Article

Who helps whom? Investigating the development of adolescent prosocial relationships

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Abstract

We investigated adolescent prosocial relations by examining social networks based on the question "Who helps you (e.g., with homework, with repairing a flat [bicycle] tire, or when you are feeling down?)." The effects of individual characteristics (academic achievement, symptoms of depressive mood, and peer status) on receiving help and giving help were examined, and we investigated the contribution of (dis)similarity between adolescents to the development of prosocial relations. Gender, structural network characteristics, and friendship relations were taken into account. Data were derived from the Social Network Analysis of Risk behavior in Early adolescence (SNARE) study, and contained information on students in 40 secondary school classes across 3 waves (N = 840, M age = 13.4, 49.7% boys). Results from longitudinal social network analyses (RSiena) revealed tendencies toward reciprocation of help and exchange of help within helping groups. Furthermore, boys were less often mentioned as helpers, particularly by girls. Depressed adolescents were less often mentioned as helpers, especially by low-depressed peers. Moreover, lower academic achievers indicated that they received help from their higher achieving peers. Rejected adolescents received help more often, but they less often helped low-rejected peers. Last, low- and high-popular adolescents less often helped each other, and also high-popular adolescents less often helped each other. These findings show that (dis)similarity in these characteristics is an important driving factor underlying the emergence and development of prosocial relations in the peer context, and that prosocial behavior should be defined in terms of benefitting particular others. (PsycINFO Database Record

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... Being associated with peers who are well liked and popular among classmates positively influences one's own social standing in the peer group. Consequently, students are more likely to establish friendships and seek help from high-status peers (e.g., Van Rijsewijk et al. 2016). Furthermore, in order to establish relationships within peer networks, students need to be socially attractive for their peers. ...
... Likewise, students may turn to peers who do well in university (Lomi et al. 2011). As academic achievement can be seen as an indicator for general improved cognitive capacities, these smarter peers may be capable of finding solutions for other types of difficulties as well, making them attractive as all-round helpers (Van Rijsewijk et al. 2016). Prior research in secondary school has shown that higher achievers received help less often but failed to find evidence that high-achievers seek more help or that students with similar levels of achievement select each other as helpers (e.g., Van Rijsewijk et al. 2016). ...
... As academic achievement can be seen as an indicator for general improved cognitive capacities, these smarter peers may be capable of finding solutions for other types of difficulties as well, making them attractive as all-round helpers (Van Rijsewijk et al. 2016). Prior research in secondary school has shown that higher achievers received help less often but failed to find evidence that high-achievers seek more help or that students with similar levels of achievement select each other as helpers (e.g., Van Rijsewijk et al. 2016). In higher education, however, showed indeed that students ask help from their similar achieving friends and prefer to collaborate with them. ...
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After the transition to university, students need to build a new peer network, which helps them to adapt to university life. This study investigated to what extent students’ prosocial attitudes and academic achievement facilitate the embeddedness in friendship and help-seeking networks, while taking structural network characteristics into account. Participants were 95 first-year bachelor’s degree students and were part of learning communities consisting of 12 students at a university in the Netherlands. Measures included student-reports of prosocial attitudes, peer nominations of friendship and help-seeking networks, and officially registered grades (GPA). Longitudinal social network analysis, stochastic actor-based modeling with the package RSiena, revealed that both students’ own prosocial attitudes and achievement played a role in their friendship formation, whereas only students’ own achievement made the formation of their help-seeking relationships more likely. When students were friends, it was more likely that they approached each other for help and vice versa. Similarity in achievement level contributed to relationship formation in friendship and help-seeking networks. Overall, the results underscore the importance of both student’ prosocial attitudes and achievement for their social adjustment (i.e., making friends) and only achievement for their academic adjustment (i.e., seeking help) during the first year of university within the context of small-scale teaching.
... Passive behaviors were split with boys more likely to "ignore" bullying and girls more likely to "stay out". It is possible that gender might shape these interactions, such that girls are more likely to bully those in their social circle or witness bullying within their social circle (e.g., Besag, 2006;Closson, Hart, & Hogg, 2017), and perhaps they are also more likely to step in to defend their friends (Oldenburg, Van Duijn, & Veenstra, 2018;van Rijsewijk, Dijkstra, Pattiselanno, Steglich, & Veenstra, 2016). Boys, on the other hand, are more likely to bully/witness bullying of others outside their social circle (e.g., Salmivalli, Huttunen, & Lagerspetz, 1997), so they might be less likely to feel motivated to step in to help out a target of bullying that are not their friends (Oldenburg et al., 2018;van Rijsewijk et al., 2016). ...
... It is possible that gender might shape these interactions, such that girls are more likely to bully those in their social circle or witness bullying within their social circle (e.g., Besag, 2006;Closson, Hart, & Hogg, 2017), and perhaps they are also more likely to step in to defend their friends (Oldenburg, Van Duijn, & Veenstra, 2018;van Rijsewijk, Dijkstra, Pattiselanno, Steglich, & Veenstra, 2016). Boys, on the other hand, are more likely to bully/witness bullying of others outside their social circle (e.g., Salmivalli, Huttunen, & Lagerspetz, 1997), so they might be less likely to feel motivated to step in to help out a target of bullying that are not their friends (Oldenburg et al., 2018;van Rijsewijk et al., 2016). This could suggest that programming being developed to specifically focus on bystander behavior would benefit from including ways to defend a target when the perpetrator is a friend while still maintaining the relationships (more relatable to females) and when the perpetrator is outside of their immediate social network so they do not feel the need to ignore the behavior (more relatable for males). ...
... These methods could be used to gather bystander behaviors (e.g., peer nominations) allowing for the examination of outcomes measured by different informants. Notably, while school climate factors are associated with bystander responses, other constructs should also be considered, such as peer group dynamics, which could also influence bystander behavior norms (e.g., Oldenburg et al., 2018;van Rijsewijk et al., 2016). For example, in a situation where the perpetrator is viewed as popular or the victim is considered a friend bystanders' responses can be impacted (Frey, Pearson, & Cohen, 2015;Huitsing & Veenstra, 2012;Waasdorp, Pas, & O' Brennan, L. M., & Bradshaw, C. P., 2011). ...
Article
Bullying bystanders’ reactions are important for either stopping or perpetuating bullying behaviors. Given school-based bullying programs’ focus on bystanders, understanding the associations between school-level factors and individual bystander responses can improve intervention efficacy. Data from 64,670 adolescents were used to examine bullying bystander responses as a function of 13 school-climate dimensions within 3 main factors (Engagement, Environment, Safety) and individual-level factors (e.g., race/ethnicity, perceptions of student-teacher connectedness). Multi-level models showed schools with better Engagement and Safety had higher odds of defender behaviors, a better Environment was associated with lower odds of passive and assisting behaviors. Differences also varied by individual-level factors. For example, an aggressive climate was associated with passive behaviors more strongly in boys and high schoolers. Further, higher perceived parent-teacher and student-teacher connectedness were associated with positive bystander behaviors, and this was stronger for Black and Latinx youth, highlighting the importance of improving relationships as a crucial starting point.
... Furthermore, some participants (30 students across 20 classrooms) named (almost) everyone in their classroom as helper, whereas they hardly named anyone at the preceding and/or next assessment. In addition, their help nominations were hardly or not reciprocated (whereas earlier research has found that 45%-49% of the help nominations were mutual [47]). These extreme (out)degree outliers may have interpreted the question differently from their classmates. ...
... This stresses a need to delineate the mechanisms underpinning the complex and theoretically 'counterintuitive' structure of social relations. Possibly, 'suboptimal' network structures may arise through the self-organizing capacity of networks [58]: preferences for relationship formation at the individual level (such as the tendency to reciprocate help, or help similar others [47]) may have unintendedly contributed to the segmented network structure found at the classroom level. These seemingly universal principles may nonetheless result in diverging classroom network patterns-as our results demonstrated, not all classrooms are segregated into groups of similar peers to the same extent. ...
... Network ecology theory [59] emphasizes that features of the classroom context may amplify or attenuate preferences for relationship formation and contribute to variation in characteristics of the larger network. In line with this, individual tendencies toward nominating others as helper, reciprocating help nominations and nominating helpers-of-helpers as own helper vary over contexts [47]. Heterogeneity in the characteristics of students in a classroom is a contextual characteristic that pertains to variation in trust and openness, and may thus be relevant for explaining variation in help networks [59]. ...
Article
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This study examined how classroom peer relations can be described in terms of the network of help relations among students, and the positions students take up in this help network, and whether the structure of adolescent classroom help networks and individual network positions were associated with academic achievement. Help networks were based on the peer nomination question "Who helps you with problems?" Building on previous studies on classroom climate and individual network position, higher academic achievement was expected in classrooms with: a dense help network; no or a few network isolates (referring to students that did not give or receive help at all); less segmentation in help relations; equally distributed help nominations. In addition, higher achievement was expected for individuals with more helpers and a more central position in the help network. Using the Dutch SNARE data (54 classrooms; 1,144 students), the multilevel models suggested that lower achievement was related to an unequal distribution of help relations in a classroom. Moreover, the centrality of individuals in the help network was linked to higher achievement. Classrooms varied strongly on network dimensions, and networks that would theoretically be expected to be most beneficial for achievement (with high density, a few isolates, low segmentation, and high equality) turned out to be highly uncommon. The findings demonstrated that subtle network processes were relevant for academic success, and that classroom network characteristics are associated with classroom-level variation in academic achievement. Descriptive results underlined the complexity of the social context of classrooms, and the absence of 'beneficial' classrooms suggests that researchers should adjust their notion of what is a beneficial or detrimental classroom environment for adolescents.
... Several studies have shown gender differences in the level and development of prosocial behavior in adolescence. A peer nomination study found that girls were more often named as helpers than boys (van Rijsewijk et al. 2016), and there is evidence that the peak in prosocial behavior is higher and reached earlier in girls than in boys (van der Graaff et al. 2018). ...
... Such a main effect of influencer gender was observed for aggressive behavior in a study that found girls to have a greater impact as a group compared to boys on both their male and their female classmates (Busching and Krahé 2015); (3) the interaction of influencer and target gender, for example whether individuals are more influenced by same-gender than by opposite-gender peers. The latter possibility is suggested by the finding that more than 80% of the nominated helpers had the same gender as the nominating person (van Rijsewijk et al. 2016). To address these potential moderation effects, separate class-level scores of prosocial behavior at T1 based on the male and female class members, respectively, were calculated in the present study. ...
... A study in six European cities found rates of other-gender friendships of only 21% for boys and 13.2% for girls (Grard et al. 2018). It is further in line with evidence that the vast majority of nominations of prosocial peers are made within gender groups (van Rijsewijk et al. 2016). This means that opportunities for learning prosocial behavior from same-gender peers are likely to be greater than learning opportunities involving other-gender peers, even within the context of mixed-gender classrooms. ...
Article
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Peer groups are critical socialization agents for the development of social behavior in adolescence, but studies examining peer-group effects on individuals’ prosocial behavior are scarce. Using a two-wave, multilevel data set (N = 16,893, 8481 male; 8412 female; mean age at Time 1: 14.0 years) from 1308 classes in 252 secondary schools in Germany, main effects of the classroom level of prosocial behavior, cross-level interactions between the classroom and the individual levels of prosocial behavior at Time 1, and the moderating role of gender were examined. The results showed that adolescents in classrooms with high collective levels of prosocial behavior at Time 1 reported more prosocial behavior at Time 2, about two years later, reflecting a class-level main effect. A significant cross-level interaction indicated that a high classroom level of prosocial behavior particularly affected individuals with lower levels of prosocial behavior at Time 1. The influence of same-gender peers was larger compared with opposite-gender peers. The findings are discussed with respect to social learning mechanisms in the development of prosocial behavior and their implications for interventions to promote prosocial behavior.
