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The dualistic model of passion was investigated in a work context. This model states that individuals may develop either a harmonious or obsessive passion for a valued activity. We hypothesized that harmonious passion for work would be positively related to job satisfaction through higher perceptions of belongingness at work. Results from a survey conducted with 278 Norwegian employees showed that belongingness partly mediated the effect from harmonious passion to job satisfaction. Obsessive passion was unrelated to belongingness, and thus, no such mediation was evident for obsessive passion on job satisfaction. These findings highlight the importance of harmonious passion for work and the role of belongingness for overall work satisfaction.
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Passion for Work, Job Satisfaction,
and the Mediating Role of Belongingness
I S
Department of Health Management and Health Economics, University of Oslo *
J F
Université du Québec à Montréal, School of management science, Department of management **
F S
NTNU Social Sciences & Regional Centre for Child and Youth Mental Health and Child Welfare,
Trondheim, Norway ***
e dualistic model of passion was investigated in a work context. is model
states that individuals may develop either a harmonious or obsessive pas-
sion for a valued activity. We hypothesized that harmonious passion for work
would be positively related to job satisfaction through higher perceptions of
belongingness at work. Results from a survey conducted with 278 Norwe-
gian employees showed that belongingness partly mediated the eect from
harmonious passion to job satisfaction. Obsessive passion was unrelated to
belongingness, and thus, no such mediation was evident for obsessive passion
on job satisfaction. ese ndings highlight the importance of harmonious
passion for work and the role of belongingness for overall work satisfaction.
Keywords: Harmonious and obsessive passion, self-determination theory,
psychological needs, job satisfaction, positive psychology.
* P.O. Box 1089, NO-0318 Oslo, Norway. Phone: (0047) 976 08146. E-mail:
** C.P. 8888, Downtown station, Montréal (Québec) Canada, H3C 3P8. Phone: (514) 987‐3000 #3310. E‐mail:
*** Phone: 0047 90 55 47 46. E-mail: 
Passion, Job Satisfaction, and the Medi-
ating Role of Belongingness
Positive psychology has reached a strong
position in mainstream psychology
during the last decade (Snyder & Lopez,
2011). Research within the eld has focused
on optimal psychological functioning and the
sources for well-being. One theoretical model
associated with positive psychology, which
seeks to explain well-being outcomes from en-
gagement in specic activities, is the dualistic
model of passion (Vallerand et al, 2003; Val-
lerand, 2010). e model suggests that there
are two forms of passion for valued activities;
harmonious passion and obsessive passion.
A number of studies on passion and work-
related outcomes have been conducted (e.g.
Carbonneau et al., 2008), but lile is still known
with regard to how passion specically inu-
ences job satisfaction. Advancing knowledge
in this eld could help explain why some indi-
viduals are more satised with work than others.
Moreover, such research is needed to identify
18 Scandinavian Journal of Organizational Psychology 8 (1) | May 2016
the psychological processes which mediate the
eects of passion on job satisfaction. e scope
of the present study was to investigate the role
of belongingness (Baumesiter & Leary, 1995)
at work in the relationship between passion and
job satisfaction, which recently has been shown
to impact on how passion generates positive
emotions in sport activities (Stenseng, Forest,
& Curran, 2015).
e dualistic model of passion
Vallerand and colleagues (2003, 2006, 2007,
2008) have introduced a dualistic model of pas-
sion towards activities. Passion is dened as a
strong inclination towards an activity that an in-
dividual likes, considers important, and invests
considerable time and energy in. According to
the model, passionate activities are internalized
into the self, resulting in the activity becom-
ing part of the individual’s identity. Passion can
take two dierent forms, depending on how
the individual internalizes the activity. Harmo-
nious passion originates from an autonomous
internalization of the activity and involves the
performance of an activity in a self-determined
manner (Deci & Ryan, 2000; Vallerand et al.,
2003), in concordance with one’s personal val-
ues and goals. e passionate activity does not
take an overbearing place in the individual´s
identity and harmonizes with other aspects of
life. In contrast, obsessive passion is believed to
emerge from a controlled internalization of the
activity, where the individual experiences exter-
nal or internal pressure to perform the activity
(Vallerand et al., 2003) and the passionate activ-
ity takes an overbearing place in the person´s
Research on the dualistic model of passion
supports the conceptualizations of harmoni-
ous and obsessive passion. e Passion Scale
developed by Vallerand and colleagues (2003)
has been found to have high levels of internal
consistency, in addition to high external, discri-
minant, construct and predictive validity. Both
types of passion have also been found to corre-
late positively with time and energy investment
in activities, inclusion of the activity in the self
and activity valuation, including perceptions of
the activity as a passion. (For a more extensive
review, see Vallerand, 2015).
e Dualistic Model of Passion diers from
other motivational concepts, such as intrinsic
and extrinsic motivation (Ryan & Deci, 2000).
According to Vallerand and colleagues (2003),
intrinsically motivated activities are typically
not seen as being internalized into the person’s
identity. In addition, harmonious passion has
been found to predict changes in positive aect
over and above intrinsic and extrinsic motiva-
tion (Vallerand et al., 2003).
Passion and job satisfaction
e passion model has mostly been studied in
relation to sports and leisure activities, but the
model also lends itself well to a work context
(Vallerand and Houlfort, 2003). While the two
passion constructs appear to share some simi-
larities with other work-related concepts, such
as workaholism (Spence & Robbins, 1992) and
organizational commitment, a study by Houl-
fort and colleagues (2011) found that harmoni-
ous passion predicted the same outcomes over
and above the dierent dimensions of worka-
holism and organizational commitment. ese
ndings indicate that the passion model is a
valuable addition to the work engagement and
organizational literature as it can be empirically
dierentiated from related constructs. In addi-
tion, the passion construct appears more par-
simonious, as it simultaneously covers positive
and negative aspects related to work.
