Conference Paper

Renewable Energy-based Synthetic Fuels Export Options for Iran in a Net Zero Emissions World

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

Abstract

With growing demand for LNG and transportation fuels such as diesel, and concerns about climate change and emission cost, this paper introduces new value chain design for LNG and transportation fuels and respective business cases for Iran, taking into account hybrid PV-Wind power plants. The value chains are based on renewable electricity (RE) converted by power-togas (PtG) or power-to-liquids (PtL) facilities into SNG (which is finally liquefied into LNG) or synthetic liquid fuels, mainly diesel, respectively. The RE-LNG or RE-diesel can be shipped to everywhere in the world. The calculations for the hybrid PV-Wind power plants, electrolysis, methanation (H2tSNG) and hydrogen-to-liquids (H2tL) are done based on both annual full load hours (FLh) and hourly analysis. Results show that the proposed RE-LNG or RE-diesel value chains are competitive for crude oil prices within a minimum price range of about 118-187 USD/barrel (24 – 31 USD/MBtu of LNG production cost) and 102-168 USD/barrel (0.68 – 0.86 €/l of diesel production cost), depending on the chosen specific value chain and assumptions for cost of capital, available oxygen sales and CO2 emission costs. RE-LNG or RE-diesel could become competitive to conventional fuels from an economic perspective, while removing environmental concerns. The RE-PtX value chain needs to be located at the best complementing solar and wind sites in the world combined with a de-risking strategy. This could be an opportunity for Iran to use its abundant source of solar and wind and the available conventional fossil fuel transportation infrastructure to export carbon neutral hydrocarbons around the world where the environmental limitations on conventional hydrocarbons is getting tighter and tighter.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... The definition of net zero energy and net zero emission buildings (nZEB) are described and distinguished in [43]. The effect of the additional cost of CO 2 emissions on the network cost is considered in [44]. The most competitive and least-cost solution for achieving a NZE energy system is through the usage of renewable energy resources (RERs) [45]. ...
... In the coming decades, based on the COP21 (21st Conference of Parties) Paris agreement, certain countries are obliged to reach a NZE system by 2050 [44,47]. Energy production is, by far, the largest source of GHG emissions. ...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper, a two-stage optimum planning and design method for a multi-carrier microgrid (MCMG) is presented in the targeted operation period considering energy purchasing and the component’s maintenance costs. An MCMG is most likely owned by a community or small group of public and private sectors comprising loads and distributed energy resources (DERs) with the ability of self-supply to regulate the flows of various energies to local consumers. The operation cost is undoubtedly reduced by selecting the proper components. In the proposed model, the investment and operation and maintenance costs of MCMG are simultaneously carried out in order to choose the right component and its size in the given period. Moreover, in this innovative model, net zero emission (NZE) is regarded as an environmental constraint. The genetic algorithm of MATLAB and the mixed-integer nonlinear programming (MINLP) technique of GAMS (general algebraic modeling system) software are used to solve the optimization problem. Illustrative examples show the efficiency of the proposed model.
... Periods of high wind speeds occur at times of low solar irradiation and vice versa. According to Fasihi et al. (2016a), many regions of the EU and other parts of the world can expect an equivalent full-load period of more than 4,000 hours per year for e-fuel plants. According to , a hybrid PV/wind power plant with 5 GW of PV and 5 GW of wind power can supply 34,668 GWh of electricity per year. ...
... Levelised cost of delivered electricity, 2030(Fasihi et al., 2016a) Other sources arrive at similar costs for renewable electricity in the MENA region. In Aghahosseini et al.(2016), costs for renewable electricity in 2030 are between €37 and €61/MWh, depending on the scenario.Area-wide electricity trade (in the MENA region) and energy-sector coupling can achieve €37/MWh. ...
Chapter
Presented are results of the second FVV Fuel Study done by expert consultants Ludwig- Bölkow-Systemtechnik GmbH (LBST) on behalf and in cooperation with the Forschungsvereinigung Verbrennungskraftmaschinen e.V.
... Although fossil resources, the country's primary revenue source, are limited and will be depleted. Fasihi et al. [81] show Iran can use its excellent RE resources and existing infrastructure for fossil fuel transportation to export synthetic fuels based on RE electricity. The study finds that RE-based fuels can reach fuel-parity in Iran in next decades depending on different factors including crude oil price and climate change mitigation mechanisms like GHG emissions cost. ...
Article
Full-text available
Transition of Iran's power system from 2015 to 2050 through three scenarios was modelled. Two scenarios present a transition pathway towards a fully renewable run power system with different involved sectors (power only, power sector coupled with desalination and non-energetic gas sectors). The third scenario is based on the country's current policies. The energy model performs an hourly resolution to guarantee meeting energy demand for every hour of the whole year. It is found that renewable energy resources in Iran can satisfy 625 TWh of power sector demand in 2050. Further, it is technically and economically feasible that electricity demand for supplying 101 million m³ desalinated water and 249 TWhLHV synthetic natural gas for non-energetic industrial gas demand can be supplied via renewable resources. A 100% renewable power system with 54 €/MWhel levelised cost of electricity (LCOE) is more cost-effective than the current power system in Iran with 88.3 €/MWhel LCOE in 2015. LCOE of the system can decrease further and reach to 41.3 €/MWhel in 2050 via sector coupling. On the other hand, the current policies of the country lead to an inefficient power system with a LCOE of 128 €/MWhel and 188 Mt/a emitted CO2 in 2050.
... However, the cost of synthetic gas, at 107.8 €/MWh LHV , appears to be substantially higher than the current price, especially for Iran which is one of the main natural gas reserve holders in the world. Another study by Fasihi et al. (2016) for a hybrid PV-Wind power plant with equal installed capacity of PV and wind in one of the best sites in Iran, allocated exclusively for SNG production, shows significantly lower production cost (70 €/MWh th ). This is mainly due to full allocation of generated electricity to PtG plant which will result in higher FLH of PtG plants and reduce the SNG production cost. ...
Article
The devastating effects of fossil fuels on the environment, limited natural sources and increasing demand for energy across the world make renewable energy sources more important than in the past. The 2015 United Nations Climate Change Conference resulted in a global agreement on net zero CO2 emissions shortly after the middle of the twenty-first century, which will lead to a collapse of fossil fuel demand. The focus of the study is to define a cost optimal 100% renewable energy system in Iran by 2030 using an hourly resolution model. The optimal sets of renewable energy technologies, least-cost energy supply, mix of capacities and operation modes were calculated and the role of storage technologies was examined. Two scenarios have been evaluated in this study: a countrywide scenario and an integrated scenario. In the countrywide scenario, renewable energy generation and energy storage technologies cover the country’s power sector electricity demand. In the integrated scenario, the renewable energy generated was able to fulfil both the electricity demand of the power sector and the substantial electricity demand for water desalination and synthesis of industrial gas. By adding sector integration, the total levelized cost of electricity decreased from 45.3 to 40.3 €/MWh. The levelized cost of electricity of 40.3 €/MWh in the integrated scenario is quite cost-effective and beneficial in comparison with other low-carbon but high-cost alternatives such as carbon capture and storage and nuclear energy. A 100% renewable energy system for Iran is found to be a real policy option.
