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Fear of missing out, need for touch, anxiety and depression are related to problematic smartphone use

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... Thus, it is likely that the adolescent's extensive social media activity via smartphone might trigger more stressful feelings of not being connected often enough, as well as the need to check up on others more frequently via social media (Buglass et al., 2017;Elhai et al., 2018). Previous research has shown that greater FoMO is related to higher engagement with social media use (Blackwell et al., 2017;Franchina, Vanden Abeele, Van Rooij, Lo Coco, & De Marez, 2018) and to PSU (Abel, Buff, & Burr, 2016;Elhai, Levine, Dvorak, & Hall, 2016;Elhai, Yang, Fang, Bai, & Hall, 2020;Kuss et al., 2018). It is also worth noting that FOMO is still being widely investigated, and there is an ongoing debate regarding its characteristics. ...
... Although there have been several studies investigating the link between FoMO and PSU, the direction of this association is still unclear, because the vast majority of existing research on this topic is crosssectional. A large body of research suggested that FoMO can result in PSU (Chotpitayasunondh & Douglas, 2016;Elhai et al., 2016Elhai et al., , 2018, rather than the other way around. Thus, the unmet social relatedness needs that are entailed in FOMO (Przybylski et al., 2013) could drive one towards greater engagement with a PSU. ...
... The aim of the current study is to build upon prior cross-sectional findings by examining cross-lagged relationships between FoMO and PSU with a two-wave panel model. The first hypothesis purported to show that the levels of FoMO and PSU at Time 0 would be linked to the same factors at Time 1. Secondly, we hypothesized that FoMO would be positively related to PSU in both waves, in line with prior research showing moderate to great associations between FoMO and PSU (e.g., Chotpitayasunondh & Douglas, 2016;Elhai et al., 2016Elhai et al., , 2018Wolniewicz et al., 2018). The third research question explored the longitudinal direction of the association between FoMO and PSU, given that both their prospective associations could be supported. ...
Article
A two-wave cross-lagged panel design was tested with 242 adolescents. • FoMO and problematic smartphone use (PSU) were related at cross-sectional level. • No cross-lagged associations between FoMO and PSU were longitudinally supported. A B S T R A C T Background: In recent years, the Fear of Missing Out (FoMO) construct has been the object of growing attention in digital technology research with previous studies finding support for the relationship between FoMO and problematic smartphone use (PSU) among adolescents and young adults. However, no previous studies clarified the causal link between FoMO and PSU using a longitudinal design. Methods: An auto-regressive, cross-lagged panel design was tested by using a longitudinal dataset with two waves of data collection (T0 and T1, one year apart). Participants included two hundred and forty-two adolescents (109 males and 133 females), with a mean age of 14.16 years, who filled out the Fear of Missing Out scale (FoMOs) and the Smartphone Addiction Scale (SAS). Moreover, participants filled out the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS), at the first time-point of data collection. Results: The findings of the study show that FoMO (both FoMO-Fear and FoMO-Control subscales) and PSU are positively related at both time-points (i.e. at a cross-sectional level). However no cross-lagged associations between them were longitudinally supported. Females and older adolescents show higher FoMO-Fear at T1. Conclusions: The findings of the present study suggest caution when causal links between FoMO and PSU are inferred.
... According to previous studies, FoMO is related to a series of problematic behaviors and mental health problems. For instance, higher FoMO is associated with higher distracted learning engagement (Przybylski et al., 2013;Riordan et al., 2020), poor life satisfaction (Przybylski et al., 2013), problematic mobile phone use, and social networking site addiction (Riordan et al., 2020;Zhang et al., 2021;Elhai et al., 2016;Wolniewicz et al., 2018;Yin et al., 2019;Fang et al., 2020). ...
... Existing studies on the relationship between personality traits, problematic mobile phone use (and/or other similar scales), unsafe device use behavior in traffic activities, and FoMO (Przybylski et al., 2013;Jiang et al., 2017;Nguyen-Phuoc et al., 2020b;Appel et al., 2019;Blackwell et al., 2017;Elhai et al., 2016;Kita and Luria, 2018;Sindermann et al., 2021), the following hypotheses were proposed in this study: ...
... Existing studies provide support for this point of view. FoMO is positively associated with social media engagement and mobile phone addiction (Przybylski et al., 2013;Elhai et al., 2016;Wolniewicz et al., 2018;Yin et al., 2019;Riordan et al., 2020;Fang et al., 2020;Zhang et al., 2021). Mobile phone addiction (and/or similar scales, such as MPI) has been found to be associated with mobile phone use among road users (Lennon et al., 2017;Jiang et al., 2017;Oviedo-Trespalacios et al., 2019;Kita and Luria, 2018). ...
