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A review on the prevalence and predisposing factors responsible for urinary tract infection among adults

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Abstract

UTI is a common bacterial infection that affects components of the urinary system. This infection affects all ages and both sexes. Despite these, women are usually more susceptible to this infection and has a higher prevalence compared to the men. Some of the risk factors responsible for this high prevalence is due to menopause, poor personal hygiene, pregnancy and the close anatomical relationship of the female urethra and the anus. Among the uropathogens involved in this infection, entrobacteriaceae especially the E.coli is usually the most prevalent and accounts for 80-85% of the total isolate. Most often this infection is usually neglected but it is capable of claiming life under severe circumstances. This article therefore reviews the prevalence and predisposing factors responsible for urinary tract infection in adults. UTI being a major problem faced by the populace and the cause of most health care expenditure, it is therefore important to know the predisposing factors responsible for this infection as this will serve as a guide to individuals, care givers and health planners to guide and managed the expected interventions as the management involves drug therapy and patients education.
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European Journal of Experimental Biology, 2016, 6(4):7-11
ISSN: 2248 –9215
CODEN (USA): EJEBAU
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A review on the prevalence and predisposing factors responsible for urinary
tract infection among adults
1
Anuli S. John,
2
Clement I. Mboto and *
2
Basseye Agbo
1
Department of General Studies, College of Health Technology, Calabar, Nigeria
2
Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Biological Sciences, University of Calabar, P.M.B. 1115, Calabar, Nigeria
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ABSTRACT
UTI is a common bacterial infection that affects components of the urinary system. This infection affects all ages
and both sexes. Despite these, women are usually more susceptible to this infection and has a higher prevalence
compared to the men. Some of the risk factors responsible for this high prevalence is due to menopause, poor
personal hygiene, pregnancy and the close anatomical relationship of the female urethra and the anus. Among the
uropathogens involved in this infection, entrobacteriaceae especially the E.coli is usually the most prevalent and
accounts for 80-85% of the total isolate. Most often this infection is usually neglected but it is capable of claiming
life under severe circumstances. This article therefore reviews the prevalence and predisposing factors responsible
for urinary tract infection in adults. UTI being a major problem faced by the populace and the cause of most health
care expenditure, it is therefore important to know the predisposing factors responsible for this infection as this will
serve as a guide to individuals, care givers and health planners to guide and managed the expected interventions as
the management involves drug therapy and patients education.
Keywords: Urinary tract infection (UTI), uropathogens, bacterial infection, urethra, predisposing factor
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INTRODUCTION
Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are the most common bacterial infections affecting the populace both young and old.
This infection usually affect one or more components of the urinary system and is particularly common among the
female population with an incidence of about one percent of school aged girls and four percent of women through
child bearing age [21].Reports from other studies reveals that most uropathogen causing UTIs colonize the colon,
the perianal region, and in females the periurethral region forming a biofilm that usually resists the body's immune
response. UTIs can also result from fecal pathogens that ascend the opening of the urethra, stick to the walls of the
urethra, multiplying and then move up the urethra to the bladder where they cause annoying symptoms during
urination [25]. Although, most UTIs are self-limiting, improving without treatment even when culture is positive,
other poses dangerous health risk which if left untreated may tend to spread up through the ureters, into the kidneys
resulting in pyelonephritis [10].It has been estimated globally that UTIs result in as many as 8.3 million visits to
outpatient clinics, 1 million visits to emergency departments, and 100,000 hospitalizations annually [13]. Although
this infection affects both genders, women are the most vulnerable may be due to their anatomy and reproductive
physiology. The prevalence also increases with advancing age, catheterization, sexual activity, menopause and
prostate problems [7]. The predominant organisms responsible for UTI are mostly the Enterobacteriaceae especially
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E. coli which are the cause of 80–85% of urinary tract infections. Laboratory investigations are required for the
diagnosis and confirmation of UTI while treatment is based on information obtained from the antimicrobial
susceptibility testing [1].This review therefore outlines the prevalence and predisposing factors responsible for
urinary tract infections in adults.