Carbonneau, Vallerand, Fernet and Guay
(2008) conducted a study of passion among
teachers, where passion and dierent work out-
comes were measured twice over a three-month
period. e authors found that harmonious
passion correlated positively with job satisfac-
tion three months later, whereas obsessive pas-
sion was uncorrelated with job satisfaction. e
authors also investigated the causal direction
between passion and job satisfaction. Harmo-
nious passion for work predicted job satisfac-
tion, whereas job satisfaction did not predict
either harmonious or obsessive passion. Relat-
edly, Lavigne, Forest and Crevier-Braud (2010)
conducted a longitudinal and a cross-sectional
study on the eects of passion in relation to
burnout. e results from both studies showed
that harmonious passion was related to high-
er levels of ow experiences, which appeared
to protect against the experience of burnout
symptoms. In a recent study by Houlfort and
colleagues (2014, study 2) obsessive passion
was positively related to turnover intentions
among teachers, while harmonious passion was
negatively related to turnover intentions. ese
ndings constitute a general paern, in which
harmonious and obsessive passion have been
Passion, belongingness, and job satisfaction
linked to dierent outcomes. For example, stud-
ies have shown that harmonious passion is re-
lated to positive emotions during and aer ac-
tivity engagement (Mageau & Vallerand, 2007;
Vallerand et al., 2007; Wang, Khoo, Liu, & Diva-
haran, 2008), while obsessive passion is related
to negative aect (Rousseau & Vallerand, 2008;
Vallerand et al., 2003; Vallerand et al., 2006) and
negative subjective well-being (Vallerand et al.,
2007). e laer form of passion has also been
related to negative emotions when the individ-
ual is prevented from performing the passionate
activity (Vallerand et al., 2003).
As apparent from the studies above, having
a passionate interest for work does not in itself
guarantee that the person will experience posi-
tive emotional outcomes at work. Carbonneau
and colleagues (2008) have explicitly requested
more research on the psychological processes
through which passion is linked to job satisfac-
tion. Increased knowledge about the factors
through which passion increases or restricts sat-
isfaction with work could aid employers in their
eorts to increase employees´ job motivation
and performance. is knowledge could also
benet the employee directly.
Job satisfaction, which is oen dened as “a
pleasurable or positive emotional state result-
ing from an appraisal of one´s job or job experi-
ences” (Locke, 1976, p. 1300), is considered to
be an important variable for both the individual
employee and the organization. Faragher, Cass
and Cooper (2005) performed a meta-analysis
of 485 studies on job satisfaction, nding sig-
nicant associations between job satisfaction
and good mental and physical health, including
high self-esteem, and lack of depression, anxi-
ety and burnout. Other researchers have found
that high and low job satisfaction can result in
positive and negative mood outside the work-
place, through a so-called spillover eect (Ilies,
Wilson & Wagner, 2009). In addition to health
related outcomes, job satisfaction has also been
shown to be among the strongest correlates of
job performance (Judge, oresen, Bono, &
Paon, 2001).
In light of the above, it seems relevant to
investigate the relationship between passion
and job satisfaction in more detail. Specically,
more knowledge is needed on why individuals
who are harmoniously or obsessively passionate
about their work dier in terms of experienced
satisfaction with work. One explanation could
be that the two forms of passion inuence the
quality of interpersonal relationships at work.
e mediational role of belongingness
Self-Determination eory (SDT) is a macro-
theory concerning human motivation and well-
being (Ryan & Deci, 2000). According to SDT,
humans are inherently directed towards activi-
ties that satisfy psychological needs (Deci &
Ryan, 2000), which in turn promotes optimal
psychological growth and well-being in vari-
ous aspects of life, including work. Baumeister
and Leary (1995) studied the literature on at-
tachment and social relations and concluded
that positive, social relations appear to be an
important factor for individuals´ health and
well-being; to the extent that humans appear
to have an innate and universal need for be-
longingness. Sheldon, Elliot, Kim and Kasser
(2001) have provided important support for
the notion that relatedness is a universal human
need. e authors studied psychological needs
among both American and South Korean stu-
dents, and found that relatedness was among
the highest rated needs. Belongingness has em-
pirically been shown to be conducive to optimal
psychological functioning (Ryan & Deci, 2000),
and a number of studies support the role of be-
longingness in facilitating positive emotions in
a variety of work seings. For example, Lynch,
Plant and Ryan (2005) found a signicant posi-
tive eect of belongingness on job satisfaction
among sta in a psychiatric hospital, while
Skaalvik and Skaalvik (2011) obtained similar
results among Norwegian teachers. ese nd-
ings reect a broader consensus that positive, se-
cure and reciprocal social bonds are conducive
to job satisfaction, while lack of social support is
detrimental to job satisfaction.
e theoretical foundation behind the pas-
sion model suggests that harmonious and ob-
sessive passion will have dierent eects on the
quality of interpersonal relationships. Harmo-
nious passion should promote closer and more
meaningful relationships through a more posi-
tive and autonomous engagement in the activ-
ity. Fredrickson´s (2001) broaden-and-build
theory suggests that positive emotions promote
a broadening of the mindset and the self, which
increases the perceived similarities with others
(Johnson & Fredrickson, 2005) and promotes
new and stronger social bonds. While someone
who is harmoniously passionate about an activ-
ity can choose to freely engage and disengage
from the activity, someone who is obsessively
passionate will feel compelled to engage in the
activity, causing them to ruminate or think about
20 Scandinavian Journal of Organizational Psychology 8 (1) | May 2016
the activity when not engaging in it (Ratelle et al.,
2004; Vallerand et al., 2003). e obsessive pas-
sion for work makes the activity hard to regulate
and dicult to incorporate with other aspects of
work, such as interpersonal relationships, as this
interferes with the passionate activity. is is re-
ected in empirical ndings in which obsessive
passion has been related to interpersonal and
life domain conicts (Séguin-Levesque et al.,
2003; Stenseng, 2008; Stenseng, Haugen, Tor-
stveit & Høigaard, 2015; Vallerand et al., 2008).
