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Does Trust Matter More in Virtual Teams? A Meta-Analysis of Trust and Team Effectiveness Considering Virtuality and Documentation as Moderators

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Abstract

Team trust has often been discussed both as requirement and as challenge for team effectiveness, particularly in virtual teams. However, primary studies on the relationship between trust and team effectiveness have provided mixed findings. The current review summarizes existing studies on team trust and team effectiveness based on meta-analytic methodology. In general, we assumed team trust to facilitate coordination and cooperation in teams, and therefore to be positively related with team effectiveness. Moreover, team virtuality and documentation of interactions were considered as moderators of this relationship because they should affect perceived risks during teamwork. While team virtuality should increase, documentation of interaction should decrease the relationship between team trust and team effectiveness. Findings from 52 studies with 54 independent samples (representing 12,615 individuals in 1,850 teams) confirmed our assumptions. In addition to the positive overall relationship between team trust and team effectiveness criteria (ρ = .33), the relationship between team trust and team performance was stronger in virtual teams (ρ = .33) as compared to face-to-face teams (ρ = .22), and weaker when team interactions were documented (ρ = .20) as compared to no such documentation (ρ = .29). Thus, documenting team interactions seems to be a viable complement to trust-building activities, particularly in virtual teams. (PsycINFO Database Record

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... Swift starting action teams are composed of individuals with highly specialised knowledge, skills, and attributes with little or no previous collaborative experience who come together quickly and complete complex and time-pressurised tasks effectively in high-stakes environments (Mckinney et al., 2005). The deployment of these swift starting action teams, which is typically abbreviated to STATs to reflect their immediate and urgent nature, enables organisations to compete, innovate, and succeed when operating in dynamic and complex environments (Breuer et al., 2016;De Jong et al., 2016). Trust plays a critical role for operational effectiveness in highstakes environments where cooperation and coordination among STATs members is key, yet ironically has little time to form due to the time-pressured and dynamic nature of the situation at hand (for a comprehensive review of trust, see Dirks & de Jong, 2022). ...
... For this reason, our study is best characterised primarily as a 'tester' because it prioritises testing of existing theory rather than building new theory (Colquitt & Zapata-Phelan, 2007). This contribution is important because existing statistical syntheses of the trust literature capture antecedents or outcomes of trust only; for example, trust and performance broadly (De Jong et al., 2016) and in business teams specifically (Morrissette & Kisamore, 2020), trust and team effectiveness in virtual teams (Breuer et al., 2016), trust within the context of leadership and performance (Legood et al., 2021), and the antecedents of trust within the context of risk taking and job performance . Second, meta-analysis is ideally suited for testing theoretical sequences when no individual primary study has tested the model in its entirety (Viswesvaran & Ones, 1995). ...
... Consistent with existing meta-analytic data (Breuer et al., 2016;De Jong et al., 2016;Morrissette & Kisamore, 2020), our findings confirmed the salience of members' trust perceptions of their team for enhancing collective processes and outcomes and extend this perspective to STATs. In so doing, we provide the first meta-analytic estimates of the direction and magnitude of associations between swift trust in one's team and collective processes and outcomes, thus revealing direct and indirect effects between these concepts. ...
Article
Trust is essential for operational and organizational effectiveness in high-stakes environments where cooperation and coordination among team members is key, particularly among swift starting action teams (STATs) who are composed of individuals with little or no previous experience of working together. Wildman et al. (2012) developed a multilevel conceptual framework in which they characterized the formation and development of swift team trust according to an input–mediator–output–input model (IMOI). We conducted a preregistered systematic review of six electronic databases (Web of Science [core collection], Scopus, Business Source Complete, PsycInfo, and ProQuest Dissertations and Theses) to identify literature that could be used to test this conceptual model. From an examination of 19,249 potentially relevant items that studied STATs composed of adults (aged 18 years or more), we found no single comprehensive test of this model in its entirety nor a sufficient examination of key structural sections of Wildman and colleagues’ model. Cumulating evidence from 53 primary studies via meta-analytic structural equation modeling (199 effects, Nteams = 2,380, Nindividuals = 9,975), we found that individual-level propensity to trust was positively related to one’s perceptions of trust in their team; one’s trust in their team was positively related to emotional reactions, team processes, and team performance; and team processes and performance were positively associated with individuals’ subsequent trust in their team. We also revealed an indirect effect of trust perceptions on collective performance via team processes. Our findings underscore the need to consider innovative methodologies and technologies to study swift trust dynamics temporally in ways that permit empirical tests of multicomponent conceptual models of trust formation and development.
... Based on SIPT, different degrees of TV may send different signals which help virtual team employees perform specific work-related behaviors. More specifically, we argue that the social cues emitted by highly virtuality working context, such as unreliable and complex telecommunication technologies, low likelihood of informal team member communication, and highly risky perception of collaboration (Bierly et al., 2009;Ganesh and Gupta, 2010;Breuer et al., 2016), may shift virtual team members' attention to the significant information of their surrounding others (e.g., coworkers) that provides a clear path to shape their cooperative attitudes and behaviors. Thus, in the presence of Frontiers in Psychology 03 frontiersin.org ...
... Previous studies showed that trust significantly affects online transactions, organizational value creation, job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and knowledge sharing (Chiu et al., 2006;Zeinabadi and Salehi, 2011). Despite the abundant literature and clear consensus on the critical role of trust, most of these studies have focused on trust in vertical referents, such as supervisor, manager, and organization (e.g., Deluga, 1994;Breuer et al., 2016), and seldom examined the horizontal referents, such as coworkers (Tan and Lim, 2009). ...
... In our case, when employees working in high TV contexts, they are highly dependent on electronic tools, reducing social cues and controls and producing conflict problems, such as delayed responses and neglection of important information, thereby increasing their perceptions of collaboration risks (Jarvenpaa and Leidner, 1999). These team members may face role ambiguity and workplace misattributions (Breuer et al., 2016). In such chaotic context, the trustworthy colleagues can offer strong social information that employees are unrestrained being themselves and more likely to be involved in interpersonal communications (Men et al., 2020). ...
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Examining the influence of trust in fostering knowledge sharing behavior (KSB) in virtual teams is of great research value in the current complex, dynamic, and competitive era of a knowledge economy. This study investigated the relationship between trust in coworkers (TC) and KSB. Based on social information processing theory and social cognitive theory, we developed a multilevel moderated mediation model where the team members’ psychological safety (PS) was considered a mediator, while team virtuality (TV) and knowledge sharing self-efficacy (KSSE) acted as team and individual-level moderators, respectively. On surveying 282 individuals in 37 virtual teams of three Chinese internet companies, we found that TC positively affected team members’ KSB and this relationship was fully mediated by team members’ PS. Our findings also demonstrated that the effect of TC on KSB depended on the degree of TV and employees’ KSSE. Specifically, when TV and KSSE were higher, the TC–PS and PS–KSB relationship and the mediating effects of PS in the TC–PS–KSB relationship were all stronger. Our study extends the trust-KSB literature by identifying the psychological mechanism and boundary conditions in the TC-KSB relationship. Moreover, our findings also offer valuable managerial implications for virtual team managers on facilitating team members’ PS and KSB.
... We expect that in hybrid teams the level of virtuality will have a buffering effect on the negative relationship between team conflict and team trust. We propose this role based on Kelley's (1973) theory of attribution and the perception that trust is a valuable resource for teams who mostly communicate virtually (Breuer et al., 2016). ...
... Previous empirical findings tend to reveal a negative influence of conflict on team effectiveness (De Dreu & Weingart, 2003), as well as a positive relationship between team trust and team effectiveness, namely, with team performance (Breuer et al., 2016;De Jong et al., 2016) and team innovation (e.g., Bao et al., 2004). But, even though research consistently points out the detrimental effects of relationship conflict on team performance, concerning task conflict the results are not so conclusive (De Wit et al., 2012). ...
... Although the results of empirical studies are mixed and sometimes contradictory (De Jong & Dirks, 2012), the majority support a positive relationship between trust and performance (e.g., De Jong & Elfring, 2010;Burke at al., 2007;Costa et al., 2001). This positive relationship is also supported by two recent meta-analyses carried out by Breuer et al. (2016) and De Jong et al. (2016). ...