2 THE URINARY SYSTEM
2.1 Anatomy of the Urinary System
The urinary system consists of the kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, and urethra. Often, urinary tract infections
(UTIs) are characterized as being either upper or lower based primarily on the anatomical location of the infection.
The lower urinary tract encompasses the bladder and urethra, while the upper urinary tract encompasses the kidneys
and the ureters. The kidneys filter the blood to remove wastes and produce urine. The ureters, urinary bladder, and
urethra together form the urinary tract, which acts as a plumbing system to drain urine from the kidneys, store it, and
then release it during micturition. Besides filtering and eliminating wastes from the body, the urinary system also
maintains the homeostasis of water, ions, pH, blood pressure and calcium [23].
2.2 Etiology of infection
Many different microorganisms can infect the urinary tract and cause infection, but the most common agents are the
Enterobacteriaceae. E. coli is usually the most prevalent organism responsible for UTI and accounts for 80–85% of
the total isolates, with Staphylococcus saprophyticus being the cause in 5–10% [19]. Other bacterial causing UTIs
include Klebsiella, Proteus, Pseudomonas, Enterococcus, Enterobacterspp. etc. Organisms such as Serratia and
Pseudomonas assume increasing importance in recurrent infections and infections associated with urologic
obstructions. They also play major role in nosocomial and catheter associated infections. Proteus specie by virtue of
urease production and Klebsiella spp through the production of extracellular slimy polysaccharides are predispose to
stone formation in the kidneys and are isolated more frequently from patient with calculi [14].Gram positive cocci
play a lesser role in urinary tract infections. However, Staphylococcuss aprophyticus novobiocin resistant,
coagulase-negative specie accounts for 10 to 15% of acute symptomatic urinary tract infections in young females
while Enterococci occasionally cause acute uncomplicated cystitis in women [15].
Other cause of urinary tract infections includes sex, urinary catheters, diabetes, and lack of circumcision and prostate
problems [20]. Complicating factors include predisposing anatomic, functional, or metabolic abnormalities. Persons
with spinal cord injury are at increased risk for urinary tract infection because of chronic use of catheter, and voiding
dysfunction.
Virus and parasite are not usually considered as urinary pathogens but however, Virus plays a major role in the
pathogenesis of hemorrhagic cystitis [3].
2.3 Epidemiology of Urinary tract infection
All individuals are susceptible to UTIs; however the prevalence of infection differs with age, sex and certain
predisposing factors. Urinary tract infections are the most frequent bacterial infection in women [5].They occur most
frequently between the ages of 16 and 35 years, with 10% of women getting an infection yearly and 60% having an
infection at some point in their lives. Recurrences are common, with nearly half of people getting a second infection
within a year [22].Rates of bacteriuria increases with age from two to seven percent in women of child bearing age
to as high as 50% in elderly women [5].
Among the most common infectious diseases, urinary tract infections (UTIs) are commonly encountered diseases by
clinicians in developing countries with an estimated annual global incidence of at least 8.3 million doctor visit
yearly [13].They are important complications of diabetes, renal disease, renal transplantation and structural and
neurologic abnormalities that interfere with urine flow and a source of bacteremia in these patients.
2.4 Prevalence of Urinary tract infection
The prevalence of urinary tract infection is high in females compared to the males. Estimate shows that one third of
adult women are diagnosed with UTI before 24 years [6]. Women are especially more prone to developing UTI due
to anatomical factors that allows bacterial quick access to the bladder, poor hygiene; sexual intercourse and use of
contraceptive are also contributory factors. Also hormonal changes such as menopause and estrogen loss are
responsible for the high prevalence of UTI in older women. With estrogen loss, the system ability to resist bacterial
colonization is reduced making it liable to infection [17]. UTI in men are rare but when they occur it usually comes
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with severity and are most times refers to as complicated. Men who are not circumcised tend to be more prone to
UTI because the bacterial build at the extra fold of their skin thus making them vulnerable [20].Also elderly men are
at increased risk of developing UTI due to factors such as kidney stones or prostate problems. Any abnormality of
the urinary tract that interferes with the flow of urine set the stage for increased risk of complicated UTI.