e present study
In the present study, we aimed at investigating
whether harmonious passion and obsessive
passion were dierently associated with job
satisfaction, and to what extent belongingness
would mediate the relationship between the
two forms of passion and job satisfaction. First,
since previous studies on passion have shown
that harmonious passion is linked to adaptive
psychological functioning and positive psycho-
logical outcomes, we expected harmonious pas-
sion to be more strongly and positively related
to job satisfaction compared to obsessive pas-
sion. Second, considering the broad consensus
that social support is conducive to job satisfac-
tion, we expected belongingness to aect job
satisfaction positively. ird, harmonious pas-
sion should promote closer and more meaning-
ful relationships through a more positive and
autonomous engagement in the activity, and
thereby be more positively related to belonging-
ness compared to obsessive passion. Finally, we
expected belongingness to mediate the eect
from harmonious passion onto job satisfaction,
through the positive eect that harmonious pas-
sion has on belongingness, and the laer´s ef-
fect on job satisfaction.
A total of 278 employees participated in the
study (51.7% men, 48.3% women). e sample
was mainly concentrated around the age groups
of 40 to 49 years (27.3 %) and 50 to 59 years
(29.9 %). Only 8.9 % of the respondents were
in the lowest age group, (20 to 29 years), while
14.4 % were in the highest age group (60 to
69 years). Average number of work hours was
reported to be around 38 to 45 hours a week
(40.6 %). e majority reported having mini-
mum 5 years of higher education from college
or university (55.4 %). e work titles that were
most frequently reported were consultant for
the rst company and researcher for the second
e present study was part of a larger study on
passion. Leers with information about the
study, including a link to our web-based ques-
tionnaire, were sent by e-mail to HR-executives
in dierent Norwegian companies. Two compa-
nies - one in the eld of insurance and the other
in research and education – chose to participate
in the study. e HR-executives sent an e-mail
to their employees, requesting them to par-
ticipate in the study. As they could not provide
information about the total number of employ-
ees that received the e-mails, we are unable to
determine an exact response rate. Based on the
total number of employees in the two organiza-
tions, a total response rate of about 40% is a fair
approximation. e employees were informed
about their anonymity and voluntary participa-
e Passion Scale. e Passion Scale is a 16-
item questionnaire developed by Vallerand
and colleagues (2003) to measure passionate
interest towards an activity. It consists of two
subscales measuring harmonious passion and
obsessive passion. e harmonious passion sub-
scale includes the statement: ”My work is in har-
mony with the other activities in my life”. e
obsessive passion subscale includes the state-
ment: “I have diculties controlling my urge to
do my work.” Respondents were asked to give
their responses on a seven point scale (1 = com-
pletely disagree; 7 = completely agree). Cronbach
alphas for harmonious passion and obsessive
passion were. 86 and .81, respectively.
Belongingness at Work. e relatedness
dimension of the Basic Psychological Needs
Scale (Baard, Deci, & Ryan, 2004) was used to
measure belongingness in the work seing. is
dimension consists of eight items, such as “I get
along with people at work”. Responses were
made on a seven point response scale ranging
from completely disagree (1) to completely agree
(7). Alpha for the construct was .79.
Passion, belongingness, and job satisfaction
Job Satisfaction Index. Job satisfaction
was measured by selecting six statements from
Brayeld and Rothe´s (1951) 19-item Job Sat-
isfaction Index, which was done to shorten the
questionnaire. is scale has oen been used
in similar short versions (Bono & Judge, 2003;
Judge, Bono & Locke, 2000; Ozer, 2008). One
of the included statements were: ”I am satised
with my job for the time being”. e respond-
ents were instructed to give their answers on a
1 (strongly disagree) to 5 (strongly agree) scale,
and alpha was .89.
Preliminary analyses were conducted to inves-
tigate the frequency distributions of the scales.
Normality was assesses by kurtosis and skew-
ness tests. Both tests showed distributional nor-
mality for the variables used in the SEM analysis,
within the range of -.1.5 to +1.5. Means, stand-
ard deviations, and correlations between the
variables are reported in Table 1.
Path analyses were performed to assess the
meditational eect hypothesized in the intro-
duction. AMOS 16.0 was used to estimate path
coecients and model t indices. Due to the
large number of items in the model, we created
parcels for the passion construct and the be-
longingness construct by aggregating the item
with largest loading on a factor with the item
with the smallest loading (Lile, Cunningham,
Shahar, & Widaman, 2002). e data t the
measurement model well: NFI > .90, CFI > .95,
RMSEA > .08 (Hu & Bentler, 1999).
e main benet of path analyses is that the
relations between data become clearer than
when applying regression analyses, since the
former takes consideration of the residual vari-
ables and the interrelated correlations between
endogenous and exogenous variables (Kline,
1998). Harmonious passion and obsessive pas-
sion were dened as exogenous variables, while
belongingness and job satisfaction were dened
as endogenous variables. e belongingness
construct was placed as an intermediate variable
between passion and work satisfaction. is
made it possible to test for their mediational
impact on the eect from passion toward satis-
faction at work. Covariates were freed between
the passion dimensions and the belongingness
residuals. Initial t-tests showed some dierences
between the two companies with regard to the
endogenous variables. However, when con-
trolled for in our analyses, these dierences did
not signicantly aect the path analyses. Figure
1 shows the model and the results from the path
analysis, aer non-signicant path coecients
were removed. Fit indices showed that the mod-
Table 1. Mean Scores, Standard Deviations and Intercorrelations between the Study´s Variables
MSD 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.
