
;2$
"Unfamiliar"$
$$
RH$
Prefrontal$
BA47$
Middle$frontal$
48$
46$
;12$
"Unfamiliar"$
$$
RH$
Posterior$parietal$
BA7$
Superior$parietal$
12$
;66$
64$
"Unfamiliar"$
$$
RH$
Occipitotemporal$
BA37$
Fusiform$
28$
;48$
;12$
"Unfamiliar"$
$$
RH$
Occipital$
BA19$
Middle$occipital$
42$
;86$
14$
"Unfamiliar"$
$$
RH$
Parietooccipital$
BA31$
Precuneus$
20$
;66$
20$
"Unfamiliar"$
$$
RH$
Occipital$
BA18$
Cuneus$
21$
;97$
;4$
"Unfamiliar"$
$$
RH$
Thalamus$
$$
Thalamus$
12$
;22$
10$
"Unfamiliar"$
$$
RH$
Cerebellum$
Culmen$
Cerebellum,$culmen$
40$
;52$
;26$
"Unfamiliar"$
$$
RH$
Cerebellum$
Tonsil$
Cerebellum,$tonsil$
0$
;56$
;42$
"Unfamiliar"$
$$
RH$
Cerebellum$
Inf.$semi;lunar$lob.$
Cerebellum,$inferior$semilunar$lobe$
4$
;76$
;42$
"Unfamiliar"$
$$
!
! !
Page 20 of 24 !!
M'(")(%*+(,-./-12(34567499D2(%=)'>"(:';N*%)"&(&#'>'$@(
$$
$$
$$
$$
((
((
((
!#%'$(#"@'A$('$(B%C*"(/(
!D(*%C"*('$(B%C*"(/(
E%;'$@('$()F"(A#'@'$%*(G%G"#(
H(
I(
J(
9A$)#%:)(
EA)":(
LH$
Parieto;occipital$
BA18$
Cuneus$(BA17/18)$
;9$
;99$
8$
Driving$>$passenger$>$control$(M;CCA$component$SOI;1)$
$$
LH$
Occipital$
BA17/18$
Lingual$gyrus$(BA17/18)$
;3$
;79$
1$
Driving$>$passenger$>$control$(M;CCA$component$SOI;1)$
$$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
((
!#%'$(#"@'A$('$(B%C*"(/(
!D(*%C"*('$(B%C*"(/(
E%;'$@('$()F"(A#'@'$%*(G%G"#(
H(
I(
J(
9A$)#%:)(
EA)":(
RH$
Parieto;occipital$
BA18$
Cuneus$(BA17/18)$
3$
;96$
5$
Driving$>$passenger$>$control,$M;CCA$component$SOI;1$
$$
RH$
Occipital$
BA17/18$
Lingual$gyrus$(BA17/18)$
3$
;79$
1$
Driving$>$passenger$>$control,$M;CCA$component$SOI;1$
$$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
((
!#%'$(#"@'A$('$(B%C*"(/(
!D(*%C"*('$(B%C*"(/(
E%;'$@('$()F"(A#'@'$%*(G%G"#(
H(
I(
J(
9A$)#%:)(
EA)":(
LH$
Prefrontal$
BA9$
Medial$frontal$gyrus$(BA9)$
;6$
42$
20$
$Driving$>$passenger,$control,$M;CCA$component$SOI;3$
$$
LH$
Cerebellum$
Culmen$
Culmen$
;6$
;50$
;15$
$Driving$>$passenger,$control,$M;CCA$component$SOI;3$
$$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
((
!#%'$(#"@'A$('$(B%C*"(/(
!D(*%C"*('$(B%C*"(/(
E%;'$@('$()F"(A#'@'$%*(G%G"#(
H(
I(
J(
9A$)#%:)(
EA)":(
RH$
Prefrontal$
BA9$
Medial$frontal$gyrus$(BA9)$
6$
42$
20$
$driving$>$viewing,fixation$
$$
RH$
Cerebellum$
Culmen$
Culmen$
0$
;53$
;18$
$driving$>$viewing,fixation$