Article
Virtuality is noticeably present in organisations and influences the way people interact within teams. This study involved 104 organisational teams with some degree of virtuality and intends to analyze a moderated-mediation model in which virtuality moderates the indirect effect of team conflict on team effectiveness and innovation through team trust. First, results reveal that the negative association between conflict and team trust was significant for task conflict only in teams with low virtuality, and for relationship conflict was significant under low and moderate levels of virtuality. Finally, findings indicate that virtuality moderated the negative mediated relationship between both task and relationship team conflict and team effectiveness only through cognitive trust. Overall, the findings suggest that virtuality may protect team trust from the negative effects of conflict, and they point to the key role of cognitive trust as an antecedent of team effectiveness in hybrid teams.
... They use electronic communication tools to communicate and complete tasks due to different working places or asynchronous working hours. The establishment and maintenance of relationships are not only the basis of virtual team operation, but also important premises of virtual team management (Breuer et al., 2016). Considering that the environment faced by a virtual team is characterized by task complexity, knowledge intensity, and task interdependence, relational coordination should be highly critical, and the primary purpose of highquality relationships is to accelerate relationship coordination (Algoe, 2020). ...
... First, shared goals are conducive to improving virtual team performance. Significant differences exist among virtual team members in terms of culture, professional background, and time orientation, easily leading to conflicts among individuals, individual goals, and team goals (Breuer et al., 2016). Shared goals may unify the values of team members to a certain extent, resulting in cooperation toward achieving individual and team goals, forming a consistent vision and organizational commitment, reducing the probability of conflict among members, and helping members with the division of labor to improve virtual team performance (Algoe, 2020). ...
... Therefore, distributive justice climate is particularly critical in virtual teams; it is conducive to solving many problems caused by the remote communication and collaboration of team members. The preceding hypothesis has demonstrated that distributive justice climate contributes to the development of high-quality relationships in virtual teams, and the establishment and maintenance of such relationships are important foundations of virtual team operation and management (Breuer et al., 2016). In accordance with social interdependence theory, this study infers that when individuals perceive a distributive justice climate in virtual teams, they interact with other members, establish and maintain high-quality relationships, and then improve virtual team performance. ...
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Based on the social interdependence theory, we proposed that the distributive justice climate affects virtual team performance via high-quality relationships, and then we investigated the boundary effect of team proactive personality. The data used in this study were collected in China, including 327 virtual team members that belonged to 75 teams. The following results are obtained: (1) Distributive justice climate and high-quality relationships have significant positive effects on virtual team performance. (2) High-quality relationships mediate the relationship between the distributive justice climate and virtual team performance. (3) Team proactive personality strengthens the direct effect of the distributive justice climate on high-quality relationships. (4) Team proactive personality strengthens the indirect effect of the distributive justice climate on virtual team performance through high-quality relationships. These empirical results have important theoretical significance for team climate construction, personnel selection, and team performance promotion.
... As such, many employees engage in work relationships with co-workers of different ethnicities (cultures) (Lauring & Selmer, 2011;Vuori, Helander, & Okkonen, 2019). Acknowledging the potential advantages of teams whose members are culturally dissimilar, researchers also highlight the need to acknowledge and address challenges that could hamper collegial relations and undermine business success (Breuer, Hüffmeier, & Hertel, 2016;Ferrin & Gillespie, 2010;Jiang et al., 2011). Taken together, these trends suggest that contemporary organizations are struggling with significant trust decline that could undermine their ability to meet business goals. ...
... Globalization has had a significant impact on how, when, and where work is done, bringing many workers into frequent contact with colleagues from different countries, in what had been termed "the age of global team-based work" (Wildman & Griffith, 2015, p. 1). And while cultural heterogeneity can result in positive outcomes like greater responsiveness to customers and more creative solutions (Lauring & Selmer, 2011), managerial attention and skills are required to leverage on the complexity inherent in cross-cultural teams to elevate their performance (Breuer, Hüffmeier, & Hertel, 2016;Ferrin & Gillespie, 2010;Henderson, Stackman, & Lindekilde, 2018;Neeley, 2015;Wang et al., 2019). One of the key determinants of the success of these teams is trust, which was found to contribute to the development of high-quality relationships (Cropanzano & Mitchell, 2005). ...
Article
The COVID‐19 pandemic has accelerated trends of globalization and digitalization, making geographically dispersed teams a common practice in firms. Despite benefits derived from the members' diversity, such teams are also prone to trust deficiency. Advancing prior research, this study focuses on links between multiple referents of trust. We draw on halo and priming effects to suggest that employees' trust toward their organization could trickle‐down to trust in their co‐workers. Moreover, we highlight the moderating role of cultural dissimilarity and relationship length. Analyzing 317 relationships between Turkish employees and their co‐workers of Turkish and German cultural background, we present evidence for a trickle‐down effect of organizational trust on trust in co‐workers. We also find that the trickle‐down effect of trust is stronger when cultural dissimilarity is high than when it is low, suggesting that trust in the organizations may outweigh cultural barriers that could hamper trust between co‐workers.
... Our focus on social cohesion (members' sense that they are part of a team; Seashore, 1954) as a critical team dynamic influenced by norms of conduct is based on past theorizing and empirical research suggesting that team norms help to create the sense that the team is functioning as a unified whole (Feldman, 1984;Kozlowski & Bell, 2013), which ultimately predicts team performance (Greer, 2012;Kozlowski & Ilgen, 2006;Mathieu et al., 2015). This is relevant to a hybrid team context because research shows that teams with greater reliance on mediated communication may experience more uncertainty and challenges in reaching shared understanding (Breuer et al., 2016;Cramton, 2001;Hinds & Bailey, 2003), creating greater difficulty in aligning team members' behaviors. Thus, we provide a more nuanced understanding of the role of team norms by examining how team virtuality strengthens their effect on team performance through team cohesion. ...
... Second, as predicted by media richness theory (Daft & Lengel, 1986) and social presence theory (Short et al., 1976), the reduced social context and nonverbal cues caused by the absence of FtF communication results in lower social presence (i.e., the degree of awareness of the other person in the interaction). This slows the development of strong interpersonal relationships and hinders effective work coordination (Breuer et al., 2016;Hinds & Bailey, 2003). It may also result in greater uncertainty because there are fewer social contextual cues to guide behavior and fewer opportunities for social control (Purvanova & Kenda, 2018;Sproull & Kiesler, 1986). ...
Article
We advance team composition research by adopting a team-norms perspective to examine the effects of team members’ cultural value orientations—collectivism and uncertainty avoidance orientation—on team functioning and performance in hybrid teams (i.e., teams combining face-to-face and mediated communication). Using data collected at three points in time from a sample of self-managing project teams, results support our proposed theoretical model. Team members’ mean level of collectivism and uncertainty avoidance both positively relate to norms of conduct in a team. In addition, team norms indirectly influence team performance through cohesion when team virtuality and team task knowledge are both high, with team virtuality moderating the team norms–cohesion relationship, and team task knowledge moderating the team cohesion–performance relationship. Our findings suggest that characteristics of contemporary teams—team cultural value orientation and team virtuality—have important implications for how norms for acceptable conduct develop and their consequences for team performance.
... Sun et al. (2014) also found that in project teams where team members and leaders have higher sense and commitment for the given tasks and positive confrontation among team leaders and team members may enhance teams effectiveness The results further suggested higher and significant positive relationship between improved and direct communication among team members, stronger team values (Maitlis, 2005), training support and autonomy to take faster decisions enhanced overall TE. It further concluded that support for teamwork (β 5 0.93) and Trust (β 5 0.90) is also strongly related to TE (Breuer et al., 2016 ...
... Also found important was the role of OTC variables such as support for teamwork and trust in contributing to TE. In general team trust facilities coordination and cooperation in teams and therefore is positively related with TE (Breuer et al., 2016). We note that favorable team culture is particularly related to TE through empowering teams by facilitating clarity on team tasks and team roles and holding the team members' individually and jointly accountable for team results. ...
Article
Purpose Teams have become the dominant mode of work in contemporary organizations and critical for successful completion of various tasks, projects and overall organizational effectiveness. Organizational factors such as organizational culture have often been investigated as contributing to team performance since it is difficult to develop and engage teams. But the effect of (organizational) team culture on team effectiveness (TE) has received less support. Therefore, this paper examines how factors such as organization team culture (OTC) affect different dimensions of TE in a power sector organization which has undergone a business transformation resulting in adoption of team-based work structures. Design/methodology/approach Survey instrument capturing the variables of organizational team culture and TE was administered to mid-level managers in a power sector organization in India. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to test the model fit for the proposed model. Findings A key finding of the research was that team culture (OTC dimensions) (i.e. participation, communication, trust, training inputs and support and support for teamwork) contribute to TE. Originality/value OTC and its impact on creating effective teams, particularly in the power sector, is an original contribution of this research. The OTC and TE framework may be used to diagnose team weaknesses and concerns and to design effective HR interventions.
