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A new species of Trichomycterus (Siluriformes: Trichomycteridae) from the upper río Magdalena basin, Colombia

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Abstract

Trichomycterus tetuanensis, new species, is described from the río Tetuan, upper río Magdalena basin in Colombia. The new species is distinguished by its margin of caudal fin conspicuously emarginate, in combination with a high number of opercular odontodes (21–39), reflected externally in the large size of the opercular patch of odontodes, 3 irregular rows of conic teeth in the upper jaw, 42–52 interopercular odontodes, 8 branchiostegal rays, 37 post Weberian vertebrae, 7 branched pectoral-fin rays, hypural 3 separated from hypural plate 4+5, and background coloration light brown with darker dots uniformly sparse on dorsum and sides of trunk. Some apomorphic characters informative for the phylogenetic affinities of the new species within Trichomycterus are discussed.

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... S), and from lowland Atlantic rainforests in the east to Andean streams (4,800 m elevations) in the west (Campanario and de Pinna, 2000;Fernández, 2017;Fernández and Andreoli Bize, 2018). Its extensive geographical range, high number of described species, and lack of synapomorphies make Trichomycterus a taxonomic puzzle within the family (de Pinna, 1998; Barbosa and Costa, 2003;García Melo et al., 2016;Henschel et al., 2017). ...
... Within the genus Trichomycterus, the high number of dorsal procurrent rays of the caudal fin (24 or more) observed in T. lauzannii is shared by T. caliensis caudal-fin rays (except T. bogotensis with 19, T. caliense 22, T. gorgona 17-18, T. latistriatus 23, T. meridae 21, T. motatanensis 20, T. steindachneri 16-21), such as Bullockia (9-11), Cambeva (15-26), Eremophilus (13-16), Hatcheria (11-12), Ituglanis (12-15), Rhizosomichthys (10-17), Scleronema (12-13), and Silvinichthys (11-13;Arratia and Menu-Marque, 1981;de Pinna, 2008a, 2008b;Schaefer and Fernández, 2009;Sarmento Soares et al., 2011;Fernández et al., 2014;DoNascimiento et al., 2014;Barbosa and Katz, 2016;Ferrer, 2016;García-Melo et al., 2016). ...
... The only other trichomycterid with a high number of ventral procurrent rays are T. chapmani with 17, T. dorsostriatus with 18 (Angulo et al., 2018), T. meridae with 18 (USNM 133136 syntypes radiograph), and T. steindachneri with 17 in some specimens (DoNascimiento et al., 2014). Other members of the Trichomycterinae also have 16 or fewer ventral procurrent rays (except some species of Cambeva 11-18; Arratia and Menu-Marque, 1981;Wosiacki and de Pinna, 2008a;Schaefer and Fernández, 2009;Sarmento Soares et al., 2011;Fernández et al., 2014;DoNascimiento et al., 2014;Ferrer, 2016;García-Melo et al., 2016;Katz et al., 2018). ...
... The Upper Río Magdalena Basin is a region with a relatively well documented ichthyological knowledge in Colombia, which is reflected in the high variety of works published recently, life history studies Zúñiga-Upegui et al. 2014), patterns of community structure (Miranda et al. 2018;Montoya-Ospina et al. 2018;Poveda-Cuellar et al. 2018), ecomorphology (Conde-Saldaña et al. 2017), exotic species (Albornoz-Garzón and Villa-Navarro 2017), new species descriptions (Ortega-Lara et al. 2011;García-Alzate et al. 2015;García-Melo et al. 2016;Provenzano and Villa-Navarro 2017;Villa-Navarro et al. 2017;Albornoz-Garzón et al. 2018;García-Melo et al. 2018), karyotype descriptions , 2019aIbagón et al. 2020), and list of species (Villa-Navarro et al. 2006). However, our understanding of basic aspects of the fishes from small drainages in the Upper Magdalena is still limited. ...
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An annotated list of the freshwater fishes of the Río Alvarado drainage, Upper Río Magdalena Basin is presented. Fishes were captured from nine localities, quarterly sampled between September 2012 and July 2013. A total of 36 species belonging to 14 families, distributed in five orders were collected. The most abundant species was Trichomycterus banneaui (Eigenmann, 1912) (19.4%), followed by Creagrutus affinis Steindachner, 1880 (13%), Chaetostoma thom-soni Regan, 1904 (9.1%), Trichomycterus mogotensis Ardila-Rodríguez, 2017 (7.7%), Astroblepus homodon (Regan, 1904) (6.6%), Creagrutus dulima Albornoz-Garzón, Conde-Saldaña, García-Melo, Taphorn & Villa-Navarro, 2018 (5.9%), Poecilia sphenops Valenciennes, 1846 (5.7%) and Argopleura magdalenensis (Eigenmann, 1913) (5.6%). An identification key and a complete photographic catalog of all fish species recorded in the drainage are presented.
