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Polygonatum verticillatum (Linn.) All. syn. Convallaria verticillata Linn. is a valuable medicinal plant, distributed in the temperate Himalaya at the elevations 2400 to 2800 m. It is a perennial rhizomatous herb and contains various pharmacologically important secondary metabolites among which the most important are α-bulnesene, linalyl acetate, eicosadienoic, pentacosane, piperitone, docasane, diosgenin, santonin and calarene. It also possesses antimalarial, antipyretic, anti-inflammatory, anticonvulsant, lipoxygenase, urease inhibition, diuretic, tracheorelaxant, antidiarrheal, antispasmodic, antinociceptive, antifungal, antibacterial and bronchodilator activities. The plant also got importance in traditional systems of medicine due to its broad therapeutic potential especially of its rhizome. But in the past few years, over exploitation of plant parts caused the decline in the frequency of this species due to which it became threatened, endangered and vulnerable in different parts of the world. So efforts are being made in certain regions of the world for both ex-situ and in-situ conservation. This paper briefly reviewed the botanical, traditional, phytochemical, pharmacological and conservation related aspects of this plant.
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Review doi: 10.12980/jclm.4.2016J5-228 ©2016 by the Journal of Coastal Life Medicine. All rights reserved.
Pharmacology and biochemistry of Polygonatum verticillatum: A review
Saboon1, Yamin Bibi1, Muhammad Arshad1, Sidra Sabir1, Muhammad Shoaib Amjad1,2, Ejaz Ahmed1, Sunbal Khalil Chaudhari1*
1Department of Botany, PMAS Arid Agriculture University, Rawalpindi, Pakistan
2Department of Botany, Women University of Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Bagh, Pakistan
Journal of Coastal Life Medicine 2016; 4(5): 406-415
Journal of Coastal Life Medicine
*Corresponding author: Sunbal Khalil Chaudhari, Department of Botany, PMAS
Arid Agriculture University, Rawalpindi, Pakistan.
E-mail: khalilsunnbal@yahoo.com
The journal implements double-blind peer review practiced by specially invited
international editorial board members.
1. Introduction
Polygonatum (King Solomon’s-seal, Solomon’s seal) is a genus
of erect or decumbent perennial herbs belonging to the family
Liliaceae representing about 57 species in the world. This genus
is mostly distributed in the temperate regions of the northern
hemisphere, most concentrated in the Himalayas. It also occurs in
East Asia, where it is found mostly in China and Japan where 40
species of this genus were found[1]. In addition to this, they are also
found in India, Pakistan, Korea, Nepal, Afghanistan, Bhutan, Russia
and in moderate climate zones of North America and Europe. The
Flora of Pakistan showed the presence of four different species of
Polygonatum, including Polygonatum multiflorum, Polygonatum
geminiflorum, Polygonatum cirrhifolium and Polygonatum
verticillatum (P. verticillatum). These species are widely distributed
in various part of the country including Hazara, Chitral, Swat and
Kurram Agency[2,3]. The characteristic feature of this genus is thick,
fleshy creeping sympodial rhizomes. According to Miller (1754)
the generic name of Polygonatum is derived from its charactistic
feature of rhizome which resembles to a great extent as yovi, a knee,
because it has many little knees[4]. In the year 1753 Linnaeus listed
three species of Polygonatum in his book ‘Species Plantarum’ under
the genus Convallaria, namely, Convallaria verticillata, Convallaria
polygonatum and Convallaria multiflora[5]. Later on, this was listed
under the generic name Polygonatum by Alloni[6]. In the natural
system of classification the family Liliaceae of Angiosperms was
classified in the series Coronarieae by Bentham and Hooker[7,8]. The
genus Polygontum is very impotant in term of their high medicinal
value as most of their members are used in herbal medicine from
thousands of years in different region of the world. All plant parts
have some medicinal value but the most important of these parts
is the rhizomes which contain many impotant medicinal activites
like adaptogenic, antioxidant, cardiotonic, demulcent, diuretic,
energizer, hypoglycemic, tonics, antibacterial and antifungal[9], and
also used in the treatment of pulmonary problems for dry coughs
ARTICLE INFO ABSTRACT
Polygonatum verticillatum (Linn.) All. syn. Convallaria verticillata Linn. is a valuable
medicinal plant, distributed in the temperate Himalaya at the elevations 2 400 to 2 800 m. It
is a perennial rhizomatous herb and contains various pharmacologically important secondary
metabolites among which the most important are α-bulnesene, linalyl acetate, eicosadienoic,
pentacosane, piperitone, docasane, diosgenin, santonin and calarene. It also possesses
antimalarial, antipyretic, anti-inflammatory, anticonvulsant, lipoxygenase, urease inhibition,
diuretic, tracheorelaxant, antidiarrheal, antispasmodic, antinociceptive, antifungal, antibacterial
and bronchodilator activities. The plant also got importance in traditional systems of medicine
due to its broad therapeutic potential especially of its rhizome. But in the past few years, over
exploitation of plant parts caused the decline in the frequency of this species due to which it
became threatened, endangered and vulnerable in different parts of the world. So efforts are
being made in certain regions of the world for both ex-situ and in-situ conservation. This paper
briefly reviewed the botanical, traditional, phytochemical, pharmacological and conservation
related aspects of this plant.
Article history:
Received 19 Nov 2015
Received in revised form 8 Dec, 2nd
revised form 15 Feb, 3rd revised form
24 Feb 2015
Accepted 28 Dec 2015
Available online 22 May 2016
Keywords:
Polygonatum verticillatum
Solomon’s seal
Threatened
Pharmacology
journal homepage: www.jclmm.com
Saboon et al./Journal of Coastal Life Medicine 2016; 4(5): 406-415 407
and tuberculosis[10,11]. Many of their members can reduce the
blood sugar level[12]. Due to high medicinal value, some of their
members are overexploited and become threatened or vulnerable like
P. verticillatum (Linn.) All. and Polygonatum cirrhifolium (Wall.)
Royle[13].
P. verticillatum syn. Convallaria verticillata Linn. commonly
known as whorled solomon’s seal is a perennial rhizomatous herb and
distinguished medicinal plant of temperate Himalaya. It is frequently
distributed between the elevations 2 400 to 2 800 m[14]. It is a highly
valuable medicinal plant specially rhizome which in the form of
syrup is used for the treatment of pain, pyrexia, burning sensation
and for phthisis[15] in combination with other herbs as it promotes
urine discharge[16]. The plant is also used as emollient, aphrodisiac,
appetizer, galactagogue and tonic for weakness[17]. Rhizome of
this plant is an important ingredient of Ashtavarga, a drug used in
Ayurveda as a tonic and for aphrodisiac[18,19]. The plant also exhibits
antifungal activities and used in the preparation of cosmetics as a
skin tonic. Its rhizome (Meda/ Mahameda) is collected from wild
and traded for medicinal purposes. This is one of the reasons that P.
verticillatum is rapidly disappearing. So there is an urgent need for
conservation of this plant[20].