1. Age - - -
2. Gender - - .25** -
3. Work hours - - -.04 -.27** -
4. Education - - -.21** .11 .24** -
5. Harmonious P. 4.28 1.09 -.02 -.11 .30**. .11 -
6. Obsessive P. 2.52 1.07 .01 -.20** 48** .13* .28** -
7. Belongingness 5.63 0.85 .04 -.01 .08 -.12 .33** .02 -
8. Job sat. 4.10 0.77 .16** -.11 .17** -.11 .61** .18** .36** -
Note. Alpha coecients on the diagonal. Demographic variables were coded in categories. Gender was dummy
coded (0 = men, 1 = women). N= 257-278
* p = < .05. ** p = < .01
22 Scandinavian Journal of Organizational Psychology 8 (1) | May 2016
el had acceptable t with the data, χ² (df = 61)
= 147.71, CFI= .94, NFI = .90, RMSEA = .072.
Inspections of the direct eects in the model
showed that harmonious passion had a positive
eect on belongingness (β = .26, p < .001). Har-
monious passion also had a direct positive eect
on job satisfaction (β = .59, p < .001). Obsessive
passion, on the other hand, had no signicant
eects on the endogenous variables. Belonging-
ness had a signicant direct eect on job satis-
faction (β = .19, p = .002).
e mediational impact of belongingness at
work in the model was then tested (see Baron
& Kenny, 1986). Since the path analysis showed
that there was a direct eect of harmonious
passion towards job satisfaction beyond the
belongingness measure, only a partial medita-
tional role of belongingness could be obtained.
More specically, when the belongingness con-
struct was eliminated from the model, the direct
eect from passion towards job satisfaction was
.68 (p <. 001). When including belongingness
in the model the direct eect was substantially
reduced, thereby indicating partial mediation
from the intermediate variables in the model.
e indirect eect of belongingness at work on
the eect from harmonious passion and towards
job satisfaction was .17 (p < .05) at is, due to
the indirect (mediated) eect of belongingness
on job satisfaction, when belongingness goes up
by 1 standard deviation, job satisfaction goes up
by .17 standard deviations. is is in addition to
any direct (unmediated) eect in the model.
To further validate the results of the present
study, an alternative model was tested. In this
model, harmonious passion and obsessive pas-
sion were specied as the mediating variables
between belongingness and job satisfaction. Re-
sults of the path analysis revealed poor t of the
model to the data: χ² (df = 61) = 177.41, CFI =
.92, NFI = .88, RMSEA = .082, hence indicating
a worse model t than for the proposed model.
In sum, the path analyses showed that belong-
ingness at work has explanatory relevance in the
relationship between harmonious passion for
work and job satisfaction.
Most ndings in the present study were in line
with the assumptions. First, and in accordance
with previous studies (Lavigne et al., 2010), we
found that harmonious passion was strongly re-
lated to job satisfaction. Second, experiencing
belongingness at work was related to higher job
Figure 1. Structural equation model involving passion, belongingness at work, and job satisfaction. Path values are
standardized regression coecients. Items constituting the passion and the emotion constructs are parcels. All
shown paths signicant on the .01-level. Non-signicant paths are omited from the gure.
Passion, belongingness, and job satisfaction
satisfaction. ird, while harmonious passion
was positively related to belongingness, obses-
sive passion was unrelated to this construct. It
seems to be a prerequisite to have a harmonious
passion towards one´s work in order to experi-
ence belongingness at work. Finally, experienc-
ing belongingness at work partially mediated
the eect from harmonious passion towards job
satisfaction. is shows that harmonious pas-
sion towards work is likely to facilitate a sense of
belongingness, thereby aecting job satisfaction
in a positive direction.
e passion-job satisfaction relationship
e present ndings have several implications
for the passion model when it is applied in a
work context. Harmonious passion and obses-
sive passion for work were positively correlated
in our study, as they also are in other studies on
passion (e.g. Forest, Mageau, Sarrazin & Morin,
2011; Philippe et al., 2010). As noted in our
introduction, passion is dened as a strong in-
clination towards an activity that the individual
likes, spends considerable time doing and expe-
riences as important. e positive correlation
between harmonious and obsessive passion re-
fers to the shared denition of passion. e dif-
ference in these two terms relates to whether an
activity is internalized in an autonomous or con-
trolled form into one´s identity. is explains
why the two types of passion can be correlated
positively while also being related to dierent
outcomes. What this study demonstrates, then,
is that simply being passionate about one´s
work does not guarantee positive emotional
outcomes at work. More specically, the way in
which the individual has internalized the activ-
ity inuences activity engagement in such a way
that it can be either benecial or detrimental
to the feeling of belongingness at work. And in
line with other studies, respondents in our study
who felt a stronger sense of belongingness were
more satised with work.
e mediating role of belongingness
In this study, belongingness was found to par-
tially mediate the harmonious passion- job sat-
isfaction relationship. Obsessive passion was
unrelated to belongingness and job satisfaction.
is is in line with the theoretical arguments pre-
sented earlier in the paper. Our ndings suggest
that passion could play a role in triggering the
broadening and narrowing processes related to
Fredrickson´s (2001) broaden-and-build the-
ory. Support for this notion can also be found
in a series of studies by Philippe and colleagues´
(2010), who looked at the connection between
passion and interpersonal relationships, based
on ratings by external observers. In one study,
basketball players who had higher levels of har-
monious passion scored higher on coaches’ rat-
ings of the players´ interpersonal closeness with
teammates. Another study showed similar re-
sults among students enrolled in a management
program. is suggests that individuals who are
harmoniously passionate about their work dis-
play overt positive behaviors towards their cow-
orkers, such as smiling more or initiating social
contact. When this behavior is reciprocated, it
improves their feeling of belongingness. While
the design of our study did not enable us to test
this hypothesis, it does oer a possible explana-
tion for why belongingness mediated part the ef-
fect of harmonious passion unto job satisfaction,
while not being related to obsessive passion.