... Currently, the genus contains over 170 species [6], however, its known diversity remains increasing along the recent years. Even with these obstacles, species groups within Trichomycterus were defined based on morphological characteristics [11,25,26,27,28,29,30,31], some of them constantly redefined and re-diagnosed, such as the Trichomycterus brasiliensis species complex [14,32,33], which, to date, its monophyly could not be consistently assessed [34]. Besides, these characters and all species included on these groups were not placed into a comprehensive phylogenetic analysis, therefore with the possibility of representing artificial groups due to possible parallelisms. ...
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A new species assigned to the genus Trichomycterus from the area of the waterfalls of Tabay stream, Parana´ River basin, Misiones, Argentina, is described. Trichomycterus ytororo sp. nov. is distinguished from all other species in the genus by the presence of 31–35 dorsal procurrent caudal-fin rays and the combination of some external characters such as: coloration, number of pectoral–fin rays and pores of the laterosensory canals. The new taxon belongs to a presumably monophyletic group of species composed of T. crassicaudatus, T. igobi, and T. stawiarski based on the presence of 24 or more thickly ossified and rigid procurrent caudal-fin rays with a slender distal tip extending along the tips of at least ten neural spines.
... Trichomycterinae is the most speciose subfamily of the Trichomycteridae with about 200 species distributed in eight genera: Bullockia (1 species), Eremophilus (1), Hatcheria (1), Ituglanis (26), Rhizosomichthys (1), Scleronema (3), Silvinichthys (7), and Trichomycterus (160+) (Eschmeyer et al., 2017). The monophyly of this subfamily remains ambiguous, as well as the synapomorphies repeatedly called into question (de Pinna, 1989a;Datovo and Bockmann, 2010;García-Melo et al., 2016). The main obstacle to understand the relationships within Trichomycteridae is the most diverse genus, Trichomycterus, which has a complex taxonomic history and is a non-monophyletic assemblage that basically includes those species lacking the diagnostic characters of other trichomycterine genera (Baskin, 1973;de Pinna, 1989ade Pinna, , 1998Datovo and Bockmann, 2010). ...
... Nevertheless, the non-monophyletic status of the genus and the often poorly informative characters used to describe species are considered some of the main obstacles to the understanding of the phylogenetic relationships of the Trichomycteridae (de Pinna 1998; Datovo & Bockmann 2010). New and old species descriptions of Trichomycterus are frequently characterized by ambiguous diagnoses, vague descriptions and limited taxonomic comparison with little concern about similar species previously described (Garcia-Melo et al. 2016). Additionally, the intra-and interspecific phenotypic variability are commonly overlapping among possibly related species, which demand innovative approximations such as the use of molecular tools for the identification of biological species (Hebert et al. 2003). ...
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A new species of trichomycterid catfish, Trichomycterus pascuali, is described from Paranapanema basin and is distinguished from all congeners by the possession of five pectoral-fin rays and the absence of pelvic fin, girdle, and muscles. Additional features further differentiate the new species from the other congeners lacking pelvic fins, T. candidus, T. catamarcensis, and T. tropeiro. The identification of T. pascuali is additionally corroborated by genetic divergence based on DNA-barcode analysis. Osteological and myological data unequivocally support the inclusion of the new species in the Trichomycterinae and molecular analyses justify its allocation to the genus Trichomycterus rather than Eremophilus, a trichomycterine taxon traditionally diagnosed by the lack of pelvic fins. Our genetic analysis further indicates that pelvic fins were independently lost in E. mutisii, T. candidus, and T. pascuali.
... Trichomycterus tetuanensis García-Melo, Villa-Navarro & DoNascimiento, 2016 X X X García Melo et al. (2016) Trichomycterus torcoromaensis Ardila-Rodríguez, 2016 X X X Ardila Rodríguez (2016a) ...
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The present work is part of a process to create a Catalogue of the Freshwater Fishes of Colombia and consisted in the depuration and updating of the taxonomic and geographic components of the checklist of the freshwater fishes of Colombia. An exhaustive revision of the 1435 species recorded in 2008 was necessary to: 1. Add new species described since 2009 and species originally described from Colombia but inadvertently omitted in 2008; 2. Add new records of already described species; 3. Delete species whose presence in Colombia was not supported by voucher specimens in ichthyological collections; and 4. Revise the geographic distribution of the species listed in 2008. This process resulted in the following numbers: 1. Total number of freshwater fish species in Colombia: 1494; 2. Number of species recorded by hydrographic region - Amazon: 706, Orinoco: 663, Caribbean: 223, Magdalena-Cauca: 220, Pacific: 130; and 3. Number of endemic species: 374 (76% from the trans-Andean region). Updating the current checklist is a fundamental requirement to ensure its incorporation in the decision-making process with regard to the conservation of Colombian aquatic species and ecosystems, which are facing transformation processes as a result of activities such as mining, construction of hydroelectric plants, expansion of the agricultural frontier and subsequent deforestation, industrial and domestic pollution, development of waterways, introduction of exotic species, and climate change.
