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Bullying Scars: The impact on adult life and relationships

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Abstract

While there is a great deal of research on the impact of bullying on children, much less is know about enduring effects that last into adulthood. Bullying Scars is based on interviews with hundreds of adults who experienced bullying as children or adolescents. They report varying consequences to their health and mental health and in their important relationships. Filled with poignant vignettes, the book gives a clear voice to the struggles adults are left with and demonstrates that childhood bullying can be traumatic. Scars can be seen in friendships and in intimate relationships. Interestingly, some participants for the study describe what they feel are positive outcomes as a result of the maltreatment they experienced at the hands of peers, parents, or teachers.
... In a study of Canadian youth, half of victims were unable to identify who had cyberbullied them; others were cyberbullied by peers, siblings, and friends (Mishna, Cook, Gadalla, Daciuk, & Solomon, 2010). Other research also supports the idea that bullying among friends is a common occurrence (deLara, 2012(deLara, , 2016Puhl, Peterson, & Luedicke, 2013). ...
... In a study by Allison, Roeger, and Reinfeld-Kirkman (2009) of almost three thousand Australian adults, poorer physical and mental health was found for those in their sample who were bullied as children. Other research has found comorbid mental health concerns such as generalized anxiety, social anxiety, agoraphobia, depression, panic disorder, antisocial personality disorder, substance abuse, post-traumatic stress, and suicidality (Copeland, Wolke, Angold, & Costello., 2013;deLara, 2016;Espelage, Hong, & Mebane, 2016). ...
... The definitions above were offered regardless of bullying perpetration by peers or school personnel. Similar to Smith and Sharp (1994) and deLara (2012, 2016, the participants defined bullying without reference to chronicity or power. Participants were clear that their experience of being bullied was not contained by the parameters of chronicity or power. ...
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Childhood bullying is a well-known public health problem world-wide. Research has described numerous health and mental health effects on victims, bullies, and bystanders. While there are studies of contemporaneous consequences, there is still much to be discovered in terms of the impact of childhood bullying lasting into adult life. This qualitative inquiry investigated the aftermath of childhood bullying for young adults in terms of their health, mental health, and relationship issues. Further, it asked participants for their definitions of bullying. The study was part of a mixed-methods inquiry. For the qualitative portion, 72 graduate and undergraduate students in the U.S., ages 18 to 29, participated as a purposive sample. The majority of participants were Caucasian and female, though 28% percent represented minority groups. Semi-structured interviews were conducted lasting approximately 1 h each. A participatory action research approach was taken to understand the lived experiences and perceptions of the young adults. Grounded theory was utilized in reviewing the data for thematic responses. Member checks and triangulation were employed to substantiate credibility, authenticity, and coherence of the data. Content analysis revealed lasting consequences in (a) mental and psychological well-being (b) eating disorders, weight, and body image, and (c) relationship and trust issues. Results are indicative of the need for further research on childhood bullying as it affects later adolescent and young adult development. Understanding the aftermath of childhood bullying is important in informing bullying interventions and maintaining a focus on early prevention efforts.
... Victimized students depict themselves as unpopular, unhappy, and unsafe at school (Wójcik & Flak, 2019). They are at a great risk of developing severe adjustment problems, which may include depression, anxiety, suicidal tendencies, social withdrawal, emotional dysregulation, low self-esteem, loneliness, peer rejection, lack of friends, absenteeism, and a decline in academic performance (Bowes et al., 2013;DeLara, 2016;Smokowski & Kopasz, 2005). Furthermore, the aftermath of bullying is palpable throughout one's life in terms of adult psychological problems, described by Thornberg et al. (2013) as lingering internal victimizing. ...
... Despite this being a small-scale retrospective study, we tried to recreate the timeline of bullying and determine subsequent phases, stages, and turning points. While we are aware of the limited general applicability of the presented results, we hope that they advance our understanding of the single steps that lead to the long-term victimization of some students, which, in many cases, leads to serious after-effects in adult life (Bowes et al., 2013;DeLara, 2016;Moore et al., 2017;Thornberg et al., 2013). ...