While our study ndings conrmed our theo-
retical predictions, the generalizability of the
ndings could dier depending on context. It
is possible that variables such as passion, be-
longingness and job satisfaction have dierent
meanings and interactions in countries with a
more collectivistic (e.g. Markus & Kitayama,
1991) or performance-oriented culture.
e results from our study suggest that the
model represents a valuable contribution to the
work and organizational literature. As we men-
tioned earlier, job satisfaction has important
implications both on an individual level (e.g.
increased mental and physical health) and on
an organizational level (e.g. increased job per-
formance). Understanding more about the rela-
tionship between passion and job satisfaction is
therefore important, both for practical and the-
oretical purposes. eoretically, our study con-
tributes to the understanding of why passion for
work can have dierent consequences for well-
being at work (i.e. through facilitating or thwart-
ing the sense of belongingness at work). is
knowledge has previously been lacking from
the organizational literature. Our study thus
answers Carbonneau and colleagues´ (2008)
call for more research on the psychological pro-
cesses through which passion is linked to job
satisfaction. Our study also tested the passion
model in a Norwegian work seing. Consider-
ing the possible wider implications of our nd-
ing, our study could inspire more research on
the topic of passion and belongingness at work.
24 Scandinavian Journal of Organizational Psychology 8 (1) | May 2016
For example, as team work and cooperation be-
comes increasingly important in contemporary
organizations, it would be interesting to explore
whether high levels of obsessive passion could
negatively inuence team unity and productiv-
ity through a reduced sense of belongingness.
Facilitating harmonious passion
Vallerand and Houlfort (2003) have argued
that work environments should be organ-
ized to facilitate harmonious passion. Work
by Mageau et al. (2009) suggests that social
environments that are autonomy-supportive
can promote the emergence of harmonious
passion. Examples include providing employ-
ees with opportunities to share their opinions
and influence their own work tasks. On the
other hand, reward systems that are based on
performance could limit employees´ expe-
rience of autonomy, and instead facilitate a
controlled internalization of work (Gagné &
Forest, 2008). Reward systems could also hin-
der the development of passion in general, by
reducing intrinsic motivation for work. This
argument is supported by Deci, Koestner and
Ryan´s (1999) meta-analysis of 128 studies,
which found that external rewards meant to
control behavior, undermined intrinsic moti-
vation for the behavior.
Managers´ leadership style could also af-
fect the development of harmonious and
obsessive passion. Bono and Judge (2003,
study 2) found that transformational leader-
ship, defined as a visionary, charismatic and
inspirational leadership style, predicted con-
trolled motivation negatively among students
who watched a video with a leader displaying
different leadership styles. Furthermore, or-
ganizations could map individuals´ internali-
zation style using scales such as Global Mo-
tivation Scale (Guay et al., 2003) or General
Causality Orientations Scale (Deci & Ryan,
1985). The former measures different types
of internal and external motivation while the
latter measures the strength of different moti-
vational orientations within an individual, in-
cluding autonomous and controlled orienta-
tions. Organizations could use such scales to
map whether the work environment is facili-
tating internal or external motivations among
the employees, and, if necessary, implement
relevant strategies or actions.
Limitations and future research
ere are several limitations to our study. Firstly,
although we have outlined some causal rela-
tionships based on theoretical elaborations, the
cross-sectional nature of our study restricts the
conclusions regarding causes and outcomes. Ad-
ditional longitudinal and experimental designs
are necessary to draw any inferences regard-
ing the causality suggested in our study model.
Secondly, self-reported survey questionnaires,
as employed in our study, make it dicult to
rule out numerous alternative explanations
for the results (i.e., priming, consistency, re-
verse causality). Future research would benet
from other methods of data collection (e.g.,
qualitative interviews) to conrm the paern
of relationships observed in the current study.
irdly, mean scores on the passion subscales in-
dicated that the respondents in our study were
moderately passionate (harmoniously) about
their work. It would perhaps be more theoreti-
cally interesting to apply the passion model to a
work context where people have higher levels of
harmonious or obsessive passion, such as lead-
ers, artists, writers or entrepreneurs.
e dualistic model of passion has mainly been
studied in relation to sports and leisure activi-
ties. e results from our study suggest that
the model represents a relevant and important
contribution to the work and organizational lit-
erature, as it enhances the understanding of why
passion for work can have dierent consequenc-
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... They also desire to learn to become more independent, or it could be stated that the resource person and colleagues around them had passion before finally deciding to work in this field. Spehar, Forest & Stenseng (2016) stated that passion is a strong tendency toward liked and considered necessary activities, so someone is willing to devote a lot of time and energy to these activities. The cabin crew must be willing to carry out their duties. ...
... It can also be assumed that for an employee to be considered to have job satisfaction, they must have a passion for their work (Pathak & Srivastava, 2020). According to Spehar, Forest & Stenseng (2016), harmonious passion directly affects job satisfaction instead of obsessive passion, which does not affect job satisfaction. ...
... It is also true for cabin crew profession. However, several studies from experts stated that possess-ing a great passion for work takes time to ensure that the individual will experience positive emotional outcomes at work (Spehar, Forest & Stenseng, 2016). ...