... spilosoma (Regan, 1913); T. steindachneri DoNascimiento, Prada-Pedreros & Guerrero-Kommritz, 2014;T. stellatus (Eigenmann, 1918); T. straminius (Eigenmann, 1917); T. tetuanensis García-Melo, Villa-Navarro & DoNascimiento, 2016;T. torcoromaensis Ardila Rodríguez, 2016;T. ...
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Trichomycterus striatus is herein redescribed, based on examination of the types and recently collected specimens, and its geographic distribution is updated. This species can be diagnosed from all other northeastern South American congeners by its variable coloration pattern consisting of a yellowish to light brown background with a black lateral band and/or small dark brown spots on sides or uniformly light brown and by the following combination of characters: teeth conical arranged in three to four irregular rows in both jaws; anterior section of infraorbital canal (sensory pores i1 and i3) present; sensory pores s6 paired, 11–23 opercular odontodes; 27–44 interopercular odontodes; seven to eight pectoral-fin branched rays; 36–37 free vertebrae; 12–14 ribs; cleithrum pierced by several foramina; and caudal fin truncate to rounded. Tricho- mycterus striatus occurs from southern Costa Rica [from the Pirrís (herein reported for the first time), Térraba and Coto River basins] to eastern Panama (in most of the main river basins in both the Pacific and Atlantic versants), being the sole representative of the family in lower Central American waters.
... D (Ribeira de Iguape), I. sp. 1 (Tocantins), and Trichomycterus perkos Datovo, Carvalho & Ferrer (Datovo, 2014;Datovo et al., 2012;Datovo & de Pinna, 2014;Rizzato & Bichuette, 2014). The recently described T. tetuanensis García-Melo, Villa-Navarro & DoNascimiento, from the Rio Magdalena basin, was reported as having the plesiomorphic condition for the levator internus IV (García-Melo et al., 2016). We unfortunately were unable to examine this species. ...
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Ituglanis goya, new species, is described from the Paranaíba and Tocantins river drainages, central Brazil. This is the first species of the genus described for the Upper Paraná system and the second epigean Ituglanis for the Tocantins basin. The new species is distinguished from its congeners by the combination of a color pattern formed by longitudinal stripes and spots, absence of the anterior cranial fontanel, pattern of the cephalic laterosensory system and several fin-ray counts. Itug-lanis goya exhibits morphological features that oppose the traditional hypotheses of alignment of the genus with the TS-VSG clade of Trichomycteridae. These and other issues concerning the systematics of Ituglanis and the Trichomycterinae are critically discussed.
... En la región del Alto Magdalena la mayoría de los estudios sobre las comunidades ícticas se ha centrado en los análisis de la diversidad y la ecología trófica y reproduc- tiva ( Bríñez, 2005; García- Melo, 2005; Zúñiga- Upegui, 2005;Castro-Roa, et al., 2007;Lozano-Zárate, et al., 2008;Albornoz & Conde, 2014;Pareja-Carmona, et al., 2014;Montoya, 2014;Zúñiga-Upegui, et al., 2014;López-Delgado, 2015), principalmente en la zona de vida del bosque seco tropical (bs-T); se han hecho, asimismo, algunos estudios enfocados en la taxonomía y la sistemática (Villa-Navarro, et al., 2006;Taphorn, et al., 2013;GarcíaAlzate, et al., 2015;García-Melo, 2016;Provenzano & Villa-Navarro, 2017). Sin embargo, el único estudio sobre zonas de ribera, realizado por López-Delgado (2013) en ríos del bs-T, se sugiere que la degradación de los bosques de ribera afectan negativamente la estructura y la composición de los ensamblajes ícticos al disminuir su diversidad y riqueza, y favorecer el establecimiento de especies dominantes. ...
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... En la región del Alto Magdalena la mayoría de los estudios sobre las comunidades ícticas se ha centrado en los análisis de la diversidad y la ecología trófica y reproduc- tiva ( Bríñez, 2005; García- Melo, 2005; Zúñiga- Upegui, 2005;Castro-Roa, et al., 2007;Lozano-Zárate, et al., 2008;Albornoz & Conde, 2014;Pareja-Carmona, et al., 2014;Montoya, 2014;Zúñiga-Upegui, et al., 2014;López-Delgado, 2015), principalmente en la zona de vida del bosque seco tropical (bs-T); se han hecho, asimismo, algunos estudios enfocados en la taxonomía y la sistemática (Villa-Navarro, et al., 2006;Taphorn, et al., 2013;GarcíaAlzate, et al., 2015;García-Melo, 2016;Provenzano & Villa-Navarro, 2017). Sin embargo, el único estudio sobre zonas de ribera, realizado por López-Delgado (2013) en ríos del bs-T, se sugiere que la degradación de los bosques de ribera afectan negativamente la estructura y la composición de los ensamblajes ícticos al disminuir su diversidad y riqueza, y favorecer el establecimiento de especies dominantes. ...