$$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
((
!#%'$(#"@'A$('$(B%C*"(/(
!D(*%C"*('$(B%C*"(/(
E%;'$@('$()F"(A#'@'$%*(G%G"#(
H(
I(
J(
9A$)#%:)(
EA)":(
LH$
Posterior$parietal$
BA7$
Precuneus$(BA7)$
;21$
;70$
50$
driving$>$viewing,fixation,$transient$+$habituation$
$$
LH$
Posterior$parietal$
BA40$
Inferior$parietal$lobule$(BA40)$
;39$
;50$
52$
driving$>$viewing,fixation,$transient$+$habituation$
$$
LH$
Precentral$
BA6$
Precentral$gyrus$(BA6/4)$
;33$
;17$
67$
driving$>$viewing,fixation,$transient$+$habituation$
$$
LH$
Posterior$
cingulate/retrosplenial$
BA29$
Posterior$cingulate$(BA29/30/31)$
0$
;46$
22$
driving$>$viewing,fixation,$transient$+$habituation$
$$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
((
!#%'$(#"@'A$('$(B%C*"(/(
!D(*%C"*('$(B%C*"(/(
E%;'$@('$()F"(A#'@'$%*(G%G"#(
H(
I(
J(
9A$)#%:)(
EA)":(
RH$
Posterior$parietal$
BA7$
Precuneus$(BA7)$
18$
;70$
48$
driving$>$viewing,fixation,$transient$+$habituation$
$$
RH$
Posterior$parietal$
BA7/40$
Inferior$parietal$lobule$(BA40)$
18$
;67$
53$
driving$>$viewing,fixation,$transient$+$habituation$
$$
RH$
Precentral$
BA6$
Precentral$gyrus$(BA6/4)$
30$
;17$
67$
driving$>$viewing,fixation,$transient$+$habituation$
$$
RH$
Posterior$
cingulate/retrosplenial$
BA29$
Posterior$cingulate$(BA29/30/31)$
3$
;52$
11$
driving$>$viewing,fixation,$transient$+$habituation$
$$
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
Page 21 of 24 !!
<&)'%)-12)4#$%&$+'3)
!
((
!#%'$(#"@'A$('$(B%C*"(/(
!D(*%C"*('$(B%C*"(/(
E%;'$@('$()F"(A#'@'$%*(G%G"#(
H(
I(
J(
9A$)#%:)(
EA)":(
LH$
Posterior$parietal$
BA7$
Precuneus$(BA7)$
0$
;71$
45$
$viewing,fixation$>$driving,$transient$+$rebound$in$
viewing,$driving$
$$
LH$
Posterior$
cingulate/retrosplenial$
BA31$
Cingulate$gyrus$(BA31)$
0$
;51$
27$
$viewing,fixation$>$driving,$transient$+$rebound$in$
viewing,$driving$
$$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
((
!#%'$(#"@'A$('$(B%C*"(/(
!D(*%C"*('$(B%C*"(/(
E%;'$@('$()F"(A#'@'$%*(G%G"#(
H(
I(
J(
9A$)#%:)(
EA)":(
RH$
Posterior$parietal$
BA7$
Precuneus$(BA7)$
6$
;70$
50$
viewing,fixation$>$driving,$transient$+$rebound$in$viewing,$
driving$
$$
RH$
Posterior$
cingulate/retrosplenial$
BA31$
Cingulate$gyrus$(BA31)$
6$
;54$
28$
viewing,fixation$>$driving,$transient$+$rebound$in$viewing,$
driving$
$$
!
! !
Page 22 of 24 !!
!