Article
Full-text available
In less than a decade, biofuels transitioned from being a socially and politically acceptable alternative to conventional transport fuels to a deeply contested solution. Claims of land grabs, forest loss and food riots emerged to undermine the sustainability rationale that originally motivated their adoption. One of the early controversies to hit biofuels was that of food versus fuel. This framing drew attention not only to the competing uses of land i.e. for food or for fuel, but also to the impacts of consumption on marginalised people, particularly in the global South. While the debate has provided a useful hook on which to hang criticisms of increased demand for biofuels, it also masks a more complex reality. In particular, the multifaceted and global linkages between the stewardship of land, the food sector, and global energy policies. In this paper, we use the debate on food versus fuel as a lens to examine the interdependencies between the multiple end-uses of feedstocks and the multifunctionality of land. Revealing a more nuanced understanding of the realities of agricultural networks, land use conflicts and the values of the people managing land, we argue that the simplification achieved by food versus fuel, although effective in generating public resonance that has filtered into political response, has failed to capture much that is at the heart of the issue.
Article
Full-text available
Utilising CO2 as a feedstock for chemicals and fuels could help mitigate climate change and reduce dependence on fossil fuels. For this reason, there is an increasing world-wide interest in Carbon Capture and Utilisation (CCU). As part of a broader project to identify key technical advances required for sustainable CCU, this work considers different process designs, each at a high level of technology readiness and suitable for large-scale conversion of CO2 into liquid hydrocarbon fuels, using biogas from sewage sludge as a source of CO2. The main objective of the paper is to estimate fuel production yields and costs of different CCU process configurations in order to establish whether the production of hydrocarbon fuels from commercially proven technologies is economically viable. Four process concepts are examined, developed and modelled using the process simulation software Aspen Plus® to determine raw materials, energy and utility requirements. Three design cases are based on typical biogas applications: (1) biogas upgrading using a monoethanolamine (MEA) unit to remove CO2, (2) combustion of raw biogas in a Combined Heat and Power (CHP) plant and (3) combustion of upgraded biogas in a CHP plant which represents a combination of the first two options. The fourth case examines a post-combustion CO2 capture and utilisation system where the CO2 removal unit is placed right after the CHP plant to remove the excess air with the aim of improving the energy efficiency of the plant. All four concepts include conversion of CO2 to CO via a reverse water-gas shift reaction process and subsequent conversion to diesel and gasoline via Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. The studied CCU options are compared in terms of liquid fuel yields, energy requirements, energy efficiencies, capital investment and production costs. The overall plant energy efficiency and production costs range from 12-17% and £15.8-29.6 per litre of liquid fuels, respectively. A sensitivity analysis is also carried out to examine the effect of different economic and technical parameters on the production costs of liquid fuels. The results indicate that the production of liquid hydrocarbon fuels using the existing CCU technology is not economically feasible mainly because of the low CO2 separation and conversion efficiencies as well as the high energy requirements. Therefore, future research in this area should aim at developing novel CCU technologies which should primarily focus on optimising the CO2 conversion rate and minimising the energy consumption of the plant.
Article
Full-text available
The aims of the present study were to provide quantitative data on the impact of air pollution on the health of people living in Tehran city, the most populated city of Iran. The approach proposed by the World Health Organization (WHO) was applied using the AirQ 2.2.3 software developed by the WHO European Centre for Environment and Health, Bilthoven Division. Concentrations of ozone, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide and particulate matter of aerodynamic diameter ≤ 10 μm (PM10) were used to assess human exposure and health impacts in terms of attributable proportion of the health outcome, annual number of excess cases of mortality for all causes, and cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. The annual average of PM10, SO2, NO2 and O3 in Tehran were 90.58, 89.16, 85 and 68.82 μg/m3, respectively. Considering short-term effects, PM10 had the highest health impact on the 8,700,000 inhabitants of Tehran city, causing an excess of total mortality of 2194 out of 47284 in a year. Sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide and ozone caused about, respectively, 1458, 1050 and 819 excess cases of total mortality. Results indicate that the magnitude of the health impact estimated for the city of Tehran underscores the need for urgent action to reduce the health burden of air pollution.
Article
Full-text available
According to the U.S. Energy Information Administration, LNG is projected to become a much larger share of U.S. natural gas consumption, rising from current levels of around 2.5% of total natural gas consumption to 12.4% by 2030. Because natural gas and LNG are substitutes, natural gas prices are expected to be an important determinant of LNG imports. Furthermore, an increasing share of LNG is traded under short-term contracts with spot shipments being diverted to markets offering the highest returns (netbacks). Relative natural gas prices as well as LNG transportation costs are important determinants of LNG netbacks. This paper examines the empirical relationship between U.S. LNG imports, the Henry Hub price of natural gas relative to U.K. and Asia gas prices, and a proxy for LNG transportation costs using monthly data from 1997 to 2007. Granger causality tests, error variance decomposition, and impulse response analyses using a VAR model are employed to establish Granger-causality as well as the dynamics of natural gas prices and LNG transportation innovations on LNG imports.
Article
Full-text available
This paper presents a generic, high-level risk assessment of the global operation of ocean-going liquefied natural gas (LNG) carriers. The analysis collects and combines information from several sources such as an initial hazid, a thorough review of historic LNG accidents, review of previous studies, published damage statistics and expert judgement, and develops modular risk models for critical accident scenarios. In accordance with these risk models, available information from different sources has been structured in the form of event trees for different generic accident categories. In this way, high-risk areas pertaining to LNG shipping operations have been identified. The major contributions to the risk associated with LNG shipping are found to stem from five generic accident categories, i.e. collision, grounding, contact, fire and explosion, and events occurring while loading or unloading LNG at the terminal. Of these, collision risk was found to be the highest. According to the risk analysis presented in this paper, both the individual and the societal risk level associated with LNG carrier operations lie within the As Low As Reasonable Practicable (ALARP) area, meaning that further risk reduction should be required only if available cost-effective risk control options could be identified. This paper also includes a critical review of the various components of the risk models and hence identifies areas of improvements and suggests topics for further research.