... All tissue samples are vouchered in fish collections cited in Table S1. Other tissue samples and specimens for molecular and morphological analyses in this study were obtained from the following All species examined and incorporated in the molecular analysis (voucher specimens) were identified or validated by comparing with type specimens, original descriptions (i.e., Ardila Rodríguez, 2016, 2018; Barbosa & Costa, 2010;Fernandez & Chuquihuamaní, 2007;Fernández & Miranda, 2007;Fernández & Vari, 2009;García-Melo et al., 2016;Lezama et al., 2012) and other works with informative data (i.e., Bizerril, 1994;Datovo et al., 2012;Donin, 2019;Eigenmann, 1918;Ferrer & Malabarba, 2011Nascimento et al., 2017;Terán et al., 2017;Wosiacki, 2005;Wosiacki & Garavello, 2004;Wosiacki & Oyakawa, 2005), except for the genetic sequences available in GenBank obtained by Nascimento et al. (2017) ...
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A new Trichomycterus is described from a highland tributary of the río Meta (Orinoco basin), along the east flank of Páramo de Cruz Verde, Eastern Cordillera of Colombia. The new species is distinguished from most of its congeners by having a reduced posterior cranial fontanel, restricted to the parieto-supraoccipital, cleithrum pierced by several foramina, and an unique combination of four irregular rows of conic teeth in premaxilla and dentary, 13-14 opercular odontodes, 41-43 interopercular odontodes, 6-7 branchiostegal rays, 40 or 41 free vertebrae, 14-18 ribs, first ray of pectoral fin slightly projected as a short filament, 7-8 branched pectoral-fin rays, dorsal-fin origin at same level of pelvic-fin insertion, anal-fin origin posterior to dorsal-fin base, caudal-fin margin slightly rounded, a single upper hypural plate (3+4+5), and coloration pattern consisting in ground color dark brown with a thin mid-lateral dark stripe. Phylogenetic relationships of the new species based on the shared presence of derived features related to posterior cranial fontanel and cleithrum are discussed. The new species is also compared to the only two described species from Andean tributaries of río Orinoco basin.
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The subfamily of parasitic catfishes Stegophilinae belongs to the Neotropical family Trichomycteridae, and constitutes a remarkable group given its specialized feeding habits (lepidophagy, muciphagy, and necrophagy). Despite its biological interest, the systematics of this group has stayed in an incipient state. Except for a few genera, most lack a phylogenetic diagnosis, leading to taxonomic instability at that level. Similarly the hypotheses about the phylogenetic position of the group within Trichomycteridae have resulted in conflictive scenarios according to the nature of the characters used. In this study a phylogenetic analysis of 510 morphological characters (mainly osteological and from the laterosensory system) for 45 species was conducted. All stegophiline genera, currently considered as valid were represented by 21 species. The remaining species correspond to the outgroup, and included representative species of all remainder subfamilies and main genera of Trichomycteridae. Monophyly of Stegophilinae was confirmed, as well as its sister group relationship with Vandelliinae, comprising in turn a clade with Tridentinae, in accordance with previous studies, both morphological and molecular. The clade of these three subfamilies is closely related to “Trichomycterus” hasemani, showing the not monophyletic status of Trichomycterinae and Trichomycterus. A basal dichotomy was identified within Stegophilinae, with Haemomaster, Ochmacanthus and Stegophilus comprising a monophyletic group, where Haemomaster and Stegophilus are sister groups. Homodiaetus and Schultzichthys are successive sister groups of a clade informally named Pareiodon group. Within this group, Henonemus constitutes a clade with Apomatoceros and Megalocentor, and these two genera are confirmed as more closely related. Pareiodon was corroborated as a member of Stegophilinae, placed in a distal clade as the sister group of Acanthopoma, coinciding with molecular results. Finally Pseudostegophilus also belongs to this distal clade, with three clearly defined main subgroups, a first group represented by Parastegophilus maculatus, the second group by the type species P. nemurus and an undescribed rather similar species, and the third group where is found P. haemomyzon, one Amazonian species and another species from the Orinoco and Essequibo. Thus, the previous concept of Pseudostegophilus is extended to include Parastegophilus as a junior synonym. Synapomorphies for all stegophiline genera, as well as all remaining nodes obtained within and outside Stegophilinae are proposed, as same as autapomorphies for studied species. In the light of the phylogenetic hypothesis obtained, the phenomenon of miniaturization is discussed within the family. Likewise some comments about the main cladogenetic events between cis-Andean and trans-Andean components of the clade TSV are provided.
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Trichomycterus anhanga is described from the Amazon basin, northern Brazil. The species is diagnosed by the latero-sensory system which is restricted to LL1 and LL2, the pectoral fin with two branched rays, the absence of pelvic fins and girdle, the reduced jaws and pharyngeal dentition, the presence of six to seven interopercular odontodes, the absence of a lateral series of spots, the presence of a small dark spot on the ventral surface of the mandibular symphysis, the narrow comma-shaped palatine, the absence of procurrent rays anterior to the dorsal and anal fins, the position of insertion of the first dorsal-fin pterygiophore and the presence of a single pair of pleural ribs. Trichomycterus anhanga shares with T. hasemani and T. johnsoni a wide cranial fontanel which occupies most of the skull roof. Miniaturization as well as synapomorphies for the T. hasemani group are discussed.