... (Kisamore & Morissette, 2020) These variations are results from team design and methodological factors. (Breuer, Hüffmeier and Hertel, 2016;De Jong, Dirks and Gillespie, 2016) Social exchange theory (Blau, 1964) explained that shared experience and its growth over time evolve trust. (Kisamore & Morissette, 2020) suggested that team trustperformance relationship differences should be examined as a function of team tenure. ...
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Even though, many determinants of team performance are found in extended literature, team trust and the moderating effect of team tenure is little investigated in Sri Lankan context, and it has not been studied yet. Bridging the gap in this context, the current study assessed the moderating impact of team tenure on team trust and team performance relationship in Sri Lankan tyre manufacturing industry. The current study was conducted as a cross-sectional study among a sample of one hundred and ninety-two executive level employees selected from four major tyre manufacturing organizations following the stratified random sampling technique. Primary data were collected using a standard questionnaire distributed via Google form. The collected data were analysed with the support the SPSS employing correlation, regression, descriptive statistics and process matrix. It is found that team tenure does not moderate the relationship between team trust and team performance, and also founded that strong positive relationship between team trust and team performance. Moreover, team trust impact positively on team performance and team tenure does not impact team trust and team performance separately. It is recommended to tyre manufacturing organizations to facilitate more open communication and information sharing in order to improve executive level employees trust within teams, which in turn, will affect their team performance. Future researchers can use other variables like organizational support, team diversity, and personality as moderators of their study.
... A fifth noteworthy point of discussion that represented an overarching theme throughout the analysis was trust. This theme is important to teamwork in general (Breuer et al., 2016), to virtual teamwork (Breuer et al., 2020), and to collaborative innovation (Ceasar et al., 2017). In a virtual innovation workshop, participants face the inherent risk of failure, such as the production of bad ideas, pressing the wrong buttons, or asking stupid questions. ...
Article
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This article discusses collaborative innovation during the initial stages of firms' innovation processes via virtual spaces, focusing on a specific group: elderly users. These users represent a large and growing consumer market, which entails opportunities for companies developing products and services for elderly individuals. Firms that intend to meet the real needs of elders must involve those individuals in collaborative innovation processes. However, firms face challenges in the technical and interpersonal spheres when basing their early‐stage innovation activities on the virtual inclusion of elderly individuals, which has received little attention. Focusing on these challenges, this article presents an exploratory case study employing a participatory action research approach, in which the authors were part of a project aimed at the development of a method of including elderly users via virtual spaces. Pilot implementations helped the innovation intermediary develop an improved method to better capture elderly individuals' inputs. We found that special efforts must be made prior to the virtual activity to familiarize elderly individuals with the technology. Additionally, virtual activity demands a more active role from intermediaries for two reasons: first, representatives from client organizations do not feel confident in leading virtual discussions and second, social hints, emotions and feelings are more difficult to grasp in a virtual space than in real‐life interactions, which necessitates more focused and prepared intermediation. Elderly individuals' involvement is driven by their curiosity and desire to learn something new; therefore, the participation of elderly users must be valuable both to the organization's innovation process and to the elderly individuals themselves.
... In the literature of organizational behavior, interpersonal trust has regularly been examined in a group/team context (e.g., Breuer et al., 2016;Burtscher et al., 2018). More particularly, the variables of team proximity, used to assess the influence of interactions frequency on the development of trust (Liu, Hernandez, & Wang, 2014) or team age heterogeneity, showing that heterogeneity in a team influences the perception of being trusted (Williams, 2016) have been analyzed. ...
Article
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An increasing number of studies emphasize the importance of trust between family businesses and their stakeholders. Surprisingly, family business research still lacks a comprehensive understanding of the role of trust in stakeholder relationships; whereas another field—that of organizational behavior—has examined trust-building in depth. Thus, in order to identify specific research gaps and to determine future research directions, we systematically review the literature on trust in the field of family business, as well as in organizational behavior research. Both streams pursue different, hence complementary, approaches in terms of the type of trusting stakeholders, theory building, nomological network (antecedents, components and consequences of trust), level of analysis and type of trust. Whilst family business research maintains a focus on the consequences of trust, organizational behavior focuses rather on its components. We formulate a set of propositions and future research questions as to how insights from organizational behavior research can help to fill existing research gaps and advance our understanding of trust in the management of family business stakeholder relationships.
... The research examines the specifics of psychological safety as one of the most important factors of work in the virtual environment (Edmondson, 1999;Breuer et al., 2016;Goller and Laufer, 2018;Rozovsky, 2015). ...
... Team building is an effective way of establishing both cohesion, mutual trust and shared goals among virtual team members, as traditional sports team [42], and it has been demonstrated to be an effective way of enhancing both personal and team progression [43,42,44]. And this is a long-term process that is not likely to take effect as a new member just joined a team. ...
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How does the team formation relates to team performance in professional video game playing? This study examined one aspect of group dynamics - team switching - and aims to answer how changing a team affects individual and collective performance in eSports tournaments. In this study we test the hypothesis that switching teams can be detrimental to individual and team performance both in short term and in a long run. We collected data from professional tournaments of a popular first-person shooter game {\itshape Counter-Strike: Global Offensive (CS:GO)} and perform two natural experiments. We found that the player's performance was inversely correlated with the number of teams a player had joined. After a player switched to a new team, both the individual and the collective performance dropped initially, and then slowly recovered. The findings in this study can provide insights for understanding group dynamics in eSports team play and eventually emphasize the importance of team cohesion in facilitating team collaboration, coordination, and knowledge sharing in teamwork in general.
... It refers to the accumulation of behaviors and norms that make members of a group support each other. In projects, social capital exists in the interpersonal structure of the project life cycle [17]. It brings additional benefits to the project through constant, positive interaction between members [18]. ...
Article
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For construction projects, resilience is the process of resisting and recovering from adversity. With the global economic and social environment constantly changing, improving the resilience of construction projects has become a research hotspot in the field of project management. On the basis of social capital theory, this study constructs a construction project organization resilience evaluation system from two dimensions of bonding and bridging social capitals. Then, a new theoretical framework is proposed: the network dynamic evaluation model of project resilience based on the resource conservation strategy. Using survey data of 247 construction engineering practitioners, this study considers the emergence of organization resilience in the three phases of adversity. The results reveal that when the construction project is hit by adversity, the investment capital will increase but decrease in the recovery phase. Protective capital demonstrates the opposite. However, both types of capital finally reach a higher level than before the adversity, thus forming an emergence curve of project resilience. This study helps to understand the emergence process of the construction project resilience, provides a feasible method to calculate the resilience and social capital of construction projects in different phases of disasters, and improves the risk response ability of construction projects.
... Fourth, in our theorizing, we followed past research in treating interpersonal trust as a desirable outcome. After all, numerous metaanalyses suggest that trust has overwhelmingly positive effects on individual and group functioning (e.g., Balliet & Van Lange, 2013;Breuer et al., 2016;Colquitt et al., 2007;De Jong et al., 2016). However, other scholars have suggested that too much trust may have negative consequences in certain contexts (for reviews, see This document is copyrighted by the American Psychological Association or one of its allied publishers. ...
Article
Because trust is essential in the development and maintenance of well-functioning relationships, scholars across numerous scientific disciplines have sought to determine what causes people to trust others. Power dynamics are known to predict trust, but research on the relationship between power and trust is inconclusive, with mixed results and without systematic consideration of how the relative power distribution within dyadic relationships may influence trust in those relationships. Building on interdependence theory, we propose that both individuals in an unequal-power dyad trust each other less than individuals in an equal-power dyad because unequal-power dyads heighten the perception of a conflict of interest. We demonstrate the effect of relative power on interpersonal trust across eight main studies and 16 supplemental studies (including 12 preregistered studies; total N = 10,531), and we test the mechanism with measurement-of-mediation and moderation-of-process approaches. We confirm that the effect of power on interpersonal trust occurs only with relative power (an interpersonal manifestation of power), not with felt power (an intrapersonal manifestation). Finally, we show that the effect of relative power on interpersonal trust via conflict of interest is attenuated in the presence of intergroup competition, a theoretically motivated moderator with practical implications. Overall, the present research clarifies the relationship between relative power and interpersonal trust, suggests that high- and low-power individuals may share similar psychological experiences within the context of unequal-power relationships, and highlights the importance of considering the context in which power dynamics occur. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved).