Conference Paper
The devastating effects of fossil fuels on the environment, limited natural sources and increasing demand for energy across the world make renewable energy (RE) sources more important than in the past. COP21 resulted in a global agreement on net zero CO2 emissions shortly after the middle of the 21st century, which will lead to a collapse of fossil fuel demand. To be more precise, whenever the costs of renewable resources decrease, the interest in using them increases. Therefore, suppliers and decision-makers have recently been motivated to invest in RE rather than fossil fuels technologies even though large untapped fossil fuel resources are available. Among RE technologies, Iran has a very high potential for solar energy, followed by wind, and complemented by hydropower, geothermal energy, biomass and waste-to-energy. The focus of the study is to define a cost optimal 100% RE system in Iran using an hourly resolution model. The optimal sets of RE technologies, least cost energy supply, mix of capacities and operation modes were calculated and the role of storage technologies was examined. Two scenarios have been evaluated in this study: a country-wide scenario and an integrated scenario. In the country-wide scenario, RE generation and energy storage technologies cover the country’s power sector electricity demand, however, in the integrated scenario, the RE generated was able to fulfil not only the electricity demand of the power sector but also the substantial demand for electricity for water desalination and synthesis of industrial gas. By adding the sector integration, the total levelized cost of electricity decreased from 45.3 €/MWh to 40.3 €/MWh. The LCOE of 40.3 €/MWh in the integrated scenario is quite cost-effective and beneficial in comparison to other low-carbon but high cost alternatives such as CCS and nuclear energy. The levelized cost of water and the levelized cost of gas are 1.5 €/m3 and 107.8 €/MWhLHV, respectively. A 100% renewable energy system for Iran is found to be a real policy option.
Conference Paper
Iran is the 17th most populated country in the world with several regions facing high or extremely high water stress. It is estimated that half the population live in regions with 30% of Iran’s freshwater resources. The combination of climate change, increasing national water demand and mismanagement of water resources is forecasted to worsen the situation in Iran. This has led to an increase in interest in the use of non-traditional water supplies to meet the increasing water demand. In this paper it is shown how the future water demand of Iran can be met through seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) desalination plants powered by 100% renewable energy systems, at a cost level competitive with that of current SWRO plants powered by fossil plants in Iran. The SWRO desalination capacity required to meet the 2030 water demand of Iran is estimated to be about 215 million m3/day compared to the 175,000 m3/day installed SWRO desalination capacity of the total 809,607 m3/day desalination capacity in the year 2015. The optimal hybrid renewable energy system for Iran is found to be a combination of solar photovoltaics (PV) fixed-tilted, PV single-axis tracking, Wind, Battery and Power-to-Gas (PtG) plants. The levelized cost of water (LCOW), which includes water production, electricity, water transportation and water storage costs, for regions of desalination demand in 2030, is found to lie between 0.50 €/m3 – 2 €/m3, depending on renewable resource availability and cost of water transport to demand sites. The total system required to meet the 2030 Iranian water demand is estimated to cost 1177 billion € of initial investments. Thus, our work proves that the water crisis in Iran can be averted in a lucrative and sustainable manner.
Conference Paper
The Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region, comprised of 19 countries, is currently facing a serious challenge to supply their growing economies with secure, affordable and clean electricity. The MENA region holds a high share of proven crude oil and natural gas reserves in the world. Further, it is predicted to have increasing population growth, energy demand, urbanization and industrialization, each of which necessitates a comparable expansion of infrastructure, resulting in further increased energy demand. When planning this expansion, the effects of climate change, land use change and desertification must be taken into account. The MENA region has an excellent potential of renewable energy (RE) resources, particularly solar PV and wind energy, which can evolve to be the main future energy sources in this area. In addition, the costs of RE are expected to decrease relative to conventional energy sources, making a transition to RE across the region economically feasible. The main objective of this paper is to assume a 100% RE-based system for the MENA region in 2030 and to evaluate its results from different perspectives. Three scenarios have been evaluated according to different high voltage direct current (HVDC) transmission grid development levels, including a region-wide, area-wide and integrated scenario. The levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) is found to be 61 €/MWhel in a decentralized scenario. However, it is observed that this amount decreases to 55 €/MWhel in a more centralized HVDC grid connected scenario. In the integrated scenario, which consists of industrial gas production and reverse osmosis water desalination demand, integration of new sectors provides the system with required flexibility and increases the efficiency of the usage of storage technologies. Therefore, the LCOE declines to 37 €/MWhel and the total electricity generation is decreased by 6% in the system compared to the non-integrated sectors. The results clearly show that a 100% RE-based system is feasible and a real policy option.
Conference Paper
With growing demand for transportation fuels such as diesel and concerns about climate change, this paper introduces a new value chain design for transportation fuels and a respective business case taking into account hybrid PV-Wind power plants. The value chain is based on renewable electricity (RE) converted by power-to-liquids (PtL) facilities into synthetic fuels, mainly diesel. This RE-diesel can be shipped to everywhere in the world. The calculations for the hybrid PV-Wind power plants, electrolysis and hydrogen-to-liquids (H2tL) are done based on annual full load hours (FLh). A combination of 5 GWp PV single-axis tracking and wind onshore power have been applied. Results show that the proposed RE-diesel value chains are competitive for crude oil prices within a minimum price range of about 79-135 USD/barrel (0.44 – 0.75 €/l of diesel production cost), depending on the chosen specific value chain and assumptions for cost of capital, available oxygen sales and CO2 emission costs. RE-diesel could become competitive to conventional diesel from an economic perspective, while removing environmental concerns. The cost range would be an upper limit for the conventional diesel price in the long-term and RE-diesel can become competitive whenever the fossil fuel prices are higher than the level mentioned and the cost assumptions expected for the year 2030 are achieved. A sensitivity analysis indicates that the RE-PtL value chain needs to be located at the best complementing solar and wind sites in the world combined with a de-risking strategy and a special focus on mid to long-term electrolyser and H2tL efficiency improvements. The substitution of fossil fuels by hybrid PV-Wind power plants could create a PV-wind market potential in the order of terawatts.
Article
This study demonstrates how seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) plants, necessary to meet increasing future global water demand, can be powered solely through renewable energy. Hybrid PV–wind–battery and power-to-gas (PtG) power plants allow for optimal utilisation of the installed desalination capacity, resulting in water production costs competitive with that of existing fossil fuel powered SWRO plants. In this paper, we provide a global estimate of the water production cost for the 2030 desalination demand with renewable electricity generation costs for 2030 for an optimised local system configuration based on an hourly temporal and 0.45° × 0.45° spatial resolution. The SWRO desalination capacity required to meet the 2030 global water demand is estimated to about 2374 million m3/day. The levelised cost of water (LCOW), which includes water production, electricity, water transportation and water storage costs, for regions of desalination demand in 2030, is found to lie between 0.59 €/m3–2.81 €/m3, depending on renewable resource availability and cost of water transport to demand sites. The global system required to meet the 2030 global water demand is estimated to cost 9790 billion € of initial investments. It is possible to overcome the water supply limitations in a sustainable and financially competitive way.