2.5 Types of urinary tract infections
Urinary tract infection usually develops in the lower urinary tract (urethra and bladder) and if not properly treated
they ascend to the upper urinary tract (ureters and kidneys) and cause severe damaged to the kidneys. Other
complications caused by UTIs are bladder infection (cystitis), urethra infection(urethritis), kidney infection
(pyelonephritis) and ureter (ureteritis).
Urethritis is simply an inflammation of the urethra, which is a tube that carries urine out of the body. It is often
caused by sexually transmitted infection or due to an injury from an instrument such as urinary catheter or even
exposure to an irritating chemical such as antiseptic or spermicide. Urethritis can either be gonococcal urethritis
caused by gonorrhea bacteria or non-gonococcal urethritis caused by bacteria other than gonorrhea such as
Chlamydia trachomatis, Ureaplasma urealyticum, Mycoplasma genitalium and Trachomonas vaginalis. Cystitis is a
bladder infection caused by abnormal growth of bacteria inside the bladder and the most common bacterial
infections[3].Cystitis can betraumatic, interstitial, eosinophilic, hemorrhagic, and cystitis cystic [18]. Ureteritisis
infection of the ureters which are tubes connecting the kidneys and the bladder. Infection occurs when the ureter to
bladder valves don't work properly and allow urine to "reflux" from the bladder into the ureters. Pyelonephritis is an
infection that affects one or both kidneys. It can happen with infection from above, or if urine refluxes back to the
kidney. Kidney infections can cause kidney damage or even failure if left untreated for an extended period of time
[10].
2.6 Pathogenesis of Urinary Tract Infections
Bacteria that cause urinary tract infections usually enter the bladder through the urethra. However, infection may
also occur via the blood or lymph. It is believed that the bacteria are usually transmitted to the urethra after a bowel
movement. After gaining entrance, organism such as E. coli attaches to the bladder wall and form a biofilm that
resists the body's immune response [21].Other bacterial characteristics such as motility are also important in the
organism pathogenesis of UTIs because it enable the organism to ascend to the upper urinary tract and obstruct urine
flow which might result in pyelonephritis [15].Virulence factors of bacteria play an important role in urinary tract
infections. Some organism particularly uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) which is present within bowel flora can infect
the urinary tract by expressing some specific virulence factors that permit adherence and colonization of the lower
urinary tract causing urinary tract infections [12]. Adherence of this microorganism depends on three major features;
bacteria’s own adhesive mechanism, the receptive features of the urothelium organism and finally the fluid that is
present between both surfaces. Adhesins found on the surface of the bacterial membrane are responsible for initial
attachment onto urinary tract tissues forming a biofilm. With biofilm formation, bacterial cooperate with one another
to remain viable [15].This biofilm form an irreversible association with the host cell and prevent the host’s
neutrophils from penetrating its surface [21].Bacteria that have irreversibly attached to a surface usually serve as a
means for continued replication and recruitment of other bacteria.
Pathogenesis can also be through ascending or hematogenous route. Ascending route is the most common route of
infection in females and is aided by conditions such as pregnancy, urethra obstruction and instrumentation. Blood
borne route (hematogenous route) occurs as a result of bacteremia although it is mostly not common.
3.PREDISPOSING FACTORS OF URINARY TRACT INFECTIONS
The urinary system is biologically structured to help ward off infections. The ureters and bladder are supposed to
prevent urine from backing up towards the kidneys. The flow of urine from the bladder is designed to wash bacterial
out of the body. Despite all these, infections still occurs due to some predisposing factors such as alterations to the
host’s natural defense mechanisms, anatomical and physiological factors, premenopausal / menopausal factors, age
and sex, obstruction, instrumentation etc.[13][18]
3.1 Alterations to the Host’s Natural Defense Mechanisms
The host natural flora is usually altered due to actions such as extreme use of antimicrobial agent, use of
contraceptive like spermicide, obstruction and stasis of urine flow can significantly alter the host’s defense
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mechanisms and predispose to complicated UTIs. Also illness such as diabetes mellitus, sickle cell disease, gout and
analgesics can also altered the host’s natural defense mechanisms [7].