2. Systematic position
According to phylogenetic system of classification of
Hutchinson, the systematic position is: Kingdom: Plantae, Phylum:
Angiosperms, Subphylum: Monocotyledons, Divison: Corolliferae,
Order: Liliales, Family: Liliaceae, Genus: Polygonatum, S p e c i e s :
P. verticillatum[21].
3. Distribution
P. verticillatum has worldwide distribution. Distributed from
montane to alpine Himalaya, Kashmir to Northeast States; Sikkim,
Southeast Tibet, West Asia, Europe (except Mediterranean region)
[22] in temperate Himalayas[23] in Russia (W. Siberia, Caucasia)
Afghanistan, Pakistan (Chitral, Dir, Swat, Hazara, Gilgit, Azad
Jammu Kashmir), Kashmir, India, Nepal, Sikkim, Bhutan and China
(Gansu, Nei Mongol, Qinghai, Shaanxi, Sichuan, Xizang). From
Garhwal Himalaya the species was reported from Bhuna, Dunagiri
and Niti[24], from Binsar by Gaur[22], and from Tungnath, Rudranath,
Valley of Flowers and Dayara by Vashistha[25].
4. Vernacular name
The vernacular name of P. verticillatum is Solomon’s seal in English;
Nor-e-Alam in Urdu; Basuchidra, Devamani, Pandura, Shakakul, Seal,
Vasuchhidra, Mahamaida in Hindi; Meda in Sanskrit; Salam mishri in
Pahari; Keruwa, Khinraula in Nepali; Peramole in Pashto; Salam dana,
mishri, mitha dodhu, Ra-mnye, Khol in Kashmiri; Saat Ashee in Gilgati
or Balti; Lun Ye Huang Jing in Chinese.
5. Botanical description
P. verticillatum is a perennial rhizomatous herb, its rhizomes are
usually tuber like, shortly branched and 0.7–1.5 cm thick. Stem usually
erect, 2 to 4 feet/ 30–60 cm in height, angled and grooved, glabrous
sometimes mottled. Leaves in whorls of 4 to 8, occasionally alternate
near the base of stem, sometimes opposite near the apex, sessile,
elliptic to narrowly lanceolate/linear, 4 to 8 × ¼ to ½ inch, or in case of
lanceolate, 3½ × ¾ inch, tips usually acute but some time acuminate,
margins entire, sometimes obtuse or slightly in rolled, lower surface is
glaucous. Inflorescence racemes whorled, 2 to 3 flowered, peduncle
1–2 cm, bract < 1 mm or some time absent, pedicel 2.5–4.5 mm,
hermaphrodite, perianth 8–9 mm or 1/3 inch, white or pale yellow,
tinged with green, contracted in the middle, teeth inside, tip hairy.
Stamens are epipetalous, filaments 0.5–1.0 mm, ovary 3 mm, style 2.5–
3.0 mm. The flowering and fruiting takes place in the month of June to
October. Fruit is in the form of berries which are red, becoming purple
on maturation, 6–8 mm or ¼ inch in diameter[26].
Figure 1. Physical description of plant P. verticillatum.
6. Traditional uses
Ethnomedicinally, the plant is very important. Different parts of the
plant in crude form or with some other ingredients are used for the
Saboon et al./Journal of Coastal Life Medicine 2016; 4(5): 406-415
408
cure of different diseases. For example, in some parts of Gilgit the
root of the plant is utilized with milk and ghee as general tonic[27], in
some other regions gastric flatulence and allergies are treated by the
oral administration of this plant. In India this plant is used for the cure
of spermatorrhaea and piles for this the fresh roots are broken into
small pieces and kept in water for overnight and then crushed in same
water and taken daily in morning[28]. In another state of India the root
powder of this plant is taken daily with water for leucorrhoea[29], the
root paste in some area are applied on wounds. In some places the
whole herb is utilized to cure appetite, as nervine tonic, for kidney
trouble and to restores body strength[30]. Some other traditional uses
from different areas are listed in (Table 1). In some Himalayan region
this plant is consider as wild vegetable and the root of the plant is
eaten raw[33,34] and in some areas the whole plant is cooked and
utilized in raw form[53].
7. Phytochemistry
The plant contains many phytochemicals isolated from its different
parts like the compound diosgenin isolated from rhizome of the
plant[62]. The rhizome also contains glucose, galactose, sucrose
and fructose[63,64]. The study showed that the aerial parts of plant
contain saponins, alkaloids, phenols, flavonoids, tannins, etc.[65].
Chemical constituents of plant were identified in n-hexan fraction
by using gas chromatography mass spectrometry, which showed
that the aerial oily components of plant contain α-bulnesene,
linalyl acetate, eicosadienoic, pentacosane, piperitone, docasane,
and calarene[66]. By using mass and NMR spectra two compounds
2-hydroxybenzoic acid and β-sitosterol were isolated from the
rhizome of P. verticillatum[67]. The rhizome of the plant also showed
the presence of lysine, serine, aspartic acid, threonine, diosgenin,
β-sitosterol, sucrose and glucose[68]. Two chemical compounds
diosgenin and santonin were also isolated from the rhizomes of P.
verticillatum[69]. To test the biological activities of the rhizome of this
plant two different compounds, 5 hydroxymethyl-2-furaldehyde and
diosgenin, were isolated from the rhizome with the help of bioactivity
guided isolation[70]. The study by Khan et al. showed that the crude
extract of P. verticillatum rhizome as well as its solvent extract has
significant amount of alkaloid and saponin which are responsible for
the bioactivity of the plant[71]. In another study the rhizome of the
plant showed significant concentrations of flavonoid and phenolic
compounds[72]. The aerial parts of the plant contain significant amount
of alkaloid and phenolic content[70]. The study by Khan et al. indicated
that the aerial parts of the plant contain different phytochemical
including saponins, alkaloids, flavonoids, phenols, sterols, terpenoids
and tannins[67]. Phytochemically, lectin has been isolated from the roots
of P. verticillatum the lectine was obtained in purified form (120 mg/
kg) that contain high percentage of asparaginic acid (28%)[73]. Both the
rhizome and aerial parts of plant were analysed for their phytochemicals
both the parts showed the presence of saponin, alkaloids, glycosides,
phenols, flavonoids, sterols and tannins, but the rhizome also showed
the presence of anthraquinones and terpenoids[74]. By the use of
various modern techniques such as high resolution electron ionization-
mass spectrometry, 1D and 2D NMR, two new compounds were isolated
from the rhizome of plant such as propyl pentadecanoate and 2/, 3/
dihydroxypropyl pentadecanoate[75].