Article
The increase in domestic supplies of natural gas has raised new interest in expanding its use in the transportation sector. This report considers issues related to wider use of natural gas as a fuel in passenger cars and commercial vehicles. The attractiveness of natural gas as a vehicle fuel is premised in large part on its low price (on an energy-equivalent basis) compared to gasoline and diesel fuel. When prices for gasoline and diesel are relatively low or natural gas prices are relatively high, natural-gas-based fuels lose much of their price advantage. While natural gas has other benefits-such as producing lower emissions than gasoline and diesel and protecting users of transportation fuels from the volatility of the international oil market-it is largely the cost advantage, if any, that will determine the future attractiveness of natural gas vehicles. There are a number of technology pathways that could lead to greater use of natural gas in transportation. Some require pressurized systems to use natural gas in a gaseous state, and others convert natural gas to a liquid. Two of the most widely discussed options use compressed natural gas (CNG) and liquefied natural gas (LNG). Other technological approaches use liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), propane, and hydrogen. In addition, natural gas can be used to generate electricity to power electric vehicles. Increasing the use of natural gas to fuel vehicles would require creation of an extensive nationwide refueling infrastructure. Although a small number of CNG vehicles have been on U.S. roads for more than 20 years, CNG use has been limited to vehicles that return to a central garage for refueling each day, such as refuse trucks, short-haul trucks, and city buses. LNG, on the other hand, requires large insulated tanks to keep the liquefied gas at a very low temperature and is therefore seen as more suitable for long-haul trucks. In both cases, the limited availability of refueling stations has limited the distances and routes these vehicles may travel. Congress has taken a strong interest in spurring production and use of natural gas vehicles. Legislation has been introduced on a wide range of proposals that would equalize the tax treatment of LNG and diesel fuels, provide tax credits for natural gas vehicles and refueling equipment, require the production of vehicles that could run on several different fuels (such as gasoline and CNG), increase federal research and development on natural gas vehicle tank and fuel line technologies, and revise vehicle emission regulations to encourage manufacturers to produce more CNG passenger cars. Legislation pending in the 113th Congress includes proposals that would extend expired tax credits for refueling property and fuel cell vehicles (S. 2260), authorize the use of energy savings performance contracts to support the use of natural gas and electric vehicles (S. 761), and require the U.S. Postal Service to study the feasibility of using natural gas and propane in long-haul trucks (S. 1486).
Article
Natural gas is considered the dominant worldwide bridge between fossil fuels of today and future resources of tomorrow. Thanks to the recent shale boom in North America, natural gas is in a surplus and quickly becoming a major international commodity. Stay current with conventional and now unconventional gas standards and procedures with Natural Gas Processing: Technology and Engineering Design. Covering the entire natural gas process, Bahadoris must-have handbook provides everything you need to know about natural gas, including: Fundamental background on natural gas properties and single/multiphase flow factors How to pinpoint equipment selection criteria, such as US and international standards, codes, and critical design considerations A step-by-step simplification of the major gas processing procedures, like sweetening, dehydration, and sulfur recovery Detailed explanation on plant engineering and design steps for natural gas projects, helping managers and contractors understand how to schedule, plan, and manage a safe and efficient processing plant Covers both conventional and unconventional gas resources such as coal bed methane and shale gas Bridges natural gas processing with basic and advanced engineering design of natural gas projects including real world case studies Digs deeper with practical equipment sizing calculations for flare systems, safety relief valves, and control valves.
Presentation
Presentation at the LUT Doctorial School Conference in Lappeenranta at December 10, 2015.
Conference Paper
With growing demand for transportation fuels such as diesel and concerns about climate change, this paper introduces a new value chain design for transportation fuels and a respective business case taking into account hybrid PV-Wind power plants. The value chain is based on renewable electricity (RE) converted by power-togas (PtG) facilities into synthetic natural gas (SNG), which is finally converted to mainly diesel in gas-to-liquid (GtL) facilities. This RE-diesel can be shipped to everywhere in the world. The calculations for the hybrid PV-Wind power plants, electrolysis and methanation are done based on annual full load hours (FLh). A combination of 5 GWp single-axis tracking PV and wind power have been applied. Results show that the proposed RE-diesel value chain is competitive for crude oil prices within a minimum price range of about 121-191 USD/barrel (0.67 – 1.06 €/l of diesel production cost), depending on assumptions for cost of capital, available oxygen sales and CO2 emission costs. RE-diesel is competitive with conventional diesel from an economic perspective, while removing environmental concerns. The cost range would be an upper limit for the conventional diesel price in the long-term and RE-diesel can become competitive whenever the fossil fuel prices are higher than the level mentioned and the cost assumptions expected for the year 2030 are achieved. A sensitivity analysis indicates that the RE-PtG-GtL value chain needs to be located at the best complemented solar and wind sites in the world combined with a de-risking strategy and a special focus on mid to long term electrolyzer efficiency improvements. The substitution of fossil fuels by hybrid PV-Wind power plants could create a PV-wind market potential in the order of terawatts.
Chapter
The aim of this chapter is to provide an overview of polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) water electrolysis, from basic principles to technological developments. After a general introduction on water electrolysis based on some general considerations, thermodynamics of the water-splitting reaction are analyzed in Section 9.2, highlighting the effects of operating temperature and pressure on electrolysis voltages. In Section 9.3, general principles of PEM water electrolysis are introduced. The structure of PEM water electrolyzers (from materials to membrane–electrode assemblies, PEM cells, stacks, and balance of plant) is described. Individual cell components are presented. Conventional and some alternative designs are also described. In Section 9.4, advantages and disadvantages of PEM water electrolysis technology are compared with those of other water electrolysis technologies. Finally, in the last section, the potential of PEM water electrolysis technology to reach higher performance (operating current density, efficiency, and operating pressure) is evaluated and some future development trends are discussed.
Article
One of the most crucial problems with increasing biofuel production is that it competes for natural and agricultural resources with food and food related use, because its main feedstock is agricultural product. Increasing biofuel production therefore is going to have an impact on world agricultural commodity prices and food security. The purpose of this study is to conduct an economic analysis of increasing biofuel production on food security. The own price elasticities of supply equations in the long-term are the key to deciding agricultural commodity price adjustments as a result of an increase in biofuel production. Biofuel production may have a negative impact on food security, but on the other hand they can create opportunities for agricultural development. It is critical to understand that own price elasticity of feedstock supply is a key factor in deciding how biofuel development can contribute agricultural development. Policy makers should recognize the importance of the price elasticity of feedstock supply when they promote biofuel programs and select feedstock to contribute to agricultural development.
Article
Power-to-gas (PtG) technology has received considerable attention in recent years. However, it has been rather difficult to find profitable business models and niche markets so far. PtG systems can be applied in a broad variety of input and output conditions, mainly determined by prices for electricity, hydrogen, oxygen, heat, natural gas, bio-methane, fossil CO2 emissions, bio-CO2 and grid services, but also full load hours and industrial scaling. Optimized business models are based on an integrated value chain approach for a most beneficial combination of input and output parameters. The financial success is evaluated by a standard annualized profit and loss calculation and a subsequent return on equity consideration. Two cases of PtG integration into an existing pulp mill as well as a nearby bio-diesel plant are taken into account. Commercially available PtG technology is found to be profitable in case of a flexible operation mode offering electricity grid services. Next generation technology, available at the end of the 2010s, in combination with renewables certificates for the transportation sector could generate a return on equity of up to 100% for optimized conditions in an integrated value chain approach. This outstanding high profitability clearly indicates the potential for major PtG markets to be developed rather in the transportation sector and chemical industry than in the electricity sector as seasonal storage option as often proposed.