Z%$(")(%*+(,-./[12(34567LM42(%=)'>"(:';N*%)"&(&#'>'$@(
((
((
!#%'$(#"@'A$('$(B%C*"(/(
!D(*%C"*('$(B%C*"(/(
E%;'$@('$()F"(A#'@'$%*(G%G"#(
H(
I(
J(
9A$)#%:)(
EA)":(
LH$
Precentral$
BA4$
Primary$motor$cortex,$premotor$
cortex,$postcentral$gyrus$
;10$
;40$
70$
driving$(starting,$stopping,$straight,$turn)$>$fixation$
$$
LH$
Basal$ganglia$
Putamen$
Basal$ganglia,$lentiform$nucleus,$
putamen$
;24$
4$
;2$
driving$(starting,$stopping,$straight,$turn)$>$fixation$
$$
LH$
Superior$temporal$
BA41$
Superior$temporal$gyrus,$primary$
auditory$cortex$
;54$
;16$
10$
driving$(starting,$stopping,$straight,$turn)$>$fixation$
$$
LH$
Occipital$
BA19$
Visual$cortex,$middle$occipital$gyrus$
(BA19)$
;40$
;66$
8$
driving$(starting,$stopping,$straight,$turn)$>$fixation$
$$
(
(
(
$
$
$
$
(
(
((
!#%'$(#"@'A$('$(B%C*"(/(
!D(*%C"*('$(B%C*"(/(
E%;'$@('$()F"(A#'@'$%*(G%G"#(
H(
I(
J(
9A$)#%:)(
EA)":(
RH$
Cerebellum$
Tonsil$
Visual$cortex,$medial$cerebellar$
hemispheres$
20$
;46$
;40$
driving$(starting,$stopping,$straight,$turn)$>$fixation$
$$
RH$
Posterior$parietal$
BA7$
Superior$parietal$lobule$(BA7)$
24$
;62$
46$
driving$(starting,$stopping,$straight,$turn)$>$fixation$
$$
RH$
Precentral$
BA6$
Primary$motor$cortex,$middle$frontal$
gyrus$(BA6)$
26$
;12$
54$
driving$(starting,$stopping,$straight,$turn)$>$fixation$
$$
! !
Page 23 of 24 !!
!
NOTES!
)
=33&%&#$-1)/#,,'$%()$#%)>"#,)%5')#"&7&$-1)9-9'")-"')&$)&%-1&/()
!
[1]!<-99&)?@ABCD)/1-((&>&'3)%5')(&,+1-%#")%-(E()&$%#)-/%&F'G)(',&H-/%&F')-$3)9-((&F'2)I$)-/%&F')%-(E()%5')(+JK'/%)/#$%"#1()-)F&"%+-1)/-")&$)-)7-,')'$F&"#$,'$%2)L5&()&()
1-J'1'3)M"&F&$7)&$)%5')%-J1'(2)I$)-)(',&H-/%&F')%-(E)%5')(+JK'/%)#J('"F'()-)F&"%+-1)/-")&$)-)7-,')'$F&"#$,'$%)#")F&3'#)>##%-7')#>)-)"'-1)/-")&$)-)"'-1)'$F&"#$,'$%G)
N&%5)%5')'O91&/&%)&$(%"+/%&#$)%#)&,-7&$')#$')&()3"&F&$7)%5')F'5&/1'G)J+%),-E')$#)#F'"%),#F','$%(2)I$)9-((&F')%-(E()%5')(+JK'/%)#J('"F'()-)F&"%+-1)/-")&$)-)7-,')
'$F&"#$,'$%)#")F&3'#)>##%-7')#>)-)"'-1)/-")&$)-)"'-1)'$F&"#$,'$%G)J+%)N&%5)$#)&$(%"+/%&#$2)I$)%5')9-((&F')/#$3&%&#$)%5')#J('"F'")N-()K+37'3)%#)J')'>>'/%&F'1P)-)
9-(('$7'"G)-$3)%5')1-J'1)Q-(('$7'")&()+('3)&$)%5'(')%-J1'(2)
[2]!R'"$-"3&)'%)-12)-1(#)&$F'(%&7-%'3)>+$/%&#$-1)/#$$'/%&F&%P)-$3)(%"+/%+"-1)3&>>'"'$/'(2)S$1P)>+$/%&#$-1)-/%&F-%&#$)?I84)"'(+1%(D)N'"')"'F&'N'3)&$)<-99&)?@ABCD2!
[3]!The!studies!were!selected!on!the!basis!that!they!should!report!brain!activation!in!basic!steering!tasks!(i.e.!with!no!complex!secondary!tasks).)
[4]!The!original!appears!to!have!wrong!P!coordinate!(^21,87,^33)G)N5&/5)/#$%-&$()$#)7"-P),-%%'")?(&7$)'""#"D2)!
