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Background A revised checklist of the British and Irish Chalcidoidea and Mymarommatoidea substantially updates the previous comprehensive checklist, dating from 1978. Country level data (i.e. occurrence in England, Scotland, Wales, Ireland and the Isle of Man) is reported where known. New information A total of 1754 British and Irish Chalcidoidea species represents a 22% increase on the number of British species known in 1978.
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... Chalcidoidea is one of the largest and most diverse Hymenoptera superfamilies, morphologically and biologically. Currently it is known to contain 22 families, and more than 22,000 described species worldwide (Dale-Skey et al., 2016). Most species of this superfamily are parasitoids and are considered as the most important group in biological control. ...
... The specimens are housed at the collection of the insectarium at the Ecole Nationale Supérieure Agronomique, El Harrach, Alger (hereafter ENSA coll.). Nomenclature is taken from Burks (1979), Ferrière and Delucchi (1957), Triapitsyn and Berezovskiy (2001), Delvare (2005), Japoshvili and Noyes (2006), Zimmermann and Schöller (2008), Dzhanokmen (2009), Dale-Skey et al. (2016, Ghahari and Doğanlar (2017), Shirley et al. (2017), Noyes (2018). ...
Article
in this paper, we proivde a list of Chalcidoid wasps collected from the region of Biskra in the south east of Algeria.
... Chalcidoidea is one of the largest and most diverse Hymenoptera superfamilies, morphologically and biologically. Currently it is known to contain 22 families, and more than 22,000 described species worldwide (Dale-Skey et al., 2016). Most species of this superfamily are parasitoids and are considered as the most important group in biological control. ...
... The specimens are housed at the collection of the insectarium at the Ecole Nationale Supérieure Agronomique, El Harrach, Alger (hereafter ENSA coll.). Nomenclature is taken from Burks (1979), Ferrière and Delucchi (1957), Triapitsyn and Berezovskiy (2001), Delvare (2005), Japoshvili and Noyes (2006), Zimmermann and Schöller (2008), Dzhanokmen (2009), Dale-Skey et al. (2016, Ghahari and Doğanlar (2017), Shirley et al. (2017), Noyes (2018). ...
... Among parasitoid wasps, an extremely speciesrich functional group (e.g. Dolphin & Quicke, 2001;Davis et al., 2010;Dale-Skey et al., 2016;Whitfield et al., 2018;Chen et al., 2019), sociality is unusual and relatively little explored. Sclerodermus (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae) are among the most socially complex parasitoids known (Bridwell, 1920;Wheeler, 1928;Mamaev, 1979). ...
Article
Explanations for the highest levels of sociality typically invoke the concept of inclusive fitness. Sclerodermus, a genus of parasitoid hymenopterans, is quasi-social, exhibiting cooperative brood care without generational overlap or apparent division of labour. Foundress females successfully co-exploit hosts that are too large to suppress when acting alone and the direct fitness benefits of collective action may explain their cooperation, irrespective of kinship. However, cooperation in animal societies is seldom free of conflicts of interest between social partners, especially when their relatedness, and thus their degree of shared evolutionary interests, is low. We screened components of the life-history of Sclerodermus brevicornis for effects of varying co-foundress number and relatedness on cooperative reproduction. We found that the time taken to paralyse standard-sized hosts is shorter when co-foundress number and/or relatedness is higher. This suggests that, while females must access a paralysed host in order to reproduce, individuals are reluctant to take the risk of host attack unless the benefits will be shared with their kin. We used Hamilton’s rule and prior data from studies that experimentally varied the sizes of hosts presented to congeners to explore how the greater risks and greater benefits of attacking larger hosts could combine with relatedness to determine the sizes of hosts that individuals are selected to attack as a public good. From this, we predict that host size and relatedness will interact to affect the timing of host paralysis; we test this prediction in the accompanying study.