8. Nutritional composition
The bulb and rhizome of the plant were analyzed for their nutritional
composition the mineral profile of plant extract showed that the
plant contained both micro and macronutrient at concentrations of
P [(100.00 ± 0.00) mg/100 g], K [(13.33 ± 0.39) mg/100 g], Na
[(37.82 ± 2.19) mg/100 g], Ca [(1338.30 ± 3.83) mg/100 g], Mg
[(90.10 ± 0.80) mg/100 g], Fe [(23.64 ± 0.88) mg/100 g], Cu [(0.21
± 0.01) mg/100 g], Mn [(28.64 ± 0.37) mg/100 g] and the nutritional
constituents were at concentrations of moisture [(84.53 ± 4.69) g/100
g], protein [(16.20 ± 1.62) g/100 g], fat [(0.46 ± 0.06) g/100 g], fibre
[(12.33 ± 0.57) g/100 g], carbohydrates [(17.07 ± 0.00) g/100 g], ash
[(7.45 ± 0.79) g/100 g], energy value [(108.23 ± 9.73) Kcal/100 g]
[76]. In another study the nutrient analysis of rhizome extract showed
that the plant contained significant amount of both micro (Zn, Cu, Cr,
Fe, Mn, Ni) and macronutrient (Ca, Na, K) which was determined by
using atomic absorption spectrometry for micronutrients and flame
Table 1
Traditional uses of plant parts.
S. No. Part used Uses Reference
1Root Used for urino-genital disorders, nerve tonic, general weakness, spermatorrhoea, haemorrhoid, leucorrhoea, anemia,
gastric problems, wounds, rheumatism, aphrodisiac, appetiser, backache, menstrual troubles, vitaliser, rejuvenative,
digestive, eaten as raw vegetable
[28,29,31-40]
2Rhizomes Rheumatism, general body weakness, aphrodisiac, nervine tonic, kidney trouble, wounds, emollient, vitiated condition
of pitta and vata, appetizer, glactagogue, anticancer, boils, eaten mixed with dairy products and as a tonic
[41-50]
3Tuber Seminal weakness, strangury, anorexia, fever, general debility, tonic, promote body heat, appetizer, aphrodisiac, nerve
tonic, urinary problems, edible used as vegetable
[51-55]
4Bulb In powdered form used for tuberculosis, general debility, as tonic, leucorrhoea, tonifying spleen, dampness, treat
‘‘xiaoke’’ (diabetes) and tonifying Qi
[13,56]
5Green foliage As nutritive item utilized as vegetable, shoots are cooked with other spring herbs [57-60]
6Seed Indigestion [61]
7Whole herb Cure appetite, nervine tonic, kidney trouble and also restores body strength [30]
Saboon et al./Journal of Coastal Life Medicine 2016; 4(5): 406-415 409
photometry for macronutrients analysis. In nutritional constituents
the plant contained significant amount of proteins, fats, fiber,
carbohydrates, ascorbic acid along with ash and moisture content[77].
Mineral profile of the aerial parts of P. verticillatum was also analyzed
in different plant extracts the study showed that the plants contain
significant amount of both micronutrient (Zn, Cu, Cr, Fe, Pb, Mn, Ni)
and macronutrient (Ca, Na, K)[78].
9. Pharmacological activities
9.1. Antioxidant activities
Free radical scavenging activities of aerial parts of the plant were
analyzed using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) by Khan et al.,
which showed the highest activities was the crude extract (IC50: 122
μg/mL) and followed by ethyl acetate extract (IC50: 137 μg/mL) and
n-butanol (IC50: 167 μg/mL) fractions[66]. The rhizome extract showed
significant antioxidant activity in DPPH assay with the most potent
antioxidant activity observed in chloroform (IC50: 90 μg/mL) followed
by ethyl acetate (IC50: 93 μg/mL) and then n-butanol (IC50: 95 μg/
mL)[77]. Another study was conducted on the antioxidant potential of
two compound diosgenin and santonin, isolated from P. verticillatum
rhizomes for this purpose DPPH and reducing power assays were
employed the result showed that both compounds exhibit strong
antioxidant activity in DPPH assay the inhibitory concentration (IC50)
values for diosgenin is (65.80 μg/mL) and santonin (50.03 μg/mL),
respectively. Similarly in reducing power assays the IC50 values are
diosgenin (62.10 μg/mL) and santonin (46.40 μg/mL), respectively[65].
9.2. Antimalarial activities
The antimalarial activities of different extracts of P. verticillatum
aerial parts were checked against Plasmodium falciparum. The
maximum potency was showed by n-hexane fraction (IC50: 4.86 μg/
mL), which was followed by chloroform fraction (IC50: 5.71 μg/mL)
but as compared to other the crude extract was less potent (IC50: 21.67
μg/mL) against this pathogen[79]. The rhizome of P. verticillatum
was tested for its antimalarial activity against same Plasmodium
falciparum the result showed that the crude extract and its non polar
fractions showed significant antimalarial activity[72].
9.3. Antipyretic activity
The antipyretic activity of rhizome and aerial parts of the plant
were analyzed in Wistar rats and in Albino NMR imaging mice the
Brewer’s-yeast-induced pyrexia in test organisms the organisms were
treated separately with rhizome and aerial plant extracts and the result
showed that both the extract exhibited marked antipyretic activity but
the rhizome extract was more effective as compared to aerial parts
which is dose dependent like rhizome showed (82.20%) at 200 mg/kg
and aerial parts 64% at 200 mg/kg[80].
9.4. Anticonvulsant activity
The rhizome and aerial parts of the plant were analyzed for
their anticonvulsant activity the convulsion were induced by
pentylenetetrazole both the extract were seprately analysed for this
activity but the plant extracts didn’t show any effect against this
activity[74].
9.5. Anti-inflammatory activities
The anti-inflammatory activity of P. verticillatum rhizome was
tested in rat in which the carrageenan induced rat paw edema. Result
showed that the plant rhizome showed marked reduction in edema
the anti-inflammatory activity were shown at the test doses of 50,
100 and 200 mg/kg. At 200 mg/kg the protection is 65.22% which
is similar to aspirin[81]. For again the same activity the aerial parts
of plant were analyzed in wistar rats in this study with the help of
carrageenan hind paw edema is induced the methanolic extracts of
plant shows that the plant exhibite significant anti-inflammatory
activity and reduction in paw edema in rats were observed at the
test dose of (50, 100 or 200 mg/kg) but the maximum result was
observed at the concentaration of 200 mg/kg (65.22%)[67].