... Social cohesion and trust has been shown to be an important influence on team effectiveness (Chiocchio and Essiembre 2009;De Jong, Dirks, and Gillespie 2016). There is also evidence that they are more important in virtual teams (Breuer, Hüffmeier, and Hertel 2016;CEBMa 2020) and that they are harder to achieve, because communication through electronic media reduces the social cues that help build relationships (Lin, Standing, and Liu 2008). Remote team relationships are clearly helped by considerate use of emails and social media -we can doubtless all recall times when messages sent in haste have caused misunderstandings or upset. ...
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As we start to move beyond or acclimatise to COVID-19, a rise in remote working looks set to be the change in work practices most likely to stick long term. Specifically, a long-term growth in hybrid working seems inevitable. Pre-pandemic, work technology had already advanced considerably to enable remote working, but the lockdowns demonstrated that it is eminently feasible in many more jobs than previously thought and the demand from employees appears to have strengthened substantially. As a fundamental shift in how we work, there are implications for core HRD topics, including learning and development, organisational productivity, workload, effective communications and relationships, and people management capability. This special edition contributes to an important growing research agenda on remote and hybrid working, investigating its relationships with employee wellbeing and work-life balance; leader-member exchange (LMX); knowledge exchange; workforce inclusion; learning effectiveness; sustainable career development; and employee voice and choice in informing work practices.
... Efforts to devise ways to secure social distancing, such as replacing existing face-to-face teamwork with virtual ones, are worth the effort. For example, some studies show that increasing employee trust affects virtual team performance more than face-to-face team performance (Breuer et al., 2016;Ford et al., 2017). ...
Article
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The spread of new coronavirus (COVID-19) infections shows no signs of stopping. Therefore, we must consider how to deal with this disaster well. The practice of social distance is one of the powerful tools for that purpose. Therefore, in this paper, we analyzed the factors that influence physical proximity in the manufacturing industry, which has a large impact on the economy given the scale of employment. As the method, first, exploratory factor analysis is performed using the US occupation information site O*NET information, and the extracted 7 variables, sitting work, work conditions, information processing, task significance, interdependence, response to aggression, and autonomy, are used in the regression analysis. As a result, it was shown that interdependence and response to aggression, which are categorized as “social characteristics”, and work conditions and sitting work, which are categorized as “context characteristics”, showed a positive correlation with physical proximity.
... In der empirischen Forschung wird wiederholt das Vertrauen im Team als ein ausschlaggebender Erfolgsfaktor identifiziert (Breuer, Hüffmeier, Hibben & Hertel, 2020). Wenn Teammitglieder sich gegenseitig vertrau en, erbringen sie bessere Leistungen, arbeiten effektiver zusammen und sind zufriedener (Breuer, Hüffmeier & Hertel, 2016). Die Wahrnehmung eines "Wir-Gefühls" oder der Zugehörigkeit, die sogenannte Kohäsion im Team, geht damit Hand in Hand (Kozlowski & Ilgen, 2006). ...
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This anthology contains an interdisciplinary analysis of crisis phenomena and social challenges through historical comparisons and interdisciplinary reflection in order to causally understand the deeper dynamics of social and political processes as a result of the coronavirus pandemic. From an academic perspective, a variety of questions arise about structural challenges in the economic, working and living worlds, which are discussed here within the framework of an interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary dialogue between historians, economists, psychologists and sociologists. With contributions by Andrea Bianchi-Weinand, Yves Gensterblum, Thomas Haipeter, Rolf G. Heinze, Annette Kluge, Stefan Müller, Greta Ontrup, Christina Reinhardt, Wiebke Roling, Michael Roos, Kathrin Schäfers, Jochen Schroth and Manfred Wannöffel.
... In contrast, however, very little progress is being made in terms of cross-level research on trust. Recently, however, there has been a growing interest in exploring the antecedents and consequences of trust from a multilevel perspective because of the multilevel nature of trust within organizations (e.g., Braun, Peus, Weisweiler, & Frey, 2013;Breuer, Hüffmeier, & Hertel, 2016;Costa et al., 2018;Fulmer & Gelfand, 2012). Indeed, there have been calls for studies that explore the effect of trust on organizational outcomes across different levels of analysis (e.g., Costa et al., 2018;Fulmer & Gelfand, 2012;Tan & Lim, 2009). ...
Article
Trust is one of the key factors in employee-employer relationships. Following recent recommendations for a multilevel perspective of trust, the current study investigates the role intrateam trust (trust within teams) plays in team processes as well as individual- and team-level work outcomes. Drawing from a data set of 282 team members, nested within 78 teams, and a multilevel design, I found support for the cross-level mediated effects of intrateam trust on outcomes (job satisfaction and job engagement) at both individual and team levels via team learning. I used the social exchange theory and the norm of reciprocity as theoretical frameworks to develop the hypothesized relationships. Overall, this study not only responds to calls for multilevel trust research and provides evidence to extend trust research, but also makes specific recommendations to practitioners to maximize the limited resources in managing teams and individuals.
... Therefore, the only way to communicate with each other was via the software tools. Thus, the teams participating in the present experiment can be described as virtual teams (Breuer et al., 2016). To detect potential disruptions or interferences (e.g., computer crashes), the desktops of the participants were recorded and monitored during the whole experiment. ...
Article
Communicating via information and communication technologies (ICTs) can lead to information overload (IO) and techno-frustration. Research has primarily investigated individual level factors that influence IO and techno-frustration. Since the causes of IO and techno-frustration are not always inherent to the individual, this paper uses a multi-level approach to analyze an inherent cause in the team that influences IO and techno-frustration. We assume that shared mental models of ICTs (ICT SMM) reduce perceived workload, explicit coordination of ICT-use, IO, and techno-frustration. In an experimental laboratory study with sixty-nine virtual teams, we manipulated and investigated the effects of ICT SMM (similar vs. different ICT mental models among team members) on IO and techno-frustration via explicit coordination of ICT-use and perceived workload. ICT SMM influence techno-frustration, but contrary to our expectations, not IO. In line with our hypotheses, results supported that ICT SMM reduce techno-frustration and IO via perceived workload. Although ICT SMM reduced explicit coordination of ICT-use, the assumed mediation was not found. Nevertheless, developing ICT SMM seems to be a promising preventive strategy for reducing perceived workload, explicit coordination of ICT-use, IO, and techno-frustration.
... Several factors can influence trust, such as psychological aspects (Yildiz, 2019), human resources management practice (Liu, Huang, Huang & Chen, 2013), leadership, personality, organizational justice, performance appraisal, and organizational culture. Likewise, the impact of trust that will increase work engagement (Schneider, Macey, Barbera & Young, (2010), organizational commitment (Tekingündüz, Top, Tengilimoğlu & Karabulut, 2017), job satisfaction (Gilstrap & Collins, 2012), collaboration (Breuer, Hüffmeier & Hertel, 2016), team (Nienaber, Romeike, Searle & Schewe, 2015) and task performance (Rich, 1997). ...
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Individual behavior that can increase organizational effectiveness is an essential aspect for organizations to achieve optimal performance. For this reason, there is a need for research that can contribute to improving individual behavior in producing its effectiveness. However, previous research has shown a theoretical gap in measuring individual trust and organizational citizenship behavior. In theory, to fill the gap, this study measures the influence of individual beliefs and organizational citizenship behavior. Researchers surveyed employees who work in the retail sector as many as 257 employees. The researchers used a structural equation modeling approach – PLS with predictive purposes to test the research model. The study results indicate that there is a positive influence on individual beliefs based on intention and individual beliefs on actions on organizational citizenship behavior. The study's implications indicate the need to increase the motivational aspect to increase individual confidence so that it will lead to behavioral actions that can increase organizational effectiveness.
... Some models are already being offered to clarify team effectiveness (e.g., McGrath, 1964;Zhang et al., 2015;Breuer et al., 2016;Choi et al., 2017). Team composition, "the nature and attributes of team members" (Guzzo and Dickson, 1996;Jin et al., 2017), is a salient feature in most models. ...
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The current study aims to determine the impact of diversity and intra-team trust on conflict within the health sector of Pakistan. This study also measures the moderating role of trust in the relationship between diversity and conflict among team members. Data was collected using personally administered questionnaires from 61 teams, including 377 respondents working in 4 public sector hospitals in Pakistan, which were selected using a simple random sampling technique. The results revealed that diversity (as a composite) positively influences task conflict, while its two components—surface-level diversity and deep-level diversity—are associated positively with task conflict. Moreover, the results also lead to an exciting finding that trust among team members could reduce the positive influence of diversity on team members’ conflict. The implications for theory and practitioners are presented along with the avenues for future research directions.