... Among parasitoid wasps, an extremely speciesrich functional group (e.g. Dolphin & Quicke, 2001;Davis et al., 2010;Dale-Skey et al., 2016;Whitfield et al., 2018;Chen et al., 2019), sociality is unusual and relatively little explored. Sclerodermus (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae) are among the most socially complex parasitoids known (Bridwell, 1920;Wheeler, 1928;Mamaev, 1979). ...
Article
Sclerodermus brevicornis is a parasitoid that exhibits cooperative multi-foundress brood production. Prior work showed that the time lag to paralysis of small-sized hosts is shorter when co-foundress relatedness is higher and predicted that the greater risks and greater benefits of attacking larger hosts would combine with co-foundress relatedness to determine the limits to the size of a host that a female is selected to attack as a public good. It was also predicted that the time to host attack would be affected by an interaction between host size and relatedness. Here, we show empirically that both host size and kinship affect S. brevicornis reproduction and that they interact to influence the timing of host attack. We also find effects of co-foundress relatedness after hosts have been suppressed successfully. A public goods model using parameters estimated for S. brevicornis again suggests that selection for individual foundresses to attack and, if successful, to share hosts will be dependent on both the size of the host and the relatedness of the foundresses to any co-foundresses present. Females will not be selected to bear the individual cost of a public good when hosts are large and dangerous or when their relatedness to the co-foundress is low. We conclude that although reproductive behaviours exhibited by Sclerodermus females can be cooperative, they are unlikely to be exhibited without reference to kinship or to the risks involved in attempting to suppress and share large and dangerous hosts. ADDITIONAL KEYWORDS: host attack-host size-kinship-public goods-Sclerodermus brevicornis-sociality.
... Hôtes : Inconnus. Distribution : Depuis sa description, l'espèce n'a été rencontrée qu'en Allemagne, en Grande-Bretagne et en Suède (Dale-Skey et al., 2016;Hedqvist, 1969 (Gadallah et al., 2015), Espagne, France, Grande-Bretagne, Grèce, Hongrie, Iran (Hesami et al., 2018) (Gadallah et al., 2015), Grande-Bretagne, Hongrie, Iran, Israël (Yefremova, 2015), Italie, Japon, Malte, Moldavie, Norvège, Pakistan, Pays-Bas, République Tchèque, Roumanie, Russie, Slovaquie, Suisse, ex-Tchécoslovaquie, Turquie, Turkménistan et Yémen (Yefremova, 2007 (Gadallah et al., 2015), Espagne, France, Hongrie, Iran (Hesami et al., 2018), Israël (Yefremova, 2015), Italie, Mexique, Moldavie, Monténégro, Portugal, République Dominicaine, Serbie, Slovaquie, Slovénie, Suède, Syrie, Taiwan, Turquie et Turkménistan. ...
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This paper presents the fourth contribution to the knowledge of the entomofauna of a village of Belgian Famenne. It deals with the group of Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera : Chalcididae, Encyrtidae, Eulophidae, Eupelmidae, Eurytomidae, Leucospidae, Megastigmidae, Mymaridae, Perilampidae, Pteromalidae, Tetracampidae, Torymidae). Faunistic data of 150 species belonging to 12 families are detailed. One family (Tetracampidae) and 54 species are cited for the first time for Belgium. For each family, a list of the Belgian species is proposed.
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A checklist of 1246 extant, described species, classified in 346 genera in 18 families of Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera) are reported from Canada, Alaska (USA) and Greenland (Denmark) based on examined specimens and published records up to December 31, 2020. Of the reported species, 1214 (in 345 genera in 18 families) are listed from Canada, 113 (in 58 genera in 10 families) from Alaska, and 26 (in 22 genera in 4 families) from Greenland. The list includes 235 new species records and 53 new generic records for Canada (no new family records). Forty-one new species records, 22 new generic records and the families Chalcididae and Eurytomidae are newly reported for Alaska. No new records were found for Greenland. Two species (in one genus) of Mymarommatoidea are reported from Canada. For each species in Canada, distribution is tabulated by province or territory, except the province of Newfoundland and Labrador is divided into the island of Newfoundland and the region of Labrador. The inclusion of known species from Alaska and Greenland results in the first comprehensive distributional checklist for the entire northern part of the Nearctic region. A brief review of the history of cataloguing Chalcidoidea in North America and a comparison of this checklist with four published checklists from the Palaearctic region is provided.