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The species of the genus Trichomycterus inhabiting the laguna dos Patos system are reviewed and five species are recognized. Trichomycterus tropeiro Ferrer & Malabarba has a restricted range and is endemic to the uppermost portion of the rio das Antas. Trichomycterus balios, n. sp., is distributed in the upper portion of the rio das Antas and rio Caí basins. Trichomycterus diatropoporos, n. sp., is endemic to the rio da Prata basin, a tributary of the rio das Antas. Trichomycterus poikilos, n. sp., is widely distributed in the upper portion of the rio Jacuí basin and tributaries of the rio Taquari-Antas. Trichomycterus brachykechenos, n. sp., is endemic to the upper portion of the rio dos Sinos. The new species are distinguishable from most congeners, except for T. davisi, T. mboycy, T. naipi, T. payaya, T. papilliferus, T. perkos, T. plumbeus, and T. tropeiro by the lower number of pectoral-fin rays (I+5-6) and by the first pectoral-fin ray not prolonged as a filament. Other characters distinguish the new taxa from these eight species. The distribution of the genus in the laguna dos Patos system is discussed and a taxonomic key is provided.
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Silvinichthys bortayro, new species, is described from an aquifer at 1200 m elevation in the Andean Cordillera of Salta, Argentina. The new species is distinguished from all other species included in the subfamily Trichomycterinae by the following combination of characters: the extreme elongation of the opercle and its narrow odontode-bearing distal section; the elongated and strongly curved coronoid process of the lower jaw; the absence of the pelvic fin and girdle; the pale integumentary pigmentation; and the reduction of the eyes. It differs further from Silvinichthys mendozensis, its only congener, by having six pectoral-fin rays and in the absence of the pelvic fin and girdle. Silvinichthys bortayro, nueva especie, es descripta de un acuífero de 1200 m de altura en la cordillera de los Andes de Salta, Argentina. La nueva especie se distingue de todas las otras especies incluidas en la subfamilia Trichomycterinae por la siguiente combinación de caracteres: el extremo alargamiento del opérculo y su estrecha sección distal de soporte de odontoides, el proceso coronoideo de la mandíbula inferior alargado y fuertemente curvado, la ausencia de la aleta y cintura pélvica, la clara pigmentación del tegumento, y la reducción de los ojos. Esta difiere además de Silvinichthys mendozensis, su único congénere, por tener 6 radios en la aleta pectoral y la ausencia de la aleta y cintura pélvica.
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Trichomycterus caipora, espécie nova, é descrita para a bacia do rio Macabu, drenagem da lagoa Feia, serra de Macaé, sudeste do Brasil. A nova espécie distingue-se dos demais Trichomycterus do sul e sudeste do Brasil pela combinação: da presença de nove raios na nadadeira peitoral, nadadeira caudal emarginada e elevado número de odontódeos operculares e interoperculares. Dados ecológicos são apresentados e as supostas relações filogenéticas e caracteres compartilhados com espécies do gênero são discutidos.
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A new species of Trichomycterus is described for the rio Iguacu drainage in Southern Brazil. Trichomycterus igobi, new species, is readily distinguishable from all other species currently in the genus by its extremely large head (23.8-26.8% SL), which is proportionally the largest head in any Trichomycteridae. That characteristic plus the relatively deep body result in a very short-bodied overall aspect, the most extremely such case in the genus Trichomycterus. Other diagnostic features that distinguish the new species from most or all of its congeners include a short caudal peduncle (15.4-19.7% SL); an almost entirely cartilaginous second hypobranchial (with only vestigial ossification); a mesial expanded palatine ossification; a narrow cleithrum, falciform in shape; and the lack of a proximal posterior concavity on the third ceratobranchial. The new species seems to form a monophyletic group with T stawiarski and other undescribed species (T. sp. C), also endemic to the rio Iguacu. As putative synapomorphies, the three species share a rigid spine-like morphology of individual procurrent caudal-fin rays, an extended area of dorsal caudal-fin procurrent rays, and numerous branchiostegal rays (ten or eleven).
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Trichomycterus maracaya, uma espécie nova de Trichomycteridae, é descrita de exemplares obtidos num riacho do alto rio Paraná, Poços de Caldas, Estado de Minas Gerais, sudeste do Brasil. As seguintes supostas autapomorfias distinguem T. maracaya de outras espécies do gênero: 1) fileira de manchas laterais que não se fundem em listra em nenhuma fase da ontogenia; 2) camada superficial de pigmentação de juvenis e exemplares maiores (supostamente adultos) consistindo somente de cromatóforos dispersos. Além disso, a nova espécie é caracterizada pela combinação de coloração de fundo amarela em vida e padrão mosqueado, formado por manchas castanhas pequenas a médias bem definidas e aglutinadas irregularmente, situadas em camada mais profunda do tegumento, além de pontos mais superficiais espalhados pelo corpo. Trichomycterus maracaya é aqui designada ao complexo de espécies T. brasiliensis (que inclui T. brasiliensis, T. iheringi, T. mimonha, T. potschi e T. vermiculatus, além de várias espécies não descritas, aparentemente endêmicas às bacias dos rios principais que drenam o Escudo Brasileiro), com base em: 1) manchas horizontalmente alongadas, grandes e bem definidas, situadas mais profundamente no tegumento e dispostas em quatro fileiras longitudinais no corpo; 2) nadadeira peitoral com I+5-6 raios; 3) separação entre as fontanelas cranianas anterior e posterior, por barra cartilaginosa primordial da epífise, apenas nos exemplares maiores; e 4) bases das nadadeiras pélvicas muito próximas uma da outra, por vezes em contato.