Research
Poster on the occasion of the 2nd International Conference on Desalination using Membrane Technology in Singapore on July 26 - 29, 2015.
Article
A review on the status of gas-to-liquids (GTL) industry covers global commercialization activities, e.g., the Shell Middle Distillate plant in Bintulu that converts natural gas into high-quality synthetic oil products and specialty chemicals, Sasol's coal-derived synthesis gas, and Sasol and Qatar Petroleum's plans to build a GTL plant in Ras Laffan Industrial City, Qatar, to convert 330 million scf/day into 24,000 bpd fuel, 9000 bpd naphtha, and 1000 bpd LPG; the technologies that are likely to be implemented in future projects, e.g., advanced gas-conversion technology Fischer-Tropsch (FT) hydrocarbon synthesis process, Shell's use of a tubular fixed bed reactor containing a proprietary Co-based catalyst with mild recycle, and Syntroleum's proprietary highly active Co-based FT catalysts to convert synthesis gas from a proprietary air-fed autothermal reactor; manufactured GTL products (35,000 bpd) from commercial gas-based plants; GTL as a significant alternative for monetizing natural gas in the 21st century; GTL drivers and definition; GTL products, e.g., premium fuels, petrochemical naphtha, waxes, and lubricant basestocks , which are all sulfur-free; and economics for GTL projects.
Chapter
The purpose of this chapter is to provide an overview of the different water electrolysis technologies. In the introduction section, the general characteristics of water electrolysis (thermodynamics, kinetics, efficiency) are described. Main electrolysis technologies used to produce hydrogen and oxygen of electrolytic grade are then described in the following sections. Alkaline water electrolysis is described in Section 2.2, proton-exchange membrane water electrolysis in Section 2.3 and high-temperature water electrolysis in Section 2.4. For each technology, state-of-the-art performances are analyzed, limitations are identified and some perspectives are discussed.
Book
Liquefied natural gas (LNG) is a commercially attractive phase of the commodity that facilitates the efficient handling and transportation of natural gas around the world. The LNG industry, using technologies proven over decades of development, continues to expand its markets, diversify its supply chains and increase its share of the global natural gas trade. The Handbook of Liquefied Natural Gas is a timely book as the industry is currently developing new large sources of supply and the technologies have evolved in recent years to enable offshore infrastructure to develop and handle resources in more remote and harsher environments. It is the only book of its kind, covering the many aspects of the LNG supply chain from liquefaction to regasification by addressing the LNG industries' fundamentals and markets, as well as detailed engineering and design principles. A unique, well-documented, and forward-thinking work, this reference book provides an ideal platform for scientists, engineers, and other professionals involved in the LNG industry to gain a better understanding of the key basic and advanced topics relevant to LNG projects in operation and/or in planning and development. • Highlights the developments in the natural gas liquefaction industries and the challenges in meeting environmental regulations • Provides guidelines in utilizing the full potential of LNG assets • Offers advices on LNG plant design and operation based on proven practices and design experience • Emphasizes technology selection and innovation with focus on a "fit-for-purpose" design • Updates code and regulation, safety, and security requirements for LNG applications.
Article
Natural gas is catalytically converted into several bulk chemicals such as ammonia, methanol, dimethyl ether, and synthetic liquid fuels by Fischer-Tropsch synthesis and similar processes. The main step in the conversion of natural gas to these products is the production of synthesis gas with the desired composition ranging from H2/CO = 3:1 used for the production of ammonia to the 1:1 mixture preferred for production of dimethyl ether. Catalysts and catalytic processes are important in the production of synthesis gas from natural gas. In this work, relevant catalytic systems employed recently in the production of syngas by the catalytic partial oxidation of methane, as well as experimental evidences on the reaction mechanisms are examined. Differences in methane dissociation, binding site preferences, stability of OH surface species, surface residence times of active species and contributions from lattice oxygen atoms and support species are considered. The methane dissociation requires reduced metal sites, but at elevated temperatures oxides of active species may be reduced by direct interaction with methane or from the reaction with H2 and CO (or C). The comparison of elementary reaction steps on Pt and Rh illustrates the fact that a key factor to produce hydrogen as primary product is a high activation energy barrier to the formation of OH. Another essential property for the formation of H2 and CO as primary products is a low surface coverage of intermediates, such that the probability of O-H, OH-H and CO-O interactions is reduced.
Conference Paper
Power-to-gas (PtG) technology has received considerable attention in recent years. However, it has been rather difficult to find profitable business models and niche markets so far. PtG systems can be applied in a broad variety of input and output conditions, mainly determined by prices for electricity, hydrogen, oxygen, heat, natural gas, bio-methane, fossil CO2 emissions, bio-CO2 and grid services, but also full load hours and industrial scaling. Optimized business models are based on an integrated value chain approach for a most beneficial combination of input and output parameters. The financial success is evaluated by a standard annualized profit and loss calculation and a subsequent return on equity consideration. Two cases of PtG integration into an existing pulp mill as well as a nearby bio-diesel plant are taken into account. Commercially available PtG technology is found to be profitable in case of a flexible operation mode offering electricity grid services. Next generation technology, available at the end of the 2010s, in combination with renewables certificates for the transportation sector could generate a return on equity of up to 100% for optimized conditions in an integrated value chain approach. This outstanding high profitability clearly indicates the potential for major PtG markets to be developed rather in the transportation sector and chemical industry than in the electricity sector as seasonal storage option as often proposed.
Article
Experimental results of a combined absorption and electrodialysis process for the CO2 recovery from the atmosphere are presented as the first step in an environmentally neutral fuel production. Furthermore, preliminary results on the electrochemical reduction of CO2 on porous electrodes in aqueous solutions, on mixed oxide electrodes in a high pressure electrochemical cell in liquid CO2 and some aspects of the electrochemical adsorption and reduction of CO2 on Pd-Fe alloys are discussed.
Article
The production of liquid hydrocarbons based on CO2 and renewable H2 is a multi-step process consisting of water electrolysis, reverse water-gas shift, and Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS). The syngas will then also contain CO2 and probably sometimes H2O, too. Therefore, the kinetics of FTS on a commercial cobalt catalyst was studied with syngas containing CO, CO2, H2, and H2O. The intrinsic kinetic parameters as well as the influence of pore diffusion (technical particles) were determined. CO2 and H2O showed only negligible or minor influence on the reaction rate. The intrinsic kinetic parameters of the rate of CO consumption were evaluated using a Langmuir-Hinshelwood (LH) approach. The effectiveness factor describing diffusion limitations was calculated by two different Thiele moduli. The first one was derived by a simplified pseudo first-order approach, the second one by the LH approach. Only the latter, more complex model is in good agreement with the experimental results.