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Efforts to increase the job satisfaction of cabin crews must be a priority because their job satisfaction determines the services they provide to passengers throughout the flight. Factors that determine cabin crew job satisfaction include work passion and role of belongingness. This study examined the role of belongingness in the effect of work passion on the job satisfaction of cabin crews. The sample population was cabin crew in the Jakarta area who worked for various airlines. The sample was 70 respondents. The sampling technique used was non-probability sampling, with the convenience sampling method. This study performed validity and reliability tests; p plots normality tests, descriptive statistics, and Preacher Hayes analysis. The analysis method used The Simple Mediation Model, processed through SPSS Process 23.00. The results show that work passion positively affects both the role of belongingness and job satisfaction, and the role of belongingness positively affects job satisfaction. Job satisfaction is affected by the passion for work with the mediating variable role of belongingness. In conclusion, the role of belongingness has been proven to mediate the effect of work passion on job satisfaction for cabin crews in Jakarta.
... In this sense, studies indicate significant and positive correlations between harmonious passion and work engagement (Trépanier et al., 2014), positive affect , and job satisfaction (Houlfort et al., 2014;Spehar et al., 2016). In contrast, harmonious passion is negatively related to burnout (Vallerand et al., 2010) and negative affect . ...
... In contrast, harmonious passion is negatively related to burnout (Vallerand et al., 2010) and negative affect . Obsessive passion, in turn, is not correlated with job satisfaction (Spehar et al., 2016) and correlates with negative outcomes, such as burnout (Trépanier et al., 2014), depression (Houlfort et al., 2014), and the experience of negative affects (Stoeber et al., 2011). In the context of sports coaches, harmonious passion has been shown to be positively related to quality coach-athletes relationship. ...
... In this sense, this study aimed to evaluate the relationship between passion (harmonious and obsessive) and job satisfaction, and how these relationships were influenced by flow in a sample of sports coaches. Based on the literature, it was hypothesized that harmonious passion would be positively related to job satisfaction (Spehar et al., 2016, Vallerand, 2015, and this relationship would be positively mediated by flow (Peixoto et al., in press). Additionally, obsessive passion would not present a significant association with job satisfaction (Spehar et al., 2016), although positive associations with absorption and intrinsic motivation (flow dimensions) can be expected (Peixoto et al., in press). ...
Sports coaching is a volatile and stressful career that may impact professionals’ well-being. Thus, variables that can promote coaches’ job satisfaction need to be investigated. Based on the hypotheses of potential effects of passion for work (e.g., subjects’ inclination for an activity, which becomes integrated into the person’s identity) on flow experience (e.g., positive and transient state that can promote total absorption, enjoyment, and intrinsic motivation) and job satisfaction (e.g., state of positive emotions, resulting from continuous experiences in the workplace), this research aimed to assess the association among the dualistic model of passion (harmonious and obsessive), flow, and job satisfaction in sports coaches. The sample consisted of 172 Brazilian coaches from different sports (69.60% male). Structural equation modeling demonstrated that both forms of passion were positively associated with absorption and intrinsic motivation experience; however, only harmonious passion showed a significant relationship with enjoyment and job satisfaction. Furthermore, a mediating role of flow (work enjoyment and intrinsic motivation) in the relationship between harmonious passion and coaches’ job satisfaction was observed. The results suggest that coaches who demonstrate harmonious passion for the profession tend to have a greater perception of positive experiences at work and feel more satisfied with these activities.
... Since obsessive passion can cause people to feel out of control while engaging in the activity, it often causes conflict with other aspects of life. In contrast to obsessive passion, research has indeed shown harmonious passion as a positive predictor of work satisfaction, sense of belongingness, positive emotions, and flow during work engagement, life satisfaction, general well-being, and organisational performance (e.g., Clohessy et al., 2021;Curran et al., 2015;Spehar et al., 2016;Vallerand et al., , 2008. Within the context of sport, Lafrenière et al. (2008) found that harmonious passion among athletes and coaches predicted high-quality coach-athlete relationships, which in turn positively predicted coaches' subjective well-being. ...
... Collectively, these studies highlighted the salient role of passions, suggesting that harmonious passion for coaching would positively predict coaches' subjective wellbeing and obsessive passion would be unrelated to subjective happiness and life satisfaction. However, these studies have also shown that having passion for work does not in itself ensure positive emotional outcomes at work (Spehar et al., 2016). More research is needed to identify the factors through which passion for work increases or decreases working adults' well-being to support work organizations in their efforts to promote their employees' work and well-being-related outcomes (e.g., Perrew et al., 2014;Spehar et al., 2016). ...
... However, these studies have also shown that having passion for work does not in itself ensure positive emotional outcomes at work (Spehar et al., 2016). More research is needed to identify the factors through which passion for work increases or decreases working adults' well-being to support work organizations in their efforts to promote their employees' work and well-being-related outcomes (e.g., Perrew et al., 2014;Spehar et al., 2016). ...
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The purpose of this study was to examine the role of purpose in life in coaches’ subjective happiness and life satisfaction and the role of harmonious and obsessive work passions in these relationships. Collegiate coaches (N = 379) completed questionnaires assessing sense of purpose in life (awakening to purpose, awareness of purpose, and altruistic purpose), passion for coaching (harmonious, obsessive), and subjective well-being (subjective happiness, life satisfaction). Structural equation modelling showed that awareness of purpose was a positive direct predictor of subjective happiness and life satisfaction. Positive indirect relationships through harmonious passion for coaching were found between awareness of purpose and both measures of subjective well-being and between awakening to purpose and life satisfaction. Opposing indirect relationships through harmonious and obsessive work passions were found between awakening to purpose and subjective happiness. Altruistic purpose, on the other hand, was not a significant predictor of passions for work and subjective well-being. Structural invariance was tested across gender (male, female), Division (I, III), and position (head coach, assistant coaches), showing only a few differences across gender and position. Overall, findings highlight the importance of life purpose in strengthening coaches’ harmonious passion for coaching and their subjective well-being.