9.6. Tracheorelaxant activity
P. verticillatum rhizome was studied for its tracheorelaxant activity
in isolated guinea-pig tracheal tissues the result shows that P.
verticillatum rhizome caused complete inhibition of the high K+ and
carbachol-induced contractions at the dose range of 0.01–10 mg/mL
which is similar to verapamil which also cause relexation of tissue[81].
9.7. Lipoxygenase activity
P. verticillatum rhizome was tested for inhibition of soybean
lipoxygenase with UV absorbance based enzyme assay, the plant shows
significant activity against lipoxygenase with resultant IC50 value of
(102 ± 0.19) μg/mL which is compared with that of the standard drug,
baicalaim (22.6 ± 0.09 μg/mL)[81]. Same as that of rhizome the aerial
parts of the plant were also tested for the same activity in different
solvent extracts the study revealed that the plant contain significant
lipoxygenase activity in all extracts, but ethyl acetate extracts was the
most potent inhibitor of the enzyme (IC50: 97 μg/mL), followed by
aqueous fraction (IC50: 109 μg/mL) and crude extract showed inhibition
(IC50: 125 μg/mL)[66]. Again the aerial parts of plant were also tested
for its lipoxygenase activities the different dilution of plant showed
significant lipoxygenase with IC50 values of 102 mg/mL[67].
Saboon et al./Journal of Coastal Life Medicine 2016; 4(5): 406-415
410
9.8. Urease inhibition activity
The urease inhibition activity of the aerial parts of the P.
verticillatum is tested in the crude and its subsequent solvent
fraction of the plant extract. The crude extract of plant exhibited
significant reduction of enzyme (IC50: 192.00 ± 0.09). When different
fractionation were tested for the activity, n-butanol was the most
potent fraction [IC50: (166.00 ± 0.69) μg/mL] followed by the ethyl
acetate [IC50: (187.00 ± 0.77) μg/mL]. However, n-hexane and
chloroform fractions were inactive in urease inhibition assay. This
showed that plant exhibit significant urease inhibition activity[66].
9.9. Insecticidal activity
Aerial parts of P. verticillatum was tested for its in vitro insecticidal
assay against Tribolium castaneum, Sitophilus oryzea, Rhyzopertha
dominica and Callosobruchus analis result of this this activity
showed that two fractions n-hexane (50%) and chloroform (30%)
showed moderate activity against Rhyzopertha dominica, on the other
hand neither crude extract nor its solvent fraction showed any activity
against other insects[82].
9.10. Antileishmanicidal activity
The aerial parts of P. verticillatum was tested for its in vitro
antileishmanicidal activity against Leishmania major (strain DESTO)
the crude extract and different solvent extracts were tested result
showed that neither crude extract nor its solvent fraction showed any
significant activity against Leishmania major[82].
9.11. Phytotoxicity assay
To test the phytotoxicity, aerial parts of P. verticillatum was tested
against Lemna acquinoctialis Welv result of this study showed that
the crude as well as the different solvent fraction of this plant showed
outstanding phtotoxicity against Lemnaemna acquinoctialis at the
dose of 5, 50 and 500 μg/mL and complete growth inhibition was
observed in the crude extract and aqueous fraction at the maximum
dose (500 μg/mL)[82].
9.12. Antibacterial activity
The crude and different solvent extracts of plant rhizome were
tested against various Gram-positive [Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis),
Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus)] and Gram-negative [Escherichia
coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa), Salmonella typhi,
Shigella flexeneri] bacteria by using agar well diffusion method
the plant extract show significant antibacterial activity against
these bacteria specially against Gram-negative bacteria except P.
aeruginosa in Gram-positive the S. aureus showed more sensitivity
against this plant[83]. The aerial parts of plant is also analyzed for
their antibacterial activities against same Gram-positive and Gram-
negative bacteria in different extracts the result showed that in Gram-
positive the plant extract is effective only against B. subtilis and in
Gram-negative like rhizome the aerial plant extract are ineffective
against P. aeruginosa[65]. The same activity was again tested by two
compounds isolated from P. verticillatum rhizome diosgenin and
santonin against various Gram-positive (B. subtilis, Bacillus cereus, S.
aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis) and Gram-negative bacteria
(Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhi) bacteria both these compounds
showed significant zone of inhibition against both the strain[69].
9.13. Antifungal activity
Different extracts of plant rhizome was tested against various fungi
including (Trichophyton longifusus, Candida albicans, Aspergillus
flavus, Microspoum canis, Fusarium solani, Candida glaberata) by
using agar tube dilution method the result of this study showed that
the antifungal activity of this plant is only limited to the M. canis and
F. solani[83]. The aerial parts of plant were also analyzed for their
antifungal activity against the same six fungal strains by using same
method the result of aerial plant extract was effective only against
Microspoum canis and all other fungal strains were resistant to
plant extract[65]. Again the antifungal activity was tested by isolated
compounds diosgenin and santonin from P. verticillatum rhizome
against different strains of fungi (Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus
niger, Trichoderma harzianum and Fusarium oxysporum) the result
of this study showed that only santonin showed the marked antifungal
activity against these strains of fungi[69].
9.14. Inhibition of protein denaturation
Diosgenin and santonin two isolated compounds from the rhizome
of P. verticillatum these two compounds shows marked attenuation
on heat-induced protein denaturation in a concentration dependent
manner with with maximum effect of 61.55% and 67.90% at 500 mg/
mL, respectively[69].
9.15. Cytotoxic activity
The cytotoxic activity of P. verticillatum rhizome is tested by
using its crude extract and its subsequent solvent fractions by using
brine shrimp cytotoxic assay the result shows that only ethyl acetate
fraction showed prominent cytotoxicity (LD50: 492.846 μg/mL)[70].
Different fractions of the aerial parts of plant were also analyzed for
its cytotoxicity by using same brine shrimp cytotoxic assay the assay
shows that except the choloform assay all other fractions are safe and
no toxicity was observed[78].
Saboon et al./Journal of Coastal Life Medicine 2016; 4(5): 406-415 411
9.16. Antinociceptive activity
Crude methanolic extract of the rhizomes of P. verticillatum was
tested for its antinociceptive activity in various pain models in rodents
at the concentrations (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg) the plant showed
significant antinociceptive activity in various pain models including
visceral pain model, formalin test and hot plate test[71]. The aerial
parts of plant were also analyzed for the same activity the the effect
of plant extract were analyzed in different pain models in all the plant
showed the marked antinociceptive activity from the result the author
suggested that the plant may contain some pharmacologically active
substances which may interfere with the blockade of the effect or
the release of endogenous substances (arachidonic acid metabolites)
which are responsible for the excitation of pain nerve endings[70].