Article
Pedestrians may be the most vulnerable group among road users, and mobile phone use while crossing the street is ubiquitous worldwide in this information era. However, previous studies have found that such distracting behaviors may increase the risk of injury and death. The present study primarily aimed to explore the effect of reinforcement sensitivity theory components (i.e., Behavioral Inhibition System (BIS), Behavioral Approach System (BAS)), risk perception, attitudes towards red light running, and fear of missing out (FoMO) on mobile phone use while crossing the street among pedestrians. Risk perception was measured in three ways (i.e., assessing the probability of a negative outcome (RP-Pro), judging the severity of the consequence (RP-Se), and evaluating the general riskiness of the behavior (RP-Ri)). An online questionnaire survey was conducted, and only valid responses (N = 425) were used for subsequent data analyses. The results indicated significant differences in the responses across the risk perception questions with different focuses. Participants who reported engaging in more distracted street-crossing (i.e., high-risk takers) perceived a significantly lower risk, and this difference did not depend on the focus of risk perception. Three path analysis models with differential risk perception constructs (RP-Pro, RP-Se, and RP-Ri) were developed to examine the relationship between risk perception and distracted street-crossing. The results suggest that the relationship between these two variables does not depend on the focus of the risk perception questions. Moreover, FoMO was a predictor of mobile phone use while crossing the street, while attitudes had both direct and indirect effects on behavior. BIS and BAS had the lowest total effect on mobile phone use among pedestrians. In particular, a direct association between BAS and distracted street-crossing was found only in the model in which risk perception was measured by judging the severity of crashes caused by mobile phone use distraction. This study may be meaningful for understanding the associations between psychological factors and mobile phone use among pedestrians. The implications of the findings for the development of safety interventions are discussed in this study.
... In addition, a previous study showed that positive metacognition appears to mediate the relationship between fear of missing out and problematic social media use (25). Similarly, this result supports previous research that fear of missing out is related to PSU and social media use (57,58). This may be due to the fear of missing out causing people to frequently keep in touch with others through social networks (57). ...
... Similarly, this result supports previous research that fear of missing out is related to PSU and social media use (57,58). This may be due to the fear of missing out causing people to frequently keep in touch with others through social networks (57). Consistent with previous research results, smartphone addiction caused by frequent use of smartphones can distract us (59). ...
Article
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AimThe objective of this study was to evaluate the Chinese version of the Smartphone Distraction Scale (C-SDS), which is an easy-to-use tool for screening the risk of smartphone distraction in Chinese college students.Methods The C-SDS, Smartphone Addiction Scale - Short Version (SAS-SV), Fear of Missing Out scale (FoMO) and Metacognition about Smartphone Use Questionnaire (MSUQ) were used in a sample of 1,002 Chinese college students to test smartphone distraction and its influencing factors. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) were performed to test measurement properties and factor structures of the C-SDS. Multi-variable linear regressions examined the relationships of sex, age, education level, the purpose of using a smartphone, usage of smartphone (hours per day), fear of missing out, smartphone addiction and positive and negative metacognitions about smartphone use with the C-SDS.ResultsThe EFA showed a 3-factor structure, which consisted of attention impulsiveness, multitasking and emotion regulation. The CFA showed that the 3-factor demonstrated an overall better model fit (RMSEA = 0.07, SRMR = 0.05, CFI = 0.94, TLI = 0.93). The C-SDS showed internal consistency (Cronbach’s α = 0.88, McDonald’s Omega ω = 0.88). Findings included that negative metacognition about smartphone use was most correlated with the C-SDS (b = 0.73; p < 0.001). Smartphone addiction, positive metacognition about smartphone use and fear of missing out also correlated with the C-SDS (b = 0.66, p < 0.001; b = 0.53, p < 0.001; b = 0.40, p < 0.001, respectively). The study shows that males compared to females (b = –1.65; p = 0.003), had a higher C-SDS score.Conclusion The C-SDS was valid and reliable for assessing the distraction of using smartphones in the Chinese context. Being female, the purpose of using a smartphone, smartphone usage (hours per day), fear of missing out, smartphone addiction and positive and negative metacognitions about smartphone use were positively correlated to the C-SDS.
... Wardhani et al. [64] observed that the symptoms shown by students who experience gadget addiction tend to be the same, namely holding and playing gadgets more than 5 times a day, feeling confused, restless, and lonely when not holding gadgets. Depression and crisis scales are highly correlated, which can lead to collinearity problems [65]. A recent study from Sharma shows that smartphone addicts who quit show withdrawal syndromes, both physical and psychological. ...