... According to the casual dimension framework mentioned above, such attribution triggers belief in personal deservingness for past negative outcomes, expectations of future hostile behavior, perception of stability of peers' behavior, and lack of control over one's victimization. Consistent with previous research (Anderson et al., 1994;Janoff-Bulman, 1979), this research shows that individuals who begin to make characterological self-attributions for being bullied use emotion-focused coping skills (Olweus, 2002), going into secondary isolation by separating themselves from the peer group, developing warning and defense systems, social distancing strategies, and a strong sense of distrust toward others (Carlisle & Rofes, 2007;DeLara, 2016;Thornberg, et al., 2013). Thornberg et al. (2013) described this phase as one of double victimizing that presented similar coping strategies, ending in selfresignation, which was also the case with our participants, who declared that they perceived that nothing could be done to improve their situation. ...
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The present study aimed to investigate how those who had been chronic victims of bullying perceive their bullying experience from their initial attacks to their bullying exit, how they understood processes and actions causing a situation to become progressively worse, and how they interpreted their own coping behaviors. Nine individuals who were victimized for at least 6 years were interviewed. The grounded theory approach was used to analyze the data, which generated a grounded theory of the downward spiral of bullying, demonstrating hidden aspects of bullying—the victim’s inner process as a response to external victimizing and accompanying events. The interdependence of those processes is presented in a timeline to show their cumulative nature as new vicious circles of bullying involving maladaptive coping strategies (e.g., self-blame), which form an overriding pattern of behavior that renders victims unable to break it even if they enter a new peer group. In terms of policy implications, the findings suggest the need to introduce school transition programs supporting school adaptation, identify chronic victims, and take every victimhood narrative seriously.
... In a study of Canadian youth, half of victims were unable to identify who had cyberbullied them; others were cyberbullied by peers, siblings, and friends (Mishna, Cook, Gadalla, Daciuk, & Solomon, 2010). Other research also supports the idea that bullying among friends is a common occurrence (deLara, 2012(deLara, , 2016Puhl, Peterson, & Luedicke, 2013). ...
... In a study by Allison, Roeger, and Reinfeld-Kirkman (2009) of almost three thousand Australian adults, poorer physical and mental health was found for those in their sample who were bullied as children. Other research has found comorbid mental health concerns such as generalized anxiety, social anxiety, agoraphobia, depression, panic disorder, antisocial personality disorder, substance abuse, post-traumatic stress, and suicidality (Copeland, Wolke, Angold, & Costello., 2013;deLara, 2016;Espelage, Hong, & Mebane, 2016). ...
... The definitions above were offered regardless of bullying perpetration by peers or school personnel. Similar to Smith and Sharp (1994) and deLara (2012, 2016, the participants defined bullying without reference to chronicity or power. Participants were clear that their experience of being bullied was not contained by the parameters of chronicity or power. ...
Article
Full-text available
Childhood bullying is a well-known public health problem worldwide. Research has described numerous health and mental health effects on victims, bullies, and bystanders. While there are studies of contemporaneous consequences, there is still much to be discovered in terms of the impact of childhood bullying lasting into adult life. This qualitative inquiry investigated the aftermath of childhood bullying for young adults in terms of their health, mental health, and relationship issues. Further, it asked participants for their definitions of bullying. The study was part of a mixed methods inquiry. For the qualitative portion, seventy-two graduate and undergraduate students in the U.S., ages eighteen to twenty-nine, participated as a purposive sample. The majority of participants were Caucasian and female, though twenty-eight percent represented minority groups. Semi-structured interviews were conducted lasting approximately one hour each. A participatory action research approach was taken to understand the lived experiences and perceptions of the young adults. Grounded theory was utilized in reviewing the data for thematic responses. Member checks and triangulation were employed to substantiate credibility, authenticity, and coherence of the data. Content analysis revealed lasting 2 consequences in a) mental and psychological well-being b) eating disorders, weight, and body image, and c) relationship and trust issues. Results are indicative of the need for further research on childhood bullying as it affects later adolescent and young adult development. Understanding the aftermath of childhood bullying is important in informing bullying interventions and maintaining a focus on early prevention efforts.