... At the same time, studies in secondary education showed that "effortless achieving" is not only more in line with the male gender role, but also entails psychological benefits for boys (Heyder & Kessels, 2016). From this viewpoint, help-seeking is perceived as incompatible with the autonomous male gender role (Kessels & Steinmayr, 2013), and, accordingly, adaptive help-seeking strategies and behaviors are more frequently found among girls (Kiefer & Shim, 2016;van Rijsewijk et al., 2016). More than in lower-level schools, depending on the field of study, university classrooms can show stark asymmetries regarding the share of male and female students. ...
... In our study, this appears to be the case in education, where students reported more autonomy-oriented help-seeking and less help-seeking avoidance than in the computer sciences. Gendered patterns of help-seeking tendencies provide a second potential explanation for the identified differences: the larger share of male students found to avoid help-seeking from peers more frequently than female students (Kiefer & Shim, 2016;van Rijsewijk et al., 2016). This could scale up to a generally higher level of help-seeking avoidance in computer science, which is then being accepted by female students. ...
... Much research has shown that female students form more adaptive helping relations than male students (e. g., Kiefer & Shim, 2016;van Rijsewijk et al., 2016). Our study replicates this finding in the overall sample: female students reported higher levels of autonomyoriented help-seeking and lower levels of help-seeking avoidance than male students. ...
Article
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Feeling excluded by fellow students may be associated with lower levels of adaptive help-seeking. In a cross-sectional study, we compared self-reported help-seeking strategies (autonomy-oriented, dependency-oriented, help-seeking avoidance) among N = 418 students in 25 seminar and tutorial groups in the undergraduate introductory courses of two subject domains: computer science and education. Analyses showed that, overall, students reported lower autonomy-oriented help-seeking and higher help-seeking avoidance in computer science than in education. In computer science, perceived peer exclusion predicted more help-seeking avoidance among both male and female students and less autonomy-oriented help-seeking among females. In education, however, perceived peer exclusion was a significant predictor of both male and female students’ lower autonomy-oriented help-seeking. Results suggest that, in computer science, help-seeking appears to have an “image problem” signaling competence-related inferiority rather than being a form of effective self-regulated learning. Implications for enhancing adaptive help exchange cultures in computer science are discussed.
... One study collected data among children in elementary school (Mercer & DeRosier, 2010) whereas all other studies collected data from early adolescents or adolescents in secondary education. Only one study (Van Rijsewijk et al., 2016) collected networks among classmates (in 40 classes), whereas the other studies collected networks among grade-mates (with the number of settings varying from one to eleven), schoolmates (with the number of settings varying from three to nine) or among all students in one community (with about 800 students). A few studies had four to seven waves of data, but most studies had two or three waves of data. ...
... Four studies used the Mood and Feelings Questionnaire: one study used the full version with 33 items and three used the short version with 13 items (Ennett et al., 2018;Giletta et al., 2012;Mercer & DeRosier, 2010). Others used three items about symptoms of depressive mood: 1) felt unhappy, miserable, and down; 2) felt nervous and tense; and 3) worried too much (Van Rijsewijk et al., 2016) or 10 items from the Depression Scale, with as sample items "I feel sad" or "I feel that my future is hopeless." (Kiuru et al., 2012). ...
... Measurement of the networks was most often based on best or (closest) friend nominations, although some studies collected data on who spends time whom (Delay et al., 2017;Kiuru et al., 2012), who engages in face-to-face interactions (Pachucki et al., 2015), or who helps whom (Van Rijsewijk et al., 2016). In most cases, these nominations were unlimited or had a high maximum (e.g., up to 23). ...
Article
In interpersonal models of developmental psychopathology, friendships and affiliations with peers have been considered as both consequences and determinants of children’s and adolescents’ internalizing behaviors and peer victimization. Longitudinal stochastic actor-oriented models (SAOMs) allow developmental researchers to disentangle peer selection processes where children or adolescents choose friends who are similar to themselves in internalizing behaviors or peer victimization from peer influence processes where children or adolescents become more similar to their friends over time in internalizing behaviors or peer victimization. This paper highlights the methods and results from a systematic review that screened 1447 empirical articles and located 28 using SAOMs to understand the interplay between peer social networks and internalizing behaviors or peer victimization. The results provide some evidence for both peer selection and influence related to depression, social anxiety, and peer victimization. Additionally, the results provide insight into directions for additional substantive and methodological research. Based on the findings of this review, future research is recommended that considers specific tests of peer selection and influence mechanisms, developmental and gender differences, individual and contextual moderators, multiplex relationships, methodological quality, and direct replication of prior studies.
... In social network analysis, relationships are modeled through peer nominations and the paths are identified through which different resources, such as emotional and academic support, flow (cf., Ryan & Shin, 2018). While there is by now a solid body of research confirming homophily in friendship networks, relatively little research has examined help-seeking networks of adolescents within their classrooms (for some exceptions, see Cooc & Kim, 2017;van Rijsewijk, Dijkstra, Pattiselanno, Steglich, & Veenstra, 2016). So far, there is much to be learned about the role of similarity and dissimilarity in help-seeking networks. ...
... Herein, help-seeking is regarded as an accommodative and instrumental strategy allowing students to continue in the face of academic challenges by requesting cues from others more competent to provide help (Karabenick & Newman, 2009;Kiefer & Shim, 2016;Roussel, Elliot, & Feltman, 2011). Several studies support the cognitive benefits of adaptive help-seeking in terms of learning and academic development (Kiefer & Shim, 2016;van Rijsewijk et al., 2016;Ryan, Patrick, & Shim, 2005;Ryan & Shim, 2012). Importantly, and as stated in the definition, help-seekers are most likely to benefit from those classmates who perform better than themselves. ...
... Further, according to gender roles, boys should avoid appearing too engaged in school and investing too much effort (Boehnke, 2008;Heyder & Kessels, 2017). Consistent with this reasoning, (adaptive) help-seeking has been found to be less prevalent among boys than girls (Kiefer & Shim, 2016), boys have been found less likely to be nominated as helpers than girls (van Rijsewijk et al., 2016), and helping is a more salient characteristic of girls' peerrelations and friendships overall compared to those of boys (see Rose & Rudolph, 2006, for a review). We therefore expected, that compared to girls, boys would be less likely to nominate peers as potential helpers in mathematics. ...
Article
In this research, we investigated adaptive academic helpseeking in mathematics, i.e., asking better performing peers for help, and the factors facilitating or undermining it. We measured adolescents' sociometric friendship and mathematics help-seeking nominations in 50 classrooms of the 9th grade. Based on friendship nominations, we identified cliques and compared mathematics help-seeking within and beyond cliques. Multilevel analyses accounting for individual and classroom characteristics, as well as similarity on the pair level, showed that students, overall, were more likely to nominate better performing helpers who shared their gender, migration background status, and religious affiliation. Further, students were more likely to nominate helpers from within their own friendship cliques. When students outside the clique were nominated as helpers, they performed much better than nominated within-clique helpers. Low-achieving students were less likely to nominate helpers. We discuss how factors undermining adolescents' adaptive help-seeking can be overcome in the classroom.
... For example, one study examined friendship and advice relationships (i.e., peers to whom university students recurrently referred for information and advice on course-related matters) showing that both friendship and advice networks positively influenced each other and that academic performance was positively related to being nominated as advisor (Snijders, Lomi, & Torló, 2013). Another study examined prosocial relationships in secondary education, showing that adolescents are likely to reciprocate helping relationships as well as cooperate with peers with whom they already established a friendship (Van Rijsewijk, Dijkstra, Pattiselanno, Steglich, & Veenstra, 2016). Finally, there is evidence that academic networks (with whom do you study at the school?), like friendship networks, are shaped by reciprocity and transitivity mechanisms in high schools students (Palacios & Villalobos, 2016). ...
... Hence, we expected that, compared to low-ability classrooms, in high-ability classrooms, the existence of academic relationships is likely to promote the creation or maintenance of friendship relationships (Hypothesis 3a). Conversely, because friends tend to be a source of support in other positive relationships such as advice and helping networks (Snijders et al., 2013;Van Rijsewijk et al., 2016), we expected that the same occurs for academic networks. Hence, we hypothesized that the existence of friendships was likely to promote the creation or maintenance of academic relationships in both types of classrooms (Hypothesis 3b). ...
Article
This paper examined the association between friendship and academic networks and how the connections these networks have with academic performance and school misconduct differ when comparing three types of classrooms where students were grouped based on their academic ability (i.e., high-, low-, and mixed-ability). The sample was composed of 528 seventh to ninth graders (Mage = 15; 64.1% girls) from 12 classrooms (four in each category of ability grouping) across two waves in five schools in Chile. The effects of academic performance and school misconduct on receiving academic and friendship nominations were examined, as well as the interplay between academic and friendship relationships. Furthermore, the extent to which similarity in adolescents' academic performance and school misconduct contributed to the formation and maintenance of academic and friendship relationships was examined. Sex, socioeconomic status, and structural network features were also taken into account. Longitudinal social network analyses (RSiena) indicated that (1) in high-ability classrooms students chose high-achieving peers as academic partners; (2) in high-ability classrooms students avoided deviant peers (i.e., those high in school misconduct) as academic partners; and (3) academic relationships led to friendships, and vice versa, in both high- and low-ability classrooms. Whereas the interplay of friendship and academic relationships was similar in high- and low-ability classrooms, the formation and maintenance of academic networks unfolded differently in these two types of classrooms.
... However, from the perspective that some adolescents see friends as resources to gain status ("basking in reflected glory"), help may be not be relevant to friendships (Dijkstra, Cillessen, Lindenberg, & Veenstra, 2010). There are also other factors than friendship that may contribute to help, such as the ability of the friend to provide help, and also similarity in characteristics (Van Rijsewijk, Dijkstra, Pattiselanno, Steglich, & Veenstra, 2016). Whereas we controlled for sex as a key friendship and helping selection mechanism (McPherson, Smith-Lovin, & Cook, 2001;Van Rijsewijk et al., 2016), we were not able to take all relationship formation mechanisms into account. ...
... There are also other factors than friendship that may contribute to help, such as the ability of the friend to provide help, and also similarity in characteristics (Van Rijsewijk, Dijkstra, Pattiselanno, Steglich, & Veenstra, 2016). Whereas we controlled for sex as a key friendship and helping selection mechanism (McPherson, Smith-Lovin, & Cook, 2001;Van Rijsewijk et al., 2016), we were not able to take all relationship formation mechanisms into account. ...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this study was to unravel the interrelatedness of friendship and help, and to examine the characteristics of friendship and help networks. The effects of mutual versus one‐sided help relations on friendship initiation and maintenance, and vice versa, were examined. Friendship and help networks were analyzed (N = 953 students; 41 classrooms; Mage = 12.7). The results illustrate that friendship and help networks show some similarities, but only partly overlap and have distinct characteristics. Longitudinal multiplex social network analyses showed that mutual help was important for the maintenance of friendship, but not for the initiation of friendship. Further, particularly mutual friendships provided a context in which help took place. Implications of these findings are discussed.