... Trust can reduce destructive conflicts, make communication between superiors and subordinates smoother, work more efficiently, and better achieve organizational goals. Team trust promotes coordination and collaboration between teams, and therefore is positively related to team effectiveness (Breuer et al., 2016). Those organizations that lack trust will not only limit the ability of core talents, causing problems such as organizational internal friction, interpersonal tension, and damaged organizational image, but also seriously affect the overall efficient operation of the organization. ...
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In the Post-COVID-19 Era, with the continuous improvement of the technical level, virtual teams are constantly evolving, and the relationship between leadership and the construction of virtual teams has received more and more attention. It is of great significance to explore the influence of participatory leadership on the construction of virtual teams from a psychological perspective by building a multi-agent simulation model. Based on a simulation platform of NetLogo, the results showed that (1) Participatory leadership is conducive to the expansion of the scale of virtual teams by providing greater space for the development of the members of virtual teams and meeting the team members’ requirements of planning and promotion in the environment, which is decentralized and non-authoritative. (2) However, losing management is not conducive to building a reasonable structure of team members under participatory leadership. (3) The scale of virtual teams and the efficiency of the virtual teams all depend on the relationship between participatory leadership, organizational trust, incentive mode, and the balance between cooperation and competition.
... We also contend, however, that hiding behind one's job requirements and abdicating responsibility for one's actions can have adverse effects on one's well-being, as well as negative organizational consequences, as is well documented in the business ethics literature (Ciulla, 2003;Treviño & Nelson, 2017). Moreover, as extensive evidence from the literature on trust attests (Breuer, Hüffmeier, & Hertel, 2016;De Jong, Dirks, & Gillespie, 2016;Dirks & Ferrin, 2002;Mayer, Davis, & Shoorman, 1995), making oneself vulnerable is essential to the establishment of trust, and hence all of the beneficial outcomes that accrue from doing so. Thus, we contend that the rewards associated with making oneself vulnerable by pursing authenticity, authentic leadership, and authentic followership at work will outweigh the risks more often than not. ...
Presentation
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Leadership is a highly sought-after and highly valued commodity. People continue to ask themselves and others what makes good leaders. Despite the multitude of ways leadership has been conceptualized, the following components can be identified as central to the phenomenon: (1) leadership is a process, (2) leadership involves influence, (3) leadership occurs in groups, and (4) leadership involves a common goal. This leadership panel will define leadership as a process whereby an individual influences a group of individuals to achieve a common goal, explore three leadership models (Transformational, Servant, and Authentic) and provide practical applications, and close with the concept of Followership. Transformational Leadership (as the name implies) is a process that changes and transforms followers. It is concerned with emotions, values, ethics, standards, and vision. Randy Westfall will share his perspective from 35 years of Military and DOD Civilian service and the results of his dissertation on the effects of transformational leadership on organizational conflict. Servant leadership is a critical look at the issues of power and authority. A Servant Leader is a leader who believes they are principally in charge of empowering others for the greater good of the organization. Randy Winemiller will share his perspective from his 34-year career with USACE and, most recently, as a self-employed Consultant. Authentic Leadership (one of the newer approaches to leadership) focuses on the authenticity of a leader’s (1) self-awareness, (2) internalized moral perspective, (3) balanced processing, and (4) relational transparency. Tedd will share his current dissertation research on Authentic leadership and occupational well-being from his 35-year Military, Contractor, and Adjunct Faculty perspective.
... These emergent states arise out of individual psychological behaviours and states 164 and are influenced by factors that are internal (for example, interactions between team members) and external (for example, organizational team rewards, organizational leadership and project deadlines) to the team, as well as team structure (for example, team size and composition). Team emergent states, particularly team trust, are critical for virtual team effectiveness because reliance on technology often brings uncertainties and fewer opportunities for social control 165 . ...
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Self-determination theory has shaped our understanding of what optimizes worker motivation by providing insights into how work context influences basic psychological needs for competence, autonomy and relatedness. As technological innovations change the nature of work, self-determination theory can provide insight into how the resulting uncertainty and interdependence might influence worker motivation, performance and well-being. In this Review, we summarize what self-determination theory has brought to the domain of work and how it is helping researchers and practitioners to shape the future of work. We consider how the experiences of job candidates are influenced by the new technologies used to assess and select them, and how self-determination theory can help to improve candidate attitudes and performance during selection assessments. We also discuss how technology transforms the design of work and its impact on worker motivation. We then describe three cases where technology is affecting work design and examine how this might influence needs satisfaction and motivation: remote work, virtual teamwork and algorithmic management. An understanding of how future work is likely to influence the satisfaction of the psychological needs of workers and how future work can be designed to satisfy such needs is of the utmost importance to worker performance and well-being. Technology is changing the nature of work by enabling new forms of automation and communication. In this Review, Gagné et al. describe how self-determination theory can help researchers and practitioners to shape the future of work to ensure that it meets the psychological needs of workers.
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The article presents a critical review of studies concerned with competencies and behavioral models of managers in the context of remote work and digitalization of business processes. The digitalization process, being one of the leading trends in the labor market, has irreversibly changed organizations, work environments and processes by creating new challenges for leaders. More flexible organization structures are beginning actively used in different industries and organizations, for example, remote forms of work. Moreover, digital services and technologies help companies adapt more quickly and effectively to new conditions. Remote work, which is becoming a new global norm of work, opens significant opportunities for companies, but also requires another type of management — electronic. The new type of leadership implies significant changes in the relationship between a manager and employees, which makes it necessary for leaders to change their behavioral models. E-leadership, whose role is to facilitate working conditions and maintain employee motivation to achieve desired goals, offers an effective combination of electronic and traditional communication methods that can be expressed through two groups of leadership competencies: socio-communicative and socio-technological. E-leadership practices will not only be able to ensure the development and realization of an employee’s work potential, but also optimize personal relationships in the workplace. The results of this article reveal the potential of using the new concept of leadership in studies of new working conditions.
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As teams are a foundational component of modern organizations, selection and training of employees to facilitate teamwork is of key importance. In this paper, we review and meta‐analyze research on the construct of team orientation. We differentiate between organizational‐, team‐, and individual‐level team orientation and discuss multilevel theory implications. A total of 39 articles comprising 210 effects were meta‐analyzed. Results indicate that team orientation is important, particularly for effective teamwork and team‐based outcomes. Specifically, at the overall level we found significant and positive relationships with communication, coordination, cooperation, trust, shared mental models, backup behaviors, cohesion, innovation, satisfaction, leadership, and team performance. Team orientation was found to be negatively correlated with conflict. Interestingly, we found a negative relationship between team orientation and individual‐level performance. We discuss the implications of these findings and make suggestions for future work to build upon these findings.
Article
Purpose This research study examines the impact of leader humility (LH) on team effectiveness (TE) via the mediating mechanism of leader-member exchange (LMX). It also proposes employee satisfaction (ES) as a moderating variable in the relationship between LH and TE. Design/methodology/approach This study examines relationships among the study variables in the Indian context, using a sample of 589 employees serving the banking sector in Jammu and Kashmir, India. The data analysis was carried out via confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling. Findings The results showed a significant positive influence of LH on TE. The results also posit a partial mediating effect of LMX on LH and TE interplay, and ES acts as a moderator between LH and TE. Thus, the results supported the hypothesized moderated mediation model and suggested implications for theory and practice. Further, the potential limitations and future directions are placed at the end. Research limitations/implications Organizational implications include that organizations should develop attractive organizational mechanisms to ensure better LMX and ES for enhancing employee effectiveness. Besides, organizations should attract and retain effective and humble leaders; and leaders should use humble attitude and behavior in dealing with employees, eventually ensuring higher TE. Originality/value This study tested LMX and job satisfaction as intervening variables in the relationship between LH and TE in the Indian context; the framework under context has received scarce research attention. The results suggest that organizations that focus on producing humble leaders succeed in enhancing and maintaining higher organizational effectiveness.
Article
Purpose This research aims to study the relationship between trust and knowledge sharing intention. Furthermore, the overarching objective of this study also determines the moderating effect of Perceived Behavioral Control on this relationship. Design/methodology/approach Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) was applied using Smart PLS 3.3 to analyze the data. Findings The results of this study reveal that Perceived Trustworthiness and Propensity to Trust positively affect Explicit and Tacit knowledge sharing intention. Perceived behavioral control was also found to positively moderate the relationship between perceived trustworthiness and tacit knowledge sharing intention. Originality/value This study has provided evidence that trust among the construction project team members leads to an increase in the knowledge sharing intention among project team members.