... Studies that have adopted a qualitative approach Mazzone, Thornberg, Stefanelli, Cadei, & Caravita, 2018;Thornberg, Wänström, & Jungert, 2018) paint a complex picture of how cultural patterns, labeling, and stigma processes, power structures, social hierarchies, parallel cultures of bullying, exclusion and inclusion processes, and the social ordering of belonging can contribute to bullying. Many of these studies interviewed bullies and bystanders, surprisingly few interviewed victims, which is necessary to understand their process of becoming victims and their experiences in being the victim of school bullying (DeLara, 2016(DeLara, , 2018Thornberg, 2011;Thornberg, Halldin, Bolmsjö, & Petersson, 2013). Therefore, further qualitative studies should be conducted to explore victims' perspectives on bullying which may shed new light on the bullying process. ...
... This accords with studies showing how many students do not share adults' opinions of what behaviors are considered bullying (DeLara, 2012(DeLara, , 2016Haltigan & Vaillancourt, 2017;Hellström, Persson, & Hagquist, 2015). The respondents of our study also showed the same tendency as in Vaillancourt et al. (2008) in that they concentrated more on specific incidents than the notions of intentionality and power imbalance. ...
... Participants defined bullying differently than the standard definition (Gini & Pozzoli, 2009;Salmivalli, 2014) formulated by researchers, but they agreed with several studies exploring students' perceptions of bullying. Those past studies noted that intentionality and power imbalance are rarely included in victims' definitions of bullying and that students concentrate on incidents and particular bullying behaviors (DeLara, 2016;Thornberg, 2015;Wójcik, 2018). The results also confirmed students' concern with particular negative incidents (Vaillancourt et al., 2008;Wójcik, 2018) that lead to complex bullying situations, excluding rituals and secret performances. ...
Article
Greater knowledge on the social complexities of bullying is crucial to reduce actual bullying behavior. Two main approaches have been used to study bullying: the participant role approach and the bullying circle. In this study, we explored bullying through interviewing adults who had been victims of school bullying in the past, investigating how they perceived their experiences, and how they interpreted the bullying context and their surrounding peer relations. We interviewed 20 participants (more than 18 years old), all of whom had experience of being bullied for more than 1 year. The interview data were then analyzed with a thematic analysis. We found that participants had a different definition of bullying compared with the standard definition formulated by researchers. They also confirmed the fluidity of participants’ roles and the changes in behavioral patterns toward victims, depending on the peer context. Most importantly, we revealed a new participant in the bullying circle: the frenemy, whose intervention style changes from pro-victim when alone with the victim to neutral or pro-aggressor when surrounded by members of the bullying circle. This new addition adds to our understanding of the bullying process and the relationships within the bullying circle, which may help with more effective prevention.
... prominent definitional criteria typically endorsed by researchers: intentionality, repetition, and power imbalance" p. 486. Other research has found similar results (Cheng, Chen, Ho, & Cheng, 2011;Cuadrado-Gordillo, 2012;deLara, 2016). ...
... Actions by adults other than parents, such as teachers and coaches, are regarded as bullying toward children and they are designated as such (deLara, 2016;McEvoy, 2005). For example, research on teachers who bully children indicates they bully through humiliating, insulting, ridiculing, criticizing unfairly, and purposely hurting their feelings (Datta, Cornell, & Huang, 2017;Tremlow, Fonagy, Sacco, & Brethour, 2006). ...