Book
Photovoltaic (PV) power systems are analysed in various aspects focusing on economic and technical considerations of supplemental and substitutional power supply to the constraint conventional power system. The experience curve concept is used as a key technique for the development of scenario assumptions on economic projections for the decade of the 2010s. PV power plant hybridization potential of all relevant power technologies and the global power plant structure are analyzed regarding technical, economical and geographical feasibility. For the 2010s, detailed global demand curves are derived for hybrid PV- Fossil power plants. The complementarity of hybrid PV-Wind power plants is confirmed. As a result of that almost no reduction of the global economic PV market potential need to be expected and more complex power system designs on basis of hybrid PV-Wind power plants are feasible. The final target of implementing renewable power technologies into the global power system is a nearly 100% renewable power supply. A comprehensive global and local analysis is performed for analysing a hybrid PV-Wind- Renewable Power Methane combined cycle gas turbine power system. Summing up, hybrid PV power plants become very attractive and PV power systems will very likely evolve together with wind power to the major and final source of energy for mankind.
Conference Paper
Over the last 15 years global photovoltaic (PV) installations have shown an average annual growth rate of 45%. Combined with a constant learning rate of about 20% this leads to an ongoing and fast reduction of PV installation costs. While PV has been highly competitive for decades in powering space satellites and off-grid applications for rural electrification, commercial on-grid PV markets for end-users are currently about to establish as reflected by first grid-parity events. In parallel, the fast decrease in levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) of PV power plants creates an additional and sustainable large-scale market segment for PV, which is best described by the fuel-parity concept. LCOE of oil and natural gas fired power plants are converging with those of PV in sunny regions, but in contrast to PV are mainly driven by fuel cost. As a consequence of cost trends this analysis estimates an enormous worldwide market potential for PV power plants by end of this decade in the order of at least 900 GWp installed capacity without any electricity grid constraints. PV electricity is very likely to become the least electricity cost option for most regions in the world.
Conference Paper
A 100% renewable power supply on a low cost basis is prerequisite for a sustainable global development. Solar and wind resources are abundantly available on earth enabling the use of photovoltaic (PV) and wind energy technologies on a large scale in most regions in the world. This paper aims at investigating a global energy supply scenario based of PV and wind power supported by an appropriate energy storage infrastructure. First results for the degree of complementarity of PV and wind power supply are presented and the need of appropriate energy storage solutions is discussed. We present the renewable power methane (RPM) storage option and discuss the various integration options of hybrid PV-Wind-RPM power plants. Based on the levelized cost of electricity (LOCE) approach and on cost assumptions for the year 2020, hybrid PV-Wind-RPM power plant economics are derived on a global scale and discussed in more detail for an exemplary site in China. First estimates for the global energy supply potential of hybrid PV-Wind-RPM power plants show both, rapidly increasing competitiveness and low distances between the centres of demand and least cost energy supply, which is complemented by abundant resource availability. In conclusion, hybrid PV-Wind-RPM power plants are a potential cornerstone of the global energy supply in the next decades.
Conference Paper
Mehrere fundamentale Faktoren beschränken die Stabilität der weltweiten Elektrizitätsversorgung. Diese sind insbesondere die stetig zunehmende Nachfrage, sich erschöpfende fossile und nukleare Energieressourcen, Emissionen von sehr schädlichen Treibhausgasen, erhebliche Energieungerechtigkeit und ein global unausgeglichener ökologischer Fußabdruck. Photovoltaik (PV) Systeme werden hinsichtlich mehrerer Aspekte - speziell wirtschaftliche und technische - auf ihren ergänzenden und ersetzenden Energiebeitrag zum limitierten konventionellen Energiesystem untersucht. Um den optimalen Systemansatz für PV Kraftwerke abzuleiten werden mehrere solare Ressourcen, die an die jeweiligen PV Systeme angepasst sind, verglichen. Infolge der ökonomischen Bewertung der solaren Ressourcen werden zwei besonders wettbewerbsfähige PV Systeme identifiziert. Das Konzept der Erfahrungskurven wird als wesentliche Methode für wirtschaftliche Projektionen in den 2010er Jahren genutzt. Die Haupttreiber für Kostensenkungen bei PV Systemen sind die Lernrate der Technologie und die Wachstumsrate der Produktion. Für diese werden die relevanten Aspekte diskutiert: Investitionen in Forschung und Entwicklung, technisches PV Marktpotenzial, zahlreiche PV Technologien und die energetische Nachhaltigkeit der PV. Die drei wesentlichen Marktsegmente der PV sind PV Lösungen für netzferne Gebiete, dezentralisierte kleinere netzgekoppelte PV Systeme (einige kWp) und große PV Kraftwerke (Vielfaches von 10 MWp). Das weltweite ökonomische Marktpotenzial für alle wesentlichen PV Marktsegmente wird hauptsächlich durch die Anwendung der ‘grid-parity‘ und ‘fuel-parity‘ Konzepte abgeleitet. Das Hybridisierungspotenzial von PV Kraftwerken in Bezug auf alle relevanten Kraftwerksarten wird auf seine technische, wirtschaftliche und geografische Machbarkeit hin untersucht. Die wesentlichen Erfolgsfaktoren für hybride PV Kraftwerke werden diskutiert und umfassend für Öl, Gas und Kohle gefeuerte Kraftwerke, Windkraft, solarthermische Kraftwerke (STEG) und Wasserkraftwerke analysiert. Für die 2010er Jahre werden detaillierte weltweite Nachfragekurven für hybride PV-Fossile Kraftwerke unter Einbezug aller fossilen Kraftwerke, Länderdaten und Brennstoffarten ermittelt. Die fundamentalen technischen und ökonomischen Potenziale von hybriden PV-STEG, hybriden PV-Wind und hybriden PV-Wasserkraftwerken werden betrachtet. Die weltweite Ressourcenverfügbarkeit für PV und Windkraft ist exzellent, weswegen es von größter Bedeutung ist, ob sich PV und Windkraft durch eine kompetitive oder komplementäre Beziehung zueinander auszeichnen. Die Komplementarität von hybriden PV-Windkraftwerken wird bestätigt. Es ergibt sich daher keine Reduktion des globalen ökonomischen PV Marktpotenzials und Systeme auf der Basis von hybriden PV-Windkraftwerken sind sehr wahrscheinlich. Das zentrale Ziel lautet erneuerbare Kraftwerkstechnologien in das globale Elektrizitätssystem zu integrieren und dabei eine Durchdringung von 100% zu erreichen. Neben Ausgleichskapazitäten werden hierfür Speicher benötigt, insbesondere für die saisonale Elektrizitätsspeicherung. Erneuerbares Methan (RPM) bietet sich hierfür an. Eine umfassende weltweite Analyse untersucht Elektrizitätssysteme auf der Basis von hybriden PV-Wind-RPM-Gaskraftwerken. Ein solches Elektrizitätssystem könnte unter Einbezug des Wärme- und Transportsektors und sogar der Chemieindustrie wettbewerbsfähig sein und nahezu alle heutigen Beschränkungen überwinden. Hybride PV Kraftwerke stellen eine äußerst attraktive Option zur Elektrizitätsversorgung dar. Die Photovoltaik wird gemeinsam mit der Windkraft die Solar- und Windenergie als hauptsächliche und finale Energiequellen für die Menschheit etablieren.