Technical Report
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The NATO HFM-276 Task Group used a model of organizational effectiveness to develop a set of surveys to identify and understand the HF issues critical to effective ISR operations. The core of the model is the JISR process consisting of the Tasking, Collecting, Processing, Exploitation, and Dissemination (TCPED). The data collection plan derived from this model as well as other sources looks at the role of a number of HF issues across ISR operations: basic HF knowledge, situation assessment, workload, organizational structure, trust, information sharing, information management, leadership, culture, organizational process, organizational flexibility, shared awareness and responsibilities, coordination and coordination mechanisms, decision-making, competence, Intelligence Request Management (IRM), communications, meta data, and application system. All of these HF factors will influence ISR operational concepts and impact operator performance. In addition, the report summarizes some practical implications to improve the ISR CD&E process for NATO and non-NATO operations by focusing on developing a HF research methodology that should be included in the ISR CD&E process. This HF methodology would work like a quality control component for the technical and procedural ISR concept development. Research findings are expected to help inform and advise policy and decision-makers at all levels of the ISR chain of command in order to enhance information and decision advantage in NATO ISR planning, mission execution and capability development. It is also expected to help inform the integration of ISR with other joint processes such as joint targeting with regard to identifying current gaps HF related to ISR and integration with other processes.
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Purpose Remote work (RW) literature is a megatrend in HRM literature, and the COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted the importance of RW as a concept and an organisational practice. Given the large number of papers being published on remote work, there is a need for a critical review of the extant literature using bibliometric analysis. This paper examines the literature on remote working to identify the factors crucial for managing a remote workforce. This study uses the complex adaptive systems theory as a foundation to build a framework that organisations can use to manage their remote workforce, focusing on three outcomes: employee engagement, collaboration and organisational agility. Design/methodology/approach Bibliometric analysis was conducted on the research published in Scopus journal in the area of remote work, followed by critical literature analysis. Findings The bibliometric analysis identified five clusters that reflect five organisational factors which the management can align to achieve the desired outcomes of engagement, collaboration and agility: technology orientation, leadership, HRM practices, external processes and organisational culture. The present findings have important implications for managing the remote workforce. Originality/value The five factors were mapped to propose a conceptual model on engaging individual employees, fostering team collaboration and building organisational agility while working remotely. We also propose an application model for using technology to achieve the outcomes of engagement, collaboration and agility in the organisation. Practitioners could use this framework to focus on the factors that can create a conducive environment to improve work efficiency in a remote workforce.
Chapter
Not only the workshop-styled discussion environment is necessary but also a mechanism to support efficient communication for data utilization by systematizing it. We developed the Web systems for activating the data marketplace. In this chapter, we present five Web applications: DJ Store, VQ, TEEDA, Web-based IMDJ, and HRF, and explain their use cases. In addition, we develop an integrated system to reduce workshop preparation load and support data collaboration for users in remote areas on the Web and discuss data utilization cases regarding the interoperability of the different systems and report the results of practical use with the workshop’s operation scheme.KeywordsWeb applicationCreativity supportVariableRetrieval systemData designData matching
Conference Paper
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The cluster organization was a newly emerging form of the association in the last decades of the twentieth century. Globalization, the high pressure on financial efficiency, cost reduction, and the development of remote communication were the primary factors that encouraged the development of the clusters. Today this became a new normal of the interfirm, inter-organizational collaboration. These factors accelerate the formation, and the cluster model has a dynamically increasing and expanded literature. Nevertheless, the cluster is not a homogenous form. A limited number of academic models evaluate the clusters' organization, and a comprehensive overview of the structural setup is not available. This literature review intends to deep dive into the previous 5 years' publications in order to collect, structure, and clarify the cluster operational models. Based on the systematic literature review, this paper developed a conceptual model integrated into three dimensions as Time frame, Territory, and Way of working, which together may describe the operational model of cluster organizations. The study offers a new taxonomy that may significantly impact the better understanding of the organizations' territory and helps scholars restructure their knowledge.
Chapter
Trust is one of the important factors either fostering or damaging students' online teamwork learning experience. Building trust among team members has become a necessary step for a successful collaboration experience. The purpose of the article was to understand students' learning and teamwork experiences and further to investigate the relationships of learner-centered instructions, team trust, and social presence in an online learning community. Also, this article adds to the research on the role of social presence in promoting cognitive and affective trust. The results indicated there were positive correlations between learner-centered instructions and trust, between learner-centered instructions and social presence, and between trust and social presence. The study could provide suggestions for instructors teaching online courses for the implementation of learner-centered instructions and the importance of creating a social presence and building trust for students in a collaborative online learning environment.
Article
Design/methodology/approach: The research method is a literature review and our own empirical research concerning the new organizational reality with hybrid virtual teams consisting of humans as well as artificial agents. The research data was the results of a long-term observation of a virtual team which was conducted in June 2021 in a group of students who worked 36 hours using online management tools in TransistorsHead.com and MS Teams. Findings: The research has shown that virtual teams require different ways of communication and that consequences of working in such a team change the types of tasks, time spent working together as a group and social aspects of cooperation between team members. This experiment has shown that the decision-making process based on artificial entities can fulfill the requirements of virtual teams and that such entities can be considered as teammates or teams (Team As A Software – TAAS). It is also possible also to imitate a human-like manager (Manager As A Software – MAAS) or its higher evolutionary copy, namely a “sophisticated superhuman machine”. Research limitations/implications: The research results presented here are an example of research conducted from 2012 on, by means of online managerial tools, concerning the work of virtual teams and the opportunity to replace a human manager with a robot one. The answers to the research questions can only be applied to the studied group of students and cannot be generalized for all teams. Future research will be conducted with a wider group of respondents. Originality/value: The originality of the presented research results lies in the fact that the data collected during the research represents the real activities undertaken by the manager and his/her team members during the 36-hour work on the task concerned rather than being mere declarations of these activities by the respondents.
Preprint
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Hier geht es u.a. um den Zusammenhang zwischen Aspekten der Unternehmenskultur und der Gesundheit und Bindung von Mitarbeitenden in Zeiten der "Great Resignation". Der Schwerpunkt liegt auf der Beziehung zwischen Führungsverhalten und Mitarbeitendengesundheit sowie zwischen Personmerkmalen von Führenden und (un-) ethischem Verhalten. Die Arbeit umfasst sowohl zwei eigene Untersuchungen (n=109 und n=62) berufsbegleitend Masterstudierender in 2019/20 und 2022 sowie literaturbasierte Erkenntnisse. Kernergebnis sind Repliken deutlich umfangreicherer Studien insofern, als sich bspw. auch hier sehr deutliche Zusammenhänge gerade zwischen destruktiver Führung und Burnout zeigen sowie zwischen untersch. Führungsverhalten, dem Sinnerleben der Arbeit sowie der Fluktuationsneigung in der Pandemie. Es wird die Rolle eines unterstützenden Compliance-Managements im Kontext einer förderlichen, ggf. hierarchieärmeren Unternehmenskultur diskutiert.
Article
Our study explores the differences in the experiences and attitudes of students assigned to student teams in online courses versus face-to-face courses. The study was administered to 320 students in 14 sections (eight online and six face-to-face) of a graduate-level course. The results demonstrate that student ratings of team trust, team satisfaction, and team identity as assessed mid-semester are lower in online courses than face-to-face courses. As the semester progressed, these course modality differences in student perceptions of team trust and satisfaction diminished. However, feelings of team identity remained lower in online courses than in face-to-face courses through to the end of the semester. Implications for online instruction and recommendations for future research are offered.
Article
Today, organizations are deeply concerned with developing leadership that can lead from a distance. Given the pace of change in the work environment and organizational culture, leaders need to be very proactive in their approaches as all the organizations are working in virtual teams connected through Information and Communication Technologies. Organizations nowadays heavily rely on such teams to accomplish their work and goals. These novel teams require a good leadership style to bind virtual team employees' together and imbibe an appropriate culture to meet the demands of the changing environments. Therefore, the current study explored the relationship between transformational leadership, organizational culture, and change management among employees' of virtual teams. Also, the aim extended to examine the mediating role of organizational culture on the relationship between transformational leadership and change management among virtual team employees', for which partial least squares-structural equation modeling was applied. In order to meet the objectives, the study utilized a survey method on employees of IT organizations. The non-probability sampling technique used was purposive and convenience. Data was gathered from 118 respondents who worked in virtual team employees' of the IT sector from the Delhi-NCR The results revealed that transformational leadership and organizational culture were positively and significantly related to change management. Organizational culture partially mediated the relationship between transformational leadership and change management among virtual team employees'. The current study contributes to the additional literature among employees' of virtual teams, transformational leadership, and organizational culture that continues to grow.
