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Language learning strategies of Indonesian primary school students: In relation to self-efficacy beliefs

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Abstract

This study examined Indonesian primary school students' strategy use in learning English. It also explored how these young learners' strategy use relates to their self-efficacy beliefs. The Indonesian Children's Strategy Inventory for Language Learning (SILL) and the Children's Self-efficacy in Learning English Questionnaire (C-SELEQ) were administered to 522 sixth graders. The young learners reported high use of socio-affective and metacognitive strategies and moderate use of cognitive strategies. The preferred strategies involved learning with/from others and regulating one's own learning, while the less preferred strategies mainly dealt with memorizing words and practicing outside the classroom. The results also indicated significant differences in strategy use between students who perceived themselves capable of performing English tasks and self-regulating their learning and students who did not. The study contributes to knowledge on the influential roles of self-efficacy — particularly self-efficacy in self-regulated learning.

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... International Journal of Instruction, October 2021 • Vol.14, No.4 in relation to language learning strategy theory at the univariate level include motivation (Nasihah & Cahyono, 2017;Tashakori, 2013), effort and persistence (Han & Lu, 2018;Kayaoglu, 2013), self-efficacy (Anam & Stracke, 2016;Liem, Lau, & Nie, 2008;Nosratinia, Saveiy, & Zaker, 2014), and cooperative learning (Likitrattanaporn, 2018). There is a dearth of research exploring how these learning characteristics collectively regress on strategy choice and, consequently, influence our approaches to strategy training. ...
... Several studies have explored the influence of self-efficacy on LLS and consistently describe a positive association (Anam & Stracke, 2016;Liem et al., 2008;Nosratinia et al., 2014). The positive correlation between self-efficacy and LLS use has not gone unchallenged. ...
... The positive correlation between self-efficacy and LLS use has not gone unchallenged. Anam and Stracke (2016) found no relationship among a group of 130 participants' LLS use and self-efficacy at learning English. Despite the lack of statistical significance among Anam and Stracke's (2016) students, overwhelming evidence suggests self-efficacy strongly predicts LLS use (Magogwe & Oliver, 2007;Wong, 2005;Yilmaz, 2010). ...
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Mapping multivariate influence of learner characteristics on behavior highlights models in learning. To this end, we explored the relationships between strategies and learning characteristics and used regression analysis to understand how learner characteristics predict learning strategy choices. A cross-sectional research design with 175 students revealed high levels of strategy use, with statistically significant correlations within and between Strategy Inventory for Language Learning (SILL; Oxford, 1990) and Student Characteristics of Learning (SCL; Artelt, Baumert, Julius-McElvany, & Peschar, 2003) scales. Regression analyses revealed differences in the types of learner characteristics predicting strategy use, most notably between direct and indirect strategy categories. Instrumental motivation was predictive for both direct and indirect SILL subcomponents, while self-efficacy influenced memory, cognitive and compensation strategies, and persistence predicted reported levels of metacognitive and affective strategy choice. Moreover, a negative path coefficient existed from persistence to compensation strategies and from competition to memory strategies, indicating mediation and overall rich complexity in how learner characteristics influence behavior.
... Actually, self-efficacy is more concerned with predictions of performance before learning. Learners with high self-efficacy manage to go through obstacles and move on to successfully attain preset learning goals (Niloufari & Dastgoshadeh, 2019;Pajares, 2009), and they indeed tend more to apply self-regulation strategies and processes for learning English language (Anam & Stracke, 2016). ...
... Yet, in another empirical study, Anam and Stracke (2016) examined the variety of self-regulated learning strategies among 520 Indonesian elementary school students. The questionnaires were: Strategy Inventory for Language Learning (SILL) and Self-efficacy in Learning English (C-SELEQ) for Indonesian children. ...
... Volume 5, Number 3, September 2020 different levels of self-efficacy would absolutely influence learners' performance in terms of applying self-regulated learning strategies (Kim et al., 2015;Namaziandost, Hashemifardnia, & Shafiee, 2019). Still another research which measured the relationship between self-regulated strategy use and self-efficacy beliefs of Indonesian students confirmed the significance of such an interplay among self-regulation and self-efficacy of young learners (Anam & Stracke, 2016;Namaziandost & Ahmadi, 2019). ...
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The present empirical study investigated the relationship between Iranian undergraduate TEFL learners' self-regulation and their self-efficacy. For this end, there have been a total number of 120 college students learning English as a foreign language who volunteered to complete the two quantitative questionnaires of self-regulation and self-efficacy respectively. The participants were informed of the anonymous nature of the data collection process in advance. They were also told that their responses would certainly be kept confidential and that they had the right to quit at any part of the survey. It took around 15-20 minutes for each respondent to complete the survey. In the meanwhile, some of the participants (around ten) also willingly answered the qualitative descriptive semi-structured questions of the interview, until that the interview responses were saturated. After the process of data collection, the findings were measured through correlation analysis, indicating that self-regulation and self-efficacy were jointly linked and had a directly positive relationship. Accordingly, it was revealed that the employment of these two highly associated psychological constructs could systematically guide and help learners to enhance their learning capabilities and lead them to ultimate desired learning goals. Ultimately, it was concluded from the findings of the current study that the delicate association between self-regulation and self-efficacy was really helpful for learners to lead them successfully to their academic goals.
... More importantly, the majority of past studies dealing with the relationship between self-efficacy beliefs and L2 writing performance have used independent writing tasks in their design, and the role of these beliefs in integrated writing performance is quite under-researched. On the other hand, previous work on second/foreign strategy use has demonstrated that learners' self-efficacy is positively associated with strategy use (Anam & Stracke, 2016;Purdie & Oliver, 1999;Sardegna, Lee, & Kusey, 2018). Although some recent research has focussed on the association between self-efficacy for writing and use of writing strategies (Sun & Wang, 2020), there is a paucity of empirical data on the role of L2 writing self-efficacy and writing strategy use. ...
... Moreover, empirical evidence has suggested that self-efficacy predicts language learning strategy use (Anam & Stracke, 2016;Chae, 2013;Magogwe & Oliver, 2007;Purdie & Oliver, 1999). This line of research has indicated that self-efficacy beliefs are related to the use of different types of language learning strategies, including cognitive and metacognitive strategies. ...
... This could be justified in light of the relationship between learners' efficacy beliefs in their course performance, motivation, and use of language learning strategies suggested by Pajares (2008) A notable contribution of this research was that the three latent components of L2 writing self-efficacy are significant predictors of summary writing strategy use. This outcome corroborates previous research findings on the positive role of self-efficacy in the employment of language learning strategies (Anam & Stracke, 2016;Chae, 2013;Purdie & Oliver, 1999). Students who are more self-efficacious tend to be more motivated and devote more effort to the summary writing task. ...
Article
The application of integrated writing tasks in academic writing assessment is increasing and research on these tasks is growing. However, the role of individual difference variables in students’ performance in source-based writing is under-researched. Thus, the present study purports to investigate the predictive contribution of L2 writing self-efficacy to the summary writing strategies used by EFL learners and their performance in a reading-to-write task. The participants of this study were 191 undergraduate university students, who answered an integrated writing task and completed questionnaires measuring L2 writing self-efficacy beliefs and summary writing strategy use. The results of structural equation modelling (SEM) revealed that the three components of writing self-efficacy, linguistic, self-regulatory, and performance self-efficacy, significantly predicted summary writing performance. It was also found that linguistic self-efficacy predicted discourse synthesis and source use strategies, while self-regulatory and performance efficacy could only predict metacognitive strategies of planning and evaluation. The results are discussed and pedagogical implications are offered.
... Self-efficacy and productivity also have a positive relationship (Phillips & Russell, 1994). Having a strong sense of self-efficacy allows learners to adhere to specific strategies (Anam & Stracke, 2016). Research suggests that online self-efficacy has a predictive effect on active learning, and that there is a significant positive correlation between them (Zhang, 2015). ...
... The participants in this study were found to have academic self-confidence (M = 3.68, SD = .52). Anam and Stracke (2016) stated that having a strong sense of self-efficacy allows learners to adhere to specific strategies, while Wang et al. (2008) showed that there is a correlation between self-efficacy and learning strategies in distance education-related research. In addition, Anam and Stracke stated that students with higher English efficacy and self-regulating learning effectiveness reported learning strategies more frequently than students without higher significance. ...
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Influenced by Confucianism, the social role is postponed from school to work in Taiwan, most young adults enter the job market after completing a higher education degree. However, in recent years, delayed graduation by postgraduate students has become a problem. To understand this phenomenon, this study recruited a mix of participants who had already graduated and participants who were about to graduate (individuals who had completed their courses and thesis). The aim of the study was to explore (1) how individuals' academic self-efficacy affects their active learning strategies and academic self-confidence and (2) how this is reflected in the duration of their studies. A total of 245 valid questionnaires were collected, comprising the responses of 91 men and 154 women. Among the participants, 34.3% graduated on time, whereas 51% did not graduate on time because of incomplete theses. A confirmatory factor analysis approach was adopted in this study. The results demonstrated that academic self-efficacy was positively related to active learning strategies (higher-order, integrative, and reflective strategies) and active learning strategies were positively related to academic self-confidence, whereas academic self-confidence was negatively related to an extended duration for completing a master's degree.
... Research in education indicates that self-regulated learning (SRL) is crucial for young learners' learning process; it enhances their academic performance and learning motivation (Anam & Stracke, 2016;Dent & Koenka, 2015;Mega, Ronconi, & Beni, 2014;Pino-Pasternak, Basilio, & Whitebread, 2014). Characteristics of SRL involve intrinsic motivation and autonomous learning to help learners to achieve their goals in any learning situation (Zimmerman, 2013;Panadero, 2017). ...
... In addition, Ng & Yeo (2014) found that preschool teachers in Malaysia place very little focus on developing interest and selfefficacy in early writing. Lacking motivation in literacy will develop lower self-concept and efficacy beliefs in literacy (Anam & Stracke, 2016;Bulut, 2017). These imply that teaching writing for young children in Malaysia remained unclear. ...
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To enhance the will and the skills to express thoughts explicitly and effectively in early writing among preschool children, self-regulated learning (SRL) was suggested for preschool children as one of the effective learning approaches. This quasi-experimental study involved seventy-five preschool children (5-6 years old) from two public preschools in Selangor, Malaysia. This study investigated the effects of SRL strategies on early writing self-efficacy and early writing performance among preschool children. Interview data was engaged and supported the quantitative result to obtain a deep insight of the findings. Two-way Repeated Measure ANCOVA was employed and confirmed the effectiveness of self-regulated learning intervention with an interaction effect between the test and group for early writing self-efficacy being statistically significant (F(1, 72) = 12.665; p = 0.001, 2= 0.150), with Cohen’s d = 0.84; and early writing performance statistically significant (F(1, 72) = 110.801; p < 0.001, 2= 0.606), with Cohen’s d = 2.84. The result also confirmed that self-monitoring and controlling (F (5, 69) = 17.934, p < 0.001), with an adjusted R² = 0.534, was a strong predictor for early writing self-efficacy, and planning and goal setting (F(5, 69) = 12.706, p< 0.001), with an adjusted R² = 0.442, were a strong predictor for early writing performance. Eleven self-regulated learning strategies used emerged from the interviews’ data pertaining to different contexts. According to the participant children, planning and goal setting, self-monitoring, and self-evaluation were the strategies that will assure their writing quality. These responses supported the results produced by the quantitative data. The findings of this research provide a useful insight into early writing and self-regulated learning instructions in the Malaysian preschool context.