... It simultaneously estimates network structural features (e.g., density, see the Appendix), influence, and selection processes while controlling for each in a methodically sound way (Snijders, van de Bunt, & Steglich, 2010;Steglich, Snijders, & Pearson, 2010). Stochastic actor-based modeling has been widely used in research in social networks such as friendships (e.g., Flashman, 2012;Franken et al., 2016;Knecht, Snijders, Baerveldt, Steglich, & Raub, 2010;Shin & Ryan, 2014;Weerman, 2011) and prosocial relations (e.g., Van Rijsewijk, Dijkstra, Pattiselanno, Steglich, & Veenstra, 2016). ...
... This article is intended solely for the personal use of the individual user and is not to be disseminated broadly. 6 features have been widely evaluated in prior research on different kinds of social networks (e.g., Franken et al., 2016;Knecht et al., 2010;Logis et al., 2013;Shin & Ryan, 2014;Van Rijsewijk et al., 2016;Weerman, 2011). In the social-status networks, actor refers to individual youth and outgoing ties refer to the social status nominations they make. ...
Article
This research evaluated the role of high-status peers in youth’s academic engagement. Youth (mean age = 12.7 years) in the United States and China ( N = 934) made social status (i.e., sociometric popularity, perceived popularity, and admiration) nominations of their peers in the fall and spring of their first year of middle school. They also reported on their academic engagement at these two time points. The academic engagement of peers that youth nominated as high in sociometric and perceived popularity, but not of peers they admired, was predictive of youth’s own academic engagement over time. Notably, this effect was evident over and above any initial similarity youth had with high-status peers they nominated (e.g., youth tended to nominate peers as high in sociometric popularity when they were similarly academically engaged to youth). It also did not differ in size in the United States and China. The results underscore the importance of high-status peers in youth’s academic engagement in two countries that differ in terms of their cultural and educational systems.
... Hyperaktivität ist in einzelnen Untersuchungen hingegen positiv mit prosozialem Verhalten assoziiert (Ortuño-Sierra, Fonseca-Pedrero, Sastre i Riba & Muñiz, 2017). Internalisierende Probleme (in dieser Studie vorwiegend depressive Symptome) erwiesen sich in einer als Längsschnittstudie angelegten sozialen Netzwerkanalyse mit N = 840 Jugendlichen als Prädiktor für geringeres prosoziales Verhalten, wenngleich der Effekt klein ausfiel (van Rijsewijk, Dijkstra, Pattiselanno, Steglich & Veenstra, 2016). Depressive Jugendliche zeigen oft wenig prosoziales Verhalten gegenüber Eltern. ...
... Dass überhaupt prosoziales Verhalten bei als verhaltensproblematisch klassifizierten Jugendlichen auftritt, unterstreicht die Notwendigkeit kontextspezifischer Differenzierungen. Van Rijsewijk et al. (2016) führten im Rahmen einer Längsschnittstudie eine soziale Netzwerkanalyse mit N = 840 Jugendlichen durch. Es zeigte sich ein signifikanter Ähnlichkeitseffekt, d. h. ...
Article
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Befunde zu prosozialem Verhalten wie freiwilligem Fürsorgeverhalten bei Jugendlichen mit internalisierenden und externalisierenden Verhaltensproblemen sind widersprüchlich. Es ist ungeklärt, ob prosoziales Verhalten bei Jugendlichen mit Verhaltensproblemen dazu führt, das subjektive Stresserleben im Kontakt zu Peers zu verringern. Diese Studie untersucht, ob prosoziales Verhalten als protektiver Faktor den Zusammenhang zwischen den verschiedenen Verhaltensproblemen (internalisierende und/oder externalisierende Probleme) und Stresserleben in Peerbeziehungen moderiert. Die Stichprobe umfasst N=1019 Jugendliche im Alter von 13–18 (davon 678 mit Verhaltensproblemen gemäß aggregiertem Rating der Lehrkräfte und Jugendlichen). Alle Konstrukte wurden mit standardisierten Instrumenten erfasst. ANCOVAs verdeutlichen den moderierenden Einfluss prosozialen Verhaltens. Im Ergebnis hängt prosoziales Verhalten spezifisch bei hyperaktiven Jugendlichen mit einem verringerten Stresserleben in Peerbeziehungen zusammen. Die Diskussion fokussiert die Notwendigkeit ressourcenorientierter Sichtweisen und problematisiert, ob prosoziales Verhalten von hyperaktiven Jugendlichen tatsächlich als Ressource in sozialen Beziehungen genutzt werden kann.
... Research on the social organization of schooling can be traced back to the 1970′s (e.g. Meyer & Rowan, 1977;Tyack, 1974). This literature suggests that development of a collaborative structure can strengthen social capital in schools, change teacher practices and improve student performance (e.g. ...
... Teachers' relationships have been shown to be structured in subgroups within the overall pattern of teacher relationships in schools Penuel et al., 2009). Indeed, closed triads are often found in similar social networks in educational contexts, such as teacher knowledge sharing (Siciliano, 2017), school student help (van Rijsewijk, Dijkstra, Pattiselanno, Steglich, & Veenstra, 2016) and graduate student advice (Snijders, Lomi, & Torló, 2013) networks. As a result of the formation of multiple overlapping triads, subgroups or cliques take place. ...
Article
Understanding the structure of staff advice relationships and the factors that facilitate (and hinder) the flow of resources within schools is key to school improvement. Our study examines school staff advice networks for supporting vulnerable learners using Exponential Random Graph Models (ERGMs). We investigate the individual and structural mechanisms that shape these networks in six secondary schools and find evidence for the importance of mutuality, clustering and individual similarities. Educators tend to ask for advice from those in formal leadership or support positions, although informal hierarchies are also present. The study contributes with a novel application of an inferential social network approach to study patterns of advice relations among teachers, support staff and formal leaders in schools.
... Individuals who are dissimilar to many peers already occupy a rejected and socially isolated position, and bystanding witnesses are less likely to convey their disapproval when adolescents who are dissimilar to them or to the group to which they belong are bullied (Huitsing et al., 2014). Moreover, these adolescents who deviate from group norms may also have fewer peers who stand up for them because they have less in common with their peers: Similarity breeds connection with others and young adolescents help those to whom they are similar and do not help those to whom they are dissimilar (van Rijsewijk et al., 2016). Thus, norm-deviating adolescents are easy targets to bully. ...
... However, for these relational characteristics, it can be expected that deviating from the norm only by having fewer (online) peer relationships may be risky. Young adolescents who have more peer relationships than the norm will also have more social support, which reduces their risk for victimization (van Rijsewijk et al., 2016). Therefore, we expected that more dissimilarity to the descriptive classroom norms in these relational characteristics would predict more individual victimization throughout the school year only if individuals' number of friendships (H1a) or social media connections (H1b) were lower than the classroom norm. ...
Article
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Existing literature has mostly explained the occurrence of bullying victimization by individual socioemotional maladjustment. Instead, this study tested the person‐group dissimilarity model (Wright et al., Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 50: 523–536, 1986) by examining whether individuals’ deviation from developmentally important (relational, socio‐behavioral, and physical) descriptive classroom norms predicted victimization. Adolescents (N = 1267, k = 56 classrooms; Mage = 13.2; 48.7% boys; 83.4% Dutch) provided self‐reported and peer‐nomination data throughout one school year (three timepoints). Results from group actor–partner interdependence models indicated that more person‐group dissimilarity in relational characteristics (fewer friendships; incidence rate ratios [IRR]T2 = 0.28, IRRT3 = 0.16, fewer social media connections; IRRT3 = 0.13) and, particularly, lower disruptive behaviors (IRRT2 = 0.35, IRRT3 = 0.26) predicted victimization throughout the school year.
... We argue that in order to take this relational nature of defending into account, defending behavior should be investigated using social network analysis. Although social network analysis has recently been used to investigate various types of positive and negative relationships among primary school and high school students (e.g., helping, liking, and bullying relationships) [14][15][16], only two studies have used social network analysis to investigate defending behavior. The first study, a study by Sainio and colleagues [9], investigated defending by analyzing dyadic relationships between victims and (potential) defenders. ...
... Several studies demonstrated that during childhood and early adolescence social interaction predominantly takes place in same-gender peer groups [33][34][35]. Moreover, helping relationships are more likely to occur in girls' relationships than in boys' relationships [36,37,16]. Accordingly, we added configurations reflecting gender similarity and gender sender and receiver effects to the models. ...
Article
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Previous studies investigating to what extent students in elementary schools defend their victimized classmates typically treated defending as an individual characteristic. Defending should, however, be seen as a directed dyadic relationship between a victim and a defender, who are embedded multiple positive and negative relationships with each other and their classmates. Accordingly, in the present study defending was investigated using social network analysis. More specifically, it was investigated to what extent defending relationships co-occurred with friendship and dislike relationships involving not only the victim and the defender but also other classmates. Bivariate Exponential Random Graph Models (ERGMs) were used to analyze the defending-friendship and defending-dislike relationships in seven grade-three classrooms. As hypothesized, the results indicated that victimized students were likely to be defended by students who they perceive as friends or who perceive them as friends. Moreover, defending was likely to occur when the victim and (potential) defender had the same friends. Victimized students were unlikely to be defended by classmates whom they disliked or who had indicated to dislike them. Finally, defending was likely to occur between students who disliked the same classmates.
... Studying morally relevant behavior through social networks. A growing number of researchers have used social network analysis to investigate peer group dynamics among adolescents with the goal of understanding the development of prosocial behavior and aggression (van Rijsewijk et al., 2016). Network analysis is used to measure and analyze networks of interdependent dyadic relationships in order to (1) better understand what influences the formation of relational ties in a sample and (2) determine the influence of the structure of relational ties on outcomes (Veenstra & Steglich, 2012). ...
... Social network research in the last decade has shown that adolescent prosocial behavior is influenced by who the target of their prosociality is. For example, van Rijsewijk et al. (2016) found that (dis)similarity in characteristics (e.g., popularity, academic achievement and gender) is an important driving factor underlying the emergence and development of prosocial relations in the peer context, and that prosocial behavior in adolescence is often directed at particular others. This research speaks to the specificity of day-to-day acts of prosocial behavior in adolescence. ...
Article
This article provides a selective review of research on moral development in adolescence during the past decade. We begin with introducing key concepts and reviewing critical theoretical advances in the field of adolescent moral development. This includes integrative models to the developmental study of morality and dynamic socialization models of moral development. Next, related major empirical findings are presented on moral emotion–behavior links, morality in intergroup contexts, and the socialization of moral development. Next, methodological innovations are presented, including new techniques to assess and analyze moral emotions and moral behaviors. We conclude by pointing to promising future directions for moral development research and practices aimed at promoting ethical growth and civic responsibility in adolescents around the globe.
... According to researchers, humans are evolutionarily inclined to experience a sense of loyalty through helping others. Van Rijsewijk et al. (2016) supported these explanations and stated that helping behaviours contribute to the formation of friendship by increasing positive evaluations among partners. It is evident that studies carried out in recent years have dealt with prosocial lies within this context (e.g. ...
... Considering its results in terms of prosocial behaviour, it should be noted that the results of this study are consistent with the literature. For example, it was found that children who are helped see others in a more positive perspective (van Rijsewijk et al., 2016) and behave more generously in resource allocation (Warneken et al., 2011). The results of the current study show that prosocial lies may be related to prosocial behaviours such as helping, collaborating and sharing. ...