[5]!The!original!appears!to!have!wrong!O!coordinate!(^27,^84,24),!N5&/5)N#+13)J')&$)%5')1'>%)5',&(95'"'G)J+%)&()&$3&/-%'3)%#)J')&$)%5')"&75%)5',&(95'"')&$)%5')
0-1%'")'%)-12)L-J1')B)?!&7+"')@)(5#N()R=BT)-/%&F&%P)%#)J')J&1-%'"-1G)(+77'(%&$7)%5-%)%5')'""#")&()&$)%5')(&7$D2)
[6]!The!original!appears!to!have!wrong!O)coordinate!(39,^51,39),!N5&/5)N#+13)J')&$)%5')"&75%)5',&(95'"'G)$#%)%5')1'>%)5',&(95'"')-()&$3&/-%'3)&$)%5')%'O%2).SLUV)
%5')'O/'1)F'"(&#$)-/%+-11P)"'9'-%()%5')'""#")>"#,)%5')#"&7&$-12)
[7]!The!original!appears!to!have!erroneous!O!coordinate!(9,69,6),!N5&/5)N#+13)J')&$)%5')"&75%)5',&(95'"'G)$#%)%5')1'>%)5',&(95'"')-()&$3&/-%'3)&$)%5')%'O%2!
[8]!8&/.!(60,[5]1,^12)!&$)%5')#"&7&$-1.!.SLUV)%5')'O/'1)F'"(&#$)-/%+-11P)"'9'-%()%5')'""#")>"#,)%5')#"&7&$-12)
[9]!The!original!appears!to!have!erroneous!P!and!9#((&J1P!W!coordinates!(^9,^35,^6)G)N5&/5)&()$#%)&$)-$%'"&#")/&$7+1-%'X9"'>"#$%-1)"'7&#$)?N5'"')%5')-/%&F-%&#$)&()
?!&7+"')@DG)(#)%5')-$-%#,&/-1)1-J'1)&()/#""'/%)-$3)&%Y()%5')/##"3&$-%')(&7$)?#")(&7$(D)%5-%)-"')N"#$72)!
[10]!The!original!appears!to!have!erroneous!P!coordinate!(12,^40,^15).!!
[11]!The!original!appears!to!have!erroneous!O!coordinate!(30,^88,^12),!N5&/5)N#+13)J')&$)%5')"&75%G)$#%)&$)%5')1'>%)5',&(95'"'.!!
[12]!L5')89&'"():);-7+&"')9-9'"()7&F')"'(+1%()>#")-)$+,J'")#>)/#$%"-(%(2)S$1P)%5')#$'()N5'"')%5')"'1'F-$/')%#)%"-/E)3"&F&$7)&()#JF&#+()N'"')"'F&'N'3)?%5-%)&(V)"#+%')
91-$$&$7G)-/%&#$)91-$$&$7G)%+"$&$7G)(N'"N&$7D2!
[13]!I$)%5');-3'")'%)-12)9-9'")%5')9-"%&/&9-$%()N'"')9-(('$7'")&$)-)F&"%+-1)F'5&/1')3"&F&$7)%5"#+75)-)>'-%+"'1'(()(/'$'2)L5')"&3')N-()"'9'-%'3)%N&/'G)%5')>&"(%)"+$)
N-()%'",'3)Z+$>-,&1&-"[G)%5')('/#$3)#$')Z>-,&1&-"[)N&%5)-/%&F')3"&F&$7)>-,&1&-"&W-%&#$)"+$()&$)J'%N''$2)L5')"'(+1%()N'"')-1,#(%)&3'$%&/-1)?('')L-J1')B)-$3)!&7+"')B)
&$);-3'")'%)-12)@AATDG)%5'),-&$)3&>>'"'$/')&$)%5')9-%%'"$)J'&$7)(#,')"'3+/%&#$)&$)-/%&F&%P)&$)%5')>-,&1&-")"+$2)L5')Z\$>-,&1&-"[)/#$3&%&#$)N-()&$/1+3'3)&$)%5')"'F&'NG)
-()%5&()N-()K+37'3)%#)/#""'(9#$3),#"')%#)%5')R'"$-"3&)'%)-12)?@AB]D)F&'N&$7)%-(E)>#")%5')$-^F')(+JK'/%(2)
) )
Page 24 of 24 !!
!
!
REFERENCES!
!