... Similarly, an investigation at a Korean university revealed that learners with a low self-efficacy profile performed rather differently from those with medium and high self-efficacy profiles in terms of their use of self-regulated learning and language interpretation strategies (Kim et al., 2015). A study in Indonesia also identified close ties between young learners' strategy use and their self-efficacy beliefs (Anam & Stracke, 2016). ...
... In web-based learning settings, students who can employ self-regulatory strategies became more challengeable and more confident in understanding course materials or participating in learning activities (Chang, 2005). Although both self-regulation and self-efficacy are crucial forces affecting learning (Anam & Stracke, 2016;Barnard et al., 2009;Yukselturk & Bulut, 2007), the interplay between these two constructs has not been fully explored in online learning settings. Thus, by surveying a sample of Chinese EFL learners with sufficient exposure to an online learning environment, the current research aimed to address the following two questions: ...
Article
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This quantitative study investigated the relationship between learners’ online self-regulation and their self-efficacy in the context of learning English as a foreign language (EFL). We collected data from two surveys, the online self-regulated English learning (OSEL) and the English language self-efficacy (ELSE), among 424 university students in China. Principal component analyses showed that the OSEL included six sub-scales, namely, goal setting, environment structuring, task strategies, time management, help seeking and self-evaluation, while the ELSE consisted of four factors targeting self-efficacy in listening, speaking, reading, and writing. The correlation analysis confirmed the associations between all scales of the OSEL and those of the ELSE. Furthermore, regression analysis revealed that self-evaluation was the most powerful predictor for explaining participants’ variance of self-efficacy in English listening, speaking, and reading. Moreover, learners’ environment structuring could significantly explain their self-efficacy in both speaking and writing, whereas goal setting could only predict students’ self-efficacy in writing. These findings reveal the intricate relationship between online self-regulation and self-efficacy among the EFL learners, and further highlights the positive role of learners’ self-evaluation, environment structuring and goal setting for explaining their English language self-efficacy. Pedagogical implications and future research are discussed at the end of this paper.
... The effective use of strategies is determined by students' belief in their capabilities or their self-efficacy (Zimmerman, 2000). Having strong self-efficacy is, in fact, a determining factor to be able to persist with using special strategies (Anam & Stracke, 2016). The literature on the relationship between L2 learners' selfefficacy and their learning strategies has rather consistently reported the existence of such an association between the two (Li & Wang, 2010;Purdie & Oliver, 1999). ...
... Moreover, as indicated by Jiuhuan and Newbern (2012), studies on metacognitive reading strategies can contribute to the training of instructors, since by involving learners in activities which enhance their self-efficacy, teachers can play important roles in developing students' beliefs in their abilities. Having a strong sense of self-efficacy, students could be more consistent in using special strategies perceived as helpful by them (Anam & Stracke, 2016). ...
Article
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This study explores Iranian EFL learners' online reading metacognitive strategy use and its relation to their self-efficacy in reading comprehension. It further examines the effect of gender in this respect. To these ends, the Online Survey of Reading Strategies (OSORS) and reading self-efficacy questionnaire were adopted and administered to 63 homogeneous sophomore EFL learners. To analyze data, Friedman Test and Multiple Analysis of Variance (MANOVA) were run. Results of Friedman test indicated that problem-solving online metacognitive reading strategies are most frequently used by the learners, while support strategies are used least frequently. The findings of MANOVA further revealed a significantly positive relationship between the learners' perceived use of metacognitive online reading strategies and their self-efficacy in reading comprehension. The study further revealed that females use more global online reading strategies, while males perceive themselves as more self-efficacious in reading online texts. Finally, the analysis of think aloud protocol indicated that learners used some other metacognitive strategies while reading online. The findings may have contributions to EFL learners' online reading strategy use and training and can highlight the significant role that self-efficacy might play in the use of metacognitive reading strategies while reading online.
... For example, a longitudinal study probing self-efficacy, strategy use, and reading achievement showed that the type of language learning strategies predicts successful learning and that self-efficacy controls learners' choice of strategy types (Magogwe & Oliver, 2007). There are other studies consistent with this finding, recognizing self-efficacy as a determining factor for success as well as persistent strategy use (Anam & Stracke, 2016). Anam and Stracke (2016) found that the more the learners are self-efficacious, the more they use learning strategies. ...
... There are other studies consistent with this finding, recognizing self-efficacy as a determining factor for success as well as persistent strategy use (Anam & Stracke, 2016). Anam and Stracke (2016) found that the more the learners are self-efficacious, the more they use learning strategies. Furthermore, Mills, Pajares, and Herron (2007) showed that the beliefs learners have about their skill in using metacognitive strategies affect their language learning. ...
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Reading is one of the important ways through which foreign language learners can receive input. Finding more effective ways of improving reading comprehension and reading self-efficacy, while reducing reading anxiety, has been a concern of practitioners for many years. This study compared the effect of four reading models on reading comprehension, foreign language reading anxiety (FLRA), and reading self-efficacy. In order to do so, 184 female Iranian senior high school EFL students at intermediate English reading level were selected through convenience sampling in three high schools and one language institute in Zanjan. The participants were in four intact groups. Each group was randomly assigned to one of the treatment conditions-'Direct Activities Related to Texts' (DARTs), Peer-Assisted Learning Strategies (PALS), 'Read, Ask, and Put into your own words' (RAP), and 'Title, Headings, Introduction, Each first sentence, Visuals, End of each part, Summary' (THIEVES) models. These models were taught for eight sessions. Data were collected using the reading comprehension part of the Michigan Test of English Language Proficiency (MTELP), Foreign Language Reading Anxiety Scale (FLRAS), and Reading Self Efficacy Questionnaire (RSEQ). The collected data were analyzed using three one-way ANCOVA procedures. The results showed that the four models did not significantly differ in terms of their effect on foreign language reading anxiety and reading self-efficacy. However, there was a significant difference between the effect of THIEVES and RAP on reading comprehension in favor of RAP. Besides, only RAP and PALS improved reading self-efficacy. Moreover, DARTs, THIEVES, and RAP improved reading comprehension and decreased reading anxiety, whereas PALS increased reading anxiety and negatively affected reading comprehension. The theoretical and pedagogical implications of the findings are also discussed.
... In the field of language acquisition, Anam and Stracke (2016) observed that students in their study who perceived themselves as capable of performing English tasks tended to use learning strategies more often and to be more self-regulated in learning processes than those who did not. Wang et al. (2013) also noted significantly positive relationships among self-efficacy beliefs, self-regulated learning behaviours and English language test scores. ...
... There is also an emergent consensus in the higher education field that feedback attending to self-regulation is powerful to the degree that it leads to further engagement with or investment of further effort in the task. To enhance self-efficacy, instructors and tutors working on academic English programmes need therefore to provide students with positive feedback and encouragement for their classroom performance to help them develop their self-efficacy (Anam and Stracke 2016) in learning. Consequently, teachers are charged with the responsibility for creating a supportive milieu where classroom feedback practices such as questioning and scaffolding nurture students' confidence and develop their capacity to gain control over their own learning of academic English. ...
Article
While there has been much research detailing how English as a foreign language (EFL) students attending English for academic purposes (EAP) courses struggle with a wide array of challenges when adjusting to university English-medium instruction, how these students use feedback to self-regulate their academic English learning and what contributes to or hinders this remain unknown. This study investigates Chinese university students’ feedback behaviour and preferences in academic English course settings and their associations with English language self-efficacy within the context of recent feedback research in higher education. Apart from a dominant preference for teacher evaluative feedback, the students were found to be more likely to act on teacher feedback than to proactively seek feedback. English language self-efficacy was also shown to have significant influence on both feedback behaviour and preference. In the light of these results, this paper argues for a pressing need to extend the notion of feedback in academic English courses from viewing it as information transmission or ‘telling’ to recognising it as an iterative process whereby students make sense of information from various sources and use it to enhance their academic English learning.
... As such, academic self-efficacy plays a decisive and demonstrable role in an individual's language learning achievement ( [42], see also e.g. [1,31]). Self-regulated learning strategies and self-efficacy can create a positive cycle for a learner's motivation. ...
... Research into self-efficacy and self-regulation in language learning has found that high performing students actively or more skillfully apply a broader range of sociocultural (meta-)strategies than weaker students (e.g., [1,22]). This strategic skills gap can also help explain why stronger students reported greater progress through self-regulated learning. ...
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Academic self-regulation is a key factor for motivation and learning achievement. Yet with the large range of individual factors, this is not a one-size-fits-all proposition. This study of L2 Technical English students at two German universities explored learners’ expectations and motivations, in particular regarding self-regulation and self-efficacy via the individual’s time investment in self-led study. In an initial survey, learners (N=1646) reported on their English skill levels and anticipated learning habits. Complementarily, the retrospective survey investigated learners’ (N=796) actual behavior during the course, their perceptions of language skill improvement, and their satisfaction. The initial survey indicates a clear understanding that time investment in self-regulated study will lead to greater improvement, an outcome confirmed in the retrospective survey. Additionally, students who invested more time in their coursework were more satisfied with their achievement, although most learners acknowledge they should have studied more. The results verify that learners recognize the nexus between self-regulation and language skill improvement, yet university students are not satisfied with their capacity to self-regulate their language learning strategies. While differences in students’ skill levels and academic self-efficacy result in divergent degrees of progress, students of all types report benefits to their language skills when motivated to self-regulated study.
... Language learning strategies have been found to vary in relation to cultures and situations. For example, Anam and Stracke [34] found that Indonesian school students used cognitive strategies at moderate frequency but socio-affective strategies and metacognitive strategies at high frequency, and that students who possessed a higher sense of English efficacy tended to use cognitive, socio-affective, and metacognitive strategies more often. Meanwhile, Zhang and his associates [35] have expanded the scope of traditional strategy research by integrating learning strategies with elements of self-regulated learning and metacognition. ...
... The five types of technology-based self-regulated English learning strategies were found to be positively related to both the participants' overall English language self-efficacy and its four domains (i.e., speaking, listening, reading, and writing). These results were in line with previous research [34] that suggests that high self-efficacy learners tend to be more cognitively, metacognitively, and motivationally engaged in learning. In addition, the current study revealed significantly positive correlations between four of the five types of technology-based self-regulated English learning strategies and the participants' English learning outcomes, echoing the observation in educational psychology that self-regulated learning strategies positively influence students' academic learning achievements. ...
Article
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This article reports the development and validation of an instrument, the Technology-Based Self-Regulated English Learning Strategies Scale (TSELSS), in terms of its multifaceted structure of self-directed use of technology in English learning among Chinese university EFL students. TSELSS was developed through a three-phase process, focusing on the domain of self-regulated English learning in technology-assisted conditions. The first phase involved the generation of an item pool, the second a pilot study (N = 164) aimed at identifying the factor structure of TSELSS using exploratory factor analysis, and the third an examination of the psychometric properties of the revised TSELSS using confirmatory factor analysis with another independent sample of students (N = 525). Furthermore, the concurrent validity of TSELSS was investigated through correlations with students' English language self-efficacy and English learning outcomes. The final version of the scale is made up of five types of technology-based self-regulated English learning strategies: motivational regulation strategies, goal setting and learning evaluation, social strategies, technology-based English song and movie learning, and technology-based vocabulary learning. The TSELSS can be used as an evaluation tool to appraise EFL students' technology-based self-regulated English learning experience, and as a research tool to investigate more associations between technology-based self-regulated strategic English learning and other contextual and learner individual factors.