... The confidence of users who easily understand each teacher who is explaining their lesson, and it will be easy to do homework assignments because of the smartphone that will help complete all their tasks, so that students learn while playing with their smartphones from time to time, this activity can mislead students and are more likely to be tempted to play games, check social media, and connect with colleagues [87]. Smartphone addiction and prolonged use are very important health challenges linked to reduced mental fitness results [65]. In addition, significant sleep disturbances and behavioral problems were also associated with excessive smartphone use [59]. ...
Article
Background Addiction is always harmful to the human body. Smartphone addiction also affects students' mental and physical health. Aim This study aims to determine the research volume conducted on students who are affected by smartphone addiction and design a database. We intended to highlight critical problems for future research. In addition, this paper enterprises a comprehensive and opinion-based image of the smartphone-addicted students. Methodology We used two types of systematic literature review and research questions and Scopus database to complete this study. We found 27 research articles and 11885 subjects (mean ±SD: 440.185 ±513.580) using the PRISMA technique in this study. Additionally, we have deeply investigated evidence to retrieve the current understanding of smartphone addiction from physical changes, mental changes, behavioral changes, impact on performance, and significant concepts. Furthermore, the effect of this addiction has been linked to cancers, oxidative stress, and neurodegenerative disorders. Results This work has also revealed the future direction and research gap on smartphone addiction among students and has also tried to provide goals for upcoming research to be accomplished more significantly and scientifically. Conclusion This study suggests future analysis towards identifying novel molecules and pathways for the treatment and decreasing the severity of mobile addiction.
... However, FoMO is associated with problematic use of SNSs because some users are afraid of not being able to follow the posts shared on SNSs (Carbonell et al., 2013;Elhai et al., 2016;Oberst et al., 2017). Therefore, FoMO is more associated with the time spent on these sites, rather than the time spent on the MP. ...
... Previous studies have revealed that individuals with psychopathological symptoms (Baddeley et al., 2012;Billieux, 2012;Douglas et al., 2008;Firat et al., 2018;King et al., 2014;King et al., 2013;Kupferberg et al., 2016;Pierce, 2009) and nomophobia (Khan et al., 2021;King et al., 2013;Panova & Lleras, 2016) experience difficulties in face-to-face interaction due to impaired cognitive and social functioning. On the one hand, the MP enables them to have social relationships (Aker et al., 2017;Boumosleh & Jaalouk, 2017;Cheever et al., 2014;Demirci et al., 2015;Elhai et al., 2016;Harwood et al., 2014;Hawi & Samaha, 2017;Kim et al., 2019;Lee et al., 2018;Turgeman et al., 2020;Yang et al., 2019) and satisfy their social needs in the virtual world, where a person can interact with others remotely (Griffiths & Meredith, 2009). On the other hand, if social difficulties caused by psychopathological symptoms and nomophobia do not improve, such individuals may satisfy their social needs predominantly from virtual relationships (Ha et al., 2008;Ko et al., 2014;Mitchell & Hussain, 2018). ...
Book
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In the modern world, the mobile phone has become an indispensable part of modern life. On the one hand, the mobile phone allows maintaining interpersonal contacts and fulfilling work or school duties regardless of time and location. It enables individuals to plan their daily routines and their free times. On the other hand, a mobile phone is a tool that can cause several psychological and physical problems. Nomophobia, which is considered the phobia of the modern era, is only one of these problems. In the simplest terms, nomophobia is the fear of being without a mobile phone and the intense anxiety and distress experienced in the absence of a mobile phone. Although technological addictions such as smartphone addiction and internet addiction have been studied extensively in the psychology literature, it is striking that nomophobia is a neglected psychological problem. However, nomophobia is emerging as a common phenomenon among young adults, as most young adults use the mobile phone for about 5 hours a day. Some users define the mobile phone as a friend and the meaning of life. More importantly, prevalence studies have revealed that about half of young adults suffer from nomophobia. Since nomophobia causes many serious consequences such as physical pain, social problems and a decrease in academic achievement, nomophobia studies are important and beneficial especially for the younger generation. This book has been written to emphasize the importance of nomophobia and to provide detailed information about the diagnosis, treatment, prevalence, predictors and symptoms of nomophobia. In addition, this book aimed to conceptualize nomophobia theoretically. Also, based on the theoretical conceptualization, psychological structures that can cause nomophobia have been identified. The theoretical conceptualization has been tested and validated using scientific methods. This book, which contains a comprehensive literature review and scientific research, can shed light on researchers for future nomophobia studies. I also believe that this book will make valuable contributions to the clinical field by providing a better understanding of the factors that should be considered in prevention programs and treatment interventions developed for nomophobia. I hope that scholars, clinicians, and students from a variety of disciplines will find my efforts helpful.
... FOMO was found to be unrelated to the Big Five personality traits-indicating that it is not merely echoing high extroversion or neuroticism [25]. Although FOMO is often evaluated as a trait and may have neural circuits [33,[38][39][40][41], the degree to which it is experienced may fluctuate across various situations. FOMO is experienced more frequently later in the day and towards the end of the week, where social events are typically at their peak [25]. ...