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One hundred-four extant species of Eupelmus Dalman (Hymenoptera: Eupelmidae: Eupelminae) are recognized from the Palaearctic region, of which 76 species of E. (Eupelmus) are recognized following a revision of the Palaearctic fauna of the subgenus. The following 25 species are described as new: E. (Eupelmus) adustus Gibson & Fusu n. sp., E. (Eupelmus) angustifrons Gibson & Fusu n. sp., E. (Eupelmus) bicolor Gibson & Fusu n. sp., E. (Eupelmus) brachypterus Fusu & Gibson n. sp., E. (Eupelmus) brachystylus Gibson & Fusu n. sp., E. (Eupelmus) brachyurus Fusu & Gibson n. sp., E. (Eupelmus) fasciatus Gibson & Fusu n. sp., E. (Eupelmus) gelechiphagus Gibson & Fusu n. sp., E. (Eupelmus) hayei Gibson & Fusu n. sp., E. (Eupelmus) infimbriatus Gibson & Fusu n. sp., E. (Eupelmus) iris Fusu & Gibson n. sp., E. (Eupelmus) kamijoi Gibson & Fusu n. sp., E. (Eupelmus) lanceolatus Gibson & Fusu n. sp., E. (Eupelmus) luteipes Fusu & Gibson n. sp., E. (Eupelmus) magdalenae Fusu & Gibson n. sp., E. (Eupelmus) mehrnejadi Gibson & Fusu n. sp., E. (Eupelmus) melanostylus Gibson & Fusu n. sp., E. (Eupelmus) punctatifrons Fusu & Gibson n. sp., E. (Eupelmus) setosus Fusu & Gibson n. sp., E. (Eupelmus) tanystylus Gibson & Fusu n. sp., E. (Eupelmus) tetrazostus Gibson & Fusu n. sp., E. (Eupelmus) vanharteni Fusu & Gibson n. sp., E. (Eupelmus) weilli Fusu & Gibson n. sp., E. (Eupelmus) xenium Fusu & Gibson n. sp., and E. (Eupelmus) zebra Fusu & Gibson n. sp. Of previously described species of Eupelmus, 17 are newly assigned to E. (Eupelmus), 10 to E. (Episolindelia Girault), and 8 to E. (Macroneura Walker). Formally transferred to E. (Macroneura) from Macroneura are E. (M.) algiricus (Kalina 1981), E. (M.) coleophorae (Kalina 1981), E. (M.) impennis (Nikol'skaya 1952), E. (M.) longicornis (Kalina 1981), E. (M.) pleuratus (Kalina 1981) and E. (M.) sugonyaevi (Kalina 1981) n. combs. Eupelmus (Eupelmus) kalinai Gibson & Fusu n. name is given to replace E. (Eupelmus) algiricus Kalina 1988, a secondary homonym of E. (M.) algiricus (Kalina 1981). New synonyms proposed are Eupelmus scolyti Liao 1987 n. syn. under E. (Eupelmus) formosae Ashmead 1904, and Eupelmus nigricauda Nikol'skaya 1952 n. syn. under E. (Eupelmus) microzonus Förster 1860. Eupelmus gueneei Giraud 1870 and Eupelmus xambeui Giard 1900 are transferred to Arachnophaga (Parasolindenia Brues) as A. (P.) gueneei (Giraud) and A. (P.) xambeui (Giard) n. combs., and Eupelmus kim Nikol'skaya 1952 is transferred to Brasema Cameron as B. kim (Nikol'skaya) n. comb. Eupelmus puparum Newport 1840 is transferred to Pteromalus Swederus (Pteromalidae) as P. puparum (Newport) n. comb., a secondary homonym of P. puparum (Linnaeus 1758), and Ceraphron brachynterae Schwägrichen 1835 is removed from Eupelmus and Eupelmidae, and the name treated as incertae sedis. Lectotypes are designated for Eupelmus azureus Ratzeburg 1844, Pteromalus cordairii Ratzeburg 1844, Eupelmus hostilis Förster 1860, and Eupelmus splendens Giraud 1872. Neotypes are designated for Pteromalus audouinii Ratzeburg 1844 and Eupelmus bedeguaris Ratzeburg 1852. Newly recorded from the Palaearctic are E. (Eupelmus) orthopterae (Risbec 1951) and E. (Eupelmus) peculiaris Narendran (2011). Excluded from the Palaearctic are E. (Eupelmus) afer Silvestri 1914 (Afrotropical) and E. (Eupelmus) longicorpus (Girault 1915) (Australasian), the former being compared to E. confusus Al khatib 2015 and the