... Numerous language researchers have adopted Bandura's self-efficacy theory in their theoretical frameworks to investigate language-learning processes, such as languagelearning strategies (e.g., Magogwe & Oliver, 2007;Stracke & Anam, 2016), anxiety (e.g., Woodrow, 2011), and learner's attribution (e.g., Hsieh & Kang, 2010). Other researchers investigated the relationship between self-efficacy beliefs about language-learning and language-learning skills, such as writing (e.g., Pajares, 2003) and listening skills (e.g., Graham, 2011). ...
Article
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This mixed-methods study investigates the beliefs of language learners about their ability to attend language classes and learn the language in face-to-face and online settings using Ajzen’s perceived behavioral control (PBC) construct. Two treatments were conducted in two contexts: a face-to-face language-learning context (n = 684) and an online language-learning context (n = 289). The results show that certain variable beliefs can predict students’ PBC\self-efficacy in both contexts. The comparative results in both contexts show that students have more positive PBC beliefs toward learning a language in face-to-face settings than in online settings. Based on the results, the use of mixed-methods research is recommended for investigating language learners’ beliefs. The use of Ajzen’s PBC concept confirms the need to employ different theoretical models in eliciting and examining the ability of language learners to learn the language, as well as the importance of avoiding overused theoretical models to enhance the understanding of the language-learning process.
... In the seventh study, Zhong (2015) showing, as with Tragant et al. (2013) above, that quantitative studies of this nature still have a place in learning strategy research (see also Gao, 2006). Anam and Stracke (2016) further confirm this statement in a large-scale study of how Indonesian primary school students' strategy use relates to their self-efficacy beliefs. Two modified questionnaires are used and show clear links between self-efficacy beliefs in self-regulated learning and strategy usage. ...
Article
The herald of the seminal work on language learning strategies by Rubin (1975) and Stern (1975) has undoubtedly impacted how we view learning and teaching nowadays. Such impact was not so much felt in the 1970s, when this work just started. Scholarly embracing of such an approach was evidently witnessed in the very first article on reading strategies of successful and unsuccessful language learners by Hosenfeld (1977) published in System, with other scholars’ work to follow thereafter. By 2019, the number of research articles on language learning strategies in the journal has risen to 118. We briefly examine the historical trajectory and analyse major trends and issues of this line of research in relation to the articles published in System. As a way of showing how language learning strategy research has contributed to the enterprise of language learning and teaching in its almost 45 year history and anticipate what lies ahead as possible areas for further investigation, we have selected 13 “representatives” (with one already being an Open Access article) from a list of 59 research articles published in System in the recent decade to help our readers to appreciate, critique, and further ponder over this apparently mature terrain in our field.
... Past LLS research conducted within Asian contexts (e.g., Radwan, 2011;Ting, Soekarno, & Lee, 2017;Tran, 1988) influenced our choice of variables and design. We added to the discussion by conjoining psychometric testing of the SILL with the actual LLS-based points of inquiry (Anam & Strake, 2016;Griffiths, 2013). Radwan (2011) suggested the LLS research should also discuss how programs use results to make improvements; this report follows this suggestion. ...
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A university in Seoul investigated how student gender and proficiency predict language learner strategy (LLS) usage in order to improve its English as a foreign language (EFL) program. Regarding gender, males employed more strategy usage than females, which corresponded to previous research in Asia, but the difference was not significant. The associations between proficiency and LLS usage, however, were positive, significant, and moderate to strong. From these results the program: 1 - gave lower proficiency students extra instruction on LLS usage; and 2 - implemented LLS usage interventions exclusively for female students. The areas that this paper offers guidance for future/similar studies are: 1 - using simple internal reliability values to select the most appropriate LLS measurements; 2 - innovatively measuring proficiency without costly formal assessments; and 3 - making informed policy decisions using observed LLS findings.
... On the other hand, BL environments are found to be suitable to practice SRL skills and hence foster its development. Because of the great emphasis given to collaborative activities in BL, meta-cognitive skills are at the front of the learning process (Lynch & Dembo, 2004).Though SR is a crucial force affecting learning (Anam & Stracke, 2016), the interplay between SRL and BL has not been fully explored. Hence, this chapter tried to shade light on the influence of blended learning on self-regulated learning and vice-versa. ...
Chapter
As the nexus between personalized learning and technology-mediated learning, self-regulated learning is a topic of great research interest and a range of issues are still open for investigation. There is a substantial interest in the instructional tools supporting SRL in digital learning environment. In this chapter, the authors present an empirical evidence of self-regulated learning experiences dwelled in a blended learning environment in higher education. In this particular context, the experiences obtained from two intervention groups who engaged in the same blended learning course were examined. The purpose is to provide an insight regarding the current trajectories of learning in terms of student-centered approach with relation to emerging pedagogical practice. Results show that pedagogical approach does not guarantee a pleasingly improved learning; rather, there is a need for additional mechanism that might raise students' interest. Subsequently, imperative implications for educators, researchers, and curriculum developers are forwarded.
... Studies have also found that ESL learners' self-efficacy is positively correlated with learning strategy adoption. For designated tasks, students with stronger confidence tend to be more optimistic and resilient in their handling process (Golparvar & Khafi, 2021;Stracke, 2016). ...
... We used the Children's Self-efficacy in Learning English Questionnaire (C-SELEQ; Anam, 2016). The 5-point scale questionnaire consisted of two subscales: English self-efficacy and self-regulated learning efficacy. ...
Article
This article examines the role of self‐efficacy beliefs in learning English as a foreign language in an Indonesian primary school setting. Self‐efficacy is a significant motivational factor affecting the cognitive and behavioral engagement of learners (Linnenbrink & Pintrich, 2003). The study adopted a mixed‐methods research design that involved the administration of a questionnaire (N = 516), an English proficiency test (N = 516), and a semistructured interview (N = 12). The participants of the study were sixth graders from 12 primary schools in the Indonesian province of East Java. The quantitative findings indicate a relationship between self‐efficacy and language ability, which the interview findings support by pointing to the different cognitive and motivational engagement of the students who held different self‐efficacy levels. These findings provide empirical evidence for the motivational role of self‐efficacy beliefs in language learning. The article ends with practical implications for using EFL instructional processes in the Indonesian primary school context.
... There has been little research on ER in LL. One possible reason is that several studies have revealed that affective strategies are used the least frequently of all strategy categories (e.g., Bremner, 1999;Lai, 2009;Peacock & Ho, 2003;Riazi, 2007), although this is not a universal finding across all populations (Anam & Stracke, 2016;Barrios & Montijano, 2017). ...
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The emotions experienced and the emotion-regulation strategies (ERS) used by English majors (freshmen and sophomores; L1 Polish; n = 133) enrolled in a Polish university in relation to their learning of English or another foreign language were investigated. The primary data collection tool was a new scenario-based questionnaire (Managing Your Emotions for Language Learning [MYE]) which uses the vignette methodology. Participants responded to nine scenarios typical of classroom language learning (LL) by specifying what emotions they would experience and what ERS they would use to increase positive and handle negative emotions. They also listed the ERS they had actually used and reported on their effectiveness. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with selected learner participants (n = 16) and their teachers (n = 9). It was found that the scenarios were realistic and that participants experienced a range of positive and negative emotions, sometimes simultaneously. A comprehensive list of ERS for LL was established informed by but more nuanced than previous taxonomies. The choice of ERS seemed to depend on specific situations, the learning context and participant characteristics. Both learner and teacher participants considered learners’ ERS effective. The validity of MYE has been established and its potential pedagogic use was put forward.
... Some studies postulate that the effectiveness language learning can be determined by explicit use of different language tasks such as metacognitive knowledge about task characteristics and applying appropriate strategies for task solution (Azizi, Nemati, & Estahbanati, 2017). Stracke (2016) points out the reasons why second language instructors recommend to use metacognitive strategies in EFL/ESL classroom. One of such reasons is the claim that metacognitive strategies enable learners to play active role in the process of learning, to manage and direct their own learning and eventually to find the best ways to practice and reinforce what they have learned (Rahimi, & Katal, 2012). ...
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One of the most challenging aspects of foreign language learning is writing. Writing is the most demanding and complicated aspect of language system. Writing requires the collective effort of orthographic, graphomotor and other linguistic skills with the inclusion of semantics, syntax, spelling, and writing conventions without being restricted to the aforementioned skills. The Improvement of cognitive psychology, metacognition has drawn the focus of an increasing number of researchers' and paved way for recent dimensions on EFL writing, particularly in the aspect of writing achievement. Due to the fact that the method possesses a highly-placed executive aptness which comprises of formulation, supervision, and assessment, this study attempts to investigate the influence of using metacognitive strategies on Jordanian EFL learners' writing performance. Forty four students were randomly selected from secondary school level to partake in experimental control of the study. The researcher made use of the intervention program based on CALLA model of teaching in classroom. The experimental group (EG) received metacognitive strategies-based writing instruction whereas the control group (CG) received only the routine writing instruction (Product Approach). After five weeks of instruction, both groups were post-tested and at the end of program which lasted for twelve weeks, the students carried out another post-test. Data were submitted to the independent Mann-Whitney U test followed by Wilcoxon Signed-Rank test analysis. The results showed that there was a positive effect in the experimental group's writing performance. The findings of this study have implications for pedagogy as well as for future research.
... Similarly, Oxford and Nyikos (1989), and more recently Tang and Tian (2015), reported a more frequent use of language learning strategies (e.g., practicing, organizing) among liberal arts majors. Higher use of learning strategies, in turn, has been consistently associated with higher self-efficacy beliefs (e.g., Anam & Stracke, 2016;Kim, Wang, Ahn, & Bong, 2015;see Mills, 2014). One possible reason for this consistent finding could be that strategies mediate the relationship between performance and personal and contextual characteristics (see Pintrich, 2004). ...
Article
The English language is playing an ever-increasing role in global cultural, political, and economic domains. This underscores a rapidly growing need for good English public speaking (EPS) skills among college students and a need to better understand instructionally manipulable factors, such as self-efficacy, that may contribute to EPS skills development. Grounded in Bandura's self-efficacy theory, this study investigated the degree to which four sources of self-efficacy: enactive mastery experience (EME), vicarious experience (VE), verbal persuasion (VP), and physiological and affective states (PAS) predicted EPS self-efficacy among 263 adult Chinese English as a foreign language learners. The overall results in the combined sample largely support Bandura's hypothesized sources of self-efficacy, with EME, VE, and VP, but not PAS significantly making unique contributions to predicting EPS self-efficacy. The results by subsample highlight prior EPS course experience, gender, and academic major as factors that may impact the existence and the magnitude of the relationship between self-efficacy and its theoretical sources. This is particularly important for educators who wish to foster their students' EPS self-efficacy beliefs as the findings suggest that different groups of students may respond differently to their instructors' efforts. Pedagogical recommendations for EPS self-efficacy building are discussed.
... Efficacious students persist longer when they encounter difficulties (F Pajares, 2009) and use more self-regulated learning strategies for studying English (Anam & Stracke, 2016). ...
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The purpose of present study is to review and analyze existing literature pertaining English as a Second Language (here onwards, ESL) writing anxiety, writer's native language, ESL writing self-efficacy and ESL writing performance. Specifically, this article is divided into two main sections; first section offers the conceptual review of the concepts involved while second section provides a review of existing literature on the relationship of ESL writing anxiety, writer's native language and ESL writing self-efficacy with ESL writing performance. A keen review of literature illustrates that mixed findings have been reported on above-mentioned relationships. This inconclusiveness of findings in existing body of literature calls for additional research on said area. Therefore, further research is recommended to reexamine the proposed relationships by introducing some moderating factors that may explain the inconsistencies in the relationships in existing literature.