... Even though now I can see it as their problem, I can't get rid of that feeling about myself." (female) Victims of school bullying experience a feeling of shame (Aslund, Leppert, Starrin, & Nilsson, 2009) that can extend into adulthood (Carlisle & Rofes, 2007;deLara, 2016). Similarly, in this study, victims of family bullying carried a sense of shame that pervaded their young adult lives. ...
... Bullying victimization has been recognized as a potentially traumatic experience (deLara, 2016). In sexual minority individuals, bullying experiences predicted negative mental and physical health outcomes (e.g., Barnette et al., 2019;Rivers, 2011); in particular, posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS; Rivers, 2004Rivers, , 2011 and greater incidence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD; Beckerman & Auerbach, 2014) were observed in sexual minority individuals who experienced frequent or severe bullying victimization. ...
... Posttraumatic growth (PTG)-positive psychological changes stemming from traumatic experiences (Tedeschi & Calhoun, 1996, 2004)-may emerge from bullying (deLara, 2016;Ratcliff et al., 2017). However, there has been a lack of investigation into bullying-based PTG in sexual minority individuals in particular-irrespective of whether that bullying was identity based (i.e., discriminatory) or general (i.e., nondiscriminatory; Gower et al., 2018). ...
... A preliminary body of research has demonstrated that PTG may emerge from bullying experiences (deLara, 2016;Ratcliff et al., 2017). Interviews with adults who had experienced bullying during childhood indicated that nearly half had experienced positive psychological outcomes from those experiences (e.g., greater empathy, moral development, personal strength; deLara, 2016). ...
Article
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The minority stress model posits that stigmatized identities expose sexual minority individuals to chronic stressors that contribute to health disparities, but that individual-level resources may mitigate psychological distress. Sexual minority adolescents experience one such stressor, bullying victimization, at higher rates than heterosexual peers. Whereas negative consequences of sexual identity-based bullying are well documented, potential positive outcomes are not well understood. The present work examined hypothesized pathways to posttraumatic growth (PTG)-positive psychological changes stemming from trauma-in sexual minority adults following adolescent bullying experiences. We predicted that attributing bullying to one's sexual identity, as opposed to other factors (e.g., weight/appearance, personality), would exacerbate perceived bullying severity but, in turn, enhance PTG. We also predicted that outness about sexual identity would enhance social support and, in turn, facilitate PTG. The hypothesized conceptual model was tested in two samples of sexual minority adults who had experienced bullying during adolescence (Sample 1: Community Sample [N = 139]; Sample 2: National Online Sample [N = 298]), using structural equation modeling with Bayesian estimation. Mediation hypotheses were tested using the PROCESS v3.4 macro. Participants reported their adolescent experiences with bullying, attributions for bullying, outness, social support, and PTG as a result of adolescent bullying experiences, in addition to demographics. Supporting the hypothesized model, in both samples, attributions to sexual identity-based bullying directly and indirectly (via bullying severity) predicted greater PTG, and outness predicted greater PTG through proximal impact on social support. This research underscores the importance of supportive responses to individuals who disclose sexual minority identities and of (re)framing attributions about bullying to facilitate growth.
... Various forms of behavior that are called bullying when they are peer to peer, teacher to student, or sibling to sibling are referred to as "harsh parenting," "parental verbal abuse," "psychological aggression" (Conger et al., 2012;Straus & Field, 2003), and "child maltreatment" (Shields & Cicchetti, 2001). Actions by adults other than parents, such as teachers and coaches, are regarded as bullying toward children and they are designated as such (deLara, 2016;McEvoy, 2005). For example, research on teachers who bully children indicates they bully through humiliating, insulting, ridiculing, criticizing unfairly, and purposely hurting their feelings (Datta et al., 2017;Twemlow et al., 2006). ...
... As a result my self-image is not good, I have a lot of anxiety, and I am very sensitive to criticism. Victims of school bullying experience a feeling of shame (Aslund et al., 2009) that can extend into adulthood (Carlisle & Rofes, 2007;deLara, 2016). Similarly, in this study, victims of family bullying carried a sense of shame that pervaded their young adult lives. ...