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Trichomycterus guaraquessaba, new species, from an isolated small river of the Eastern Basin, Guaraqueçaba, south Brazil, is described, and T. iheringi is redescribed based on type material. No uniquely derived features were found in T. guaraquessaba that is distinguished from its congeners from south and southeastern Brazil by the combination of several morphological characters. No uniquely derived features were found in T. iheringi that is distinguished from its congeners from south and southeastern Brazil by the combination of several morphological characters. Putative relationships and shared characters are discussed for both species and ecological notes for T. guaraquessaba are presented.
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Trichomycterus crassicaudatus is described as a new species from the Rio Iguacu basin in southern Brazil. The new species has an exceptionally deep posterior region of the body (caudal peduncle depth 22.8-25.4% SL), resulting in an overall shape which distinguishes it at once from all other members of the Trichomycteridae. The caudal fin of the species is broad-based and forked, a shape also distinguishing it from all other species in the family. A number of autapomorphic modifications of T. crassicaudatus are associated with the deepening of the caudal region, including an elongation of the hemal and neural spines of the vertebrae at the middle of the caudal peduncle. Phylogenetic relationships of the new species are yet unresolved, but it shares a similar color pattern and a thickening of caudal-fin procurrent rays with T. stawiarski, a poorly-known species also from the Rio Iguacu basin. Coloration and body shape also include similarities with T. lewi from Venezuela.
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The skeletal muscles of the dorsolateral region of the head of the Nematogenyidae and representatives of the all major clades of the Trichomycteridae are described and illustrated. A hypothesis on the phylogenetic relationships among these taxa exclusively based on the surveyed musculature is presented. The single most parsimonious cladogram obtained from the phylogenetic analysis of the 36 myological characters gathered and 35 terminal-taxa mostly agrees with the previous hypotheses of trichomycterid intrarelationships. The Copionodontinae and Trichogeninae form a monophyletic lineage that is the sister-group to all remaining trichomycterids. The monophyly of the clades formed by Glanapteryginae plus Sarcoglanidinae; Stegophilinae plus Tridentinae plus Vandelliinae; and the assemblage comprising all of these five subfamilies (TSVSG clade) is corroborated. Two of our findings are, however, discordant with the previous prevailing hypotheses: the sister-group relationship among Tridentinae and Stegophilinae and the monophyly of the Trichomycterinae lato sensu, i. e., including the genera Scleronema and Ituglanis. In addition, the previously proposed osteological synapomorphies supporting the close affinities of Scleronema and Ituglanis with the TSVSG clade were revised, revealing that they are either invalid or ambiguous. Most of the synapomorphies herein proposed are homoplasy-free, with some of them corroborating the monophyly of weakly-supported groups, such as Stegophilinae.
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Morphology of the postotic laterosensory canal was surveyed across loricarioid and outgroup catfishes in order to resolve conflicting statements regarding homology and phylogenetic significance of intrinsic character variation. A pterotic branch is widespread among catfishes and has been identified as a synapomorphy for siluriforms, but its presence in loricarioid catfishes has been disputed. In contrast to previous statements that absence of a pterotic branch is synapomorphic for loricarioids, we confirm the presence of a pterotic branch in Nematogenys inermis and other trichomycterids, callichthyids, and loricariids. The pterotic branch is secondarily absent in scoloplacids and astroblepids. We present criteria for establishing homology of the pterotic branch and review character state optimization schemes on the currently accepted phylogeny. The postotic region of loricariids is further specialized in having an expanded swimbladder capsule that incorporates the trunk lateral line canal and has a lateral opening covered by a greatly expanded pterotic complex. The trunk lateral line enters the swimbladder capsule mesial to the pterotic lateral wall and passes anteromedially as a fleshy tube before forming the postotic canal in the pterotic, a morphology reported previously for a single loricariid representative. Variation in the relative extent and topographic position of postotic canal branches and other morphologies is diagnostic of certain loricariid taxa, suggesting a rich character complex of potential utility in phylogeny reconstruction.
Article
Trichomyeterus fete, new species is described from the upper rio de Contas basin, northeastern Brazil. It is the first record of the genus to the Caatinga semi-arid region. The new species is distinguished from all its congeners by having a combination of eight pectoral-fin rays, the first pectoral-fin ray prolonged as a filament, metapterygoid deeper than wide, short maxillary barbel reaching the middle of opercular patch of odontodes, narrow head (head width 68.07 - 77.5% HL), 11 dorsal-fin rays, caudal fin truncated, body slender (body depth 12.3 - 13.6% SL), shorter dorsal-fin base (dorsal-fin base length 9.5 - 11.4% SL), and an uncommon color pattern. In addition, T fete differs from all the congeners from southeastern Brazil by having a deep area at the external edge of the hypobranchial I.