latter to E. iranicus Kalina 1988 and E. kalinai. Seven informal species groups are recognized for the purpose of species comparisons, the fulgens-, fulvipes-, iranicus-, orientalis-, splendens-, stramineipes-, and urozonus-groups. The latter group is restricted to E. urozonus Dalman and five other species that were differentiated initially using molecular evidence. Females of all 76 species of E. (Eupelmus) recognized from the Palaearctic are keyed, described and illustrated. Males are recognized for 44 of the species, and keyed and illustrated, though not all males of the fulvipes- and urozonus-groups are distinguished from each other.
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Three new species of Achrysocharoides are described, one from northern Europe, A. platanoidae sp. nov., one from central Europe and the U.S.A., A. robiniae sp. nov., and one from the U.S.A., A. robinicolus sp. nov. The descriptions are based on material reared from microlepidopterans of the genus Phyllonorycter Hübner (Gracillariidae): A. platanoidae from P. platanoidella (Joannis) on Acer platanoides, and A. robiniae and A. robinicolus from P. robiniella (Clemens) on Robinia pseudoacacia (black locust). The new species are very similar to previously described species, A. platanoidae to A. acerianus (Askew), and A. robiniae and A. robinicolus to A. gahani (Miller), but they are shown here to differ from their sibling species both in biology and in external morphology. The host of A. robiniae and A. robinicolus, P. robiniella, is a serious pest on the black locust tree in Europe, and the descriptions with diagnoses of these two species, and their scientific names, introduced here will aid the biological control efforts of this pest.
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Article 29.3.1 of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature dictates that family group names are formed by deleting the case ending from the genitive singular, when the genus ends in a Latin or classical Greek word (ICZN 1999). This process determines the genitive stem of the word. Formation of a family group name based on an incorrect genitive stem is considered an incorrect original spelling, and the Code requires that it be be automatically changed to the correct stem if described before 1999 in cases where this does not create a junior homonym (Article 35.4.1).
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Three new species of Achrysocharoides are described, one from northern Europe, A. platanoidae sp. nov., one from central Europe and the U.S.A., A. robiniae sp. nov., and one from the U.S.A., A. robinicolus sp. nov. The descriptions are based on material reared from microlepidopterans of the genus Phyllonorycter Hübner (Gracillariidae): A. platanoidae from P. platanoidella (Joannis) on Acer platanoides, and A. robiniae and A. robinicolus from P. robiniella (Clemens) on Robinia pseudoacacia (black locust). The new species are very similar to previously described species, A. platanoidae to A. acerianus (Askew), and A. robiniae and A. robinicolus to A. gahani (Miller), but they are shown here to differ from their sibling species both in biology and in external morphology. The host of A. robiniae and A. robinicolus, P. robiniella, is a serious pest on the black locust tree in Europe, and the descriptions with diagnoses of these two species, and their scientific names, introduced here will aid the biological control efforts of this pest.