Article
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This study investigates the influence of helping and collaboration on children’s prosocial lie-telling behaviours. A total of 112 children, aged between 42 and 60 months (57 girls), participated in the study. The children in the control group were given an undesirable gift task. To see the impact of time spent with the children in the placebo control group, children completed a puzzle and then received an undesirable gift task. The children in the two different experimental groups were the recipients of helping or collaboration tasks, then their prosocial lies were measured. Results showed that the children in the experimental groups showed a significantly higher prosocial lie-telling behaviour than the control group. It was also found that there was a significant difference between the placebo group and the experimental helping group. A multinomial logistic regression analysis was conducted to clarify the predictive effects of control and experimental conditions on prosocial lie-telling behaviour. It was founded that being in the control and placebo control group significantly reduced the likelihood of prosocial lie telling behaviour. Results were discussed in light of the impact of children’s closeness with others and minimal group effects in prosocial lie-telling and cultural factors that might affect prosocial lies.
... Furthermore, we controlled for sex in the analyses. Research has shown that sex has an impact on friendship, prosociality, aggression, and popularity nominations (Card et al., 2008;van der Ploeg et al., 2020;Van Rijsewijk et al., 2016;Veenstra et al., 2013). We included the same-sex effect, indicating whether nominations tend to occur more often between students of the same sex. ...
... Similarly, we assumed that perceptions of prosociality, aggression, and popularity were exogenous. However, there is evidence that friendships predict status (Hashimi & Schaefer, 2018;Labun et al., 2016) or prosociality (Van Rijsewijk et al., 2016. ...
Article
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This study examined the differential effects of two forms of adolescents' perceptions of peers' prosociality, aggression , and popularity, on friendship selection. Individuals' reports of their peers' behaviors (dyadic perceptions) and the aggregated classmates' reports (reputational perceptions) were disentangled. The findings indicated that adolescents were more likely to befriend classmates widely perceived as prosocial (reputational perception) and were less likely to befriend classmates they perceived as aggressive (dyadic perception). For popularity, the effect of dyadic perception disappeared when including the reputational perception. The findings highlight the differences between the dyadic and reputational perceptions of peer behavior. Not only dyadic perceptions of behaviors but also reputational perceptions exert a role in befriending peers.
... Studies that incorporate social network approaches to understand how social norms get shaped across schools will provide further insight into these questions (e.g., McCormick & Cappella, 2015). Another question is who helps (or is in the position to help) victims (see Van Rijsewijk, Dijkstra, Pattiselanno, Steglich, & Veenstra, 2016). Understanding who helps whom will offer further insight into the prosocial relations within different schools. ...
Article
Testing the potential protective effects of school-level prosocial norms and having friends on peer victimization-related distress, this study examined whether one protective factor is particularly important in the absence of the other. An ethnically diverse sample (N = 5,991) from 26 middle schools reported on peer prosocial behavior, social anxiety, loneliness, and perceived school safety; peer nominations assessed victimization and friends. Multilevel analyses revealed that sixth grade friendless victims felt significantly less anxious, lonely, and unsafe a year later in schools characterized by stronger peer prosocial norms (e.g., helping others). Additionally, victims in less prosocial schools experienced less social anxiety if they had at least one friend. The findings suggest that attending a school characterized by prosocial peer norms can compensate for high social risk (victimized and friendless) following the transition to middle school, and having friends is important for bullied youth in less prosocial school contexts. These results highlight the importance of simultaneously studying relational and school-level protective factors; implications for anti-bullying interventions are discussed.
... Prosocial behavior is an umbrella term that encompasses behaviors intended to benefit others (Dovidio, Piliavin, Schroeder, & Penner, 2006;van Rijsewijk, Dijkstra, Pattiselanno, Steglich, & Veenstra, 2016), such as helping others (e.g., opening a door for someone), volunteering (e.g., in a soup kitchen), or showing acts of kindness (e.g., comforting a friend, showing gratitude). Prosocial behavior may be an important factor for the maintenance and development of close relationships. ...
Article
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Background Prosocial behavior represents an evolutionary advantage for individuals. In line with this claim, several studies showed a positive relation between prosocial behavior and well-being. However, negative relations were also reported in the literature. Methods This study aimed to assesses the relation between prosocial behavior and well-being using an event sampling methodology. Further, we were interested in two contextual factors (closeness of the receiver and autonomy) that are believed to impact this relationship. Ninety couples (180 individuals) answered questions about their helping behavior and well-being during one week. Results Overall, prosocial behavior was not associated with well-being and this association was also not observed when the recipient was a close rather than a distant individual. However, prosocial behavior was positively related to well-being when individuals experienced a sense of autonomy when deciding to act prosocially. Conclusions Interventions aiming to promote prosocial behavior should ensure that behaviors are autonomously implemented.
... Yet, people also often behave in ways that promote others' well-being. Prosocial behavior is voluntary behavior that is aimed to benefit particular others or to promote harmonious relationships (Dovidio et al., 2006;Eisenberg et al., 2006;Van Rijsewijk et al., 2016). Helping, comforting, or sharing resources with others are ways of behaving prosocially. ...
Article
Bidirectional associations between being cyberbullied and cyberbullying others have been suggested, as well as bidirectional patterns of online prosocial behavior (reciprocity). However, so far, these relations have been studied as population-level associations, and it is not clear whether they also reflect within-person behavioral patterns. Therefore, this study aimed to disentangle between-person and within-person processes in online antisocial (cyberbullying) and prosocial behavior over time. Random intercept cross-lagged panel models were used to examine long-term within-person patterns of involvement in cyberbullying and online prosocial behavior. The findings showed no within-person effects between cyberbullying victimization and perpetration over time. In contrast, results did reveal significant within-person autoregressive effects of performing and receiving online prosocial behavior over time, and within-person cross-lagged effects between receiving online prosocial behavior and acting prosocially later on. These results indicate long-term positive, reinforcing spirals of prosocial exchanges, but no long-term negative spirals of cyberbullying perpetration and victimization.
... Nevertheless, research on social video games lacks an overarching theoretical framework suitable for predicting the effects of complex social interactions during social video gameplay (Velez 2015). Online pro-social behaviours are voluntary behaviours aimed at benefiting others or promoting harmonious relationships (Van Rijsewijk et al., 2016). People's pro-social behaviours in social interactions in groups are influenced by their expectations regarding positive and reciprocal behaviours from other members of the group (Nicola 2020). ...
Article
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The remarkable successes of the video game business are the embodiment of an undeniable new dominant industry that is the most rapidly increasing and interesting area of mass media for the coming decade. With the vigorous development of games, social problems have been proven. Previous research has demonstrated an individual's pro-social tendencies are affected by their perspective on moral obligation and social responsibility, and propose the possible factor that causes online insult. Theories and conclusions of previous studies lack the feasibility in online gaming situations. Through the research and data analysis of League of Legends ranking and non-ranking players, this essay has demonstrated examined the feasibility of the Bounded Generalised Reciprocity (Yamagishi et al. 1999) in online games, and proved that individual's social responsibility can impact their continuing pro-social behaviour during competitive MOBA gameplay. Data show that players' expectations to receive pro-social behaviour are higher than their expectations to give pro-social behaviour; however, pro-social behaviour occurred less frequently among ranking players because they place lower expectations on cooperative play and place more emphasis on individual selfish gameplay. MOBA's violent nature may have an impact on players' own social responsibility and lower their pro-social expectations of others. Keywords: prosocial, reciprocity, league of legends, obligation
... Defenders are liked by the victims they defend and are perceived as popular, among not only victims, but also among other classmates. Adolescents can also have peers around them who are not necessarily their friends, but on whom they can rely for emotional, instrumental, or practical support (Van Rijsewijk et al., 2016). Some helping relationships are formed based on dissimilarities: lower academic achievers receive help from their higherachieving peers. ...
Chapter
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Peer relationships are prominent when children move into adolescence. Peer research has been motivated by an interest in understanding where peer interactions and relationships come from and how these experiences affect multiple aspects of positive and negative development. Peer research continues to provide insight in how adolescents strive for status and affection, how adolescents are connected to their peers, and how peers influence and select each other. Recent advances show the importance of considering variations between contexts (such as classrooms) in these peer processes. Selection and influence processes vary strongly between classrooms, and in particular popular peers set a norm for what behaviors are important for friendship selection and influence processes. Moreover, some contexts may elicit exacerbated social comparison processes, which may explain why certain individuals have academic or psychosocial maladjustment in some contexts but not in others. The avenues for further research offer researchers several opportunities to diversify and expand into new areas of inquiry among adolescents and young adults.
... Research regarding the relationship between depressive symptomatology and prosocial behaviour is mixed. Some studies have suggested that depressed adolescents are less prosocial than their peers (e.g., van Rijsewijk, Dijkstra, Pattiselanno, Steglich, & Veenstra, 2016). However, Wentzel, Filisetti, and Looney (2007) found that depressive affect was indirectly related to prosocial goal pursuit, via associations with perspective taking, empathy, and peer expectations. ...
Article
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Objectives Adolescence represents a critical phase when the concept of self is developed and consolidated. Depressed adolescents globally endorse more negative and fewer positive self‐descriptive words compared with non‐depressed adolescents. Yet, the methods used have not allowed for more detailed exploration of the specific content of these self‐endorsements. Methods Adolescents, aged 12–18 years, were recruited from the community (n = 204) and from a child and adolescent mental health service in the UK (n = 87). Participants completed measures of depression and a self‐description questionnaire which included 12 positive and 12 negative self‐descriptive adjectives. Results As expected, we replicated previous findings that depressive symptoms are associated with global positive and negative self‐endorsements. The difference between mean scores was examined for each adjective. Depressed adolescents endorsed all negative adjectives more highly relative to community adolescents; ratings of ‘worthless’ and ‘useless’ had the biggest difference between community and depressed adolescents. Surprisingly, a group of positive prosocial self‐descriptors were endorsed equally by depressed and community adolescents and were not associated with severity of depressive symptoms. Conclusions Although depressed adolescents endorsed more negative descriptions of themselves than community adolescents, positive self‐endorsements related to their relationships with other people were not impaired. Practitioner points • Most highly endorsed self‐descriptive negative words by depressed adolescents were ‘worthless’ and ‘useless’ • Positive prosocial self‐descriptive adjectives (i.e., trustworthy, friendly, and kind) were highly endorsed by all young people and were not associated with depression • Assessment and treatment should consider the content of adolescent self‐evaluation • The present study is unable to identify whether young people would produce the same themes of positive and negative words in a free response measure • Diagnostic information was only available on the clinical group
... Youth repeatedly rejected across middle school may enter romantic relationships lacking practice in critical interpersonal and emotional skills, including self-regulation (McLaughlin, Hatzenbuehler, & Hilt, 2009) and problem-solving strategies (Crick & Dodge, 1994), that limit their capacity to effectively comfort and validate a romantic partner. For example, past research demonstrates that rejected youth are less likely to behave prosocially (e.g., help others; van Rijseijk, Dijkstra, Pattiselanno, Steglich, & Veenstra, 2016) and exhibit decreased social competence over time (Di Giunta et al., 2018). And yet, to our knowledge, the prospective effects of peer rejection on romantic competence-and specifically support provision-have yet to be directly investigated. ...
Article
Introduction: Using a prospective longitudinal design across six years, the current study investigated whether adolescents' experiences of peer rejection across middle school increased their risk of maladaptive (aggressive and unsupportive) behaviors in high school romantic relationships. Additionally, friendship quality following the transition to high school was examined as a potential protective factor. Methods: The sample consisted of 1,987 ethnically diverse youth (54% female; Mage = 17.10) who were romantically involved at eleventh grade. Peer rejection (based on peer nominations) was assessed at four time points across three years in middle school. Students reported on their friendship quality in ninth grade and their aggressive (e.g., shouting; hitting) and supportive (e.g., listening; helping) behaviors towards a romantic partner in eleventh grade. Results: Results demonstrated that adolescents who were increasingly rejected by peers during middle school were more likely to behave aggressively towards their romantic partners in high school. Friendship quality at the beginning of high school moderated prospective links from rejection to support, such that escalating middle school peer rejection predicted less supportive romantic behaviors only among youth with low-quality friendships at ninth grade. These patterns were documented over and above the effects of sex, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and students' aggressive behavior at the beginning of middle school. Conclusions: Together, the findings suggest that 1) increasing peer rejection during middle school may spiral into later romantic relationship dysfunction and 2) supportive friendships across a critical school transition can interrupt links between peer and romantic problems.