... The self-belief drives learners to be more resilient and persistent when dealing with difficult tasks [1], [2] and more motivationally and cognitively engaged in learning processes [3]. Learners with firm self-efficacy are more likely to gain better learning results [4], [5], [6], [7] and better at regulating their own learning [8], [9], [10], [11]. The learners who are confident with their ability also tend envision successes and to be more task-focused and less worried with possible failures [12], [6]. ...
... In the teaching material include in intensive reading. Intensive reading is the reading and detailing activity in the classroom by doing the short assignment for about two or four pages (Heni Mularsih, 2010;Umi Faizah, 2009;Syafi'ul Anam and Elke Stracke, 2016;Tobing, 2013). Intensive reading is one of the aspect language skills that must be mastered by the students. ...
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This research has purpose to implementation of Islamic characteristic by developing material intensive reading of Indonesian language for third grade of Islamic elementary school Darussalam Sidoarjo. From the result of this research will produce a teaching material be in the form of intensive reading text book based on Islamic character for third grade of Islamic elementary school. This research used Research and Development (R&D) method or research development by using developing model of Walter Dick and Lou Carey. The instrument that used to collecting data is exercise test, questionnaire and rating scale. By the implementation of Islamic character in the teaching material of Indonesian language, there should to integrated in value of Islamic character, religious and responsible to the material, implicitly, showing through the picture illustration , narration and teaching learning activity that has been done. From the result of assessment and analysis from all of third grade students of Islamic elementary school Darussalam Sidoarjo has shown the improvement and use religious and responsible character.
... Finally, we present research articles that are moving the field into novel territory, via means such as developing new instruments, exploring new structures, or examining relationships between strategic learning other theory (Anam & Stracke, 2016;Ardasheva, 2016;Park et al., 2014;Teng & Zhang, 2016). Of these four articles in our in-depth review, we showcase Ardasheva (2016) and Teng and Zhang (2016) as having the greatest implications for driving forward the field of strategic learning. ...
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Language learner strategy research has been dogged by criticisms in recent decades culminating in calls for the field to be replaced with the construct of self-regulation. This paper aims to evaluate how the field has responded to such critique, and to investigate how self-regulation has impacted strategy research in recent years. The study utilizes a systematic review methodology to examine key studies conducted and published from 2010 to 2016 to reveal current trends, and to elucidate best research practices. After initially searching more than 1000 research papers, 46 of the most field-aware studies were selected for data extraction, of which 24 were included in a final systematic map for analysis. Results show strategy research is highly reliant on quantitative measures of data collection, but also reveal a number of context-situated qualitative methods which have produced valuable results. An in-depth review of the 15 most relevant studies revealed a number of innovations that have considerably advanced language learning strategy research in recent years. In a field awash with studies that are anchored to past methodologies, this paper showcases state-of-the-art work in the field, with an aim to inform future research.
... Abedini, Rahimi, and Zare-ee (2011) indicated that language learners' learning strategy was closely related with their self-efficacy beliefs but most students did not utilise metacognitive strategies in their language learning. Students efficacious in performing English tasks significantly differ from those who did not use learning strategies (Anam & Stracke, 2016). Self-efficacy in reading was positively related to reading strategy use and three specific categories (e.g. ...
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The present study examined the link between teacher–student relationship at the class level and academic achievement via the serial multiple mediation effect of self-efficacy and learning strategy in Chinese EFL context with 11,036 eighth graders. Student-reported measures of teacher–student relationship, English self-efficacy, learning strategy and curriculum-based measures of English achievement were collected in fall 2015. Multilevel mediation model revealed that the positive relationship between teacher–student relationship at the class level and English achievement was partially mediated by self-efficacy, cognitive and metacognitive strategy, and serially mediated by self-efficacy and then learning strategy in Chinese EFL context, controlling for SES and gender. The findings suggest that positive teacher–student relationship can help students to develop English proficiency by fostering their English self-efficacy and use of learning strategy. The results of the present study extend our understanding of influential factors in foreign language learning processes and hold substantive theoretical and practical implications for educational researchers as well as teachers.
... This finding was in line with what Sanaoui (1995) found out; learners who are equipped with vocabulary learning strategies are more successful in vocabulary recall in comparison with those learners who are not provided with these strategies. Furthermore, learners' establishment of frequent strategies is positively correlated with their level of English and self-efficacy (Anam & Stracke, 2016). Exploring two broad viewpoints on autonomous learners, Oxford (2015) asserted that self-regulated learners took learning strategies into account. ...
Article
After some years, vocabulary research has once again found its fundamental position in pedagogical studies as an inseparable component of language instruction. However, many studies conducted have focused more on vocabulary learning strategies rather than explicit instruction of these techniques. The present study, though, seeks to find out whether teaching vocabulary learning strategies is effective in enhancing the knowledge of EFL learners. Two vocabulary tests of Lex30 and Vocabulary Size Test were administered to 51 intermediate Iranian EFL learners. By employing a mixed method approach, five distinct semi-structured interview sessions were held. The results of independent samples t-tests revealed the effectiveness of teaching vocabulary learning strategies as the experimental group outperformed the control group. Moreover, the analysis of transcribed data suggested that learners showed positive attitude toward instruction of vocabulary learning strategies. Finally, some pedagogical implications for teaching vocabulary are offered.
... Numerous of research studies provide data that self-regulated learning (SRL) is crucial and highly prophetic of young learners' academic achievement and learning motivation (Anam & Stracke, 2016;Dent & Koenka, 2016;Pino-Pasternak, Basilio, & Whitebread, 2014). By engaging SRL, children learn how to take initiative in monitoring their learning strategies and place, evaluate their learning, and progress to perform better (Panadero, 2017). ...
... From all strategies, Oxford (1990) developed the Strategy Inventory of Language learning (SILL) questionnaire to know which strategy used by the learners in learning a language. Bobanovic & Randic (2008), Lai (2009), Salahshour & Sharifi (2013, Chang & Liu (2013), Wilujeng (2015), Jiang & Wu, (2016), (Stracke & Anam, 2016), (Hadi, 2017), and Shyr et al (2017) have scrutinized the LLS used by EFL learners which aim for knowing the specific LLS used in improving the target language. These studies used SILL questionnaire adopted from Oxford (1990) to identify the most frequent strategy used. ...
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Learning strategy has been widely acknowledged to play an important role in foreign language learning to help the learners in improving language competence. However, studies about language learning in EFL setting in various setting with different participants are still required as to provide a comprehensive representation of how language learning strategies are applied by L2 learners, particularly in an Indonesian EFL setting. This study aimed to examine what language learning strategies are used by EFL learners who work as the local tour guide at National Park of Bromo Tengger Semeru /Taman Nasional Bromo Tengger Semeru (TNBTS), located in East Java, Indonesia. Participants of this study were 33 English learners who work as local tour guide The instruments used was Strategy Inventory for Language Learning (SILL) version 7.0 adapted from Oxford (1990) consisting of 50 questions with 5 scale for each item. This study had a quantitative design as it dealt with the analysis of the numeric data collected from the questionnaire results and employed SPSS software as a tool to analyze descriptive statistics. The result showed that the most frequent strategy used was compensation strategy with mean value 3.64 and the least frequent strategy used was memory strategy with mean value 2.77.
... The findings of this study offer a detailed account of the content of Indonesian language textbooks used in vocational schools, particularly those connected to the degree of cognition in the questions (Finn et al., 2014). This finding is particularly valuable for teachers, schools, textbook writers, and curriculum designers because it provides a full description of the items in the textbook as well as their associations (Stracke, 2016). Additionally, the findings of this study contribute to the body of knowledge in the field of textbook research in vocational schools. ...
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Although there have been a lot of studies on Bloom's taxonomy's use in the evaluation of language learning in Indonesia, there has never been any research on Bloom's taxonomy's use in the training and evaluation content of Indonesian language textbooks in vocational schools. The objectives of this study are to describe the reading material, cognitive level, and relationship between the material and other aspects in forty items of reading material from Indonesian language textbooks for vocational schools. To achieve this goal, this research uses descriptive qualitative research methods with content analysis design using primary data sources from textbooks. The results of this qualitative study using a content analysis design revealed that the choice of reading material topics is very diverse and represents textual genres. The level of cognition is not evenly distributed and is dominated by Lower Order Thinking Skills (LOTS) with a total of 24 questions (60%), and there are even 2 levels of cognition that are not accommodated at all. The findings of this study defined the distribution of the level of understanding of the items in the textbook, which is very useful for Indonesian language teachers and textbook writers to complete the items evenly according to the level of cognition dispersal, ensuring that students' mastery of the subject matter is broad. Copyright@2022, Erikson S, Samuel S, Bethesda B, Vanny W This is an open access article under the CC-BY-3.0 license
... Regrettably, informal education at the kindergarten and elementary school levels devolves into lessons on local content. Even though English is not a compulsory subject in primary school, an English subject is needed to provide primary school students to receive English lessons in secondary school later (Anam and Stracke, 2016). Therefore, many primary schools in Indonesia need qualified English teachers. ...
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This longitudinal study analyzed university students’ cognition in learning an English for young learners (EYL) course. A qualitative method was used to get the data from 28 students who took the tiered EYL courses, EYL 1, EYL 2, and EYL 3, at a private university by giving them open-ended questionnaires for three semesters, or one and a half years. Semi-structured interviews with those 28 students were also used as the triangulation data at the end of each semester. The findings indicate a very extreme change in pre-service teachers’ cognition, such as motivation, perception, and belief. At the end of their lecture, students initially interested in learning English for young learners did not want to become EYL teachers. On the other hand, students who enrolled in the EYL course for non-academic reasons wanted to have a profession as an EYL teacher after completing the EYL courses. It proves that students’ interest in teaching English to young learners and the length of time spent studying EYL teaching knowledge do not assure those pre-service teachers are increasingly convinced to have a teaching profession.
... Though being considered as significant variables in the learning process (Stracke, 2016), limited studies have been done concerning the interrelationships between self-concept, self-imagination, and self-efficacy in Chinese blended learning contexts. For example, some studies have investigated the learning achievement of Chinese ELLO learners who have abundant access to online learning (Su et al., 2018). ...
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The purpose of the present study was to explore the direct influence of self-concept and self-imagination on English language learning outcomes (ELLO). Furthermore, this study examined the mediating role of self-efficacy in the relationship between self-concept, self-imagination, and ELLO. A survey questionnaire of 21 items was used in this study. We distributed the questionnaire through QR code and collected the data from 2,517 participants who enrolled in blended learning courses at the undergraduate level in Chinese universities. The relationship among the variables was measured through SmartPLS-SEM 3.3.3 (partial least squares structural equation modeling). The outcomes of the present study indicated a direct, positive, and significant connection of self-concept, self-imagination, and self-efficacy with ELLO. Looking at indirect influences, self-concept and self-imagination, positive and significant, influence ELLO through self-efficacy. Thus, self-efficacy was indicated to play a mediating role between self-concept, self-imagination and ELLO. We can conclude that self-concept, self-imagination, and self-efficacy are the main predictors of ELLO in blended learning courses during the pandemic. Additionally, self-concept and self-imagination along with the intervening role of self-efficacy, play a more effective role in improving ELLO. Moreover, this study provided some useful, practical implications, and future research directions.