Article
Full-text available
This study investigated childhood family bullying and explored any ongoing impacts for young adults. Research has demonstrated that peer bullying leads to contemporaneous poor consequences and some inquiries establish adverse effects of peer bullying lasting into adult life. However, family bullying is much less studied and the effects are not well understood. While there is urgency to intervene in peer bullying, this does not extend to family bullying. The aims of this inquiry were to discover what types of childhood bullying occur in families, any ongoing consequences, and how young adults define bullying. The study was a retrospective qualitative inquiry with a purposive sample. There were 43 participants: the majority were female, mean age 24.3 years, and 27% represented minorities. A qualitative description approach based in naturalistic inquiry was employed for data analysis to understand the lived experiences of young adults. NVivo 11 was used for data storage and analysis. A multi-phase coding process was utilized along with thematic analysis. Types of family bullying and participants’ definitions of bullying were generated. Thematic analysis revealed lasting consequences in (a) low self-esteem and shame, (b) eating disorders, and (c) behavioral issues and relationship problems. Outcomes indicate the importance of further research on childhood family bullying as it affects young adult life and the need for researchers as well as practitioners to understand its lifelong impact.
... En temas de salud mental los adolescentes que pertenecen a este grupo pueden tener repercusiones durante su vida posterior a la institucional, debido a que son mayormente propensos a futuras conductas delictivas, de manera que la única forma en la que puedan conseguir lo que desean será a través de la violencia (Tobalino, Dolorier, Villa, & Vargas, 2017). Los estudiantes que se reconocen como víctimas de acoso escolar son aquellos que reciben de manera reiterada cualquier tipo de acoso durante un periodo de tiempo (Delara, 2016), suelen presentar repercusiones en su desempeño escolar, puesto que mantienen un rango de calificaciones entre bajo y medio, además de presentar escasas habilidades sociales y la falta de experiencia para confrontar los comportamientos agresivos (Ortega, 2015). El grupo de los observadores, a quienes Olweus (1995) denomina agresores pasivos, a pesar de no participar en las intimidaciones no toman ninguna iniciativa para contrarrestar el acoso, por lo tanto, se les incluye en una especie de seguidores o secuaces. ...
Article
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Fecha de recepción: 14 de agosto de 2020-Fecha de aceptación: 7 de septiembre de 2020 RESUMEN El objetivo de la investigación fue identificar a los adolescentes implicados en situaciones de acoso escolar y el impacto de este fenómeno psicosocial en su autoestima. Se utilizó un muestreo no probabilístico, de tipo no experimental con un enfoque cuantitativo, la muestra estuvo compuesta por 261 estudiantes correspondientes a todos los niveles de bachillerato con edades comprendidas entre los 13 y 18 años de ambos sexos, de una única institución educativa. En la recolección de datos se emplearon las escalas: European Bullying Intervention Project Questionnaire para la identificación de víctimas y agresores y la escala de Autoestima de Rosenberg que valora la autoestima. Se identificó un 31.8% de adolescentes víctimas, un 5.7% de agresores y un 9.6% de agresores victimizados. El sexo masculino se involucraba con mayor frecuencia que el femenino en conductas de victimización; el acoso verbal fue la tipología predominante. En cuanto a la autoestima de los adolescentes, se pudo evidenciar una tendencia al alza (aspectos positivos) siendo los agresores quienes presentaron menores índices de autoestima positiva. En conclusión, se puede evidenciar que la autoestima general de los estudiantes en situaciones de acoso escolar es positiva independientemente de si son víctimas, agresores o espectadores, evidenciándose un nivel alto de satisfacción personal. ABSTRACT The objective of the research was to identify the adolescents involved in situations of bullying and the impact of this psychosocial phenomenon on their self-esteem. A non-probabilistic sampling was used, as a non-experimental type with a quantitative approach. The sample was composed of 261 students corresponding to all high school levels between the ages of 13 and 18 of both sexes, from a single educational institution. In the data collection the scales of the European Bullying Intervention Project Questionnaire were used for the identification of victims and aggressors and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem scale for the assessment of the self-esteem. The investigation revealed that 31.8% of the adolescents were victim, 5.7% aggressors and 9.6% of victimized aggressors. The male sex was more frequently involved than the female in victimization behaviors and verbal harassment was the predominant typology. As for the adolescents' self-esteem, an upward trend (positive aspects) could be evidenced, with the aggressors who presented lower levels of positive self-esteem. In conclusion, the general self-esteem of students in situations of bullying is positive regardless of whether they are victims, aggressors, or bystanders, evidencing a high level of personal satisfaction.