3.2 Anatomical and Physiological Factors
A number of factors contribute to a greater prevalence of UTIs in females compared to males. In particular, female
pelvic anatomy plays an important predisposing role for recurrent UTIs in female patients. A study carried by
Hooton et al., (2010) investigated differences in perineal anatomical measurements and voiding characteristics in
100 females with a history of recurrent UTIs and in 113 females with no prior history of UTIs. Analysis of the
results demonstrated that the urethra and anus were significantly closer together in cases of UTI (4.8 ± 0.6cm)
compared to controls (5.0 ± 0.7cm). Other important physiological and anatomical factors that predispose to
bacterial adherence in females (compared to males) include a drier urethral meatus, a shorter urethra and the absence
of antibacterial properties provided by prostatic fluid.
3.3 Premenopausal / Menopausal Female
In premenopausal women, 90% of the vaginal flora is Lactobacilli, which protect the system against colonization
with uropathogens such as E. coli, with estrogen loss at menopause, it results in the thinning of the vaginal
epithelium and decreased amount of glycogen. The resulting environment is usually hostile to Lactobacilli thereby
decreasing their numbers. Biological changes due to menopause put these women at particular risk of contracting
both primary and recurring UTIs because with estrogen loss, the walls of the urinary tract becomes weak and as such
it reduces its ability to resist bacteria colonization [17].
3.4 Age and Sex
The incidence of urinary tract infection increases with age. During the first few months of life, the incidence of
urinary tract infections in male exceeds that of females. From the first year onwards, both first time and recurrent
urinary tract infection is much more common in females. The female urethra appears to be particularly prone to
colonization because of its proximity to the anus [15].Men's risk for UTI increases with age, men become more
susceptible to UTIs after 50 years of age, when they are more likely to develop prostate problems due to loss of
prostate fluid. Enlarged prostate gland can also impede and slow the flow of urine, thus raising the risk of infection.
Nicolle, (2008) observed that men who are not circumcised tend to also be more prone to developing UTIs because
these bacterial build up much more easily in the folds of the extra skin on the penis thereby making them more
susceptible to developing UTIs.
3.5 Obstruction
Obstruction to the flow of urine from the kidney through the pelvis, ureter, bladder, and urethra, is a common
disorder. It causes stasis and a rise in pressure within urinary tract, which predispose to urinary tract infection.
Obstruction may occur at any level but is most often found at the pelvis ureteric junction. Obstruction to the easy
flow of urine may be the result of some gross anatomical abnormalities such as congenital or acquired pathological
conditions in the urinary tract. Obstruction can also lead to reflux of infected urine in the urethra back into the ureter
and kidney with consequent pyelonephritis[18].
3.6 Instrumentation
Bacteria develop in at least 10-15 percent of hospitalized patients with indwelling urethral catheters [7]. Factors
associated with an increased risk of catheter associated urinary tract infection include, prolonged catheterization,
severe underlying illness, disconnection of the catheter and drainage tube and lack of systemic antimicrobial
therapy. Bacteria usually enter the catheter system at the catheter collecting tube junction or at the drainage bag
portal. The organisms then ascend into the bladder within 25 to 72 hours causing annoying symptoms [16].