... Bandura, 1998), all of which can translate into engagement and WTC. SLA research has mainly examined self-efficacy, both overall and with reference to specific TL skills and subsystems, in connection with other ID variables, such as anxiety, motivation, self-regulation or strategy use (e.g., Anam & Stracke, 2016;Kim, Wang, An, & Bong, 2015;Piniel & Author, 2015;Sardegna, Lee, & Kusey, 2018). Investigations of self-efficacy beliefs in SA contexts are few and far between, and they have mostly focused on how stays abroad impact beliefs in one's ability. ...
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The paper explores study abroad (SA) experiences concerning interrelationships of three individual difference (ID) variables: motivated learning behavior, self-efficacy beliefs and self-regulatory strategy use (SRSU). This study was motivated by the increasing availability of SA programs in Europe (European Commission, 2018) and the accompanying need for students and teachers to understand how best to benefit from these programs. Data were collected through an online questionnaire from 70 university students in Poland who had completed or were participating in SA. The questionnaire contained scales measuring motivated learning behavior, self-efficacy and SRSU before, during and after SA. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to explore the three constructs. In addition, cluster analysis was employed to profile participants with respect to the IDs under investigation. The results demonstrate that: (1) while participants reported high motivated behavior and self-efficacy, SRSU at all stages was initiated by students, (2) the ability to successfully self-regulate one's learning determined motivated learning behavior, and (3) for 50% of participants high levels of the attributes under investigation coincided, thus potentially increasing learning outcomes. The main implication of the study is that students need to be trained SRSU if they are to make the most of the SA experience.
... A, 2020). The learning strategy designed by the teacher based on the need to process learning activities (Anam & Stracke, 2016). Especially during this pandemic, an unusual learning strategy needed. ...
... The subconscious dimension involves a new set of practices where learners concentrate on the transmission of meaning rather than on the language itself (Oga-Baldwin et al., 2017). Stracke (2016) has argued that the students should be concerned with the substance of what they say rather than the form in a communicative function. You can use a wide range of languages. ...
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Language disorders can be one of the reasons for EFL learners' mediocre performance and poor language proficiency in English, both in the formal educational system and later in life, in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. With early detection, however, language disorders can be managed. The key phrase here is 'early detection'. This paper ventures to contribute to the existing knowledge on language disorders among young Saudi EFL learners. It employed a descriptive correlational research design. It seeks to recognize factors that may contribute to English-speaking student development of the respondents by addressing their language anxiety and disorders. Results indicated that EFL Saudi students generally had a feeling of anxiety and disorder in learning the English language. Their communication anxiety is positively correlated to their fear of negative function, test anxiety, and anxiety in English learning. The findings suggest that the higher the communication anxiety of the respondents, the higher they also manifest their fear on negative feedback, test anxiety in language, and their whole anxiety behaviour in the English language classroom. Hence, it can be practically implied from the findings the need for a relaxing and stress-free English language classroom among Saudi universities. Pedagogical implications of the study are presented for EFL language learning.
... It goes without saying that this can further explain the higher level of graph writing performance in learners with lower writing anxiety observed in this research. In addition, the negative role of writing anxiety in graph writing strategy use can be justified in light of the positive contribution of self-efficacy to the use of language learning strategies (Anam & Stracke, 2016;Golparvar & Khafi, 2021;Chae, 2013;Purdie & Oliver, 1999). Since a lower level of writing anxiety is concomitant with a higher level of writing self-efficacy (Pajares, 2003;Woodrow, 2011;Zabihi, 2018), it can be assumed that a high level of writing anxiety can impede writing strategy use. ...
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Research on integrated writing tasks is increasing, while there is a paucity of empirical findings on graph-based writing, as one type of these tasks. The present study purports to examine the contribution of L2 writing anxiety to university students’ graph writing performance and the strategies they employ for these tasks. The participants of this study were 209 undergraduate university students who wrote an essay on a graph-based prompt and completed two questionnaires measuring writing anxiety and the use of graph writing strategies. The results of structural equation modelling (SEM) indicated that writing anxiety negatively predicted graph writing strategy use and performance. Besides, graph comprehension, graph interpretation, and graph translation, as the latent variables of graph writing strategy use, were found to be positive predictors of graph writing performance. Pedagogical implications with regard to improving performance on graph-based prompts are offered.
... Self-efficacy plays a vital role in learning processes and learning outcomes (Zhang and Ardasheva, 2019). It allows learners to be more involved in their learning processes regarding their motivation, cognition and behavior (Anam and Stracke, 2016). One of the components of social cognition is selfefficacy; Bandura defined self-efficacy as one's belief in his or her ability to achieve assignments (Bandura, 2001). ...
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The COVID-19 pandemic has had a significant impact on education worldwide. The disease first hit China and numerous Chinese cities then started to conduct online courses. Therefore, this study aims to explore the effect of the Shanghai students’ emotional intelligence, learning motivation, and self-efficacy on their academic achievement when they participated in online English classes during the latter phase of the pandemic in China. Furthermore, the research also examines whether the students’ emotional intelligence can influence their academic achievement through the mediation effect of their learning motivation and self-efficacy. Social Cognitive Theory (SCT) and the social cognitive Expectancy-Value Model were employed to build the research framework, and the method of structural equation modeling (SEM) was utilized to conduct the model verification. Ten universities in Shanghai, China were selected for sampling. In total, 450 students were surveyed of which 404 questionnaires were valid. The results show that the students’ emotional intelligence did not directly affect their academic achievement. Nevertheless, the students’ emotional intelligence had a positive effect on their learning motivation and self-efficacy. In addition, mediation analysis showed that the relation between emotional intelligence and academic achievement was sequentially mediated by learning motivation and self-efficacy.
... Learners hold different beliefs, expectations, aptitude, and pedagogical objectives about language learning. Bangladeshi ESL learners prefer socio-affective and meta-cognitive strategies involving learning from others and self-regulated learning than memorizing words and practicing outside the classroom, which are chosen by the ESL learners (Anam & Stracke, 2016 feedback. These themes strongly correlate to the contextual factors and focus on the context influence on learner perceptions directly, which can redefine the statistical findings. ...
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Abstract This article aims at exploring Bangladeshi EFL and ESL learners' beliefs and attitudes to teaching and learning English. The research work has been accomplished at two stages. At the first phase, if learner beliefs differ for individual learner differences, such as gender, nature of course, and length of study has been investigated. The second phase includes a comparison between EFL undergraduate and ESL graduate learners' beliefs, who study at two universities in Bangladesh. Both the quantitative and qualitative data have been collected to support the hypothesis that learners having different language needs hold diverse beliefs and attitudes to second language learning in varied pedagogic contexts. Findings reveal that learner's beliefs do not change widely over the contexts; instead, learner attitudes to second language pedagogy change along with individual differences. Experts' research-oriented recommendations on supervising EFL and ESL learners' beliefs using individually responsive and need-based pedagogies have been proposed. Keywords: EFL learners, ESL learners, beliefs, context, pedagogy.
... Students with higher second/foreign language proficiency tend to have higher confidence and lower anxiety (Thompson and Lee, 2014), contributing to an overall higher sense of self-efficacy. A higher sense of selfefficacy, in turn, correlates highly with greater use of learning strategies and better self-regulation (Anam & Stracke, 2016;Wang & Bai, 2017), potentially resulting in higher levels of performance. The present study will examine these relationships empirically in the context of an EPS course in China. ...
Article
English public speaking (EPS) is increasingly gaining prominence and popularity around the world, and this is especially true for university students in China. While self-efficacy is typically strongly correlated with language performance in general (Pajares & Graham, 1999), very little is known about self-efficacy and EPS performance specifically. Grounded in self-efficacy theory (Bandura, 1997) and research on English for academic purposes and English-as-a-foreign-language (EFL) literature, the main purpose of this study is to postulate and test against data a hypothesized model of EPS performance predictors to examine the relationships among student background characteristics, theoretically postulated sources of EPS self-efficacy, and the relationship between EPS self-efficacy and EPS performance. Participants were 82 EFL students enrolled in a university-level EPS course in China. Both quantitative and qualitative methods were employed for data collection and analysis. ANOVA results indicated substantial EPS self-efficacy and speech performance growth throughout the semester. Path analysis results provided evidence regarding hypothesized relationships among variables; qualitative data helped gain more fine-grained understanding of such relationships. These results add knowledge to self-efficacy theory in the EPS domain, provide a foundation for more robust models in other contexts, and affirm the importance of EPS instructional practices.
... On the other hand, BL environments are found to be suitable to practice SRL skills and hence foster its development. Because of the great emphasis given to collaborative activities in BL, meta-cognitive skills are at the front of the learning process (Lynch & Dembo, 2004).Though SR is a crucial force affecting learning (Anam & Stracke, 2016), the interplay between SRL and BL has not been fully explored. Hence, this chapter tried to shade light on the influence of blended learning on self-regulated learning and vice-versa. ...
Chapter
As the nexus between personalized learning and technology-mediated learning, self-regulated learning is a topic of great research interest and a range of issues are still open for investigation. There is a substantial interest in the instructional tools supporting SRL in digital learning environment. In this chapter, the authors present an empirical evidence of self-regulated learning experiences dwelled in a blended learning environment in higher education. In this particular context, the experiences obtained from two intervention groups who engaged in the same blended learning course were examined. The purpose is to provide an insight regarding the current trajectories of learning in terms of student-centered approach with relation to emerging pedagogical practice. Results show that pedagogical approach does not guarantee a pleasingly improved learning; rather, there is a need for additional mechanism that might raise students' interest. Subsequently, imperative implications for educators, researchers, and curriculum developers are forwarded.
... Indeed, the other factor related to learning success in the academic context is SRL that refers to the comprehensive process of education that consists of intellectual, psychological, social, emotional, and personal elements (Panadero, 2017;Müller and Seufert, 2018). Studies have shown that SRL is important for learners' educational progress since it makes them more motivated and academically successful (Anam and Stracke, 2016). Self-regulated teaching is a flexible educational approach that focuses on the learner creating his or her reactions, feelings, and skills and learning toward attaining his or her personal goals (Zimmerman and Schunk, 2011;Zhang and Zhang, 2019 In recent years, education has been recognized as one of the most important tasks for instructors to carry out: instruct learners how to become independent, responsible individuals who can directly regulate their education (Šteh and Šarić, 2020). ...
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It has been established that grit has a fundamental role in the learning and teaching process since gritty learners are more likely to take part in classroom activities and they are also motivated to deal with challenges in difficult circumstances. In addition, to guard against these hardships as well as self-control in responding to unpredicted circumstances, a similar construct arouses in positive psychology called resilience that describes perseverance and emphasizes people’s abilities. Besides, language learners’ engagement and performance in the foreign or second language classroom can be improved through self-regulated learning (SRL) which is viewed as one of the most inspected issues in learning and psychology. A present review has been conducted to scrutinize the relationship between language learners’ SRL and learners’ resilience and grit based on their positive theoretical relationship with educational success. Consequently, the issue of educator training and administrative training is illuminated through several aspects.