... The costs are high and the effects far-reaching, both for victims and bullies. Victimization is associated with serious adjustment problems, including anxiety, depression, suicidal tendencies, social withdrawal, emotional dysregulation, low self-esteem, loneliness, school avoidance, poor academic results, peer rejection, and lack of friends (DeLara, 2016;Hodges & Perry, 1999;Wójcik & Flak, 2019). The impact of bullying can be felt throughout life, resulting in adult psychological problems, described by Thornberg et al. (2013) as lingering internal victimization and after-effects of bullying. ...
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This study aimed to investigate the process of disclosing bullying victimization from the former victims' point of view. Twenty-three individuals with prior experience of victimization at school were interviewed. A grounded theory approach was used to analyze the data, which generated a grounded theory of help-seeking in victimization, comprising factors and conditions that influenced the willingness to ask for help when bullied. We concentrated on disclosure barriers and facilitators in a school context to identify important factors, which comprised type of peer harassment, type and form of initial attack, perception of available support at school, and perception of peer support. In terms of the practical implications of the present study, the identification of disclosure tendencies could provide a basis for developing school policies to facilitate disclosure.
... adult) definition of bullying reported being victimized less than did students who did not provide a definition but decided themselves on what needs to be reported (Vaillancourt et al., 2008). Students concentrate on negative behaviors: Younger children focus on physical and verbal aggression, whereas teenagers focus on relational aggression, particularly excluding behaviors (deLara, 2012(deLara, , 2016Vaillancourt et al., 2008;Wójcik & Kozak, 2015). Meta-analyzes of bullying prevalence studies show the decrease of physical aggression with age in favor of verbal and relational aggression (Pyżalski, 2017). ...
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Bullying is observed in schools worldwide with as many as 35% of students bullied by others. Group context and dynamics are critical for preventing bullying and creating supportive school environment, and therefore the primary focus of this study was the importance of the group dynamics involved in the practice of bullying in school contexts. Fieldwork was conducted in 2 consecutive stages: field observations and interviews in 4 class units (with 102 students in total) in 3 public middle schools in Poland. During observation, 4 long-term bullying cases were identified, enabling the analysis of how middle school students perceive, understand, rationalize, and explain bullying behaviors encoded in the peer group dynamics. Subsequently, 47 semistructured individual interviews were carried out with the students from the observed classes. Grounded theory approach was used to analyze the data. The results show that students involved in a particular bullying case built and shared a system of beliefs and behavioral labels. That system comprised shared perceptions of class structure in which bullying is a punishment for threatening class reputations, a shared idea of normality that is shaped in opposition to victimized students’ appearance and behavior and self-labeling of their own behavior. In terms of policy implications, the findings suggest that it could be beneficial to plan antibullying programs as a targeted, nonpunitive restorative intervention involving peer influences to transform bullying relations by removing behavioral labels.
... All participants stated that they tend to avoid most, if not all social interaction unless they are with people who make them feel safe or comfortable (which is a very select few). If their anxiety is peaking then they tend to withdraw into either their own personal space or within themselves, metaphorically speaking (Copeland et al, 2013;De Lara, 2016;McCabe et al, 2003;Teo et al, 2013;Baumeister & Leary, 1995;Reijntjes et al, 2006). ...