Bernardi,!G.,!Cecchetti,!L.,!Handjaras,!G.,!Sani,!L.,!Gaglianese,!A.,!Ceccarelli,!R.,!…!Pietrini,!P.!(2014).!It’s!not!all!in!your!car:!functional!and!
structural!correlates!of!exceptional!driving!skills!in!professional!racers.!!"#$%&'"()&$)*+,-$).'+"#(/&'$/',!8,!888.!
doi:10.3389/fnhum.2014.00888!
Calhoun,!V.!D.,!Pekar,!J.!J.,!McGinty,!V.!B.,!Adali,!T.,!Watson,!T.!D.,!&!Pearlson,!G.!D.!(2002).!Different!activation!dynamics!in!multiple!neural!
systems!during!simulated!driving.!*+,-$)R"-&$);-99&$7,!16(3),!158167.!
Horikawa,!E.,!Okamura,!N.,!Tashiro,!M.,!Sakurada,!Y.,!Maruyama,!M.,!Arai,!H.,!...!&!Itoh,!M.!(2005).!The!neural!correlates!of!driving!
performance!identified!using!positron!emission!tomography.!R"-&$)-$3)4#7$&%&#$,!58(2),!166171.!
Jeong,!M.,!Tashiro,!M.,!Laxsmi,!N.S.,!Yamaguchi,!E.,!Horikawa,!M.,!Miyake,!S.!et!al.!(2006).!Functional!brain!mapping!of!actual!car^driving!
using![18F]FDG^PET.!=$$-1()#>).+/1'-");'3&/&$'G!Vol.!20,!No.!9,!623628.!!
Kan,!K.,!Schweizer,!T.!A.,!Tam,!F.,!&!Graham,!S.!J.!(2013).!Methodology!for!functional!MRI!of!simulated!driving.!;'3&/-1)Q5P(&/(,!40(1),!
012301.!
Li,!Y.!O.,!Eichele,!T.,!Calhoun,!V.!D.,!&!Adali,!T.!(2012).!Group!study!of!simulated!driving!fMRI!data!by!multiset!canonical!correlation!analysis.!
6#+"$-1)#>)8&7$-1)Q"#/'((&$7)8P(%',(G!68(1),!3148.!
Mader,!M.,!Bresges,!A.,!Topal,!R.,!Busse,!A.,!Forsting,!M.,!Gizewskia,!E.R.!(2009).!Simulated!car!driving!in!fMRI!—!Cerebral!activation!patterns!
driving!an!unfamiliar!and!a!familiar!route.!.'+"#(/&'$/')<'%%'"(,!464,!222227.!!
Spiers,!H.!J.,!and!Maguire,!E.!A.!(2006).!Thoughts,!behaviour,!and!brain!dynamics!during!navigation!in!the!real!world.!.'+"#&,-7',!31,!1826
1840.!doi:!10.1016/j.neuroimage.2006.01.037!
Spiers,!H.!J.,!&!Maguire,!E.!A.!(2007).!Neural!substrates!of!driving!behaviour.!.'+"#&,-7',!36(1),!245255.!
Walter,!H.,!Vetter,!S.!C.,!Grothe,!J.!O.,!Wunderlich,!A.!P.,!Hahn,!S.,!&!Spitzer,!M.!(2001).!The!neural!correlates!of!driving.!.'+"#"'9#"%,!12(8),!
17631767.!
)
ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any citations for this publication.
Article
Full-text available
Driving is a complex behavior that requires the integration of multiple cognitive functions. While many studies have investigated brain activity related to driving simulation under distinct conditions, little is known about the brain morphological and functional architecture in professional competitive driving, which requires exceptional motor and navigational skills. Here, 11 professional racing-car drivers and 11 “naïve” volunteers underwent both structural and functional brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans. Subjects were presented with short movies depicting a Formula One car racing in four different official circuits. Brain activity was assessed in terms of regional response, using an Inter-Subject Correlation (ISC) approach, and regional interactions by mean of functional connectivity. In addition, voxel-based morphometry (VBM) was used to identify specific structural differences between the two groups and potential interactions with functional differences detected by the ISC analysis. Relative to non-experienced drivers, professional drivers showed a more consistent recruitment of motor control and spatial navigation devoted areas, including premotor/motor cortex, striatum, anterior, and posterior cingulate cortex and retrosplenial cortex, precuneus, middle temporal cortex, and parahippocampus. Moreover, some of these brain regions, including the retrosplenial cortex, also had an increased gray matter density in professional car drivers. Furthermore, the retrosplenial cortex, which has been previously associated with the storage of observer-independent spatial maps, revealed a specific correlation with the individual driver's success in official competitions. These findings indicate that the brain functional and structural organization in highly trained racing-car drivers differs from that of subjects with an ordinary driving experience, suggesting that specific anatomo-functional changes may subtend the attainment of exceptional driving performance.