Article
Seven new species of the catfish genus Trichomycterus are described and Trichomycterus brasiliensis is redescribed from tributaries of the Rio Itabapoana, São Francisco and Paraiba do Sul river basins, southeastern Brazil. Trichomycterus macrotrichopterus, new species, is diagnosed by autapomorphic characters: morphology of the metapterygoid, wide and square-shaped, junction between metapterygoid and hyomandibula forming high wave-shaped wall, and larger pectoral-fin filament, about 60 % of pectoral-fin length. Trichomycterus brunoi, T. claudiae, T. fuliginosus, T. mariamole, T. novalimensis, T. rubiginosus, all new species, and T. brasiliensis are diagnosed by the morphology of the Suspensorium bones, relative position of the pelvic-fin base, and the origin of dorsal and anal fins, number of branchiostegal-rays, size of the pectoral filament, number of vertebrae and pleural ribs, width of the body and colour pattern. A new diagnostic feature proposed for the T. brasiliensis species-complex, the opercular odontodes disposed obliquely on the patch that includes T. brasiliensis, T. maracaya, T. mimonha, T. mirissumba, T. potschi, T. vermiculatus, and the seven new species.
Article
Trichomycterus minus, new species, is described from an Andean stream in Provincia de Catamarca, Argentina. The species is distinguished from congeners by the number of supraorbital pores, the form of the supraorbital canal within the frontal, the length of the lateral line canal, the shape of the supraorbital tendon bone, the size of the premaxilla, the form of the barbels, an absence of a thick layer of rugose fatty tissue on the head and body, the number and degree of exposure of odontodes on the interopercle, the limited compression of the caudal peduncle, details of pigmentation, the number of premaxillary tooth rows, and the head form from a dorsal view. Trichomycterus corduvensis is recorded from thermal waters, the second locality known to be inhabited by members of the genus. Trichomycterus minus, nueva especie, es descripta para un arroyo andino en la Provincia de Catamarca, Argentina. La nueva especie se diferencia de los congéneres por el numéro de pores supraorbitales, la forma del canal supraorbital dentro del frontal, la longitud del canal de la linea lateral, la forma del hueso supraorbital, el tamaño del premaxilar, la forma de las barbillas, la ausencia de una gruesa capa de tejido graso sobre la cabeza y cuerpo, el número y grado de exposición de odontoides en el interopérculo, la ausencia de compresión del pedúnculo caudal, los detalles de pigmentación, el número de hileras de dientes premaxilares y la forma de la cabeza en vista dorsal. Trichomycterus corduvensis es registrado para aguas termales, la segunda localidad conocida para los miembros del géneros.
Article
Rhizosomichthys totae, the Pez Grasso, greasefish, or runcho of Lago de Tota, Colombia, is known from ten specimens and thought to be extinct. The species is unique among trichomycterids In possessing remarkable rings of extensive adipose tissues surrounding the body. Although its internal anatomy is poorly known, diagnosis of Rhizosomichthys totae and taxonomic status within Trichomycteridae have not been questioned. Non-destructive reconstruction of the osteology of one paratype based on computed microtomography, combined with broad character surveys of representatives of other trichomycterid genera, formed the basis for a redescription of R. totae and revealed the presence of four additional autapomorphies involving features of the cranium, autopalatine, and branchiostegal rays. This evidence further confirms the membership of Rhizosomichthys within the putatively non-monophyletic subfamily Trichomycterinae. We evaluate in R. totae the characters serving to diagnose the genera presently Included In the Trichomycterinae.
Article
The first record of two trichomycterid species from the thermal waters of a small stream in Miraflores, north of Potosí, Bolivia is given. The reported species are Trichomycterus therma n. sp. and Trichomycterus tiraquae. The new species differ from all congeners in the possession of thickened transverse skin on the ventral surface of the head. They are further distinguished from all congeners by the following combination of characteristics: presence of spatulate incisiform premaxillary teeth; presence of large and rounded papilla-like structures on trunk of body; continuous segment of the laterosensory canal within the frontal with the presence of a segment between pores 2 and 6; long laterosensory canal with four to six pores; maxilla with a short anterior process that is smaller than the main axis of the bone, and has an anterior orientation; mesethmoid shaft narrower than the width of the lateral cornua; prepelvic length 58·7–61·0% of standard length (LS); head width 19·1–22·8% of LS; submaxillary barbel length 23·9–37·5% of head length (LH). Two derived characters, namely the presence of spatulate incisiform premaxillary teeth and large and rounded papilla-like structures, define a monophyletic group within Trichomycterus, comprising T. therma, T. corduvensis and T. tiraquae.