9.17. Diuretic activity
The rhizome of P. verticillatum was tested for its diuretic activity
in male Albino rats at concentration 300 and 600 mg/kg, the result
of this study showed that the plant exhibit mild diuretic activity at
concentration of 300 mg/kg and no activity were showed at the high
dose concentration of 600 mg/kg[71]. The aerial parts of plant were
also analyzed for their diuretic activity in male Wistar rats the plant
show mild diuretic activity but found insignificant in both test doses
at both test doses (300 and 600 mg/kg p.o.) when compared with the
standarerd drug hydrochlorothiazide[70].
9.18. Bronchodilator activity
The bronchodilator activity of aerial parts of P. verticillatum were
tested in the isolated tracheal tissues of rabbits the methanolic extract
of plant parts show strong bronchodilator activities when tested
against carbachol and K+ (80 mmol/L) so it induced contractions
more ever it also showed Ca2+ channel blocker-like activity[67].
9.19. Antispasmodic activity
To test this activity the methanoilc extract of P. verticillatum
rhizome is used in the spontaneously contracting isolated rabbit
jejunum the findining of this study showed that plant extract
demonstrated dose-dependent relaxation of the spontaneous
contractions in rabbit jejunum and the complete relaxation is at
10 mg/mL these result are similar to that of inhibitory activity
of cromakalim and verapamil. The plant extract was also tested
against low K+- and high K+-induced contractions, the plant showed
inhibition at low K+-induced contractions, while high K+-induced
contractions were partially inhibited[80].
9.20. Antidiarrheal activity
The methanolic rhizome extract of P. verticillatum was tested for its
antidiarrheal activity in mice diarrhea is induce in test organism with
the help of castor oil the study showed that the plant exhibited marked
antidiarrheal activity reduction in diarrhea was in a dose-dependent
manner which is 80% at 1 000 mg/kg, p.o. these result are similar
with that of drug loperamide[80].
9.21. Anti-insulin activity
On the bases of traditional medicine system it was reported that the
plant is utilized to treat diabetes. To check this plant was analyzed for
their antidiabatic activity in dexamethasone which induced insulin
resistant HepG2 cells but the result showed that the plant exhibited
insignificant antidiabatic activities[56].
10. Conservation and management
P. verticillatum is a perennial herb distributed worldwide especially
in Europe, Turkey, Afghanistan, India, Nepal, China, in North and
Central Asia and in temperate Himalayas at the altitude of 2 400 to
2 800 m. The plant is highly medicinal and used in many traditional
medicines as diuretic, in pain, pyrexia, burning sensation, phthisis,
weakness, Aphrodisiac, tonic and galactagogue, emollient, appetizer
and for kidney trouble. The plant is also used for food in some areas
of the world different parts of plant were utilized as raw vegetable.
Based on their traditional uses the plant was also analyzed for their
pharmacological potential and the plant showed marked potential
against many pharmacological activities. The plant parts are also
utilized in many traditional herbal formulations. For all this the plant
was collected in large number from wild by the local community
Table 2
Status of plant P. verticillatum in different region of world.
Status Area References
Critically endangered Kumaun Himalaya; [85]
Endangered Kumaun Himalaya; Mankial Valley Hindukush Range, Pakistan; District Swat, Pakistan; North-West Himalaya; Himachal Pradesh, India [43,85-88]
Threatened Changa Valley district Shangla, Pakistan; Garhwal Himalaya, India; Lohba Range of Kedarnath Forest Division, Garhwal Himalaya, India;
District Kinnaur, Himachal Pradesh, India
[41,33,89,90]
Vulnerable Kinnaur, Himachal Pradesh, India; Manali wildlife sanctuary, north western Himalaya; Trans-Himalayan, Ladakh, Jammu and Kashmir;
Uttaranchal, India; Dhauli Ganga, Central Himalaya; Bhabha Valley in Western Himalaya; Uttarakhand Himalaya, India; Mornaula
Reserve Forests, West Himalaya, India; Nanda Devi National Park and highland National, Indian Himalayan Region; Jammu and Kashmir;
Himachal Pradesh, India; North-West Himalaya
[32,34,53-55,
87,91-99]
Rare Kumaun state west Himalaya, India; District Shangla, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan [42, 100]
Uncommon Lohba Range of Kedarnath Forest Division, Garhwal Himalaya, India [33]
Saboon et al./Journal of Coastal Life Medicine 2016; 4(5): 406-415
412
due to which the reduction in the population will be seen another
reason of the reduction of plant is the rhizome of plant which have
more medicinal value as compared to other plant parts so for the
collection of rhizome the whole plant was digged from the soil due
to which large number of plant were destroyed. Secondly, due to
lack of awareness indiscriminate cutting of grasses and bushes were
done by local community moreover the cutting of plants take place
along with the underground reproductive parts of the plants and
the cutting also destroyed the matured seeds. This all result in the
reduction in the population of these plants. Another big reason is the
change in environmental conditions which is going on constantly
in the different ecosystems of the world such changes also occur in
Himalayans region which is the rich source of natural vegetation
and home for many native plant species due to the anthropogenic
destruction of natural vegetation, environmental changes and the
change in the natural habitat of the plant due to the change in the
geographical and climatic conditions, decreased the overall density
and availability of the plants[84].
Bisht et al. (2012) also concluded that some plant have habitat
specificity, some have narrow range of distribution, land-use
disturbances by human beings, introduction of non- natives plant species
or invasive species, change of habitat, climatic changes, heavy grazing
pressure, explosion of human population, fragmentation and degradation
of the plant density, population restriction and genetic drift are the
potential causes of destruction of medicinal plant species. In some areas
of the world the women carry all the activities of livestock domestication
and for that they collect the food and fodder from the nearby forests and
due to lack of identification they also cut the medicinal plant species
along with the fodder grasses. Therefore, this is one of the reasons of
threatened status of these medicinal plant species[20].
11. Status of P. verticillatum
In many parts of the world the natural habitat of this plant is decline
due to over exploitation, harvest in an uncontrolled way, overgrazing
and lack of awareness is the reason for the decline of this species (Table
2). Secondly, in some regions of the world the plant were also utilized
in herbal formulations and have some market value so the local people
harvest plant before maturity due to which mature seed production
become very low and large number of seeds destruction also take place.
Furthermore, rhizome of the plant has much medicinal value so the
whole plant is uprooted from the soil which also destroys the plant.
Thus, there is a need for its in-situ as well as, ex-situ conservation and
propagation to conserve this important medicinal plant.