Article
Full-text available
In this work, we apply a novel statistical method, multiset canonical correlation analysis (M-CCA), to study a group of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) datasets acquired during simulated driving task. The M-CCA method jointly decomposes fMRI datasets from different subjects/sessions into brain activation maps and their associated time courses, such that the correlation in each group of estimated activation maps across datasets is maximized. Therefore, the functional activations across all datasets are extracted in the order of consistency across different dataset. On the other hand, M-CCA preserves the uniqueness of the functional maps estimated from each dataset by avoiding concatenation of different datasets in the analysis. Hence, the cross-dataset variation of the functional activations can be used to test the hypothesis of functional-behavioral association. In this work, we study 120 simulated driving fMRI datasets and identify parietal-occipital regions and frontal lobe as the most consistently engaged areas across all the subjects and sessions during simulated driving. The functional-behavioral association study indicates that all the estimated brain activations are significantly correlated with the steering operation during the driving task. M-CCA thus provides a new approach to investigate the complex relationship between the brain functions and multiple behavioral variables, especially in naturalistic tasks as demonstrated by the simulated driving study. KeywordsBlind source separation–Canonical correlation analysis–fMRI–Simulated driving–Functional behavioral association
Article
Full-text available
This study aims at identifying the brain activation during actual car-driving on the road, and at comparing the results to those of previous studies on simulated car-driving. Thirty normal volunteers, aged 20 to 56 years, were divided into three subgroups, active driving, passive driving and control groups, for examination by positron emission tomography (PET) and [18F]2-deoxy-2-fluoro-D-glucose (FDG). The active driving subjects (n = 10) drove for 30 minutes on quiet normal roads with a few traffic signals. The passive driving subjects (n = 10) participated as passengers on the front seat. The control subjects (n = 10) remained seated in a lit room with their eyes open. Voxel-based t-statistics were applied using SPM2 to search brain activation among the subgroups mentioned above. Significant brain activation was detected during active driving in the primary and secondary visual cortices, primary sensorimotor areas, premotor area, parietal association area, cingulate gyrus, the parahippocampal gyrus as well as in thalamus and cerebellum. The passive driving manifested a similar-looking activation pattern, lacking activations in the premotor area, cingulate and parahippocampal gyri and thalamus. Direct comparison of the active and passive driving conditions revealed activation in the cerebellum. The result of actual driving looked similar to that of simulated driving, suggesting that visual perception and visuomotor coordination were the main brain functions while driving. In terms of attention and autonomic arousal, however, it seems there was a significant difference between simulated and actual driving possibly due to risk of accidents. Autonomic and emotional aspects of driving should be studied using an actual driving study-design.
Article
Full-text available
Driving a vehicle is an indispensable daily behaviour for many people, yet we know little about how it is supported by the brain. Given that driving in the real world involves the engagement of many cognitive systems that rapidly change to meet varying environmental demands, identifying its neural basis presents substantial problems. By employing a unique combination of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), an accurate interactive virtual simulation of a bustling central London (UK) and a retrospective verbal report protocol, we surmounted these difficulties. We identified different events that characterise the driving process on a second by second basis and the brain regions that underlie them. Prepared actions such as starting, turning, reversing and stopping were associated with a common network comprised of premotor, parietal and cerebellar regions. Each prepared action also recruited additional brain areas. We also observed unexpected hazardous events such as swerving and avoiding collisions that were associated with activation of lateral occipital and parietal regions, insula, as well as a more posterior region in the medial premotor cortex than prepared actions. By contrast, planning future actions and monitoring fellow road users were associated with activity in superior parietal, lateral occipital cortices and the cerebellum. The anterior pre-SMA was also recruited during action planning. The right lateral prefrontal cortex was specifically engaged during the processing of road traffic rules. By systematically characterising the brain dynamics underlying naturalistic driving behaviour in a real city, our findings may have implications for how driving competence is considered in the context of neurological damage.