Article
Trichomycterus hualco, new species, is described from an Andean stream in the Provincia de La Rioja, Argentina. The new species is distinguished from other species of Trichomycterus in the combination of the number of odontodes on the opercle and interopercle, the degree of exposure of the odontodes on the interopercle, the form of the premaxillary teeth, the presence of papillae-like structures on the body, the number of vertebrae, the position of the first proximal dorsal-fin pterygiophore, the form of the supraorbital canal within the frontal, the length of the lateral-line canal, and various meristic features. Trichomycterus hualco, nueva especie, es descripta para un arroyo andino de la Provincia de La Rioja, Argentina. La nueva especie se diferencia de las otras especies del gé nero Trichomycterus por una combinació n en el nú mero de odontoides del opé rculo e interopé rculo, el grado de exposició n de los odontoides en el interopé rculo, la forma de los dientes premaxilares, la presencia de estructuras como papilas sobre el cuerpo, el nú mero de vé rtebras, la posició n del primer pterigió foro de la aleta dorsal, la forma del canal supraorbital dentro del frontal, la longitud del canal de la línea lateral y varios caracteres merísiticos.
Trichomycterus castroi, a new species of trichomycterid catfish from the Rio Iguaçu of Southeastern Brazil (Teleostei: Siluriformes)
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de Pinna, M.C.C. (1992) Trichomycterus castroi, a new species of trichomycterid catfish from the Rio Iguaçu of Southeastern Brazil (Teleostei: Siluriformes). Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters, 3, 89-95.
Phylogenetic relationships of Neotropical Siluriformes (Teleostei: Ostariophysi): historical overview and synthesis of hypotheses
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de Pinna, M.C.C. (1998) Phylogenetic relationships of Neotropical Siluriformes (Teleostei: Ostariophysi): historical overview and synthesis of hypotheses. In: Malabarba, L.R., Reis, R.E., Vari, R.P., Lucena, Z.M.S. & Lucena, C.A.S. (Eds.), Phylogeny and Classification of Neotropical Fishes. EDIPUCRS, Porto Alegre, pp. 279-330.
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Baskin, J.N. (1973) Structure and relationship of the Trichomycteridae. Unpublished Ph.D. Dissertation, City University of New York, New York, 389 pp.
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García-Melo, L.J. (2009) Relaciones filogenéticas de Trichomycterus (Siluriformes: Trichomycteridae) en el alto Magdalena. M.Sc. dissertation, Universidad del Tolima, Ibagué, Colombia, 171 pp.
Un nouveau genre néotropical de la famille des Trichomycteridae (Siluriformes: Loricarioidei), Revue Française d'Aquariologie et Herpétologie
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Costa, W.J.E.M. & Bockmann, F.A. (1993) Un nouveau genre néotropical de la famille des Trichomycteridae (Siluriformes: Loricarioidei), Revue Française d'Aquariologie et Herpétologie, 20, 43-46.
Species by family/subfamily. Electronic version Available from
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Standard symbolic codes for institutional resource collections in herpetology and ichthyology: an online reference. Version 5.0. Available from
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Sabaj Pérez, M.H. (Ed.) (2014) Standard symbolic codes for institutional resource collections in herpetology and ichthyology: an online reference. Version 5.0. Available from: http://www.asih.org/ (accessed 4 May 2016)
Two extraordinary new blind nematognath fishes from the Rio Negro, representing a new subfamily of Pygidiidae, with a rearrangement of the genera of the family and illustrations of some previously described genera and species from Venezuela and Brazil
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Myers, G.S. (1944) Two extraordinary new blind nematognath fishes from the Rio Negro, representing a new subfamily of Pygidiidae, with a rearrangement of the genera of the family and illustrations of some previously described genera and species from Venezuela and Brazil. Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences, Series 4, 23, 591-602.
Species by family/subfamily. Electronic version
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  • J D Fong
Eschmeyer, W.N. & Fong, J.D. (2016) Species by family/subfamily. Electronic version. Available from: http:// research.calacademy.org/research/ichthyology/catalog/SpeciesByFamily.asp (accessed 21 April 2016)
The caudal skeleton of the catfishes
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Peces de los Andes de Colombia
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Maldonado-Ocampo, J., Ortega-Lara, A., Usma Oviedo, J.S., Vergara, G.G., Villa-Navarro, F.A., Gamboa, L.V., Prada-Pedreros, S. & Rodríguez, C.A., (2005) Peces de los Andes de Colombia. Instituto de Investigación de Recursos Biológicos Alexander von Humboldt. Bogotá, D.C., Colombia, 346 pp.
Check list of the Freshwater Fishes of South and Central America
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de Pinna, M.C.C. & Wosiacki, W. (2003) Trichomycteridae. In: Reis, R.E., Kullander, S.O. & Ferraris, C.J. Jr. (Eds.), Check list of the Freshwater Fishes of South and Central America. EDIPUCRS, Porto Alegre, pp. 270-290.
Postotic laterosensory canal and pterotic branch homology in catfishes
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Schaefer, S.A. & Aquino, A.E. (2000) Postotic laterosensory canal and pterotic branch homology in catfishes. Journal of Morphology, 246, 212-227.