Article
Purpose The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) situation has led to the emergence of virtual teams in all organizations, and the role of leadership has become more pertinent. The current research focuses on understanding the factors for better team performance in virtual teams. Based on the contingency perspective, the behavioral complexity in leadership (BCL) theory is the most appropriate as BCL requires the leader to demonstrate multiple contrasting leadership behaviors according to the situation. Both internal as well external roles were explored, which could facilitate better communication quality and role clarity to increase interpersonal trust and leadership effectiveness in the current crisis. Design/methodology/approach Data were collected from employees who have worked in virtual teams during the crisis and who have experience of working in a virtual team environment. A total of 200 questionnaires were distributed, and 175 were received. A path model was built applying partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM). Findings Communication quality has come as a partial mediator for the relationship between internal and external leadership roles and trust. Role clarity fully mediated the relationship between external leadership roles and conflict. Internal and external leadership roles showed a significant effect on leadership effectiveness, which were further related to team performance in virtual teams. Additionally, synchronous technology was used more by virtual teams. Research limitations/implications The study did not examine cultural differences or cultural adaptation in virtual teams. Instead of the BCL theory, future research may apply attribute-based or relational-based theory to examine leadership roles in virtual team performance. Originality/value Using the BCL theory, the current study contributes to an understanding of virtual team performance and the internal as well as external role of leaders. This is relevant in an environment of extreme ambiguity such as COVID-19.
Article
Considering the crucial role of cross-cultural virtual learning teams (VLTs) in industries and academics, this study adopts a longitudinal approach and investigates in-depth how cross-cultural VLTs collaborate effectively by examining relationships among three concepts, namely swift trust, team trust, and shared mental model (SMM). Categorizing team stages as structuring, work, and termination, our study indicates that swift trust enhances team trust at the structuring stage. At all three stages, team trust strengthens SMM, which then improves team performance. At the work stage, the impact of SMM on team performance reaches its peak. Our findings contribute to the online learning literature and practices.
Article
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Subject and purpose of work: This paper aims to review the current literature on virtual teams in order to compile what we, as a scientific community, know about virtual teams and their management Materials and methods: This research study is based on a systematic literature review of the Scopus database. Results: The study provides a holistic definition of virtual teams and their classification based on a variety of criteria. It also discusses types of virtual teams as well as their benefits and drawbacks.. The key characteristics of virtual team management are analysed in relation to traditional team management Conclusions: In 2022, virtual teams are promising and dynamically developing as digital technologies, current globalisation and the COVID19 pandemic allow for and even enforce remote work. This form of employment is beneficial and convenient, but at the same time, associated with some risks and difficulties that can be avoided with the proper organisation of the process.
Preprint
For over three decades in psychology, meta-analysis has been a popular methodological tool for summarizing effect sizes within a given research domain. Statistical meta-analytic summaries typically reflect a mean and associated variance (heterogeneity) estimate, and visual summaries of constituent effect sizes typically use forest and funnel plots. Although these plots are useful, they do not reveal the shape of the distribution of effect sizes directly. To remedy this gap, we offer a weighted histogram that is more interpretable and useful when depicting the distribution of effect sizes and their associated sampling error variance. In support of the weighted histogram, we reviewed a hundred of the most recent meta-analyses published in American Psychological Association (APA) journals and in Journal of Applied Psychology, many popular books in psychology on meta-analysis, and several software programs and packages for conducting meta-analysis—all of which suggest a strong need for a more succinct and effective way to visualize the distribution and accuracy of effects included in a meta-analysis (i.e., a weighted histogram). Importantly, we also offer a user-friendly interactive online app (developed using R Shiny) that allows meta-analytic researchers to easily create their own publication-ready weighted histograms.
Article
Purpose The purpose of this study is to map the intellectual structure of the research concerning conflict and conflict management in virtual teams (VT), to contribute to the further integration of knowledge among different streams of research and to develop an interpretative framework to stimulate future research. Design/methodology/approach A data set of 107 relevant papers on the topic was retrieved using the Web of Science Core Collection database covering a period ranging from 2001 to 2019. A comparative bibliometric analysis consisting of the integration of results from the citation, co-citation and bibliographic coupling was performed to identify the most influential papers. The systematic literature review complemented the bibliometric results by clustering the most influential papers. Findings The results revealed different intellectual structures across several types of analyses. Despite such differences, 41 papers resulted as the most impactful and provided evidence of the emergence of five thematic clusters: trust, performance, cultural diversity, knowledge management and team management. Research limitations/implications Based on the bibliometric analyses an interpretative research agenda has been developed that unveils the main future research avenues. The paper also offers important theoretical contributions by systematizing knowledge on conflict in identifying VTs. Managerial contributions in the form of the identification of best practices are also developed to guide conflict management in VTs. Originality/value The uniqueness of this paper is related to its effort in studying, mapping and systematizing the knowledge concerning the topic of handling conflicts in VTs. Considering the current contingencies, this research is particularly timely.
Chapter
Im Zuge der Maßnahmen zur Eindämmung der Corona-Pandemie wird Telearbeit flächendeckend in Unternehmen eingesetzt, um Kontakte zu reduzieren und die Gesundheit der Mitarbeitenden zu schützen. Anhand einer umfassenden Analyse der Literatur und einer Fallstudie in einem mittelständischen, produzierenden und international agierenden Unternehmen wird dargelegt, inwiefern sich die Erkenntnisse zur Telearbeit geändert haben und welche Voraussetzungen erfüllt sein müssen, damit die Telearbeit aktuell und zukünftig erfolgreich eingesetzt werden kann. Während vor der Pandemie grundsätzlich die Vorteile der Telearbeit thematisiert werden, ist nun ein Fokuswechsel auf die Herausforderungen zu erkennen. Das theoretische Rahmenwerk von Wang et al. (2020), welches die Voraussetzungen für eine erfolgreiche Telearbeit beschreibt, wird im Rahmen dieser Ausarbeitung überprüft und erweitert.
Article
We investigate cheating in work groups, to empirically test the idea of an honest workplace environment as a determinant of performance. Three individuals receive team-based performance pay for executing a real-effort task. In addition, two of them have the opportunity to obtain a bonus in a dice game, which allows cheating without exposure by misreporting a secret die roll. We are particularly interested in the behavioral response of the bystander as the potential witness to the dishonest action. To identify the implications of lies at work, the rules of the bonus game were altered to randomly prevent cheating, or not, across treatment conditions while holding the monetary consequences constant. Survey data enables us to analyze effect heterogeneity and to explore mechanisms underlying behavioral responses. We begin our analysis by estimating the mean lying rate and find that the opportunity-to-cheat is exploited in roughly 42% of cases. The probability of misreporting increases if the cheater's partner in crime is male. Contrary to claims on the importance of honesty at work, we do not observe a reduction in performance when cheating takes place, neither for the bystander nor for the whole team. Bounded awareness could be an explanation, as we find substantial evidence for effect heterogeneity along the lines of information preferences. Bystanders with higher preferences for inconvenient information provide relatively low task performance, compared to those with lower information preferences, who seem to turn a blind eye to the dishonest action of their co-workers by putting increased effort into their work.
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Purpose The purpose of the paper is to examine how media synchronicity facilitates the emergence of social exchange (i.e. trust and reciprocity) in organizations’ information and communication technology (ICT)-mediated interactions. A model of media synchronicity in organizational social exchange (MSiOSE) is proposed. Design/methodology/approach The paper has a design and review approach. The theoretical analysis is based on social exchange theory (SET) and media synchronicity theory (MST). Findings The authors propose that, in general, social exchange benefits from both asynchronous and synchronous communication processes. However, media synchronicity has different boundary conditions (i.e. pros and cons) in relation to the emergence of social exchange, determined in accordance with the mutually interacting patterns of trust and reciprocity predicted by SET. The authors provide testable theoretical propositions to support the analysis. Originality/value Social exchange is a critical business factor for organizations due to its well-known positive outcomes, such as the strengthening of social ties. The need for successful social exchange in remote work conditions is particularly emphasized. However, with regard to the communication and behavioral patterns that lead to social exchange via ICT, the theoretical understanding is limited. The study reveals previously unmapped heuristics between social exchange and physical media capabilities. Thus, the study's propositions can be used to study and analyze social exchange in the ever-changing media landscape. As a practical contribution, the study helps organizations to improve their communication strategies and use of ICT.