Article
Purpose: The developed world faces major socioeconomic and medical challenges associated with motor vehicle accidents caused by risky driving. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) of individuals using virtual reality driving simulators may provide an important research tool to assess driving safety, based on brain activity and behavior. Methods: A fMRI-compatible driving simulator was developed and evaluated in the context of straight driving, turning, and stopping in 16 young healthy adults. Results: Robust maps of brain activity were obtained, including activation of the primary motor cortex, cerebellum, visual cortex, and parietal lobe, with limited head motion (<1.5 mm deviation from mean head position in the superior∕inferior direction in all subjects) and only minor correlations between head motion, steering, or braking behavior. Conclusions: These results are consistent with previous literature and suggest that with care, fMRI of simulated driving is a feasible undertaking.
Article
Understanding the neuronal underpinnings of cognitive processes during car driving is essential to understanding the origin of automobile accidents. Using fMRI we aimed to reveal differences in activation distribution contrasting passively observing an unfamiliar versus a familiar route to analyse the importance of the degree of familiarity of a route on attention process. We developed a special driving simulation software known as "Mechanics & Traffic", which focuses on the physical properties of driving. Sixteen male police-academy students with special driving training were examined while passively watching the car on an unfamiliar route, following a training-period outside the scanner, and passively watching the car on the now familiar route. The driving task revealed activations in frontal, parietal, temporal, occipital lobes, the thalamus, and cerebellum. Direct comparison revealed significant activation for the unfamiliar route in the middle temporal and occipital cortex and in the cerebellum. Correlating activations with the influencing covariates of driving experience, the activation pattern was confirmed and an additional activation for the unfamiliar route was found in the inferior frontal and parahippocampal gyrus. The results give further evidence that driving a car is a complex cognitive skill. A training-period and a familiar, monotonous route seem to lead to a reduction in attention and perception processes which might be associated with a danger for commuters, even in specially trained drivers.
Article
We studied 12 healthy subjects with fMRI while they performed a driving simulation task. In the active condition they steered the car themselves (driving), in the passive condition a person from outside the scanner was steering the car (passive driving). Common activations in both conditions were found in occipital and parietal regions bilaterally. Activity specifically associated with driving was found only in the sensorimotor cortex and the cerebellum. Compared to passive driving, activity during driving was reduced in numerous brain regions including MT/MST. It is concluded that simulated driving requires mainly perceptual-motor integration and that the limited cognitive capacity model of driving has to be revised.
Article
Driving is a complex behavior involving multiple cognitive domains. To identify neural correlates of driving performance, [15O]H2O positron emission tomography was performed using a simulated driving task. Compared with the resting condition, simulated driving increased regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in the cerebellum, occipital, and parietal cortices. Correlations between rCBF and measurements of driving performance were evaluated during simulated driving. Interestingly, rCBF in the thalamus, midbrain, and cerebellum were positively correlated with time required to complete the course and rCBF in the posterior cingulate gyrus was positively correlated with number of crashes during the task. These brain regions may thus play roles in the maintenance of driving performance.
Article
How does the human brain allow us to interact with and navigate through a constantly changing world? Whilst controlled experiments using functional brain imaging can give insightful snapshots of neuronal responses to relatively simplified stimuli, they cannot hope to mirror the challenges faced by the brain in the real world. However, trying to study the brain mechanisms supporting daily living represents a huge challenge. By combining functional neuroimaging, an accurate interactive virtual simulation of a bustling central London (UK), and a novel means of 'reading' participants' thoughts whilst they moved around the city, we ascertained the online neural correlates underpinning navigation in this real-world context. A complex choreography of neural dynamics was revealed comprising focal and distributed, transient and sustained brain activity. Our results provide new insights into the specific roles of individual brain areas, in particular the hippocampus, retrosplenial, and frontal cortices, as well as offering clues about how functional specialisations operate within dynamic brain systems.