3.7 Management of Urinary Tract Infections
Management of urinary tract infections typically involves drug therapy and patients’ education [1]. The ideal
treatment of urinary tract infection is an antibacterial agent that effectively eradicates bacteria from the urinary tract
with minimal effects on fecal and vaginal flora, thereby minimizing the incidence of vaginal yeast infections. The
antibacterial agent used for the management of uropathogen should be affordable, produce few side effects and of
low resistance. Various treatments regimen have been used successfully to treat uncomplicated lower urinary tract
infections in women [11].Early recognition of urinary tract infection and prompt treatment are essential to prevent
recurrent infection and complications such as renal failure and sepsis [22]. The role of treatment is to prevent
infection from progressing and causing permanent renal damage and failure. For management to be effective,
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patients must be taught how to recognize early signs and symptoms and to initiate treatment as prescribed [24]. Also
antimicrobial therapy should be initiated promptly after a proper urine culture is obtained.
4. LABORATORY DIAGNOSIS OF URINARY TRACT INFECTIONS
Diagnosis of urinary tract infection is based on the presence of bacteria in urine at a significant level [15].The
diagnosis of the infection involves the collection of midstream urine specimens, urinalysis, microscopic
examination, urine culture and microscopy as described by cheesebrough, 2006.
CONCLUSION
With the rapidly growing economy, urinary tract infections has become a major problem in the world at large and
Nigeria in particular causing serious health issues and health care expenditure. Despite being an infection that affects
all ages and both genders, women are usually more susceptible. This high prevalence in women is due to factors
such as poor personal hygiene, use of contraceptives, menopause and the close proximity of the female urethra to the
anus. Elderly men are also at risk due to the fact that most men tend to develop prostate problems due to loss of
prostate fluid. This condition usually impedes the flow of urine thus making them liable to infection. Therefore
investigating it predisposing factors is fundamental for individuals, care givers and health planners to guide and
managed the expected interventions.
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... Urinary tract infections (UTI) are widespread microbial infection affecting individuals of both young and old ages. This infection generally involve one or more components of the urinary system and is mostly affecting the female population with an incidence of about one percent of school going girls and four percent of females during childbearing age (John et al., 2016). In emerging countries, after gastrointestinal tract infections and respiratory tract infections, the 3 rd most common infection in children is urinary tract infection. ...
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Introduction: Diabetic patients have a higher tendency of developing all infections, especially infections of the genitourinary tract. Urinary tract infections cause considerable disorders in diabetic patients, and if complicated, can cause renal failure. In Ethiopia, the magnitude of diabetes mellitus-associated urinary tract infections increased from 7.1% in 2005 to 33.9% in 2019. The successful management of patients suffering from urinary tract infections in diabetic patients depends upon the identification of risk factors. This study aimed to determine the magnitude and factors affecting the urinary tract infections among diabetic patients which enable professionals to prevent infections and manage them effectively. Methods: Hospital-based cross-sectional study was conducted with 365 diabetic patients selected by systematic sampling technique from March to April 2020. Data were collected by trained BSc nurses via face-to-face interview and patient chart review. Urine microscopy was done to diagnose urinary tract infections. Data were coded and entered using Epi data version 3.1 and exported to Statistical Package of Social Sciences version 26 for analysis. Variables with p-value < 0.25 in bivariable logistic regression were included multivariable logistic regression and variables with a p-value < 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results: The magnitude of urinary tract infections was 22.3% (95% confidence interval: 18-27). The odds of being infected by urinary tract infections were significantly higher in diabetic females (adjusted odds ratio: 2.46; 95% confidence interval: 1.40-4.32), duration of diabetes mellitus diagnosis of ⩾5 years (adjusted odds ratio: 1.98; 95% confidence interval: 1.05-3.72), with comorbidity (adjusted odds ratio: 4.87; 95% confidence interval: 2.76-8.59) and khat chewer (adjusted odds ratio: 1.84; 95% confidence interval: 1.04-3.24) compared with their counter. Conclusion and recommendation: Urinary tract infections were high among diabetic patients. Predictors like sex, duration of diagnosis, comorbidity, and khat chewer were found to be associated with urinary tract infections. Improvement of the regular screening of patients with diabetes mellitus for urinary tract infections will provide more effective measures in prevention and management.
... Asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASBU) is defined as the existence of bacteria in urine at a load of 10 5 CFU/ml or more in the absence of clinical symptoms of urinary tract infection [1,2]. Although both genders and all age groups are prone to ASBU, it is more common in women due to the proximity of female urethra to the anus which facilitates colonization of the periurethral area with bacteria from gastrointestinal tract [3]. Its occurrence in women increases directly with sexual activity and in women of child-bearing age [4]. ...
... 3 4 Several risk factors can lead to UTI development, including defects in the host immune response either secondary to immunosuppressive drugs or patients' medical conditions; uncontrolled diabetes; anatomical abnormalities of the genitourinary system; imbalances of specific cytokines, such as interleukin 1β and interleukin 1β antagonists, which are reported to play roles in controlling Escherichia coli colonisation in the genitourinary tract; and altered vaginal microbiota. [5][6][7] Kirjavainen et al 8 found that the vaginal microbiota in UTI-prone women exhibited diminished Lactobacillus compositions compared with those in the control group (p=0.003). ...
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Objective The risk factors associated with urinary tract infections (UTIs) in patients with SLE remain uncertain. We evaluated the vaginal microbiota pattern and its potential UTI-associated risk factors. Methods A pilot cross-sectional study of patients with SLE was conducted at Ramathibodi Hospital, Bangkok, Thailand, during 2019–2020. Patients’ demographic data and relevant information were collected. Vaginal microbiota was assessed in all patients and in 10 healthy volunteers. Results Fifty-two patients were enrolled (mean age: 46.1 years). All patients had SLE that was in low disease activity. As per the Simpson_e index, the within-group alpha diversity of the vaginal microbiota was low in the SLE with UTI and SLE receiving trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) prophylaxis groups. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that TMP-SMX prophylaxis (adjusted OR (AOR), 30.96; 95% CI 3.63 to 264.11; p=0.002), elevated C3 levels (AOR, 35.33; 95% CI 1.33 to 936.67; p=0.033) and presence of Veillonella dispar in the vaginal microbiota (AOR, 6.68; 95% CI 1.27 to 35.07; p=0.025) were associated with UTI. Conclusions The vaginal microbiota diversity differed between patients with lupus with and without UTI, and unnecessary administration of TMP-SMX prophylaxis may affect the alpha diversity of the vaginal microbiota.
Article
Background: Indwelling urinary catheters (IDUCs) are associated with complications and early removal is therefore essential. Currently, it is unknown what the effect of a specific removal time is and what the consequences of this removal time are. Research question: To present an overview of the available evidence to determine the effects of three postoperative IDUC removal times (after a certain number of hours, at a specific time of day and flexible removal time) on the development of complications in hospital. Methods: PubMed, Medline, Embase, Emcare and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched till 6 June, 2021. Studies were included that described the effect of the removal time in relation to re-catheterisation, urinary tract infections (UTIs), ambulation time, time of first voiding and hospital stay. The quality of the studies was assessed with the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale and the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organisation of Care. A narrative descriptive analysis was performed. PRISMA guidelines were followed in reporting this review. Results: Twenty studies were included from which 18 compared removal after a number of hours, 1 reported on a specific removal time and 1 reported on both topics. The results were contradicting regarding the hypothesis that later removal increases the incidence of UTIs. Earlier removal does not lead to a higher re-catheterisation rate while immediate removal is beneficial for reducing the time to first ambulation and shortening the hospital stay. Studies reporting on specific removal times did not find differences in outcomes. No study addressed flexible removal time. Conclusions: There is inconclusive evidence that earlier removal results in less UTIs, despite the incidence of UTIs increasing if the IDUC is removed ≥24 h. Immediate or after 1-2 day(s) removal does not lead to higher re-catheterisation rates while immediate removal results in earlier ambulation and shorter length of hospital stay. Implications of key findings: Nurses should focus on early IDUC removal while being aware of urinary retention.
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Medical Laboratory Manual for tropical countriesELBS Edition
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