11.1. Ex-situ conservation of P. verticillatum
In recent year the ex-situ conservation of plant is done by Lohani
et al. (2012) in that study the scientist grow the plant rhizome
in Medicinal Plant Garden of Central Council for Research
in Ayurveda and Siddha, Ranikhet (29º38’ 60 N, 79º25’0 E),
India[101]. During the growth of the plant they supplemented it
with different organic fertilizer. Three types of organic fertilizers,
namely farmyard manure, forest litter and vermin compost were
used to check their effects on the survival, growth and yield of the
plant. Total twelve treatments were arranged. The result of this
study showed that in control the yield was lower as compared to
litter, farmyard manure and vermi compost which showed higher
economic yield. However, yield was highest at T3 (furrow + forest
litter) as compared to other beds which was seen best for the
growth of that plant[101]. Again in another region the rhizome of
plant was cultivated farmyard manure and vermicompost to check
their yield and compared with other plants, the plant showed good
yield[102].
11.2. In-vitro micropropagation of P. verticillatum
Micropropagation of P. verticillatum was done by using stem
disc explants. The study showed the multiple shoots were initiated
on Murashige and Skoog medium prepared with different
concentrations and combinations of cytokinins (0.25–10.00 mg/L)
along with auxins (0.5–1.0 mg/L). From the different phytohormones
used, benzylaminopurine (1.0 mg/L) with 1-naphthaleneaceticacid
(0.5 mg/L) was found to be the most effective in producing
maximum number of shoots. When in the same medium the regular
subculturing of these in vitro multiple shoots was done it induced
profuse growth of lateral roots. Individual shoots were excised
and rooted in vitro on half strength MS medium supplemented
with auxins viz. indole acetic acid, indole-3-butyric acid and
1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) (0.5–1.0 mg/L) result showed that
only NAA and indole-3-butyric acid could induced rooting on half
strength of MS basal media. Where’s 0.5 mg/L NAA in half strength
MS medium reflected better and longer roots[20].
12. Conclusions
P. verticillatum is an endangered but high valuable medicinal
plant from temperate Himalaya. The plant has immense importance
because of its efficacy towards various serious diseases which is
also an important plant species with respect to its ethnomedicinal
importance, so this importance builds a pressure on the plant
regarding to its use. This pressure posed the serious threat towards
its extinction. So there is an urgent need to conserve this species,
sustainable harvesting methods are also urgently required.
Conflict of interest statement
We declare that we have no conflict of interest.
Saboon et al./Journal of Coastal Life Medicine 2016; 4(5): 406-415 413
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... The genus Polygonatum comprises 71 species (Zhao et al. 2017), mostly distributed in the temperate regions. It is found in India, Pakistan, Nepal, Afghanistan, Bhutan, Korea, Russia and in moderate climate zones of North America and Europe (Saboon et al. 2016). Its distribution is also recorded in subtropical and boreal zones of the northern hemisphere (Meng et al. 2014). ...
... Charak Samhita, an ancient Ayurvedic literature, has described its noteworthy role in curing cough, dyspnea, consumption, cardiac problems and voice problems (Baliga et al. 2013). β-sitosterol, 2hydroxybenzoic acid (Khan et al. 2013;Sagar 2014;Saboon et al. 2016), santonin, diosgenin (Khan et al. 2015), and quinine present in P. verticillatum exhibit a variety of pharmaceutical properties like antioxidant activities, antiinflammatory activity, anticancer activity (Patra et al. 2018), antimalarial activities (khan et al. 2012) antipyretic, analgesic, diuretic, sex stimulant (Wujisguleng et al. 2012; Akhtar et al. 2013;Sharma and Samant 2014;Razzaq et al. 2015) and energizer, etc. (Tariq et al. 2015;Saboon et al. 2016;Virk et al. 2016). Rhizomes of this species improve liver health and cure throat pain, headache, eye diseases, gastric troubles, epilepsy, high blood pressure, etc. (Tiwari and Chaturvedi 2016). ...
... Charak Samhita, an ancient Ayurvedic literature, has described its noteworthy role in curing cough, dyspnea, consumption, cardiac problems and voice problems (Baliga et al. 2013). β-sitosterol, 2hydroxybenzoic acid (Khan et al. 2013;Sagar 2014;Saboon et al. 2016), santonin, diosgenin (Khan et al. 2015), and quinine present in P. verticillatum exhibit a variety of pharmaceutical properties like antioxidant activities, antiinflammatory activity, anticancer activity (Patra et al. 2018), antimalarial activities (khan et al. 2012) antipyretic, analgesic, diuretic, sex stimulant (Wujisguleng et al. 2012; Akhtar et al. 2013;Sharma and Samant 2014;Razzaq et al. 2015) and energizer, etc. (Tariq et al. 2015;Saboon et al. 2016;Virk et al. 2016). Rhizomes of this species improve liver health and cure throat pain, headache, eye diseases, gastric troubles, epilepsy, high blood pressure, etc. (Tiwari and Chaturvedi 2016). ...
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Kumar A, Tapwal A. 2022. Diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and root colonization in Polygonatum verticillatum. Nusantara Bioscience 14: 53-63. Diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) associated with Polygonatum verticillatum (L.) All. was investigated in two sites of Himachal Himalaya, India. A total of 15 AMF species were isolated and identified from the rhizosphere soil of P. verticillatum. The spore density was 1.48 ± 1.91 and 3.99 ± 3.78 per 20 gram of rhizosphere soil at site-I and site-II, respectively. Mycorrhizal colonization in the roots of P. verticillatum was recorded 46.12 and 52.23 percent at site-I and site-II, respectively. The mycorrhizal structures like darkly stained endophytic hyphae, coiled intracellular hyphae, Y-shaped hyphae and 'H' connection (Arum type) were recorded.
... Polygonatum verticillatum has worldwide distribution, from montane to alpine Himalaya, Kashmir, Southeast Tibet, Russia (W. Siberia, Caucasia), West Asia to Europe (except for the Mediterranean region) (Saboon & al. 2016). According to De Filips (1980), in Europe it spreads from Arctic Norway, southwards to N. Spain, C. Italy and S.W. Bulgaria, and eastwards to c. 26° E, in Latvia and Romania. ...
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This paper presents new data on the distribution of 10 vascular plant species from the territory of North Macedonia.Three species (Erysimum cheiri, Iberis umbellata and Silene squamigera) are listed for the first time for the flora of North Macedonia, while the other 7 rare species (Chaenorhinum rubrifolium, Crepis zacintha, Galatella linosyris, Geranium versicolor, Glinus lotoides, Limosella aquatica and Polygonatum verticillatum) are registered at several new localities on its territory.
... It is known as Setak chini or Khiraula in the local Nepalese language and Whorled Solomon's seal in English. Besides Nepal, it is also found in India, Pakistan, Korea, Afghanistan, Bhutan, Russia, and the moderate climate zone of North America and Europe [10]. ...