... In the 1970s, several scholars recommended that studies should be done on the non-linguistic outcomes of second/foreign language learning (Wang et al., 2013). This resulted in studies focusing on issues such as motivation (e.g., Bai & Wang, 2021;Clément et al., 1985;Dörnyei, 2001), language learning strategies (e.g., Anam & Stracke, 2016;Habók & Magyar, 2018a;Montaño-González & Cancino, 2020;O'Malley & Chamot, 1990;Oxford, 1990;, and self-regulation (e.g., Bai & Wang, 2021;Habók & Magyar, 2018b;Tseng et al., 2017;Schunk & Zimmerman, 2012;Zimmerman, 2011). Researchers have also examined self-efficacy, which is considered one of the most important factors in motivation (Bandura, 1997;Hoang & Wyatt, 2021). ...
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This study provides evidence of the validity and reliability of a self-efficacy questionnaire in English as a Foreign Language (EFL) in a Vietnamese sample of university students. A total of 656 non-English-major students completed the questionnaire in an online format. SPSS version 24, SPSS AMOS, and SmartPLS 3 were employed to analyze the data. A confirmatory factor analysis was carried out to assess the hypothesized structure model and several analyses such as composite reliability, Cronbach's alpha a, and rho_A were conducted to evaluate reliability. The results showed that the questionnaire had a high reliability and adequate validity. All the values were satisfactory, and the model was confirmed. Therefore, the adapted questionnaire in this study can be applied to measure self-efficacy in EFL contexts as it gives valuable feedback to teachers and students to improve the quality of language teaching and learning.
Article
The crucial role of individual difference (ID) variables in second language acquisition has long been attested to. It has also been acknowledged that ID factors need to be explored in a contextual manner as their role and impact might vary across learning environments. This is also true about study abroad (SA) where constellations of ID variables determine linguistic and non-linguistic benefits. With this in mind, the study investigated the ways in which self-regulatory strategy use before, during and after the SA might impact self-efficacy beliefs and motivated learning behavior in three contexts: Italy (N = 234), Poland (N = 86) and Turkey (N = 85). A questionnaire was used to collect data in the three countries. One-way and repeated-measures ANOVAs as well as regression analyses showed that even though some tendencies, such as the key role of teacher-initiated strategies during SA, were common across the three contexts, important differences were also uncovered in terms the overall role of self-regulation and the impact of student-initiated strategies. These results provide context-sensitive implications in Europe.
Article
Purpose: Factors of self-regulated learning processes, namely teacher autonomy support/parental autonomy support, and three types of individual goal-orientations (i.e. mastery goal, performance-approach goal, performance-avoidance goal) were examined. Methodology: A questionnaire was used to survey 212 Japanese undergraduate students who were enrolled in English language courses. Findings: Teacher and parental autonomy support were positive predictors of intrinsic value, which in turn positively predicted metacognitive and cognitive strategy use. Performance-avoidance goal disposition was a positive predictor of metacognitive strategy use; however, it was a negative predictor of cognitive strategy use. Mastery goal disposition was a positive predictor of intrinsic value, which in turn positively predicted meta-cognitive and cognitive strategy use. Individual factors (i.e. goal orientations) were predictors of self-regulated learning processes and support from parents and teachers were required to sustain these self-regulated processes. Value: Intrinsic value appears to be a key mediator in predicting meta-cognitive and cognitive strategy use for individual factors, parental autonomy support and teacher autonomy support factors. Findings from this research provide a better understanding of self-regulated learning processes in the Japanese language learning context.
Chapter
The chapter begins by defining the differences among these terms which often overlap and are frequently used more-or-less synonymously. Vignettes are provided to exemplify the ways people from different cultures perceive issues such as terms of address and the interpretation they place on various behaviour. Previous literature is reviewed, as well as a previously unpublished study on culture shock. General implications of the study are discussed, as well as implications for language teaching and learning. Suggestions for further studies are provided, and the chapter concludes by suggesting that race/ethnicity/nationality/culture is not a simple phenomenon, but interacts dynamically with numerous other factors such other individual differences and the socio-ecological environment in complex ways which need to be viewed holistically.
Chapter
Beliefs are a very personal matter which may manifest themselves in a number of ways, including how learners go about learning language, and, perhaps, how successful they are in the endeavour. It tends to be a rather fuzzy concept, which different people interpret in different ways, but this chapter attempts a definition, describes attempts to measure it, and reviews existing literature. The importance of the socio-ecological environment is stressed, and two new studies are described and compared in order to examine the effect of the context. The complex and dynamic nature of beliefs is also discussed. Implications of students’ beliefs for the learning and teaching of language are suggested as well as directions for further research. The chapter concludes by suggesting that beliefs do not exist in a vacuum, but they need to be viewed holistically as part of the complex/dynamic/socio-ecological whole.
Article
Dieser Beitrag widmet sich als Bestandteil des Themenschwerpunkts zum neu erschienenen Begleitband des GeR der Beschreibung und Skalierung von Strategien im Referenzrahmen (Europarat 2001; 2018). Der Artikel nähert sich zunächst dem Ansatz des Dokuments vor dem Hintergrund einiger neuerer Entwicklungen der L2-Strategieforschung. Im Anschluss wird die Logik der Strategieskalierung im GeR methodologisch kritisch eingeordnet. Zudem werden einige grundlegende Charakteristika und Probleme der Strategieskalen besprochen und am Beispiel einer etwas detaillierteren Darstellung der Skala „Hinweise identifizieren und erschließen“ aufgezeigt. Der Beitrag schließt mit einer kritischen Diskussion. || This contribution to the thematic series on the CEFR focuses on the approach adopted by the CEFR (Europarat 2001) and its newly published Companion Volume (Europarat 2018) towards learner strategies. Strategy definitions in the CEFR text are, first, discussed in light of recent developments in L2 strategy research. The paper, next, addresses the rationale followed in the calibration of the CEFR strategy scales from a methodological perspective, focusing on some of the more general characteristics of the rationale as well as pointing out some of its flaws. As an illustration, one of the scales („Identifying cues and inferring“) will be analyzed in depth. The main findings of the contribution will, finally, be summarized.
Article
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This article reports a large-scale survey on the use of language learning strategies by first-year college students in Taiwan, with the aim of describing what language learning strategies they reported using and what strategic patterns were formed. A total of 199 non-English majors responded to a survey designed by Oxford (1990), namely, the Strategies Inventory for Language Learning (SILL) (Version 7.0). The results show that today’s language learners self-reported using the following SILL strategies in the following order of frequency: compensation strategies, metacognitive strategies, social strategies, memory strategies, cognitive strategies, and affective strategies. In addition, the results also demonstrate that three SILL categories used today were used differently in the past: affective strategies, metacognitive strategies, and compensation strategies. Moreover, it was also found that males and females these days had slightly different strategic patterns from one another in learning English and also used slightly different ones in the past.
Article
The multifaceted nature of writing makes it one of the most challenging school subjects for English-as-a-foreign-language (EFL) students. Despite its importance and wide attention attracted, primary school students’ unsatisfactory writing performance has been little researched. As an optimal way of learning, self-regulated learning (SRL) has gained surging popularity in various academic disciplines but the field of second language (L2) writing is still underexplored. To fill the gap, the study investigated 291 upper-grade (4th-6th grades) Hong Kong primary students’ use of SRL writing strategies, and explored whether the students’ strategy use varied between genders, and across English writing proficiency groups and grade levels. A three-way MANOVA was performed and results showed that the students’ SRL writing strategy use varied significantly between genders, and across different writing proficiency groups and grade levels. Interaction effects of grade level and gender were also discovered. Important implications are drawn.
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This study investigates the use of language learning strategies by 128 students majoring in English at Sultan Qaboos University (SQU) in Oman. Using Oxford's (1990) Strategy Inventory for Language Learners (SILL), the study seeks to extend our current knowledge by examining the relationship between the use of language learning strategies (LLS) and gender and English proficiency, measured using a three-way criteria: students' grade point average (GPA) in English courses, study duration in the English Department, and students' perceived self-rating. It is as well a response to a call by Oxford to examine the relationship between LLSs and various factors in a variety of settings and cultural backgrounds (see Oxford, 1993). Results of a one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed that the students used metacognitive strategies significantly more than any other category of strategies, with memory strategies ranking last on students' preference scale. Contrary to the findings of a number of studies (see e.g., Hong-Nam & Leavell, 2006), male students used more social strategies than female students, thus creating the only difference between the two groups in terms of their strategic preferences. Moreover, ANOVA results revealed that more proficient students used more cognitive, metacognitive and affective strategies than less proficient students. As for study duration, the results showed a curvilinear relationship between strategy use and study duration, where freshmen used more strategies followed by juniors, then seniors and sophomores, respectively. Analysis of the relationship between strategy use and self-rating revealed a sharp contrast between learners who are selfefficacious and those who are not, favoring the first group in basically every strategy category. To find out which type of strategy predicted learners' L2 proficiency, a backward stepwise logistic regression analysis was performed on students' data, revealing that use of cognitive strategies was the only predictor that distinguished between students with high GPAs and those with low GPAs. The present study suggests that the EFL cultural setting may be a factor that determines the type of strategies preferred by learners. This might be specifically true since some of the results obtained in this study vary from results of studies conducted in other cultural contexts. Results of this study may be used to inform pedagogical choices at university and even pre-university levels.
Article
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The focus of education has changed from teacher-directed to learner-oriented instruction in previous years. Majority of studies in the field of EFL/ESL learning involves issues relevant to learners and their individual differences. Therefore, the present study focused on some of these individual variables; namely self-efficacy and language learning strategies. This study aimed at exploring the relationship between EFL learner's self-efficacy and language learning strategy use. Also, frequently language learning strategies by EFL learners and the existence of a significant difference in their self-efficacy beliefs and strategy use due to gender and years of English study are investigated. A group of 130 first year university students consented to participate in the present study. The results of statistical analyses indicated that there was no relationship between self-efficacy and language learning strategy use. Moreover, metacognitive strategies are frequently used language learning strategies by EFL learners. In addition, there were no significant differences in both self-efficacy and strategy use due to gender. But, there were significant differences in self-efficacy beliefs and only in metacognitive strategies due to years of English study.
Article
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This article provides an introduction to the state of the art of language learning strategies in the twenty-first century – a panoramic view of the international landscape of strategies. In the landscape are eight key areas of controversy and discussion: strategy definitions, strategies and proficiency, theoretical underpinnings, categorization, context, teachability, research methodology, and analysis. In addition, this article presents a synopsis of the rest of the articles in this special issue and explains the methodology guiding the three articles in the unique “Multiple-Researcher Perspectives” section of this special issue. The article concludes with a statement about global reach and a roadmap for the future.
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This paper explores the concept of learning strategies through a prototype perspective. It is argued that "learning strategy" is not a clearly definable concept, because strategies differ from each other in terms of "family resemblance" or "graded degrees of membership". The prototypical core of a strategy is a dynamic process with problem-solving as its central aim. It involves selective attention, analysis of task, choice of decisions, execution of plan, monitoring of progress and/or modification of plan, and evaluation of result. A strategy varies in terms of prototypicality along the following dimensions: 1) intentionality, 2) self-initiation, 3) metacognitive regulation, 4) sequentiality of activities, 5) chunking of activities, and 6) automaticity in strategy execution. In addition, a "learner-task-context-strategy" framework is presented to provide the "learning" dimensions of learning strategies. It is hoped that the perspectives presented in this article will open up a new agenda on language learning strategy research.