... Given the results of balanced clustering and the data on perceived attributes derived in the sections above, we now seek to assess possible relationships between balance cluster (class) membership and perceived attributes related to helping roles. Finding a relationship would imply that the structure of the network is influenced by homophily based on helping behaviors [62,63]. Since each perceived attribute was coded as one of three mutually exclusive values -1 ("negative"), 0 ("inconclusive"), and 1 ("positive"), multinomial logistic regression analyses were appropriately employed [64] to estimate the probability of individuals in each cluster manifesting a perceived attribute (or lack thereof), comparing to a baseline reference. ...
Article
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This paper introduces a new method for acquiring and interpreting data on cognitive (or perceptual) networks. The proposed method involves the collection of multiple reports on randomly chosen pairs of individuals, and statistical means for aggregating these reports into data of conventional sociometric form. We refer to the method as “perceptual tomography” to emphasize that it aggregates multiple 3rd-party data on the perceived presence or absence of individual properties and pairwise relationships. Key features of the method include its low respondent burden, flexible interpretation, as well as its ability to find “robust intransitive” ties in the form of perceived non-edges. This latter feature, in turn, allows for the application of conventional balance clustering routines to perceptual tomography data. In what follows, we will describe both the method and an example of the implementation of the method from a recent community study among Alaska Natives. Interview data from 170 community residents is used to ascribe 4446 perceived relationships (2146 perceived edges, 2300 perceived non-edges) among 393 community members, and to assert the perceived presence (or absence) of 16 community-oriented helping behaviors to each individual in the community. Using balance theory-based partitioning of the perceptual network, we show that people in the community perceive distinct helping roles as structural associations among community members. The fact that role classes can be detected in network renderings of “tomographic” perceptual information lends support to the suggestion that this method is capable of producing meaningful new kinds of data about perceptual networks.
... Research regarding the relationship between depressive symptomatology and prosocial behaviour is mixed. Some studies have suggested that depressed adolescents are less prosocial than their peers (e.g., van Rijsewijk, Dijkstra, Pattiselanno, Steglich, & Veenstra, 2016). However, Wentzel, Filisetti, and Looney (2007) found that depressive affect was indirectly related to prosocial goal pursuit, via associations with perspective taking, empathy, and peer expectations. ...
... We did not assess changes in students' individual characteristics-PS role, sexual health knowledge, norms and tendency to talk with their friends about sexual-health related matters-at baseline and after the intervention delivery, but we focused, instead, on the second level group structure (FB group membership) that was only available for follow-up data. To control how students aligned their behaviours before and after the intervention, longitudinal statistical modelling techniques for network data are required like stochastic actor-oriented models (SOAM), as demonstrated in previous diffusion studies 54,55 . Future work that applies longitudinal methods for network data will result in a better understanding of mechanisms of change in line with the diffusion of innovation theory. ...
Article
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There is growing interest in social network-based programmes to improve health, but rigorous methods using Social Network research to evaluate the process of these interventions is less well developed. Using data from the “STis And Sexual Health” (STASH) feasibility trial of a school-based, peer-led intervention on sexual health prevention, we illustrate how network data analysis results can address key components of process evaluations for complex interventions—implementation, mechanisms of impacts, and context. STASH trained students as Peer Supporters (PS) to diffuse sexual health messages though face-to-face interactions and online Facebook (FB) groups. We applied a Multilevel Exponential Random Graph modelling approach to analyse the interdependence between offline friendship relationships and online FB ties and how these different relationships align. Our results suggest that the creation of online FB communities mirrored offline adolescent groups, demonstrating fidelity of intervention delivery. Data on informal friendship networks related to student’s individual characteristics (i.e., demographics, sexual health knowledge and adherence to norms, which were included for STASH), contributed to an understanding of the social relational ‘building’ mechanisms that sustain tie-formation. This knowledge could assist the selection of opinion leaders, improving identification of influential peers situated in optimal network positions. This work provides a novel contribution to understanding how to integrate network research with the process evaluation of a network intervention.
... The context-dependent nature of these findings highlights the need to study prosocial behavior from a more specific, multidimensional perspective in order to understand when and how prosocial behavior protects against adolescent internalizing problems and when it does not (Boulard, Quertemont, Gauthier, & Born, 2012;Huber, Plotner & Schmitz, 2019;Padilla-Walker Carlo et al., 2015). Similarly, the fact that adolescent internalizing problems also influence prosocial behavior (Jenkins & Fredrick, 2017;Setterfield, Walsh, Frey, & McCabe, 2016;Van Rijsewijk, Dijkstra, Pattiselanno, Steglich, & Veenstra, 2016) speaks to the need for longitudinal research that identifies direction of effects and the pathways through which prosocial behavior might influence internalizing problems. In this paper we address these issues first by examining prosocial behavior as a multidimensional construct, and second by examining different character strengths that are promoted by prosocial behavior as potential mediating factors. ...
Article
Introduction: Identifying protective factors against internalizing behaviors during adolescence is a public health priority, as rates of depression and anxiety are rising. As such, the purpose of this study was to examine whether prosocial engagement toward strangers and family members is protective against depressive and anxiety symptoms, and whether this link is mediated by character strengths (i.e., hope, persistence, gratitude, and self-esteem). Method: The sample consisted of 500 US adolescents (52% female; 66% European American; 33% from single-parent families). Data across three consecutive yearly waves were utilized in the current study (Mage Time 1 = 13.32). Results: Results of a longitudinal structural equation model revealed prosocial behavior toward strangers and family members were differentially related to character strengths, and that prosocial behavior toward strangers was indirectly associated with depressive symptoms via self-esteem. Conclusion: Taken together, findings extend the Developmental Cascades model and suggest that prosocial behavior and character strengths protect against depressive symptoms during the adolescent period. Findings are discussed in the context of relevant research and theory, and implications for future research and intervention programs are presented.
... Although romantic relationships appear with the arrival of adolescence, for other aspects, such as friendship, study, or leisure, both boys and girls still prefer to establish intragender relationships. Thus, for example, when seeking help for academic tasks, they tend to turn to peers of the same gender (Martin et al., 2014), and requests for help among girls are the most common (Amemiya & Wang, 2017;van Rijsewijk et al., 2016;Zander et al., 2019). The review of Mehta and Strough (2009) concluded that there are several causes for this segregation, such as behavioral compatibility, communication styles, or even institutional barriers that make it diffi cult for intergender relationships to be established. ...
Article
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Background: Segregation by gender when relating to peers is a well-known phenomenon, with important implications for the development of children and adolescents. The objective of this study was to deeply analyze the intra and intergender relationships that young people establish with their peers, as well as the link that these relationships have with social reputation. Method: 593 youngsters (50.1% girls) from 5th and 6th years of Primary Education, and 1st and 2nd years of Compulsory Secondary Education (CSE) completed a sociometric test and a social reputation test. Results: The main results indicate that girls had a higher number of positive reciprocities with other girls, whereas boys tended to have conflictive intragender relationships. We confirmed that the relationships between the different sociometric indices and social reputation were different in boys and girls. Thus, for example, aggression and sociability were differently related to the establishment of intergender relationships in boys and girls. Conclusions: The results related to previous research are discussed, and some possible educational implications are noted.
... Finally, future studies can gain more insights concerning the mechanisms behind influence effects, such as an explicit test on the BPFLE. More insights can be gained by classroom observations or by more explicitly asking students about who they ask for help with school work (helping networks; (Van Rijsewijk et al., 2016)). ...
... Prosocial behavior can be defined as voluntary behavior that is aimed to benefit others or to promote interpersonal harmony (Dovidio, Piliavin, Schroeder, & Penner, 2006;Erreygers, Vandebosch, Vranjes, Baillien, & De Witte, 2018;van Rijsewijk, Dijkstra, Pattiselanno, Steglich, & Veenstra, 2016), such as sharing resources, helping and comforting others. Prosocial behavior has been of interest to psychologists and thinkers for centuries. ...
Article
Recent studies have shown that moral perfectionism is related to moral judgments and moral values, which are predictors of prosocial behavior. However, few studies have focused on the relation between moral perfectionism and online prosocial behavior or the underlying mechanisms connecting the relation. The present study examined whether moral identity mediates the association between moral perfectionism and online prosocial behavior, and whether online interpersonal trust moderates the association between moral identity and online prosocial behavior. A sample of 790 university students (mean age = 20.10 years, SD = 1.64) from two universities participated in our study. Results showed that, after controlling for gender, Internet age, and daily online time use, moral identity partially mediated the association between moral perfectionism and online prosocial behavior. Moreover, online interpersonal trust moderated the association between moral identity and online prosocial behavior. Specifically, the association between moral identity and online prosocial behavior was significant for participants with high online interpersonal trust; however, it become nonsignificant for participants with low online interpersonal trust. Findings of the current study highlight the significance of identifying the mechanisms that moderate the mediating association between moral perfectionism and online prosocial behavior.
... Different youths may tend to engage in different forms of prosocial behaviors, and perhaps for different reasons. Greater exploration into the motivations of prosocial behaviors and its subtypes is needed to extend the current understanding of these behaviors (Carlo, Okun, Knight, & de Guzman, 2005;Eisenberg, Carlo, & Murphy, 1995;Paulus, 2018;van Rijsewijk, Dijkstra, Pattiselanno, Steglich, & Veenstra, 2016). Assessments of subtypes of prosocial behaviors are important in revealing individual differences in intrinsic and extrinsic motivations that global assessments may not recognize. ...
Thesis
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Prosocial behaviors, which are those intended to benefit others, are positive hallmarks of social proficiency in adolescence. However, there are numerous ways and contexts in which adolescents can provide help, such as those that are enacted in emotionally evocative situations (i.e., emotional prosociality) as opposed to those that are enacted in front of others (i.e., public prosociality). These different forms of prosocial behaviors may subserve different goals, and may be supported through different mechanisms. Social motivation and emotion regulation are two salient developmental processes that mature across adolescence, may support youths’ capacities to engage in different forms of prosocial behaviors. The present study explored the extent to which Mexican-origin adolescents’ cognitive reappraisal of emotion and need to belong predicted general and specific forms of prosocial behaviors concurrently and during emerging adulthood. Data were collected from 229 youth (Mage = 17.18 years, SD = 0.42, 48% female), 150 of whom were seen again two years later (Mage = 19.15 years, SD = 0.42, 50% female). At both age 17 and 19 years old, need to belong and cognitive reappraisal were significantly and positively associated with concurrent general prosociality. At age 19, greater need to belong was related to more public prosocial behaviors, and greater cognitive reappraisal was related to more emotional prosocial behaviors. Cognitive reappraisal moderated the associations of need to belong with general and emotional prosocial behavior concurrently at 19 years old, such that prosocial behaviors were lowest for individuals who had both lower need to belong and fewer cognitive reappraisal skills.