... He also found a positive relationship between growth orientation and virtual and real social interactions and well-being, while there was a negative and significant relationship between growth orientation and depression and feelings of loneliness. Spehar, Forest and Stenseng (2016) studied the relationship between belongingness and demographic indicators and found no significant relationship between gender, age and educational level. However, Adamczyk (2018) found a significant gender difference in the need for belongingness, in which women had a higher level of belongingness. ...
... Differences in terms of gender were significant only in growth orientation and females had higher mean. Spehar et al. (2016) found no significant relationship between age, gender and educational level and belongingness; however, Adamczyk (2018) found a significant difference among females and males, so that females had a higher mean. Given that the current research sample consisted of undergraduate students, most of whom were in the third decade of their life, the necessary dispersion of age distribution did not exist to examine the more accurate relationship between this variable and belongingness and it seems that performing the research on different age groups would lead to different results. ...
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It seems that human-being has an intrinsic need for belongingness. Belongingness has multiple strong effects on emotional patterns, cognitive processes, and optimal psychological functioning. This study aimed to investigate the psychometric properties of the Belongingness Orientation scale in Iranian students. In a descriptive-correlational study, 300 students (60.3% female; age mean=20.54±1.70) from Birjand University were selected by multistage random sampling method. Participants completed Belongingness Orientation Scale (Lavigne et al., 2011) and Interpersonal Orientation Scale (Hill, 1987). Data were analyzed by confirmatory factor analysis, Pearson`s correlation coefficient, and MANOVA using SPSS.25 and Amos.24 software. Confirmatory factor analysis confirmed the two-factor structure. Factor loading varied from 0.65 to 0.87. The results showed that there are significant relationships between the dimensions of belongingness orientation and interpersonal orientation. Correlation coefficients varied from 0.37 to 0.51. Cronbach’s alpha coefficients are 0.79 for two subscales. Split-half coefficients are 0.70 for growth orientation and 0.74 for deficit reduction orientation. It seems that the Belongingness Orientation scale has good construct validity and reliability in students. This scale can be used as a precise instrument in this regard.
... Satisfaction of these psychological needs is closely related to positive outcomes in organizational and individual performance and career development (Rigby & Ryan, 2018). Satisfaction of basic needs has a positive effect on job satisfaction (Ryan et al., 2010), passion for work (Spehar et al., 2016), and performance (Guntert, 2015), so organizations need to understand the basic motivation for employee performance and growth (Rigby & Ryan, 2018). ...
Full-text available
This study investigated the relationship between job crafting (cognitive crafting, task crafting, and relational crafting), informal learning, innovative behavior, and the moderating effect of the perceived error management climate. This research used data from 316 Korean employees of a large firm. While cognitive crafting did not directly affect innovative behavior, we found statistically positive effects on task and relational crafting. Informal learning mediated the relationship between cognitive, task, relational crafting, and innovative behavior, while the perceived error management climate moderated the relationship between cognitive crafting and informal learning. This study provides practical and theoretical implications based on the results.
... Harmonious passion is conceptualized as a self-directed internalizing experience in which employees freely and voluntarily accept their work as important to them and as a part of their identity and experiences a sense of volition and personal choice in deciding when to do task and participate in work activity (Vallerand & Houlfort, 2019). According to Self-Determination, if a person is already engaged and freely involved in a self-defining activity that makes them feel supported and helped in their choices by their surroundings or environment, an HP is likely to develop (Fernet et al., 2014;Spehar et al., 2016). Harmonious passion is an autonomous internal process in which work is vital to the individual and is self-explanatory through its characteristics (e.g., stimulating, pleasant). ...
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The primary purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of relationship-oriented leadership on harmonious passion based on Self-Determination Theory. Self-efficacy is taken as a mediator between the relationship-oriented leadership style and harmonious passion. A conscientious personality trait is integrated as a moderator to check whether it moderates the effect of relationship-oriented leadership on harmonious passion. The data were collected using a cross-sectional research design, and the study population is the front-line employees of fast-moving consumer goods companies in Pakistan. The research model was tested using a questionnaire survey instrument, and the sample size was 487. PLS-SEM was used for testing the hypotheses. Similarly, Hays process macro was used for testing mediating and moderating effects. Results revealed that employees increase their Harmonious Passion in the presence of relationship-oriented leadership. Self-efficacy mediates the relationship between relationship-oriented leadership and Harmonious Passion. Conscientiousness personality trait significantly acts as a moderator between relationship-oriented leadership and Harmonious Passion. As research on this leadership style and employee passion is scarce, this paper will help get a proper understanding of the specific leadership style necessary for cultivating harmonious passion. This study also concludes that fast-moving consumer goods companies should consider this leadership style and motivate their managers to adopt this particular style to increase their employees’ harmonious passion for better outcomes.
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Purpose: This study aims to interpret workers' desire, especially copywriters, to work from home while producing profitable results for the company and maintaining a competitive advantage. Theoretical framework: Motivation is an essential aspect of human decision-making because it motivates people to act, according to Abraham H. Maslow (2002). Motivation is an inner drive that guides a person's behavior and can be influenced by factors such as comfort, style, prestige, or a desire to fit in with others. Design/methodology/approach: This study uses a qualitative inductive reasoning-based exploratory technique to investigate individual experiences in the advertising industry during a pandemic. It uses a phenomenological paradigm. Creswell (2014) defines phenomenological research as a branch of economics, management, and psychology that describes participants' life experiences related to a phenomenon. Findings: Employee loyalty can be developed by trusting and respecting colleagues, which is essential for a pleasant work environment, especially when working remotely. Remote working has several benefits, including increased productivity, improved work-life balance, and cost savings for employees and businesses. Flexible work arrangements and focusing on employee time off can significantly impact employee loyalty, productivity, and overall competitive advantage. Research, Practical & Social implications: Trust and respect for their employees' time and well-being must be prioritized by transformational leaders, which can increase company loyalty, productivity, and growth. Originality/value: Trust and confidence in the company's leadership and mission can foster employee loyalty and a healthy work environment, even when working remotely.