Article
This study demonstrates – based on a dynamical simulation of a global, decentralized 100% renewable electricity supply scenario – that a global climate-neutral electricity supply based on the volatile energy sources photovoltaics (PV), wind energy (onshore) and concentrated solar power (CSP) is feasible at decent cost. A central ingredient of this study is a sophisticated model for the hourly electric load demand in >160 countries. To guarantee matching of load demand in each hour, the volatile primary energy sources are complemented by three electricity storage options: batteries, high-temperature thermal energy storage coupled with steam turbine, and renewable power methane (generated via the Power to Gas process) which is reconverted to electricity in gas turbines. The study determines – on a global grid with 1°x1° resolution – the required power plant and storage capacities as well as the hourly dispatch for a 100% renewable electricity supply under the constraint of minimized total system cost (LCOE). Aggregating the results on a national level results in an levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) range of 80-200 EUR/MWh (on a projected cost basis for the year 2020) in this very decentralized approach. As a global average, 142 EUR/MWh are found. Due to the restricted number of technologies considered here, this represents an upper limit for the electricity cost in a fully renewable electricity supply.
Article
Gas-to-liquids (GTL) has emerged as a commercially-viable industry over the past thirty years offering market diversification to remote natural gas resource holders. Several technologies are now available through a series of patented processes to provide liquid products that can be more easily transported than natural gas, and directed into high value transportation fuel and other petroleum product and petrochemical markets. Recent low natural gas prices prevailing in North America are stimulating interest in GTL as a means to better monetise isolated shale gas resources. This article reviews the various GTL technologies, the commercial plants in operation, development and planning, and the range of market opportunities for GTL products.
Article
Options for exporting natural gas from stranded oil and gas fields to markets include pipelines, LNG (liquefied natural gas), CNG (compressed natural gas), GTL (gas to liquids), GTS (gas to solids), and GTW (gas to wire). Thus, the key question is which option is the most robust in ensuring the security of investment over a project life cycle against market fluctuations, trade embargos, political changes, technical advances, etc. Excluding pipelines, LNG, CNG, and GTL have attracted increasing investor attention during the last two decades. Although studies abound on economic comparisons of these processes, a systematic method to address this important problem in the presence of uncertainty seems missing in the literature. This work presents such a method based on decision analysis cycle and considers oil and gas prices as uncertain. Using NPV (net present value) as the decision criterion, it presents the computation of “expected NPV” of each gas utilization alternative to identify the best option. It includes the entire well-to-market supply chain, from extraction, conversion, and transportation, to re-conversion at the target market. Finally, it identifies the sweet spots for LNG, CNG, and GTL alternatives for different reservoir capacities and market distances.
Article
This paper reports on an investigation of the cost-effectiveness of selected design risk control options considered for improved environmental protection from the operation of crude oil tankers. The analysis has been carried out for representative Panamax, Aframax, Suezmax and VLCC tankers and elaborates on design modifications for enhanced cargo tank subdivisions, increased double bottom height and increased side tank width with the view to establish cost-effective trade-offs between oil outflow reduction and associated life-cycle implementation costs for new-buildings. The results demonstrate the applicability of the investigated risk control options and their potential contribution to reduced oil spills.
Article
The future commercial exploitation of remote, small and less accessible gas fields might require the development of new technologies. In particular, LNG technologies are a possible solution for the exploitation of such gas reserves. However, the economy of scale is not applicable and constraint in the offshore installation and harsh environmental conditions require compact and efficient solutions. During the last decade several liquefaction technologies are available for small and medium LNG plants. Even though, the comparison between these technologies from an economical point of view is limited to the efficiency of the process and some qualitative parameters. In this work two groups of LNG technologies are analyzed for a given development scenario. The most important aspect in this work is that the cost related to the offshore installation is included as a component of the CAPEX of the project. The plot area required for each technology plays a significant role in the final comparison and this parameter should not be neglected in the economical analysis of future offshore LNG plants.
Article
This paper aims to evaluate, from a Brazilian case study, if the natural gas trade can be viewed as a good opportunity for developing countries located geographically close to Western Europe and North America gas markets. Initially, the paper presents an overview of the Brazilian natural gas industry and evaluates the balance between supply and demand in each main region of Brazil. Then, it analyzes the evolution of the international gas trade, which is expected to increase rapidly (LNG particularly). Finally, the paper analyses the financial viability of the Brazilian LNG project in a context of high volatility of natural gas prices in the international market. To take this uncertainty into account, North-American natural gas prices are modelled according to the ORNSTEIN-UHLENBECK process (with EIA data over the period 1985–2003). By using an approach based on Monte-Carlo simulations and under the assumption that imports are guaranteed since the North American gas price would be higher than the breakeven of the Brazilian project, the model aims to test the hypothesis that export can promote the development of the Brazilian Northeastern gas market. LNG project is here compared to the Petrobras pipelines project, which is considered as the immediate solution for the Northeastern gas shortage. As a conclusion, this study shows that the LNG export will be vulnerable to the risks associated to the natural gas prices volatility observed on the international market.
Article
Quickly declining natural gas reserves in some parts of the world, increasing demand in today's major gas consuming regions, the emergence of new demand centres and the globalization of natural gas markets caused by the rising importance of liquefied natural gas (LNG) are changing global gas supply structures and will continue to do so over the next decades. Applying a global gas market model, we produce a forecast for global gas supply to 2030 and determine the supplier-specific long-run average costs of gas supplied to three major consuming regions. Results for the three regions are compared and analysed with a focus on costs, supply diversification and the different roles of LNG. We find that while European and Japanese external gas supply will be less diversified in international comparison, gas can be supplied at relatively low costs due to the regions’ favourable locations in geographic proximity to large gas producers. The US market's supply structure on the other hand will significantly change from its current situation. The growing dependency on LNG imports from around the world will lead to significantly higher supply costs but will also increase diversification as gas will originate from an increasing number of LNG exporting countries.