... In order to facilitate the use of this scale in combination with measures of online antisocial behavior, which routinely measure both perpetration and victimization, two parallel subscales are created, analogous to the antisocial behavior subscales of perpetration and victimization: one for performing and one for being the recipient of online prosocial behavior. The decision to also measure experiences of being a recipient of online prosocial behavior, which is not included in most measures of offline prosocial behavior, is motivated by research showing that receiving help can produce feelings of gratitude or indebtedness, which in their turn influence recipients' attitudes toward helpers, well-being, and relational closeness to the helper (Tsang, 2006;Weinstein, DeHaan, & Ryan, 2010). Furthermore, health communication research has shown that both giving and receiving online support are important in predicting individuals' well-being and health outcomes (Han et al., 2011;Namkoong et al., 2013). ...
Article
Research on adolescents’ media use has focused predominantly on its negative aspects (risks) and far less on its positive side (opportunities). This is reflected in the lack of validated instruments to assess adolescents’ online prosocial behavior. To address this issue, we developed the Online Prosocial Behavior Scale (OPBS) to assess adolescents’ involvement in online prosocial behavior. Two subscales (performing and receiving online prosocial behavior) were constructed and their factor structure was evaluated and confirmed through parallel analysis, exploratory factor analysis, and confirmatory factor analysis. The OPBS-subscales displayed good reliability and correlated positively with offline prosocial behavior and use of digital media, supporting the scale’s construct validity. Unexpectedly, the subscales also correlated positively with online antisocial behavior, which may be understood within the framework of the online disinhibition theory. The scale can be a useful tool for researchers and practitioners who need a global instrument to assess adolescents’ online prosocial behavior.
... We discuss research that examines these peer processes in relation to risk behavior, internalizing problems, and adaptive behaviors. (Sainio et al., 2011) or helping relationships (Van Rijsewijk et al., 2016), and examples of negative relationships are bully-victim relationships (Veenstra & Huitsing, 2021) and antipathies (Berger & Dijkstra, 2013;Rambaran et al., 2015). ...
Chapter
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Peers gain heightened significance during adolescence. Youth organize themselves into peer networks that reflect clusters of social relationships, and these social networks play a prominent role in youth's risk behaviors, internalizing symptoms, and adaptive behaviors. Remarkably, youth are often quite similar to their friends, which can be because of selection and influence processes. Whereas selection refers to the process where adolescents cluster with peers based on pre-existing similarities in behaviors, attitudes, or values, influence occurs when adolescents adjust their behaviors, attitudes, or values to those of their peers. Similarity-based selection may occur through preferential attraction, default selection, and repulsion, whereas influence toward similarity may occur through mutual encouragement, imitation, peer pressure, and conformity. Most evidence has been found for selection based on preferential attraction, and influence based on imitation and norms of popular peers. Individual, dyadic, and contextual factors contributing to variations between adolescents in openness to peer influence are discussed, as well as directions for further research.
... Conversely, students who identify upward with a target usually feel admiration for their role model (Buunk et al., 2005), which may facilitate positive social relationships (Zhang et al., 2018). Individuals who compare themselves downward with a target are more inclined to maintain a relatively positive self-evaluation by expressing their empathy and providing help to their classmates who are less able at learning, which may facilitate better social relationships (van Rijsewijk et al., 2016). In general, individuals' positive self-evaluation and interpersonal relationships could bring about positive feelings as well as corresponding outcomes. ...
Article
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Whether and how social comparison exacerbates or guards against depression in adolescents is an important issue. The purpose of this study was to examine the association of academic social comparison with adolescent depression and the mediating role of basic psychological needs satisfaction. The results derived from a sample of 1348 Chinese adolescents revealed that upward contrast was positively and indirectly associated with depression in that it negatively predicted satisfaction of the needs for competence and relatedness. Moreover, downward identification was positively and indirectly associated with depression in that it negatively predicted satisfaction of the need for competence. Finally, upward identification and downward contrast were negatively associated with depression indirectly in that they positively predicted satisfaction of the needs for competence and relatedness. These findings indicate the distinct associations of four types of social comparison with adolescent depression and the mediating role of basic psychological needs satisfaction in linking them. Implications and limitations were also discussed.
Article
Research has indicated that empathy and prosocial responding are associated with numerous emotional, psychological and social benefits. However, although adolescence is recognised as a key period for prosocial development, knowledge about the factors that facilitate the development of empathy and prosocial responding among adolescents is limited. A narrative systematic review was conducted of studies examining the significant social and psychological correlates of empathy and prosocial behaviour in adolescents. Empirical research papers focusing on typically developing adolescents, aged 13-18 years were identified and assessed for quality. Findings from a total of 168 papers were extracted and subjected to a narrative synthesis. Results indicated that a number of different contextual and psychological factors significantly influence the levels of other-oriented (empathy and prosocial) responding expressed by adolescents. However, findings indicate that differential relationships may be observed depending on how empathy and prosocial responding are operationalised. Overall, results from this review have important implications for future research and policy.
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Promoting prosocial behavior toward those who are dissimilar from oneself is an urgent contemporary issue. Because children spend much time in same-gender relationships, promoting other-gender prosociality could help them develop more inclusive relationships. Our goal in the present research was to better understand the extent to which elementary-school age children consider their own and the recipient’s gender in prosocial behavior. Participants included 515 3rd, 4th, and 5th graders (263, 51.1% boys, Mageinyears = 9.08, SD = 1.00) surveyed in the fall (T1) and spring (T2). We assessed children’s prosociality using peer nominations. We found that gender mattered: children showed an ingroup bias in prosociality favoring members of their own gender group. Having other-gender friendships positively predicted children’s prosocial behavior toward other-gender peers. Children’s felt similarity to other-gender peers was not directly, but indirectly, related to their prosocial behavior toward other-gender peers. Findings shed light on potential pathways to fostering school-age children’s gender-based prosociality.
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Introduction: The purpose of this study was to conduct a meta-analysis investigating the consistency and strength of relations between prosocial behavior, externalizing behaviors, and internalizing symptoms from preadolescence (i.e., 1-9 years) to late adolescence (i.e., 19-25 years). This study directly addresses inconsistencies and gaps in the available literature by providing the field with a detailed, synthesized description of these associations. Method: Fifty-five studies met the inclusion criteria, containing 742 independent correlational effect sizes. Statistical information and other study information was coded and entered into Comprehensive Meta-analysis III software, which was used to analyze results. Results: Results showed that higher levels of prosocial behavior were significantly associated with lower levels of externalizing behaviors, as expected. Additionally, more reported prosocial behavior was related to less reported internalizing symptoms. Follow-up analyses revealed specific relationships between prosocial behavior and aggression, deviant peer association, risky sexual behavior, substance use, delinquency/general externalizing behavior, depression, and general internalizing behaviors (i.e., emotional problems, negative emotionality). A variety of moderators of these associations were considered, including age and sex. Conclusions: Findings are discussed in the context of the broader research literature, weaknesses in the field are noted, and numerous meaningful directions for future research are presented.
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Peer relations during adolescence contribute significantly to the development of socio-cognitive skills and pro-sociality. The current study probed the characteristics of adolescent socio-cognitive processing through a card game where they earn money for self and friend. We investigated the choice preference and temporal dynamics of information processing by measuring ERP responses to wins or losses (valence) directed towards self and friend (recipient). Choice data showed that despite adults and adolescents earning equivalent amounts across recipients combined, adults won significantly more for self than friend; no such difference was found in adolescents. The ERPs in response to choice outcomes showed that the valence information was processed early (at P2) in adults, while it was processed later (at P3) in adolescents. Furthermore, a strong effect of recipient was present in adults later in the time course (at P3), while such an effect was weak in adolescents; if any, adolescents showed sensitivity to recipient information earlier at P2. These ERP data suggest a relatively equal allocation of the P3-mediated attentional process to both self and friend’s outcomes in adolescents, which parallels the choice behavior. Collectively our results characterize adolescent pro-sociality towards friends, reflecting the importance of peer relationship during this unique developmental period.
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Communities of place, practice, and interest have historically been impacted by mind and mood-altering substances for quite some time. The development and strength of informal social bonds are important in determining an individual’s behavior, and can explain changes in criminal behavior over time. This can impact the social fabric of community, as well as creating the possibility of a community of practice (COP) for rehabilitation. Blending the concepts of emotional intelligence, drumming, and community development, this study examines a community of practice in which individuals with a history of drug use engage in a collective learning process utilizing drumming as the context. The purpose was to explore how a community of practice could be developed through a rehabilitation group program. Results indicated themes of solidarity, development of agency, enhanced communication skills, and the meaning of community being particularly salient throughout the intervention. Future directions for research and practical applications are also presented.
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This paper has three objectives, after proposing an initial model of classroom coliving climate: to develop two measures to test its validity, to test their usefulness for analyzing differences between classrooms, and to do it in two different countries. The initial model includes seven interaction patterns that, if present, favor the students’ social inclusion. The first questionnaire assesses the classroom coliving climate perceived by the student, and the second, the degree in which the student interacts according to the model. Participants were 2581 Secondary-School students, 2038 from Costa Rica and 543 from Spain. To test model-fit, confirmatory factor analyses, cross validation and multi-group analyses were carried out. Correlation and regression analyses were also carried out to determine discriminant and concurrent validity using as criteria a measure of social integration. ANOVA analyses were used to test for differences between classrooms (η2 between .19 and .28). Results, similar in both countries, showed that both questionnaires had adequate structural validity (CFI between .94 and .97), and discriminant and concurrent validity (r predictors-criterion between .37 and .44; p < .0001). Due to the nature of their content, the questionnaires can be used for planning interventions aimed at improving coliving, and for assessing their effectiveness.
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Trauma research has traditionally focused on altered emotion regulation and its role in psychopathology, whereas mechanisms of social behavior remain comparatively unexplored, particularly among adolescents. It has been previously reported that adolescents with histories of interpersonal violence (IV) demonstrate disrupted social learning, and the degree to which they are impaired during social interactions requiring trustful behaviors may be associated with their levels of anxiety. In the present study, 52 adolescent females ( n = 26 control; n = 26 IV-exposed) between ages of 11 and 17 completed a multi-round adaptation of the Trust Game in which they interacted with a confederate peer run by a computer program, alternating between the roles of investor and investee. The task was designed to operationalize the social behaviors of trust and trust reciprocity, where the magnitude of the participants’ monetary investment in the confederate during the investor role represented trust while the proportion of investment returned to the confederate in the investee role represented trust reciprocity. IV-exposed and control participants did not differ in trust (i.e., as investors); however, IV-exposed participants without anxiety diagnoses demonstrated lower trust than those with anxiety diagnoses. For trust reciprocity (i.e., as investees), there were again no differences between IV-exposed participants and controls; however, IV-exposed participants with anxiety diagnoses had increased trust reciprocity compared with both other groups. Similarly, caregiver-reported anxiety symptoms were associated with trust reciprocity behaviors among the IV-exposed adolescents. Findings suggest that IV exposure and associated anxiety impacts adolescents’ trust behaviors, demonstrating potential mechanisms for maladaptive social behavior among trauma-exposed youth.
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This study investigates the prospective and reciprocal associations between positive peer treatment and psychosocial (popularity, preference, psychological distress) and behavioral (prosocial behavior) outcomes during early adolescence. Participants were 270 young adolescents (52% boys; Mage = 11.84 years) who completed peer nomination and self‐report measures as part of a 7‐month longitudinal study (Wave 1; Feb. Grade 6; Wave 2: May, Grade 6; Wave 3: Sept., Grade 7). Cross‐lagged autoregressive path models revealed reciprocal associations between positive peer treatment and prosocial behavior, such that Wave 1 positive peer treatment predicted increases in Wave 2 prosocial behavior and vice versa. Findings are novel, highlight the importance of considering positive peer treatment during adolescence, and set the stage for future work in this area.