Article
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We investigated the relationships between global self-esteem, academic self-efficacy and academic performance among a sample of 255 college students in the United Arab Emirates. The widely used Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale (RSES; Rosenberg, 1965) and an academic self-efficacy scale, modified from (Jinks and Morgan, 1999) were used to assess student's self-esteem and their academic self-efficacy. Each student's average grade for the mid-semester and final semester was used as the performance measure. Confirmatory factor analyses using Analysis of Moment Structures (AMOS) version 18 performed on the scores of the RSES revealed two factors (positive and negative self-esteem) as hypothesized. Correlated results indicated significant relationships between global self-esteem and academic self-efficacy. Also academic achievement was associated with having high academic self-efficacy.
Article
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The present work aims to contribute to our understanding of the underlying dimensions of language learning strategies in foreign language contexts. The study analyzes alternative factor structures underlying a recently developed instrument (Tragant and Victori, 2012) and it includes the age factor in the examination of its construct validity. The target population consists of middle- and upper-grade learners of English distributed in two samples (n1 = 550 and n2 = 1425). Exploratory factor analysis and item analysis were initially conducted to be followed by confirmatory factor analyses and multiple-groups factor analysis. The instrument is a 55-item questionnaire based on a 6-point Likert-type scale measuring students' reported frequency of strategy use. Results support a correlated two-factor structure with a shortened scale of 17 items reflecting ‘skills-based deep processing strategies’ and ‘language study strategies,’ offering empirical evidence for the distinction between deep and surface clusters of strategies. Multiple-groups factor analysis showed that this model held for both middle- and upper-grade students, and upper-grade students were more likely to use the more advanced skills-based deep processing strategies and less inclined to use language study strategies than middle-grade students. The brevity of the scale and parsimonious factor structure enhance the questionnaire's utility for research and classroom evaluation.
Article
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This study explores factors related to the language learning strategies of second language learners, specifically Generation 1.5 Korean immigrant students – the seventh-largest and one of the fastest growing foreign-born groups in the USA. Participants in this study were members of the Korean communities located in Pittsburgh and Philadelphia who completed a self-report instrument (English as a second language/English as a foreign language strategy inventory for language learning (SILL)) that assesses language learning strategies. Since there is currently no consensus regarding how many factors the SILL adequately measures, the data were examined with an exploratory factor analysis technique. Results add to a growing body of evidence suggesting that a single SILL factor best describes the instrument, as the proposed six sub-domain indices demonstrate tenuous construct validity.
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The role of self-efficacy beliefs concerning the academic attainment and regulation of writing, academic goals, and self-standards on writing course achievement was studied with college freshman using path analysis. These self-regulatory variables were measured at the beginning of a writing course and related to final course grades. Students’ verbal scholastic aptitude and level of instruction were also included in the analysis. Perceptions of self-efficacy for writing influenced both perceived academic self-efficacy and personal standards for the quality of writing considered self-satisfying. High personal standards and perceived academic self-efficacy, in turn, fostered adoption of goals for mastering writing skills. Neither level of writing instruction nor verbal aptitude had any direct link to course grades. Verbal aptitude affected writing course outcomes only indirectly by its influence on personal standards. Perceived academic self-efficacy influenced writing grade attainments both directly and through its impact on personal goal setting. These paths of influence were interpreted in terms of a social cognitive theory of academic self-regulation.
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The intent of the present study is to investigate the current English language learning strategies employed by English majors enrolled at Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University in Turkey. The study also aims at exploring the relationship between preferred language strategies, gender, proficiency, and self-efficacy beliefs. For this purpose, a questionnaire was administered to 140 participants in the department of English Language Teaching. The results of this study showed that the highest rank (79.4%) was for Compensation strategies while the lowest (63.8%) was for Affective strategies. The results also pointed to significant differences for the strategies in favour of good learners.
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This article reviews the social origins of students' development of self-regulatory skill with special emphasis on observational learning through modeling. A social cognitive perspective on self-regulation is presented. In this view, students' academic competence develops initially from social sources of academic skill and subsequently shifts to self sources in a series of 4 levels: observational, imitative, self-controlled, and self-regulated. The effects of models on observers depend in part on perceptions of self-efficacy, or beliefs about one's capabilities to learn or perform designated behaviors. Research on social influences is reviewed, and includes factors such as cognitive modeling, coping and mastery models, self-modeling, learning goals, and progress feedback. Related theoretical perspectives are discussed along with suggestions for future research.
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The present study investigated the influence of self-efficacy judgments on cognitive performance when subjects had equivalent knowledge and experience in the performance domain. High or low self-efficacy perceptions were experimentally induced in a sample of 64 Canadian college students. Results showed that differences in perceptions were related to measures of the number of problems completed, the efficiency of problem-solving strategies, and the accuracy of self-evaluation of responses. These results suggest that the perception of self-efficacy is a viable construct for comprehending performance, particularly on academic tasks requiring sustained self-monitoring.
Article
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The purpose of this study was to illustrate the relationship between self-efficacy, task value, goal orientations, metacognitive self-regulation, self-regulation and learning strategies and to investigate the unique contribution of each on the variability in students' total scores of 12 exams. Our study revealed that students' self-efficacy, task-value, self-regulation, and elaboration are significantly positively correlated with total scores. Path analysis demonstrated that self-efficacy was the strongest predictor of total score and positively predicted mastery goals, but negatively predicted avoidant goals. The study reveals positive direct effect of mastery goals on metacognitive self-regulation. In addition, positive direct effects of metacognitive self-regulation on deep learning strategies and on self-regulatory strategies are found. However, some expected direct effects were not represented with significant parameters in the model. Performance-approach goals were not a significant predictor of other variables in the model. Also, there were no significant direct effects of mastery goals nor metacognitive self-regulation and deep learning strategies on total scores which were discussed here.
Article
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This article discusses the strategy repertoires and strategy development of six English children who learned foreign languages at primary school. My study differs from mainstream research, in that it focuses on young children and on the development of their strategies, draws on sociocultural theory and uses ethnographic methods. My findings show that the six children developed a range of strategies over the course of a calendar year in spite of receiving no direct strategy instruction. The primary classroom encouraged learner autonomy and stimulated children to reflect on their learning which, in turn, enabled them to refine their strategies.
Article
Presents an integrative theoretical framework to explain and to predict psychological changes achieved by different modes of treatment. This theory states that psychological procedures, whatever their form, alter the level and strength of self-efficacy. It is hypothesized that expectations of personal efficacy determine whether coping behavior will be initiated, how much effort will be expended, and how long it will be sustained in the face of obstacles and aversive experiences. Persistence in activities that are subjectively threatening but in fact relatively safe produces, through experiences of mastery, further enhancement of self-efficacy and corresponding reductions in defensive behavior. In the proposed model, expectations of personal efficacy are derived from 4 principal sources of information: performance accomplishments, vicarious experience, verbal persuasion, and physiological states. Factors influencing the cognitive processing of efficacy information arise from enactive, vicarious, exhortative, and emotive sources. The differential power of diverse therapeutic procedures is analyzed in terms of the postulated cognitive mechanism of operation. Findings are reported from microanalyses of enactive, vicarious, and emotive modes of treatment that support the hypothesized relationship between perceived self-efficacy and behavioral changes. (21/2 p ref)
Article
This study looks at the internal reliability of the Strategy Inventory for Language Learning (Oxford, 1 990), using the ESL/EFL version in Japanese translation. The results of the Cronbach’s alpha analysis indicate a high degree of reliability for the overall questionnaire, but less so for the six subsections. Moreover, the test-retest correlations for the two administrations are extremely low with an average shared variance of 1 9.5 percent at the item level and 25.5 percent at the subsection level. In addition, the construct validity of the SILL was examined using exploratory factor analysis. While the SILL claims to be measuring six types of strategies, the two factor analyses include as many as 1 5 factors. Moreover, an attempt to fit the two administrations into a six-factor solution results in a disorganized scattering of the questionnaire items. Finally, interviews with participating students raised questions about the ability of participants to understand the metalanguage used in the questionnaire as well as the appropriateness of some items for a Japanese and EFL setting. The authors conclude that despite the popularity of the SILL, use and interpretation of its results are problematic. 本研究は、Oxford(1990)の外国語学習ストラテジー・インベントリー (SILL)のEFL/ESL用日本語版の内部信頼性及び構成概念妥当性を実験と統計に よって検証したものである。クロンバック・アルファ検定による内部信頼性 については、インベントリーの全項目は全体としては信頼性が高かったが、 6タイプのサブカテゴリーに分類されたストラテジーについては信頼性が低か った。また、インベントリーを用いたテスト・再テストの相関は低く、全項 目では平均寄与率19.5パーセント、サブカテゴリーでは25.5パーセントであっ た。構成概念妥当性検定のための説明的因子分析の結果は、6タイプのストラ テジーが15因子に細分化されたこと、さらに、全項目を6因子に分けた結果、 それぞれの因子が無秩序に分類される結果となった。最後に、インタビュー によって、この実験に参加した被験者学生にインベントリーの各項目の内容 理解について確認した結果、日本語がわかりにくく判断しいくい記述、日本 のEFLの状況では理解しにくい記述があることが明らかになった。以上のす べてから、SILLの実用的評価にもかかわらず、それを用いること、また、そ こから得た結果の解釈には問題が含まれているというのが、本研究の研究者 が得た結論である。
Article
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Book
This book addresses fundamental questions regarding the relationships between successful language learning and strategy use and development according to learner, situational or target variables. It considers strategy effectiveness from an individual point of view and discusses pedagogical issues, especially relating to teacher perceptions and training, classroom and learner factors, methodology and content. The book begins by discussing underlying theoretical issues and then presents evidence from empirical studies; in addition to presenting a quantitative view, the book also takes a qualitative look at strategy use by individuals. Rather than focusing on strategies divorced from the 'real world' of the classroom, this book explores the issues from the teaching/learning point of view.
Article
Over the past thirty years, the field of language learning strategies has generated a massive amount of interest and research in applied linguistics. Teaching and Researching Language Learning Strategies redraws the landscape of language learning strategies at just the right time. In this book Rebecca Oxford charts the field systematically and coherently for the benefit of language learning practitioners, students, and researchers. Offering practical, innovative suggestions for assessing, teaching, and researching language learning strategies, she provides examples of strategies and tactics from all levels, from beginners to distinguished-level learners, as well as a new taxonomy of strategies for language learning.
Article
Studies to date have confirmed a positive relationship between learning strategies use and language learning achievement and recognized the importance of learners' self-efficacy beliefs in language learning (Cohen, 1998; Magogwe & Oliver, 2007). However, few studies have been done to uncover the relationship between learners' self-efficacy beliefs on their language learning strategy use in the Taiwanese social context. Many Englishlearning students are found to have low self-efficacy, which could lead to low motivation, and lack of proper language learning strategies to assist their language learning, which might result in students unable to deal with language learning difficulties (Oxford & Shearin, 1994). Therefore, this research is aimed to explore the relationship of Taiwanese high school students' language learning strategy use and their self-efficacy beliefs and the results indicated that the participants used language learning strategies in a medium level, and held a medium level of self-efficacy belief. A significant positive correlation was found between language learning strategy use and self-efficacy beliefs. This paper provides insights to ESL learners in the Taiwanese educational and cultural context, and concludes by contributing ideas to ESL teachers and students on how and what they can do to enhance effective ESL teaching and learning.
Article
This year marks the fortieth anniversary of the publication of two landmark articles concerning the ‘good language learner’. In the years since, vigorous debate has revolved around both theoretical issues (including definition, classification, theoretical foundation, and the relationship of strategies to successful learning) and practical issues (including teachability and the relationship to learner, and contextual and target variables). This article reviews these areas and concludes that strategies are teachable, especially if teachers include both explicit and implicit instructional techniques in their programmes to raise awareness, provide practice, and encourage evaluation so that learners can reflect on their strategy use and adjust their strategy repertoires accordingly. A number of areas still requiring further investigation are suggested, especially further exploration of how strategies might be taught more effectively and seeking evidence that this makes a difference in terms of ‘good language learning’.