Thesis
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There have previously been distinct connections made between psychosocial and depressive disorders in adulthood and childhood recipients of bullying, as a consequence of maladaptive coping strategies in earlier research studies. The present investigation was conducted to ascertain whether there is an evident relationship between experiences of unresolved bullying in childhood and moderate to severe social anxiety disorder in adulthood. Using interpretive phenomenological analysis to examine the transcripts of semi-structured interviews with six individuals, who were currently suffering from moderate to severe social anxiety (the level of which was measured prior to interview using the social phobia inventory questionnaire), results showed that three main superordinate themes were identified (i) comparison through an assumed inadequacy (ii) insecurity due to low self-esteem and low self-worth, and finally; (iii) Social avoidance and situational control, leading to isolation, withdrawal and a fear of others. The analysis of the six individuals' subjective experiences confirmed that there is indeed a distinguishable connection between unresolved childhood bullying leading to social anxiety disorder in adulthood. Criticism include interviewer bias and preconceived assumptions distorting the dataset analysis. Recommendations for further extensive research have also been made.
... Negative Folgen von Mobbing in der Schule beschränken sich auch nicht nur auf die Schulzeit. So wurde festgestellt, dass schulische Mobbingerfahrungen mit problematischeren Liebesbeziehungen und Be-rufskarrieren im Erwachsenenalter zusammenhängen (deLara, 2016). Letzteres kann unter anderem dadurch erklärt werden, dass Mobbingdynamiken zu schlechteren Schulleistungen führen (Crosnoe, 2011;van der Werf, 2014), unter anderem aufgrund vermehrt auftretenden Schulschwänzens (Gastic, 2008) und die Konzentrationsfähigkeit verringernden chronischen Stresses (Chi-hung, 2009;Totura, 2014). ...
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Akademisches Schikanieren, definiert als das Schikanieren von Schüler*innen durch ihre Mitschüler*innen aufgrund von Fehlern, die erstere im Unterricht gemacht haben, ist eine Form von Mobbing, die mit reduzierter Anstrengung von Schüler*innen im Unterricht in Verbindung steht. Sie kommt disproportional stark in Schulen vor, in denen die Kinder bzw. Jugendlichen vermehrt aus sozioökonomisch benachteiligten Familienverhältnissen stammen. Die vorliegende Studie überprüft die Hypothese, dass der statistische Zusammenhang zwischen dem sozioökonomischen Klassendurchschnitt und akademischem Schikanieren, und zwischen Unterrichtsqualität und akademischem Schikanieren durch die Beziehungsqualität in Klassen erklärt werden kann. Zu diesem Zweck wird ein amerikanischer Datensatz aus den Schuljahren 2012-2015 herangezogen (N = 146.044 Schüler*innen), basierend auf Schüler*innen-Fragebögen. Eine Multi-Ebenen-Strukturregressionsmodellanalyse bestätigt die Hypothese. Aus den Ergebnissen ableitend wird empfohlen, die Professionalisierung von Lehrkräften in Deutschland im Bereich der Beziehungsarbeit vorantreiben. Auf diesem Weg ist es möglich, akademisches Schikanieren zu reduzieren, was die im internationalen Vergleich geringe Bildungsmobilität in Deutschland erhöhen würde. Academic teasing, defined as teasing by peers for making mistakes in the classroom, is a form of bullying that predicts less academic engagement by students. It is particularly prevalent in schools with large numbers of students from socioeconomically disadvantaged family backgrounds. This study tests the hypothesis that the relationship between the average socioeconomic status of the class and academic teasing, and the relationship between the teaching quality in the classroom and academic teasing, are mediated by the quality of relationships in class. For this purpose, the study uses an American dataset based on student surveys from the academic years 2012-2015 (N = 146.044 students). A multilevel structural regression modelling analysis confirms the hypothesis. Based on the results, it is recommended that teacher professional training in Germany focuses more strongly on teachers’ relationship building skills. With this focus, it is possible to reduce academic teasing, thus improving equal opportunities in the German educational system, which is characterized by a comparatively strong relationship between socioeconomic status and educational outcomes.