Article
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Cumulating evidence from 112 independent studies (N = 7,763 teams), we meta-analytically examine the fundamental questions of whether intrateam trust is positively related to team performance, and the conditions under which it is particularly important. We address these questions by analyzing the overall trust-performance relationship, assessing the robustness of this relationship by controlling for other relevant predictors and covariates, and examining how the strength of this relationship varies as a function of several moderating factors. Our findings confirm that intrateam trust is positively related to team performance, and has an above-average impact (ρ = .30). The covariate analyses show that this relationship holds after controlling for team trust in leader and past team performance, and across dimensions of trust (i.e., cognitive and affective). The moderator analyses indicate that the trust-performance relationship is contingent upon the level of task interdependence, authority differentiation, and skill differentiation in teams. Finally, we conducted preliminary analyses on several emerging issues in the literature regarding the conceptualization and measurement of trust and team performance (i.e., referent of intrateam trust, dimension of performance, performance objectivity). Together, our findings contribute to the literature by helping to (a) integrate the field of intrateam trust research, (b) resolve mixed findings regarding the trust-performance relationship, (c) overcome scholarly skepticism regarding the main effect of trust on team performance, and (d) identify the conditions under which trust is most important for team performance. (PsycINFO Database Record
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The importance of hospitals learning from their failures hardly needs to be stated. Not only are matters of life and death at stake on a daily basis, but also an increasing number of U.S. hospital's are operating in the red. This article reports on in-depth qualitative field research of nurses' responses to process failures in nine hospitals. it identifies two types of process failures-errors and problems-and discusses implications of each for process improvement. A dynamic model of the system in which front-line workers operate reveals an illusory equilibrium in which small process failures actually erode organizational effectiveness rather than driving learning and change in hospitals. Three managerial levers for change are identified, suggesting a new strategy for improving hospitals' and other service organizations' ability to learn from failure.
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Teams of people working together for a common purpose have been a centerpiece of human social organization ever since our ancient ancestors first banded together to hunt game, raise families, and defend their communities. Human history is largely a story of people working together in groups to explore, achieve, and conquer. Yet, the modern concept of work in large organizations that developed in the late 19th and early 20th centuries is largely a tale of work as a collection of individual jobs. A variety of global forces unfolding over the last two decades, however, has pushed organizations worldwide to restructure work around teams, to enable more rapid, flexible, and adaptive responses to the unexpected. This shift in the structure of work has made team effectiveness a salient organizational concern. Teams touch our lives everyday and their effectiveness is important to well-being across a wide range of societal functions. There is over 50 years of psychological research—literally thousands of studies—focused on understanding and influencing the processes that underlie team effectiveness. Our goal in this monograph is to sift through this voluminous literature to identify what we know, what we think we know, and what we need to know to improve the effectiveness of work groups and teams. We begin by defining team effectiveness and establishing the conceptual underpinnings of our approach to understanding it. We then turn to our review, which concentrates primarily on topics that have well-developed theoretical and empirical foundations, to ensure that our conclusions and recommendations are on firm footing. Our review begins by focusing on cognitive, motivational/affective, and behavioral team processes—processes that enable team members to combine their resources to resolve task demands and, in so doing, be effective. We then turn our attention to identifying interventions, or “levers,” that can shape or align team processes and thereby provide tools and applications that can improve team effectiveness. Topic-specific conclusions and recommendations are given throughout the review. There is a solid foundation for concluding that there is an emerging science of team effectiveness and that findings from this research foundation provide several means to improve team effectiveness. In the concluding section, we summarize our primary findings to highlight specific research, application, and policy recommendations for enhancing the effectiveness of work groups and teams.
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Collaboration and interaction analysis is a research area that investigates how to characterise group work carried out by users of groupware systems. This paper describes an ontological framework that conceptualises the collaborative activity supported by groupware systems and the underlying collaboration and interaction analysis processes. Thus, two main ontologies are proposed: the collaborative work ontology and the collaboration and interaction analysis ontology. The ontological framework has been used to derive model-based computational support in order to allow developers to create, by generating and instantiating models, a collaboration and interaction analysis system to be integrated into a groupware system. The analysis ontologies and framework are used in a case study in which users collaborate, in groups, to build UML Use Cases diagrams using a groupware modelling tool.
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Global virtual teams (GVTs) allow organizations to improve productivity, procure global knowledge, and transfer best practice information instantaneously among team members. GVTs rely heavily on IT and have little face-to-face interaction, thereby increasing problems resulting from geographic barriers, time language, and cultural differences, and inter-personal relationships. The purpose of our study was to design a normative framework that would assist organizations in understanding the relationship between diversity, mutual trust, and knowledge sharing among GVTs, with additional focus on understanding the moderating impact of collaborative technology and task characteristics. Empirical data was collected from 58 GVTs and analyzed using a Hierarchical Multiple Regression technique. Results showed that in GVTs, deep level diversity has a more significant relationship with team processes of mutual trust and knowledge sharing than visible functional level diversity. This relationship is moderated by the collaborative capabilities of available technology and levels of interdependence of the task. Furthermore, knowledge sharing and mutual trust mediate the relationship between diversity levels and team effectiveness.
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This study establishes a model based on coopetition theory to explain the formation of team performance in virtual teams. We tested the model in information technology (IT) organizations, and found applicability of coopetition in influencing team performance and knowledge sharing. Knowledge sharing is indirectly influenced by team politics and social capital (i.e., trust, social interaction and shared vision) via the mediation of cooperation and competition, while team performance is indirectly affected by team politics and social capital via the mediation of cooperation, team emotional intelligence and team competence.
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In this study, the authors examined the findings and implications of the research on trust in leadership that has been conducted during the past 4 decades. First, the study provides estimates of the primary relationships between trust in leadership and key outcomes, antecedents, and correlates (k = 106). Second, the study explores how specifying the construct with alternative leadership referents (direct leaders vs. organizational leadership) and definitions (types of trust) results in systematically different relationships between trust in leadership and outcomes and antecedents. Direct leaders (e.g., supervisors) appear to be a particularly important referent of trust. Last, a theoretical framework is offered to provide parsimony to the expansive literature and to clarify the different perspectives on the construct of trust in leadership and its operation.
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In this article, the authors compare the multilevel meta-analysis approach with the more traditional meta-analytical approaches. After a description and comparison of the under-lying models and some of the major techniques, the results of the multilevel approach are compared with those of the traditional approaches, using a simulation study. The results of the simulation study suggest that the maximum likelihood multilevel approach is in general superior to the fixed-effects approaches, unless only a small number of studies is available. For models without moderators, the results of the multilevel approach, however, are not substantially different from the results of the traditional random-effects approaches.
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The study of social capital has emerged as a key construct in work and organizational contexts. Trust is its relational dimension and it is relevant for teams working in virtual environments. The purpose of our study is to determine whether the relationship between virtuality level (based on the characteristics of the technology used by each group) and three team-effectiveness criteria (group performance, group process satisfaction and group cohesion) is moderated by group trust climate or relational capital (i.e. trust perceptions shared by team members). A laboratory experiment was carried out with groups randomly assigned to two virtuality levels (videoconference and computer-mediated communication) and a control condition (face-to-face communication). Sixty-six 4-member teams made up the sample. Results indicated that group trust climate moderates the relationship between the virtuality level and group process satisfaction and group cohesion when the virtuality level is high. These results provide further evidence that relational capital plays an important role in virtual teams' effectiveness.
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The present study examined the effects of group cohesiveness and leader behavior on subordinate satisfaction in a military organiza tion. A total of 203 cadets completed measures of group cohesiveness, leader initiating structure, leader consideration, and several satisfac tion scales. Analyses indicated that (1) subordinates were more satisfied with leaders who exhibited high levels of initiating struc ture and consideration; (2) subordinates in high-cohesiveness groups were more satisfied than subordinates in low-cohesiveness groups; and (3) leader initiating structure and consideration were more positively related to subordinate satisfaction in high-cohesiveness groups than in low-cohesiveness groups. The results demonstrate the necessity of including group process variables in leadership theory and research. Implications of the findings forgroup effectiveness are also discussed.
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The objective of this study was to develop a conceptually and methodologically sound measure of employee identification with the work group. A three-phase analysis approach was used. First, a content analysis was conducted with subject matter experts (SMEs) in the field of organizational behavior and psychology. Second, an exploratory factor analysis of the factor structure was conducted using a sample of employees from a credit union (N = 140). Finally, confirmatory analyses using LISREL 8 were conducted with a sample of employees derived from four insurance organizations (N = 309). The exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses supported the factor structure of the identification measure and the scale scores showed acceptable levels of internal consistency in both samples ([.alpha] = .78; [.alpha] = .79, respectively). We also demonstrated that the construct of work group identification is distinct from but related to both work group cohesiveness and work group communication.