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Background: Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder that has become a major health issue in modern era due to the long-term health consequences. α-amylase and α-glucosidase are the key enzymes involved in the digestion of starchy foods, and the inhibition of these enzymes is regarded as a postprandial hyperglycemia control strategy. Objective: The primary goal of this work is to examine the antioxidant activity as well as α-glucosidase inhibitory activity of Polygonatum verticillatum rhizomes via in vitro test. Method: The in vitro α-glucosidase inhibition activity was performed using p-nitrophenyl α-D¬-glucopyranoside (PNPG) substrate. 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging assay was performed to estimate the antioxidant activity. Results: The in vitro -glucosidase inhibitory activity of Polygonatum verticillatum was investigated for the very first time. Of the three fractions and a crude extract, the ethyl acetate (EA) fraction disclosed potent inhibition activity against α-glucosidase enzyme with an IC50 value of 22.3 ± 0.1 μg/mL. Likewise, the IC50 values for dichloromethane (DCM) fraction and the crude extract against α-glucosidase were reported 34 ± 0.1 μg/mL, and 402.2 ± 0.2 μg/mL, respectively. Similarly, the EA fraction, crude extract, and DCM fraction disclosed promising antioxidant activity with IC50 55 ± 0.3 μg/mL, 171.5 ± 0.6 μg/mL, and 164.1 ± 3.4 μg/mL, respectively. Conclusion: These findings concluded that among the crude extract and fractions of Polygonatum verticillatum of Nepalese origin, the EA fraction constituted a potent α-glucosidase inhibiting and antioxidant agent. Further research is required to expose the inhibiting compounds. Keywords: Antioxidant, anti-diabetic, Diabetes mellitus, Polygonatum verticillatum, α-glucosidase inhibiton, IC50
... Polygonatum sibiricum is a traditional Chinese medicine for renal protection and treating nephropathy (Bibi et al., 2016;Cai et al., 2019;Zhao et al., 2019;Han et al., 2020;Wang et al., 2020). It has been widely used as a functional food around all Asian countries. ...
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Ibuprofen (IBU) was a widely used NSAID (a type of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug) worldwide, and many drug deliveries had been reported to enhance bioavailability. However, higher bioavailability would increase the danger of renal injury caused by oxidative stress. This study prepared IBU-Polygonatum sibiricum polysaccharide (IBU-PSP) drug delivery system via mechanochemical method. Due to drug delivery and renal protection effect of Polygonatum sibiricum polysaccharide (PSP), the solubility of IBU-PSP was increased 8.22 times, and the bioavailability was increased 2.52 times compared with IBU, carrageenin-induced rat paw edema test also increased. Meanwhile, short-term and long-term renal injuries induced by IBU were notable decreases. In conclusion, IBU-PSP was a multifunctional drug delivery system with superior anti-inflammatory and renal protection effects. It will benefit from developing high-efficiency NADIs preparations with safer clinical applications while providing an efficient and energy-saving technology for polysaccharide drug delivery.
... Besides, the plant is used as vegetable and are eaten roasted in China and India (Wujisguleng et al., 2012). In Ayurveda, the plant comes under the astavarga group, and rhizomes have a history of traditional use as aphrodisiac and tonic for weakness (Saboon et al., 2016). It exhibits diverse biological activities, including antioxidant, antispasmodic, antidiarrheal, antipyretic, tracheo-relaxant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antinociceptive and diuretic (Sharma, Joshi, & Kumar, 2020). ...
... Besides, the plant is used as vegetable and are eaten roasted in China and India (Wujisguleng et al., 2012). In Ayurveda, the plant comes under the astavarga group, and rhizomes have a history of traditional use as aphrodisiac and tonic for weakness (Saboon et al., 2016). It exhibits diverse biological activities, including antioxidant, antispasmodic, antidiarrheal, antipyretic, tracheo-relaxant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antinociceptive and diuretic (Sharma, Joshi, & Kumar, 2020). ...
Article
Polygonatum verticillatum is one of the least explored plant of genus Polygonatum, having immense utility in food and medicine. The current study was designed to investigate and compare the metabolite diversity, including the nutritional potential of rhizomatous and aerial parts (leaves and fruits) of Polygonatum verticillatum. Comprehensive metabolites through UPLC-PDA-ESI/MS were tentatively identified 38, 31, and 16 compounds while 342, 414, and 314 were identified through METLIN database in leaves, fruits, and rhizomes, respectively. Total phenolic, flavonoid, protein, carbohydrate, and fat content were compared and found in the range of 24.50–27.64 and 101.40–109.50, 99–100, 58–200, 5–56 µg/mg, respectively, while antioxidant activity was highest in fruits (IC50DPPH 456.30 µg/ml). Polyphenols, essential amino acids, and macro & micronutrients were estimated in all the parts of P. verticillatum. Leaves contained the highest number of targeted polyphenols and amino acids, followed by fruits and rhizomes. Statistical analysis (Venn-diagram, Heatmap, stacked charts, PCA, PCoA) has visualized that all parts have similar nutritional potential and chemical diversity. The current finding unleashed the possibilities of utilizing aerial parts instead of rhizomes that would save this plant from overexploitation.
Chapter
Due to role of nutraceuticals in health care, herbal products have become major concern for food industry and health-care regulatory bodies. The World Health Organization estimates that Ayurveda is gaining popularity due to its easy availability, low cost, congeniality, and higher safety. Ashtawarga group of plants used in a number of aphrodisiacs Ayurvedic formulations/functional foods have been included in the Red List of Threatened Species. To overcome this problem, permission to use official substitutes is being exploited by manufacturers resulting in serious problem of adulteration with spoiled, inferior, and spurious drugs. Plant dealers have discovered the “scientific” methods to adulterate a high-quality material, which is difficult to analyze without high-end equipment and chemical markers. Confirmation of text-based use of these plants may further throw light on medicinal and therapeutic potentials of these eight plants and could be a great step toward high-quality nutraceuticals in future.
Chapter
Herbs, Spices and Their Roles in Nutraceuticals and Functional Foods gives an overview of the many pharmacological activities associated with herbs and spices, including detailed coverage on their mechanisms and formulations for the food industry. Chapters focus on key ingredients such as Curcuma longa, Piper Nigrum and Trigonella foenum-graecum, with contributors across the globe providing the latest research and advances for each. This is an essential read for scientists who want to understand the fundamental mechanisms behind the bioactive compounds within herbs and spices. The numerous phytochemicals present in plant extracts have multiple pharmacological activities so there is extensive research into new bioactive compounds. The pharmacological activities of herbs and spices have been thoroughly investigated, and it is crucial that the latest research is organized into a comprehensive resource.