... Można przypuszczać, że jest to jedna z przyczyn długoterminowych konsekwencji prześladowania. Atrybucja zewnętrzna, atrybucja wroga i obniżona samoocena mogą przyczynić się do obniżenia dobrostanu zarówno w krótkim, jak i długim terminie ( Carlisle, Rofes 2007, Thornberg et al. 2013, DeLara 2016. ...
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Niniejszy raport jest poświęcony zależnościom między dwoma zjawiskami: bullyingu w okresie adolescencji oraz procesów wchodzenia w dorosłość. W raporcie wykorzystujemy dane z badania jakościowego i skupiamy się na śledzeniu długoterminowych konsekwencji przemocy rówieśniczej w okresie dzieciństwa i adolescencji. Co ważniejsze, pokazujemy jak te przykre doświadczenia są pamiętane i przedstawiane przez młodych ludzi w okresie przejścia czy też wchodzenia w dorosłość. Innowacyjność raportu polega na pokazaniu dwóch czasookresów w odniesieniu do przemocy: w pierwszym skupiając się bullyingu jako doświadczanym przez adolescentów, w drugim zaś pokazując jego wpływy teraźniejsze na życie dzisiejszych Millenialsów i Millenialsek w Polsce. W pierwszej części prezentujemy retrospektywę bullyingu i zjawiska go otaczające podczas okresu szkolnego (np. trudne relacje rówieśnicze, poszukiwania pomocy). W drugiej części kierujemy naszą uwagę na szczegółową analizę wpływów szkolnej przemocy na różne sfery życia kluczowe w procesach stawania się dorosłym. Tu kreślimy konsekwencje bullyingu dla zdrowia psychicznego i dobrostanu, wyborów edukacyjnych i zawodowych, relacji intymnych/romantycznych i rodzicielstwa, a także życia społecznego w szerszym rozumieniu. Najważniejsze wnioski z badania to wskazanie, że negatywne doświadczenia związane z bullyingiem w okresie szkolnym niekoniecznie muszą mieć jednoznaczne czy też uniwersalne efekty dla wszystkich młodych ludzi. Jednocześnie dostrzeżono, że bullying był znaczącym czynnikiem potęgującym wyzwania związane z wchodzeniem w dorosłość. Zdecydowana większość uczestników i uczestniczek wywiadów doświadczyła bardziej rozciągniętych w czasie i fragmentarycznych przejść do dorosłości. Co więcej, liczna grupa badanych wskazywała chroniczne konsekwencje bullyingu dla zdrowia i życia społecznego, szczególnie w odniesieniu do lęku i depresji. Wyniki pokazują także, że ofiary szkolnej przemocy rówieśniczej preferują okazyjne i „wyłącznie zaufane” kontakty społeczne, które z kolei wpływają na ich decyzje w innych sferach. Widzimy to zarówno w wyborach zawodowych (praca indywidualna, unikanie oceny), jak i w kształcie ich relacji interpersonalnych, takich jak związki romantyczne. Raport kończy się podsumowującą wyniki dyskusją, wraz z praktycznymi rekomendacjami i ogólnymi wnioskami w zakresie wpływu bullyingu w okresie adolescencji na procesy wchodzenia w dorosłość.
... Bullying is understood as an action or word that is done with the aim of making other people embarrassed or hurt [10]. Bullying can have negative effects on anyone who experiences it, both from the side of the victim, bullies, or bystanders [11]. Some of the consequences of bullying are drug abuse, skipping school, depression, depression, phobias, sleep disorders, eating disorders, self-harm, and even suicide [10]. ...
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