Article
A correlational study examined relationships between motivational orientation, self-regulated learning, and classroom academic performance for 173 seventh graders from eight science and seven English classes. A self-report measure of student self-efficacy, intrinsic value, test anxiety, self-regulation, and use of learning strategies was administered, and performance data were obtained from work on classroom assignments. Self-efficacy and intrinsic value were positively related to cognitive engagement and performance. Regression analyses revealed that, depending on the outcome measure, self-regulation, self-efficacy, and test anxiety emerged as the best predictors of performance. Intrinsic value did not have a direct influence on performance but was strongly related to self-regulation and cognitive strategy use, regardless of prior achievement level. The implications of individual differences in motivational orientation for cognitive engagement and self-regulation in the classroom are discussed.
Article
This study used latent profile analysis (LPA) to examine different patterns of English as a Second Language (ESL) learners' self-efficacy beliefs for learning English. The Questionnaire of English Self-Efficacy was completed by undergraduate students in Korea. The LPA results revealed three groups representing low, medium, and high self-efficacy profiles. The high and medium self-efficacy profiles represent students who spent more years of studying English and are disproportionately female compared to the low self-efficacy profile. The low self-efficacy profile was significantly different from the medium and high self-efficacy profiles with respect to its self-regulated learning strategies and language interpretation strategies. The ESL learners' self-efficacy profiles identified in this study can be used to tailor instructions appropriately.
Book
1. Exercise of personal and collective efficacy in changing societies Albert Bandura 2. Life trajectories in changing societies Glen Elder 3. Developmental analysis of control beliefs August Flammer 4. Impact of family processes on self-efficacy Klaus A. Schneewind 5. Cross-cultural perspectives on self-efficacy beliefs Gabriele Oettingen 6. Self-efficacy in educational development Barry Zimmerman 7. Self-efficacy in career choice and development Gail Hackett 8. Self efficacy and health Ralf Schwarzer and Reinhard Fuchs 9. Self-efficacy and alcohol and drug abuse Alan Marlatt, John S. Baer and Lori A. Quigley.
Article
This article reports on an investigation of listening strategy applications by grade 7 students learning French (N = 36). I examine the types of strategies used and the differences in strategy use by more skilled and less skilled listeners as revealed while these students listened to authentic texts in French. Think‐aloud data were coded and analyzed both quantitatively and qualitatively. Significant differences were found in the use of the category of metacognitive strategies as well as in individual strategies for comprehension monitoring, questioning for elaboration, and translation. These differences were reinforced by a qualitative analysis of representative protocols. The article concludes with a discussion of both an emerging model of the skilled listener and a pedagogic program for developing listening skills.
Article
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This study focuses on the relationship between learning styles and language learning strategies in the EFL context in China. The study presents two kinds of data: quantitative and qualitative. In the quantitative study, the subjects consisted of 187 second-year undergraduates. Two self-reported inventories, the Chinese version of MBTI-G and a questionnaire on the use of learning strategies adapted from O’Malley and Chamot’s classification system, were used to examine the students’ learning styles and learning strategies respectively. Structured interviews have been performed among the six high and low achievers in the qualitative aspect of the study. The analyses show that learning styles have a significant influence on learners’ learning strategy choices. There is evidence that the Judging scale correlates positively with seven sets of learning strategies. Thus it turns out to be the most influential learning style variable affecting learners’ learning strategy choices. Compared with low achievers, high achievers are more capable of exercising strategies that are associated with their non-preferred styles. Based on the available research results, it is proposed that learning styles may influence learners’ language learning outcomes through their relationship with learning strategies. The pedagogical implications of these findings are discussed, as are suggestions for future research.
Article
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Article
Five research questions are asked concerning the profiles of students' learning strategies in terms of general categories and subordinate categories. Three hypotheses are proposed concerning the influences of Language, Gender, and Grade on students' learning strategies. Observation was conducted by trained student observers using a modified guide (Oxford, 1990) involving a total of 240 elementary school students. Percentages were used as the statistics for the descriptive analyses. For hypothesis testing a three-by-four multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) was used, followed by three-way analyses of variance (ANOVA) for the four strategy categories. Correlation was calculated for the four strategy categories and non- parametric ANOVA was conducted for the metacognitive category. Use of the students' learning strategy is as follows: cognitive (63.31 %), affective (23.79%), social (9.05%), and meta-cognitive (3.85%). A significant main effect is found for Grade (p = 0.0001), and Language (p = 0.0126). A significant interaction is found for Grade and Language (p = 0.0001). For metacognitive a significant interaction is found between Grade and Gender (p = 0.0012). A significant main effect of Grade was found for cognitive (p = 0.0009) and for affective (p = 0.01).
Article
The objective of this investigation was to examine the influence of self‐efficacy and other motivational self‐beliefs on the achievement of college intermediate French students (N= 303). Self‐efficacy for self‐regulation was a stronger predictor of intermediate French language achievement than were self‐efficacy to obtain grades in French, French anxiety in reading and listening, and French learning self‐concept. Students who perceived themselves as capable of using effective metacognitive strategies to monitor their academic work time effectively were more apt to experience academic success in intermediate French. Female students reported greater self‐efficacy for self‐regulation, interest, value, and enjoyment in learning about both the French language and culture than did male students, despite the fact that men and women had similar achievement. Findings are interpreted from the perspective of Bandura's (1986) social cognitive theory as it related to foreign language motivation and learning.
Article
Tseng et al. (2006) critically examine language learning strategy (LLS) research and propose to assess language learners' strategic learning in terms of their self-regulatory capacity. In this response, I discuss whether the proposed advance of self-regulation means the marginalization of LLS research. While recognizing the merits of the proposal, I argue that the proposal needs to consider other competing constructs with similar connotations in research on learners' strategic language learning. The response also reports on recent developments in LLS research, contending that such developments could complement the advance of a broad perspective on learners' strategic learning in research.
Article
Student motivation is an important concern for all teachers. Recent research on student motivation has provided evidence for the development of important constructs and generalizations that have direct application to the classroom. Although there are many motivational constructs, self-efficacy is one that is key to promoting students' engagement and learning. Self-efficacy is discussed in terms of how it may facilitate behavioral, cognitive, and motivational engagement in the classroom. Specific suggestions for teacher practice are also provided.
Article
The psychometric properties and multigroup measurement invariance of scores on the Self-Efficacy for Self-Regulated Learning Scale taken from Bandura's Children's Self-Efficacy Scale were assessed in a sample of 3,760 students from Grades 4 to 11. Latent means differences were also examined by gender and school level. Results reveal a unidimensional construct with equivalent factor pattern coefficients for boys and girls and for students in elementary, middle, and high school. Elementary school students report higher self-efficacy for self-regulated learning than do students in middle and high school. The latent factor is related to self-efficacy, self-concept, task goal orientation, apprehension, and achievement.
Article
This article describes a research project into the self-efficacy and anxiety of college English students at four universities in China. A total of 738 participants completed a questionnaire measuring self-efficacy and anxiety in writing in English. This was immediately followed by a writing task. The questionnaire used a seven point Likert type scale to measure self-efficacy and anxiety in writing. The questionnaire also included open ended questions concerning student perceptions of effort, actual effort and parental pressure.The quantitative data relating to self-efficacy and anxiety were analysed using structural modelling techniques. In the first instance, confirmatory factor analysis provided evidence for the validity of constructs. Subsequently a full structural model was hypothesised and tested. The hypothesized model indicated that both anxiety and self-efficacy predicted writing performance. However, in a re-specified model a better fit was achieved. The final model indicated that the relationship between writing performance and anxiety was mediated by self-efficacy. This supports Bandura (1986) social cognitive theory of learning that perceptions of affect can influence self-efficacy beliefs. From the open ended data the results indicated that anxious students were more likely to experience parental pressure, have low effort perceptions and low actual effort; those students with high efficacy were more likely to have high effort perceptions, were less likely to experience parental pressure and were likely to spend longer studying English.
Article
In this article, I review the diverse ways in which perceived self-efficacy contributes to cognitive development and functioning. Perceived self-efficacy exerts its influence through four major processes. They include cognitive, motivational, affective, and selection processes. There are three different levels at which perceived self-efficacy operates as an important contributor to academic development. Students' beliefs in their efficacy to regulate their own learning and to master academic activities determine their aspirations, level of motivation, and academic accomplishments. Teachers' beliefs in their personal efficacy to motivate and promote learning affect the types of learning environments they create and the level of academic progress their students achieve. Faculties' beliefs in their collective instructional efficacy contribute significantly to their schools' level of academic achievement. Student body characteristics influence school-level achievement more strongly by altering faculties' beliefs in their collective efficacy than through direct affects on school achievement.
Article
The editors and guest editors of Volume 35 have very kindly asked me to write an end-piece to this special issue of The Language Learning Journal that has focused on language learner strategies (LLS). Particularly they have asked me to evaluate the extent to which the papers presented in this volume adhere to some sort of theoretical consensus. I am most honoured to be able to accept their invitation. In so doing I am conscious of two pitfalls: that I should end up sounding as if I were passing judgment on other people's work, which I really have no intention of doing, and certainly not without acknowledging deficiencies in my own work; and that I should single out individual authors for praise or criticism, which again I have no intention of doing.In a number of my contributions to the research area (Macaro, 2001, 2006; Macaro et al., 2005; Macaro et al., 2007; Cohen & Macaro, 2007) I have raised a series of concerns about the theoretical basis of LLS research and, particularly in Macaro (2006), I have proposed a theoretical framework which attempts to address those concerns. Space does not allow me to give anything more than an overview of the framework.I will take each of those concerns and, in turn, evaluate whether the papers (as a whole) in this volume have gone some way towards addressing them.
Article
A correlational study examined relationships between motivational orientation, self-regulated learning, and classroom academic performance for 173 seventh graders from eight science and seven English classes. A self-report measure of student self-efficacy, intrinsic value, test anxiety, self-regulation, and use of learning strategies was administered, and performance data were obtained from work on classroom assignments. Self-efficacy and intrinsic value were positively related to cognitive engagement and performance. Regression analyses revealed that, depending on the outcome measure, self-regulation, self-efficacy, and test anxiety emerged as the best predictors of performance. Intrinsic value did not have a direct influence on performance but was strongly related to self-regulation and cognitive strategy use, regardless of prior achievement level. The implications of individual differences in motivational orientation for cognitive engagement and self-regulation in the classroom are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
The present study examined the developmental course of perceived efficacy for self-regulated learning and its contribution to academic achievement and likelihood of remaining in school in a sample of 412 Italian students (48% males and 52% females ranging in age from 12 to 22 years). Latent growth curve analysis revealed a progressive decline in self-regulatory efficacy from junior to senior high school, with males experiencing the greater reduction. The lower the decline in self-regulatory efficacy, the higher the high school grades and the greater the likelihood of remaining in high school controlling for socioeconomic status. Reciprocal cross-lagged models revealed that high perceived efficacy for self-regulated learning in junior high school contributed to junior high school grades and self-regulatory efficacy in high school, which partially mediated the relation of junior high grades on high school grades and the likelihood of remaining in school. Socioeconomic status contributed to high school grades only mediationally through junior high grades and to school drop out both directly and mediationally through junior high grades. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)