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INTRODUCTION. A systematic meta-analysis was conducted of the association between preference and popularity across adolescence. The role of development, sex, and region of the world were examined. METHOD. The analysis was conducted on 134 samples including 135,633 participants. The samples were divided by age (upper grades primary school, k = 40; lower grades secondary school, k =72; upper grades secondary school, k = 22) and region (North-America, k = 53; Europe, k = 66; China, k = 10). RESULTS. Across all samples, a moderate positive association between preference and popularity was found (r = .45). The association was significantly weaker in the upper grades of secondary school (r =.37) than in the lower grades of secondary school (r = .48) or the upper grades of primary school (r = .46). The association was weaker for girls (r = .26) than for boys (r = .38) in the upper grades of secondary school. The association was weaker in European samples (r =.40) than in North-America (r = .49) and China (r = .59). CONCLUSIONS. The results confirmed that preference and popularity are related but distinct dimensions of adolescent peer status. The association differed significantly by age, sex, and region of the world. Further research should examine additional factors that explain the variability in the association between preference and popularity.
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Introduction: A systematic meta-analysis was conducted of the association between preference and popularity across childhood and adolescence. The role of development, sex, and region of the world were examined. Method: The analysis was conducted on 135 samples including 136,014 participants. The samples were divided by age (upper grades primary school, k = 41; lower grades secondary school, k = 72; upper grades secondary school, k = 22) and region (North America, k = 54; Europe, k = 66; China, k = 10). Results: Across all samples, a moderate positive association between preference and popularity was found (r = 0.45). The association was significantly weaker in the upper grades of secondary school (r = 0.37) than in the lower grades of secondary school (r = 0.47) or the upper grades of primary school (r = 0.47). The association was weaker for girls (r = 0.26) than for boys (r = 0.38) in the upper grades of secondary school. The association was weaker in European samples (r = 0.41) than in those from North America (r = 0.50) and China (r = 0.57). Conclusions: The results confirmed that preference and popularity are related but distinct dimensions of adolescent peer status. The association differed significantly by age, sex, and region of the world. Further research should examine additional factors that explain the variability in the association between preference and popularity.
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Peer sexual violence is a significant social problem that affects adolescents and can lead to negative mental health and developmental consequences. Peers are a significant source of influence for adolescent behavior. For example, recent studies show training teens to be bystanders can be an effective prevention strategy to reduce peer violence and harassment. Peers can also promote risky behaviors including substance use and violence. The current study examined how sexual violence-specific risk and protective attitudes (e.g., denial of peer sexual violence and positive peer prevention norms) and behaviors (alcohol use and bystander actions to prevent peer sexual violence) clustered within peer networks cross-sectionally and over time. Participants were 1,499 7th−10th graders who took surveys during an academic year and who reported having opportunity to take action as bystanders to peer sexual violence. Participants took surveys 6 months apart online in schools. Questions included nomination of best friends to capture information about peer networks. Social network analyses indicated that there was weak but significant clustering of positive prevention attitudes such as bystander denial and marginal clustering on reactive bystander behaviors to address sexual assault. For comparison, alcohol use and academic grades were analyzed and found to also cluster in networks in these data. These findings suggest that for early adolescents, peer bystander training may be influential for some key bystander attitudes and reactive sexual violence prevention behaviors as individual behaviors are not independent of those of their friends.
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Perceptions of kindness at schools has been found to be associated with increased well-being and academic outcomes in younger adolescents like primary and secondary school students. However, no study has been carried out to examine the link of this organizational-level kindness to well-being in older adolescents. This research explores the association of university kindness with life satisfaction when controlling for auto-regressor effects, extraversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism in selected Chinese adolescents. Cross-lagged panel structural equation modeling showed that Time 1 university kindness was linked to increased Time 2 life satisfaction and Time 3 life satisfaction. There was also an evidence of reciprocal association as earlier levels of life satisfaction (i.e., Time 1 life satisfaction and Time 2 life satisfaction) were consistently linked to subsequent increases in university kindness. This research underscores the mental health benefits associated with perceptions of kindness in university contexts above and beyond the effects of Big Five personality factors.
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Despite growing research on the favorable outcomes of Facebook intensive use, there is little evidence about the role of Facebook intensive use in shaping users' online pro-social behaviors. Building on the Uses and Gratification Theory, we propose a positive relationship between Facebook intensive use and users' online pro-social behaviors. We also propose self-transcendence as a relevant mediator and online relationship commitment as an important boundary condition. Results based on time-lagged data from 467 (three waves, two months apart) students at a large public sector university and analyzed using structural equation modeling in Mplus (8.5) reveal a positive relationship between Facebook intensive use and online pro-social behaviors, both directly and indirectly, via self-transcendence. Moreover, online relationship commitment moderates the direct link between Facebook intensive use and self-transcendence and the indirect relationship between Facebook intensive use and online pro-social behavior. Practical implications can help promote the meaningful use of Facebook.
Chapter
This chapter outlines several philosophical approaches to morality and discusses research relevant for considering school bullying as a moral issue. Children learn about morality from others, in terms of both justice and caring. Moral emotions such as empathy help to regulate behaviour and drive prosocial actions, but breaking a moral code may lead to moral disengagement. Competitiveness can reduce prosociality, and Eastern philosophy that focuses on the needs of the other is now being advocated in the increasingly individualist West. Witnesses of victimisation often face moral dilemmas about intervening. The morality of bullying involves complex social and cognitive processes that unfold over time in a dynamic manner in relation to context. There is some evidence that it is possible to promote empathy and prosociality, though the relationship with bullying is not straightforward.
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Objectives One explanation for the increase in delinquency in adolescence is that young people are trapped in the so-called maturity gap: the discrepancy between biological and social maturation, which motivates them to engage in delinquency as a temporary means to bridge this gap by emphasizing their maturity. In the current study, we investigated to what extent the discrepancy between pubertal status (i.e., biological maturation) and autonomy in decision making (i.e., social maturation) is related to conflict with parents, which in turn predicts increasing levels of delinquency as well as substance use. Methods Hypotheses were tested by means of path models in a longitudinal sample of adolescent boys and girls ( N = 1,844; M age 13.02) from the Social Network Analyses of Risk behaviors in Early adolescence (SNARE) study using a one-year time interval. Results Results indicate that biological maturation in interaction with social maturation predict conflict with parents, which in turn was related to higher levels of delinquency and substance use over time. No gender differences were found. Conclusions These findings reveal that conflict with parents is an important mechanism, linking the interplay of biological and social maturation with delinquency and substance use in early adolescence for boys and girls.
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Researchers have proposed different accounts of the development of prosocial behavior in children. Some have argued that behaviors like helping and sharing must be learned and reinforced; others propose that children have an initially indiscriminate prosocial drive that declines and becomes more selective with age; and yet others contend that even children's earliest prosocial behaviors share some strategic motivations with the prosociality of adults (e.g., reputation enhancement, social affiliation). We review empirical and observational research on children's helping and sharing behaviors in the first 5 years of life, focusing on factors that have been found to influence these behaviors and on what these findings suggest about children's prosocial motivations. We use the adult prosociality literature to highlight parallels and gaps in the literature on the development of prosocial behavior. We address how the evidence reviewed bears on central questions in the developmental psychology literature and propose that children's prosocial behaviors may be driven by multiple motivations not easily captured by the idea of intrinsic or extrinsic motivation and may be selective quite early in life. © The Author(s) 2015.
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Three relations between elementary school children were investigated: networks of general dislike and bullying were related to networks of general like. These were modeled using multivariate cross-sectional (statistical) network models. Exponential random graph models for a sample of 18 classrooms, numbering 393 students, were summarized using meta-analyses. Results showed (balanced) network structures with positive ties between those who were structurally equivalent in the negative network. Moreover, essential structural parameters for the univariate network structure of positive (general like) and negative (general dislike and bullying) tie networks were identified. Different structures emerged in positive and negative networks. The results provide a starting point for further theoretical and (multiplex) empirical research about negative ties and their interplay with positive ties.
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Prosocial behavior requires expenditure of personal resources for the benefit of others, a fact that creates a "problem" when considering the evolution of prosociality. Models that address this problem have been developed, with emphasis typically placed on reciprocity. One model considers the advantages of being selective in terms of one's allocation of prosocial behavior so as to improve the chance that one will be benefitted in return. In this review paper, we first summarize this "partner choice" model and then focus on prosocial development in the preschool years, where we make the case for selective partner choice in early instances of human prosocial behavior.
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This study investigated social support networks (father, mother, classmates, and teachers) in a sample of 447 adolescents aged between 12 and 18 years. Using a cross-sectional design, the main aim was to analyze differences in the sources of family and school support during adolescence based on a multidimensional perspective, focusing on the frequency of and satisfaction with emotional, instrumental, and informational support provided by the sources. The results suggest that the mother is the main provider of support. Parents mainly provide emotional and instrumental support, classmates provide informational and emotional support, and teachers provide informational support. Informational support was provided significantly more frequently than any other type and satisfaction with informational support was greater. There was a trend for parental support to decrease as support from classmates increased. We also found gender differences; compared with boys, girls received less support from the father and more support from classmates.
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Researchers have become increasingly interested in disentangling selection and influence processes. This literature review provides context for the special issue on network–behavior dynamics. It brings together important conceptual, methodological, and empirical contributions focusing on longitudinal social network modeling. First, an overview of mechanisms underlying selection and influence is given. After a description of the shortcomings of previous studies in this area, the stochastic actor‐based model is sketched; this is used in this special issue to examine network–behavior dynamics. The preconditions for such analyses are discussed, as are common model specification issues. Next, recent empirical advances in research on adolescence are discussed, focusing on new insights into moderating effects, initiation of behaviors, time heterogeneity, mediation effects, and negative ties.
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This study investigated individual differences in sixth-grade students (N = 181; 47% girls, ethnically diverse) use of friends as a coping resource when dealing with a social stressor with another peer at school. Confirmatory factor analysis supported the hypothesized three factor structure of coping with friends: mastery, avoidance, and nonchalance. Controlling for levels of social self-efficacy, social goal orientations were linked to different types of coping. Specifically, a social development goal was positively associated with mastery coping.A social demonstration-avoid goal was positively associated with avoidance coping.A social demonstration-approach goal was positively associated with nonchalance coping. In turn, individual differences in cop- ing were associated with subsequent social adjustment (measured 3 months later). Specifically, mastery coping was associated with best friendship qual- ity, avoidance coping was associated with anxious solitude, and nonchalance coping was associated with overt aggression.
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The complex interplay between bullying/victimization and defending was examined using a longitudinal social network approach (stochastic actor-based models). The (co)evolution of these relations within three elementary schools (Grades 2-5 at Time 1, ages 8-11, N = 354 children) was investigated across three time points within a year. Most bullies and defenders were in the same grade as the victims, although a substantial number of bullies and defenders were in other grades (most often one grade higher). Defenders were usually of the same gender as the victims, whereas most bullies were boys, with boys bullying both boys and girls. In line with goal-framing theory, multiplex network analyses provided evidence for the social support hypothesis (victims with the same bullies defended each other over time) as well as the retaliation hypothesis (defenders run the risk of becoming victimized by the bullies of the victims they defend). In addition, the analysis revealed that bullies with the same victims defended each other over time and that defenders of bullies initiated harassment of those bullies' victims. This study can be seen as a starting point in unraveling the relationship dynamics among bullying, victimization, and defending networks in schools.