Research question Leisure organisations’ most valued staff are often the most likely to leave. Leisure employees (e.g. swim instructors) are resources essential to organisational performance requiring proactive strategies by managers and human resource departments to retain talented individuals. The association between job satisfaction and turnover intention is well supported in the literature. The study aimed to identify and explain the current turnover intention of Victorian, Australia swim instructors. Methods Using a modified version of Roodt’s Turnover Intention Theory, this study utilised semi-structured interviews with current swim instructors (n = 42; 62% female, 38% male). A deductive content analysis assisted to explain the turnover intention of current swim instructors. Results Younger swim instructors (i.e. 18–28 years old) presented a high turnover intention. Older swim instructors (i.e. 45+ years old) presented a low turnover intention. Implications Managers of swim schools should contemplate implementing retention strategies to reduce the turnover intention of younger swim instructors and consider the benefits of having a workforce containing older swim instructors. Supporting the industry to manage turnover intention might support in improving ineffective pedagogy and teaching, enable more individuals to participate in swimming lessons, and improve drowning outcomes.
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هدفت الدراسة التعرف إلى مستوى روحانية مكان العمل، ومستوى نمطي الشغف الوظيفي، والتحقق من العلاقة الارتباطية بينهما، والكشف عن الفروق في روحانية مكان العمل، ونمطي الشغف الوظيفي وفقاً لمتغير الجنس، وتكونت عينة الدراسة من (139) معلمًا ومعلمة من معلمي المرحلة الأساسية، وتحقيقاً لأهداف الدراسة أعد الباحث أداتين للدراسة هما: مقياس روحانية مكان العمل، ومقياس نمطي الشغف الوظيفي، وأظهرت نتائج الدراسة وجود مستوى مرتفع جدًا لروحانية مكان العمل، و لنمط الشغف الانسجامي، في حين جاء مستوى نمط الشغف القهري بمستوى متوسط، وبينت النتائج وجود علاقة ارتباطية موجبة بين أبعاد روحانية مكان العمل ونمط الشغف الانسجامي، ووجود علاقة ارتباطية سلبية بين أبعاد روحانية مكان العمل ونمط الشغف القهري، وأشارت النتائج إلى عدم وجود فروق في روحانية مكان العمل ونمطي الشغف الوظيفي وفقًا لمتغير الجنس.
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Based on the Dualistic Model of Passion (Vallerand et al., 2003), a sequence involving the determinants and affective experiences associated with two types of passion (harmonious and obsessive) toward sport was proposed and tested. This sequence posits that high levels of sport valuation and an autonomous personality orientation lead to harmonious passion, whereas high levels of sport valuation and a controlled personality orientation facilitate obsessive passion. In turn, harmonious passion is expected to lead to positive affective experiences in sport but to be either negatively related or unrelated to negative affective experiences. Conversely, obsessive passion is hypothesized to be positively related to negative affective experiences in sport but to be either negatively related or unrelated to positive affective experiences. Results of three studies conducted with recreational and competitive athletes involved in individual and team sports provided support for the proposed integrative sequence. These findings support the role of passion in sport and pave the way to new research.
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In this article, we attempt to distinguish between the properties of moderator and mediator variables at a number of levels. First, we seek to make theorists and researchers aware of the importance of not using the terms moderator and mediator interchangeably by carefully elaborating, both conceptually and strategically, the many ways in which moderators and mediators differ. We then go beyond this largely pedagogical function and delineate the conceptual and strategic implications of making use of such distinctions with regard to a wide range of phenomena, including control and stress, attitudes, and personality traits. We also provide a specific compendium of analytic procedures appropriate for making the most effective use of the moderator and mediator distinction, both separately and in terms of a broader causal system that includes both moderators and mediators. (46 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
The Oxford Handbook of Positive Psychology studies the burgeoning field of positive psychology, which, in recent years, has transcended academia to capture the imagination of the general public. The book provides a roadmap for the psychology needed by the majority of the population-those who don't need treatment, but want to achieve the lives to which they aspire. The articles summarize all of the relevant literature in the field, and each is essentially defining a lifetime of research. The content's breadth and depth provide a cross-disciplinary look at positive psychology from diverse fields and all branches of psychology, including social, clinical, personality, counseling, school, and developmental psychology. Topics include not only happiness-which has been perhaps misrepresented in the popular media as the entirety of the field-but also hope, strengths, positive emotions, life longings, creativity, emotional creativity, courage, and more, plus guidelines for applying what has worked for people across time and cultures.
Studies in 2 work organizations tested a self-determination theory based model in which employees' autonomous causality orientation and their perceptions of their managers' autonomy support independently predicted satisfaction of the employees' intrinsic needs for competence, autonomy, and relatedness, which in turn predicted their performance evaluations and psychological adjustment. Path analysis indicated that the self-determination theory model fit the data very well and that alternative models did not provide any advantage.
In this article, the author describes a new theoretical perspective on positive emotions and situates this new perspective within the emerging field of positive psychology. The broaden-and-build theory posits that experiences of positive emotions broaden people's momentary thought-action repertoires, which in turn serves to build their enduring personal resources, ranging from physical and intellectual resources to social and psychological resources. Preliminary empirical evidence supporting the broaden-and-build theory is reviewed, and open empirical questions that remain to be tested are identified. The theory and findings suggest that the capacity to experience positive emotions may be a fundamental human strength central to the study of human flourishing.