Article
To improve the sustainability of transportation, a major goal is the replacement of conventional petroleum-based fuels with more sustainable fuels that can be used in the existing infrastructure (fuel distribution and vehicles). While fossil-derived synthetic fuels (e.g. coal derived liquid fuels) and biofuels have received the most attention, similar hydrocarbons can be produced without using fossil fuels or biomass. Using renewable and/or nuclear energy, carbon dioxide and water can be recycled into liquid hydrocarbon fuels in non-biological processes which remove oxygen from CO2 and H2O (the reverse of fuel combustion). Capture of CO2 from the atmosphere would enable a closed-loop carbon-neutral fuel cycle. This article critically reviews the many possible technological pathways for recycling CO2 into fuels using renewable or nuclear energy, considering three stages--CO2 capture, H2O and CO2 dissociation, and fuel synthesis. Dissociation methods include thermolysis, thermochemical cycles, electrolysis, and photoelectrolysis of CO2 and/or H2O. High temperature co-electrolysis of H2O and CO2 makes very efficient use of electricity and heat (near-100% electricity-to-syngas efficiency), provides high reaction rates, and directly produces syngas (CO/H2 mixture) for use in conventional catalytic fuel synthesis reactors. Capturing CO2 from the atmosphere using a solid sorbent, electrolyzing H2O and CO2 in solid oxide electrolysis cells to yield syngas, and converting the syngas to gasoline or diesel by Fischer-Tropsch synthesis is identified as one of the most promising, feasible routes. An analysis of the energy balance and economics of this CO2 recycling process is presented. We estimate that the full system can feasibly operate at 70% electricity-to-liquid fuel efficiency (higher heating value basis) and the price of electricity needed to produce synthetic gasoline at U.S.D$ 2/gal ($ 0.53/L) is 2-3 U.S. cents/kWh. For $ 3/gal ($ 0.78/L) gasoline, electricity at 4-5 cents/kWh is needed. In some regions that have inexpensive renewable electricity, such as Iceland, fuel production may already be economical. The dominant costs of the process are the electricity cost and the capital cost of the electrolyzer, and this capital cost is significantly increased when operating intermittently (on renewable power sources such as solar and wind). The potential of this CO2 recycling process is assessed, in terms of what technological progress is needed to achieve large-scale, economically competitive production of sustainable fuels by this method.
Article
Gas-to-liquid (GTL) involves the chemical conversion of natural gas into synthetic crude that can be upgraded and separated into different useful hydrocarbon fractions including liquid transportation fuels. Such technology can also be used to convert other abundant natural resources such as coal and biomass to fuels and value added chemicals (referred to as coal-to-liquid (CTL) and biomass-to-liquid (BTL)). A leading GTL technology is the Fischer–Tropsch (FT) process. The objective of this work is to provide a techno-economic analysis of the GTL process and to identify optimization and integration opportunities for cost saving and reduction of energy usage while accounting for the environmental impact. First, a base-case flowsheet is synthesized to include the key processing steps of the plant. Then, a computer-aided process simulation is carried out to determine the key mass and energy flows, performance criteria, and equipment specifications. Next, energy and mass integration studies are performed to address the following items: (a) heating and cooling utilities, (b) combined heat and power (process cogeneration), (c) management of process water, (c) optimization of tail gas allocation, and (d) recovery of catalyst-supporting hydrocarbon solvents. Finally, these integration studies are conducted and the results are documented in terms of conserving energy and mass resources as well as providing economic impact. Finally, an economic analysis is undertaken to determine the plant capacity needed to achieve the break-even point and to estimate the return on investment for the base-case study.
Article
This paper presents a comprehensive methodology for evaluating the economic attractiveness of gas-to-liquid (GTL) technology in a gas rich country like Qatar. The Qatari gas volume needed to fully satisfy the projected long-term market demand of GTL products (mainly diesel oil) in the Asia-Pacific region is evaluated. Based on the state-of-the-art GTL technology, the number, size and the commissioning dates of GTL plants required for that purpose are determined along with the associated investment and running costs. The economic attractiveness of GTL investment is evaluated based on the internal rate of return, and the impact of adopting large-scale GTL projects on Qatar oil refining industry is assessed. Sensitivity analyses are conducted using several scenarios to account for variations in GTL premium, capital cost, operation and maintenance cost and cost of gas feedstock.
Structural changes of global power generation capacity towards sustainability and the risk of stranded investments Economics of Global LNG Trading Based on Hybrid PV-Wind Power Plants
  • J Farfan
  • Breyer Ch
  • M Fasihi
  • D Bodanov
  • Breyer Ch
Farfan J. and Breyer Ch., 2016. Structural changes of global power generation capacity towards sustainability and the risk of stranded investments, submitted Fasihi M., Bodanov D., Breyer Ch., 2015a. Economics of Global LNG Trading Based on Hybrid PV-Wind Power Plants, 31 st EU PVSEC, Hamburg, September 14-18, DOI: 10.4229/31stEUPVSEC2015-7DO.15.6
Renewable Power Methane -Stromspeicherung durch Kopplung von Strom-und Gasnetz - Wind/PV-to-SNG, Patent No: 10
  • M Specht
  • M Sterner
  • B Stürmer
  • V Frick
  • B Hahn
Specht M., Sterner M., Stürmer B., Frick V., Hahn B., 2009. Renewable Power Methane -Stromspeicherung durch Kopplung von Strom-und Gasnetz - Wind/PV-to-SNG, Patent No: 10 2009 018 126.1, patent filed in March 9
The Socialist Republic of Vietnam Online Newspaper of the Government
  • V Nhu
Nhu V., 2016. Plans on developing power, coal sectors adjusted. The Socialist Republic of Vietnam Online Newspaper of the Government, 2016. [Online]. Available: http://news.chinhphu.vn/Home/Plans-on-developing-power-coalsectors-adjusted/20161/26495.vgp. [Accessed: 12.02.2016] [NPC]-National Petroleum Council, 2007. GAS TO LIQUIDS (GTL), NPC, Washington D.C, available at: www.npc.org/Study_Topic_Papers/9-STG-Gasto-Liquids-GTL.pdf
NY gov aims to phase out coal by 2020Online document -http://thehill.com/policy/energy- environment/265786-ny-gov-aims-to-phase-out-coal-by
  • D . Henry
  • The
  • Hill
  • Dc Washington
Henry D., 2016. NY gov aims to phase out coal by 2020. THE HILL, Washington DC, January 13 [Online document -http://thehill.com/policy/energy- environment/265786-ny-gov-aims-to-phase-out-coal-by-2020] Accessed on 2.4.2016.
Coal Slump Sends Mining Giant Peabody Energy Into Bankruptcy Available: www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2016-04-13/peabody-majority-of-its-u-s- entities-file-for-chapter
  • T Kary
  • T Loh
  • J Polson
Kary T., Loh T. and Polson J., 2016. Coal Slump Sends Mining Giant Peabody Energy Into Bankruptcy. Bloomberg, April 13. [Online]. Available: www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2016-04-13/peabody-majority-of-its-u-s- entities-file-for-chapter-11/. [Accessed: 18.04.2016]