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Our knowledge on adolescents' bullying behavior has rapidly increased over the past decade and it is widely recognized that bullying is a group process and, consequently, context-dependent. Only since recently, though, researchers have had access to statistical programs to study these group processes appropriately. The current 1-year longitudinal study examined the interplay between adolescents' bullying and likeability from a social network perspective. Data came from the evaluation of the Finnish KiVa antibullying program, consisting of students in grades 7-9 (N = 9,183, M age at wave 1 = 13.96 years; 49.2 % boys; M classroom size = 19.47) from 37 intervention and 30 control schools. Perceived popularity, gender, and structural network effects were additionally controlled. Longitudinal social network analysis with SIENA revealed that, overall, the higher the students' level of bullying, the less they were liked by their peers. Second, students liked peers with similar levels of bullying and this selection-similarity effect was stronger at low levels of bullying. This selection effect held after controlling for selection-similarity in perceived popularity and gender. Third, students were likely to increase in bullying when they liked peers high on bullying and to decrease in bullying when they liked peers low on bullying. Again, this influence effect held after controlling for the effects of perceived popularity and gender on changes in bullying behavior. No significant differences between control and intervention schools appeared in the effects. The results are discussed in light of their theoretical and methodological implications.
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In this study we describe the PEERS Measure, a computerized assessment instrument that takes an innovative approach to using the peer-nomination method to identify bullying among elementary school children in Grades 1-2. Its psychometric characteristics were measured in 4,017 children from 190 school classes. The intercorrelations between the peer-nomination scores showed congruence of the data (e.g., bullying and peer rejection r = .51, defending and prosocial behavior r = .71). Boys were more involved in bullying, more rejected, and less prosocial. As reports by different informants were used, correlations of peer-reported bullying with aggressive behavior reported by a child him- or herself (r = .37) or by a teacher (r = .42) were in the expected range. Good test-retest reliability as measured by the intraclass correlations (average: .72) further suggests that the instrument has good psychometric properties. In line with earlier research, lower maternal educational levels, younger maternal age, and lower household income were related to more bullying and victimization. Overall, our findings show that the instrument provides a reliable measure of peer relations, thus making the use of peer nominations feasible in early elementary school. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).
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This study examined adolescent friendship selection and social influence with regard to agentic (status and power) and communal (closeness and affiliation) goals at three waves during middle school (N = 504; 12–14 years; 53% boys). Meta-level findings across four friendship networks indicated social influence for both goal orientations: friends grew more similar to each other in agentic as well as communal goals. Moreover, in one friendship network, similarity in agentic goals predicted friendship deselection or termination of these relationships over time. Theoretical and practical implications for the study of adolescent social goals and friendships are discussed.
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Studies of peer effects in educational settings confront two main problems. The first is the presence of endogenous sorting which confounds the effects of social influence and social selection on individual attainment. The second is how to account for the local network dependencies through which peer effects influence individual behavior. We empirically address these problems using longitudinal data on academic performance, friendship, and advice seeking relations among students in a full-time graduate academic program. We specify stochastic agent-based models that permit estimation of the interdependent contribution of social selection and social influence to individual performance. We report evidence of peer effects. Students tend to assimilate the average performance of their friends and of their advisors. At the same time, students attaining similar levels of academic performance are more likely to develop friendship and advice ties. Together, these results imply that processes of social influence and social selection are sub-components of a more general a co-evolutionary process linking network structure and individual behavior. We discuss possible points of contact between our findings and current research in the economics and sociology of education.
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Abstract A multilevel approach is proposed to the study of the evolution of multiple networks. In this approach, the basic evolution process is assumed to be the same, while parameter values may dier between different networks. For the network evolution process, stochastic actororiented models are used, of which the parameters are estimated by Markov chain Monte Carlo methods. This is applied to the study of eects,of delinquent behavior on friendship formation, a question of long standing in criminology. The evolution of friendship is studied empirically in 19 school classes. It is concluded that there is evidence for an eect,of similarity in delinquent behavior on friendship evolution. Similarity of the degree of delinquent behavior has a positive eect,on tie formation but also on tie dissolution. The last result seems to contradict current criminological theories, and deserves furter study.
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We divided children (N = 719, grades 3–6) into five control types based on the degree to which they reported employing prosocial (indirect, cooperative) and coercive (direct, hostile) strategies of control (prosocial controllers, coercive controllers, bistrategic controllers, noncontrollers, and typicals). We tested for differences across the five types on personal characteristics, friendship motivations, wellbeing, and social integration, expecting specific patterns according to whether control is wielded, and whether coercive or prosocial behaviour (or both) is employed. Prosocial controllers revealed positive characteristics (e.g., social skills, agreeableness), intrinsic friendship motivations, and positive wellbeing. In contrast, coercive controllers revealed negative characteristics (e.g., hostility), extrinsic friendship motivations, and ill-being. Bistrategic controllers, as expected, reported the highest control, and revealed characteristics associated with both prosocial and coercive orientations. Noncontrollers, in contrast, did not report having these characteristics and felt the least effective in the peer group. Our evolutionary perspective offers unique predictions of how prosocial and coercive children are similar in terms of their instrumental goals and the consequences of using both strategies or neither.
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Sociometric popularity is computed based on peer liking and dislike. The relation between sociometric popularity and perceived popularity, based on peer identification of school associates considered popular, was investigated in a sample of 727 middle school students (7th and 8th grades). Most sociometrically popular students were not high on perceived popularity. Most students high on perceived popularity were not sociometrically popular Perceived popularity was correlated more highly with a measure of dominance than was sociometric popularity. Sociometrically popular students who were not high on perceived popularity were characterized by peers as kind and trustworthy but not as dominant, aggressive, or stuck-up. Students who were high on perceived popularity but not sociometrically popular were characterized as dominant, aggressive, and stuck-up but not as kind and trustworthy. Sociometrically popular students who also were high on perceived popularity were characterized as kind, trustworthy, and dominant but not as aggressive or as stuck-up.
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The goal of this study was to examine whether popularity and likability were related to associating with popular peers in adolescence. Participants were 3,312 adolescents (M age=13.60 years) from 172 classrooms in 32 schools. Four types of peer affiliations of the participants with the popular peers in their classrooms were distinguished: “best friends,”“respected,”“wannabes,” and “unrelated.” Two types of benefits of affiliating with high-status peers were identified: achieving high status or popularity for oneself and becoming liked by others. The results showed that popularity was associated with being closely affiliated with popular peers, whereas likability was more strongly predicted by a more distant relation with popular peers.
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A class of models is proposed for longitudinal network data. These models are along the lines of methodological individualism: actors use heuristics to try to achieve their individual goals, subject to constraints. The current network structure is among these constraints. The models are continuous time Markov chain models that can be implemented as simulation models. They incorporate random change in addition to the purposeful change that follows from the actors’ pursuit of their goals, and include parameters that must be estimated from observed data. Statistical methods are proposed for estimating and testing these models. These methods can also be used for parameter estimation for other simulation models. The statistical procedures are based on the method of moments, and use computer simulation to estimate the theoretical moments. The Robbins‐Monro process is used to deal with the stochastic nature of the estimated theoretical moments. An example is given for Newcomb's fraternity data, using a model that expresses reciprocity and balance.
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This study endeavors to test whether adolescents’ expectations of potential helpers’ nurturance and expertise are associated with adolescent selection of an informal helpgiver. A sample of 89 adolescents in Grades 8 and 11 responded to assessments of help seeking within four different scenarios. Regression analyses revealed that expectations of expertise are important in selecting a mother or father as a potential help giver, whereas expectations of nurturance are influential in choosing a friend as a help giver. Age was not found to modify the relationship between expectations and selection of a helper, and gender modified the relationship in only one scenario. Results are discussed in terms of adolescent help seeking as having a dual function, that of information seeking and relationship development.
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Presents a comprehensive review of research and theory on reactions to help, organized in terms of 4 conceptual orientations (equity, attribution, reactance, and threat to self-esteem). For each orientation, the basic assumptions and predictions are discussed, supportive and nonsupportive data are reviewed, and an overall appraisal is offered. Threat to self-esteem is proposed as an organizing construct for research on reactions to help, and a model based on this construct is presented. It is argued that a formalized threat-to-self-esteem model is more comprehensive and parsimonious for predicting reactions to help than are equity, attribution, or reactance models. (111 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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The distinction between friendship adjustment and acceptance by the peer group was examined. Third- through 5th-grade children ( N = 881) completed sociometric measures of acceptance and friendship, a measure of loneliness, a questionnaire on the features of their very best friendships, and a measure of their friendship satisfaction. Results indicated that many low-accepted children had best friends and were satisfied with these friendships. However, these children's friendships were lower than those of other children on most dimensions of quality. Having a friend, friendship quality, and group acceptance made separate contributions to the prediction of loneliness. Results indicate the utility of the new friendship quality measure and the value of distinguishing children's friendship adjustment from their general peer acceptance. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Conference Paper
This study examined motivation (prosocial goals), individual characteristics (sex, ethnicity, and grade), and friendship characteristics (affective quality, interaction frequency, and friendship stability) in relation to middle adolescents' prosocial behavior over time. Ninth- and 10th-grade students (N = 208) attending a suburban, mid-Atlantic public high school and having at least 1 reciprocated friendship were followed for 1 year. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that a friend's behavior is related to an individual's prosocial goal pursuit, which in turn, is related to an individual's prosocial behavior. Further, the affective quality of a friendship and the frequency with which friends interact moderate relations of a friend's prosocial behavior to an individual's prosocial goal pursuit.
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Do parents have any important long-term effects on the development of their child's personality? This article examines the evidence and concludes that the answer is no. A new theory of development is proposed: that socialization is context-specific and that outside-the-home socialization takes place in the peer groups of childhood and adolescence. Intra- and intergroup processes, not dyadic relationships, are responsible for the transmission of culture and for environmental modification of children's personality characteristics. The universality of children's groups explains why development is not derailed by the wide variations in parental behavior found within and between societies.
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Using data from 2413 Dutch first-year secondary school students (M age=13.27, SD age=0.51, 49.0% boys), this study investigated as to what extent students who according to their self-reports had not been victimized (referred to as reporters) gave victimization nominations to classmates who according to their self-reports had been victimized (referred to as receivers). Using a dyadic approach, characteristics of the reporter-receiver dyad (i.e., gender similarity) and of the reporter (i.e., reporters' behavior during bullying episodes) that were possibly associated with reporter-receiver agreement were investigated. Descriptive analyses suggested that numerous students who were self-reported victims were not perceived as victimized by their non-victimized classmates. Three-level logistic regression models (reporter-receiver dyads nested in reporters within classrooms) demonstrated greater reporter-receiver agreement in same-gender dyads, especially when the reporter and the receiver were boys. Furthermore, reporters who behaved as outsiders during bullying episodes (i.e., reporters who actively shied away from the bullying) were less likely to agree on the receiver's self-reported victimization, and in contrast, reporters who behaved as defenders (i.e., reporters who helped and supported victims) were more likely to agree on the victimization. Moreover, the results demonstrated that reporters gave fewer victimization nominations to receivers who reported they had been victimized sometimes than to receivers who reported they had been victimized often/very often. Finally, this study suggested that reporter-receiver agreement may not only depend on characteristics of the reporter-receiver dyad and of the reporter, but on classroom characteristics as well (e.g., the number of students in the classroom). Copyright © 2015 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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• The epidemiology and correlates of depressive mood were measured in a representative sample of public high school students in New York State and a subsample matched to their parents. Depressive mood was measured by a self-reported scale validated in a clinical sample. Adol