Chapter
There are numerous foods and herbal plants that boost the immune system. They stimulate the activity of cells responsible for fighting infections. In fact, over centuries, people have relied on herbs and other plants for treating medical conditions and boosting immunity. Considering the worldwide coronavirus pandemic, natural immune boosters are being sought after in the current war against this viral infection. Most likely, immune-boosting plants help human health by tackling viruses, bacteria, and abnormal cells in the form of prevention, to support and strengthen the body’s natural immune system. In this chapter, we review several terrestrial species and plants from various sources including China, India, Europe, and Africa, which have long folklore use, and we provide information on the chemistry and biological activity where available.KeywordsFolklore medicines from Africa and ChinaImmune boost plantsElderberry (Sambucus nigra)Echinacea spp. Astragalus Ganoderma lucidum India—Astavarga plants
Article
Ethnopharmacological relevance Polygonatum sibiricum, known as “Huangjing” in Chinese traditional medicine, of which functions including invigorating Qi and nourishing Yin, tonifying spleen and kidney, which are considered to replenish energy, and strengthen immunity. However, both the active components and mechanism of the immune-enhancing effect of Polygonatum sibiricum have not been clarified. Aim of the study To evaluate the immunoregulation effects of PSE30 (Polygonatum sibiricum ethanol 30) and PSE75 (Polygonatum sibiricum ethanol 75). The gut microbial and activation of RAW264.7 cells were also evaluated for exploring the mechanism of PSE75. Materials and methods Female ICR mice were randomly divided into different groups, of which were pretreated with 0.9% saline, Yupingfeng granules, different dosage of PSE30 or PSE75. And the immunosuppressed mice model was constructed using cyclophosphamide. And the total duration of the experiment was 15 d. After that, the serum Immunoglobulins G (IgG) and Immunoglobulins M (IgM) antibody, regular blood testing, assessment of natural killer cell activity, and histological observation of spleen in immunosuppressed mice were measured to evaluate the immunoregulation effects of PSE30 and PSE75. Besides, effects of PSE75 on gut microbial were evaluated using 16s rRNA sequence. And the mRNA expression and cytokine secretion of RAW264.7 cell were evaluated to analyze the immunoregulation mechanism of PSE75. Results The content of serum IgG, IgM was significantly elevated by PSE75 (P<0.05, P<0.001). The NK cells killing activity in splenocytes against K562 cells induced by PSE30, and PSE75 was pronounced higher than that of the model group (P < 0.05). Both of mRNA expression of Th1 molecular markers including interleukin (IL)-2, interferon (IFN)-γ, and signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT) 4, and Th2 molecular markers including IL-4 in splenocytes were markedly enhanced by PSE30, and PSE75 (P < 0.05, P < 0.01, or P < 0.001). Besides, the result of 16s rRNA sequence indicated that PSE75 could recover the gut microbial community disturbed by cyclophosphamide. PSE75 could markedly promote the secretion of IL-6, IL-10, and IL-12 p40 from RAW264.7 cell (P<0.01, or P<0.001). Conclusions PSE75 was proved to be a more promising immunomodulation agent, of which may enhance the immunity of immunosuppressed mice by improving gut microbial and activating macrophages. And PSE75 could be developed as a good immune booster in the future.
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The rich plant diversity of Uttarakhand hills has provided an initial advantage to the local people for scrutinizing various plant species for the purpose of food, medicine, perfumes and spices. Over the years, they have accumulated a great deal of knowledge on the use of plant species. The present study aims to document such information, especially the use of plants for curing diseases and as perfumes. Field surveys carried out in the villages of Tons watershed have resulted in the documentation of 84 medicinal, aromatic and spice plant species. These species were distributed over various life forms, of which 19 were tree species, 12 were shrub and 53 were herbaceous species. For curing various ailments, the use of aboveground plant parts was relatively higher (57%) than the belowground plant parts. Different belowground plant forms such as root, tuber, rhizome and bulb were used for preparing herbal medicine for curing ailments. About 17% of these species, which include Picrorhiza kurrooa Benth, Dactylorhiza hatagirea (D.Don) Soo, Arnebia benthamii (D. Don) Johnston, Podophyllum hexandrum Royle, Polygonatum verticillatum (L.) All., Rheum australe D. Don and Angelica glauca Edgew. have become threatened due to several natural and anthropogenic pressures. Sustainable utilization of these valuable plant species is an urgent need of hour.
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A study was carried out to elaborate the medicinal plant diversity at higher altitude of District Shangla, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. The district is located between 33°-31' to 34°-08' North latitudes and 72°-33' to 73°-01' East longitude. Floristically the area comes under Sino-Japanese region. The study revealed that there were 25 medicinal plant species belonging to 21 families. Among these species 19 were herbs, 3 were shrubs, 2 species were climbers and one was tree. The most important species are: Aconitum violaceum, Aconitum heterphyllum, Berberis vulgaris, Viola canescens, Valeriana jatamansii, Podopyllum emodi, Paeonia emodi, Geranium wallichianum, Polygonatum verticillatum, Ajuga bracteosa etc. The plant biodiversity of the area is under high biotic pressure as a result of indiscriminate deforestation, overpopulation, over grazing, habitat destruction, unscientific collection and establishment of invasive species. There is dire need to protect and conserve the medicinal biodiversity of the area.
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Nepal has great biodiversity, as a result of its extreme variations in altitude, ecology, farming systems and varied socio-cultural settings. In Nepal, about 200 plant species are consumed as vegetables. The aim of paper is to point out existing indigenous vegetables in Nepal and how these are utilized for food security and biodiversity conservation. Indigenous vegetables are considered valuable because of their ability to fit into year round production, adaptability to adverse condition and their nutritional value. But, only a very few indigenous vegetables are still cultivated at field scale. Most of them are neglected and, many landraces of vegetables are in the process of being replaced by modern varieties. Along with this, the indigenous knowledge associated with the cultivation, utilization, and conservation of indigenous vegetables is also endangered. But, there has been very limited information available about the identification, occurrence, collection, and utilization of indigenous vegetables in Nepal. In this scenario, promotion, conservation, utilization and commercialization of indigenous vegetables can be a better alternative towards improving the food security and nutritional status of the community, particularly those people residing in remote areas and in the hills.
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The present study was carried out in the Lohba range of the Kedarnath Forest Division, Garhwal Himalaya to document the diversity, indigenous uses and availability status of wild edible plants. The inhabitants of the region are dependent up to a large extent on wild resources for their food and other daily needs. The region is rich in wild edible plant resources. A total of 82 species belonging to 62 genera and 46 families were documented from the study area. Out of the recorded species 24 were herbs, 23 shrubs, 28 trees and the rest 7 were climbers. Among the documented plants, 15 were abundant, 46 common and 21 uncommon to this area. Plant parts such as leaves, shoots, young twigs, roots, rhizomes, tubers, flowers, fruits, seeds, etc. are used for food by the local people. The study will be helpful in developing a comprehensive data base on wild plant resources, strengthening the food security in area and in conserving the traditional knowledge for the prosperity of the remote areas.