... While the literature has validated the link between FOMO and problematic smartphone use [38,39,48], it reveals two different conceptualizations of FOMO. A large amount of research has framed FOMO as a precursor to social media use, with the hypothesis that those who experience higher levels of FOMO would feel more compelled to check their social media networks (e.g., [26,33,35,[49][50][51][52][53][54][55]). ...
Article
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“Fear of Missing Out” (FOMO) is an all-consuming feeling that is associated with mental and emotional stress. Such strains are caused by a compulsive concern that one is missing an opportunity for a socially rewarding experience often spotted on social media networks. While several personality and psychological factors have been empirically validated as correlated with FOMO, so far, little research has examined the effects of perceived group centrality (i.e., the extent to which group members feel included in the group) and fear of social exclusion on FOMO. Therefore, this study is aimed at examining the mechanism that links these socially driven factors and the need to belong with social media use and, consequently, FOMO, using structural equation modeling. A total of 490 college students ( mean age = 20.56 , SD = 1.44 ) completed a self-reported questionnaire that included measures of FOMO, the need to belong, social media use, perceived centrality, and fear of social exclusion. The need to belong emerged as the best predictor of FOMO, increasing it both directly and indirectly through the significant mediation of social media use. Females reported a greater need to belong and consequently more FOMO. Females also reported greater use of social media and greater perceived group centrality. Perceived centrality increased FOMO through social media use, but this indirect effect was not significant.
... Most of the studies investigating the unique role of FOMO in the technological context have addressed behaviors such as using social media (Alt, 2015;Oberst et al., 2017), problematic smartphone use (Elhai et al., 2016), and Facebook use (Beyens et al., 2016). For those experiencing FOMO, participation in social media, such as Facebook, Twitter, and WhatsApp, may be particularly desirable. ...
... While these tools provide advantages for the general population, they are a windfall for those grappling with FOMO (Przybylski et al., 2013). In addition, FOMO was found to be a more significant predictor of problematic smartphone use than other factors such as the need for touch, depression, or anxiety (Elhai et al., 2016). In addition, currently, social media engagement is not confined to young people, with a recent study finding it germane to all examined age groups (Barry & Wong, 2020). ...
Article
Recently, there has been growing interest in how individual differences in FOMO affect personal and individual outcomes. However, there is a lack of understanding regarding the impact of FOMO in the workplace. The current study examined whether individual differences in fear of missing out (FOMO) affect employee job performance. This was accomplished by investigating the mediating role of burnout and social media engagement (SME). Furthermore, we also examined whether amotivation moderates the mediation process. Data were gathered from 214 Israeli employees by using the following scales: Fear of Missing Out (FOMOs), Burnout, Social Media Engagement (SME), Multidimensional Work Motivation (MWMS), and Job Performance. The results indicated that individual differences in FOMO are associated with relatively low levels of job performance. The relationship is mediated by burnout but not by SME. Amotivation was found to moderate the mediation effect of burnout. Interpretation of these results and practical implications are discussed.
... Consumers may perceive that missing out on experiences may be inconsistent with their self-concept. Furthermore, higher social media engagement may activate FoMO (Alt, 2015), although the construct has been found in non-online contexts as well, including smartphone overuse (Elhai, Levine, Dvorak, & Hall, 2016). Feelings of anxiety may also impact upon fear of missing out (Gray, 1971). ...
... The findings show that social media engagement and smartphone usage have a positive influence on the personal dimension of FoMO, whereas self-image has a negative influence. The findings regarding social media and smartphone usage are consistent with previous research that FoMO is related to the overuse of technology (e.g., Elhai et al., 2016). In other words, for those who are afraid of missing out, social media and smartphones provide means to connect with others. ...
... The On-FoMO Inventory consists of four dimensions (need to belong, need for popularity, anxiety, and addiction) [27]. More specifically, in relation to FoMO, (i) the need to belong refers to being a part of the group [5,31]; (ii) the need for popularity refers to seeking approval from others and having high self-esteem [4,27], (iii) anxiety refers to the emotional problems faced in situations where access to OSM is blocked or impossible [27,32,33]; and (iv) addiction refers to OSM use at a level that prevents individuals from engaging in daily activities (e.g., sleeping, eating, fulfilling educational and occupational-related responsibilities) [7,27,34,35]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background In online environments, fear of missing out (FoMO) is where individuals become constantly preoccupied with what others are doing online and feel unable to log off in case they miss something. FoMO is a concept associated with the use of online social media (OSM; e.g., Facebook use, Instagram use) and various scales have been developed to assess the concept. One such scale is the Online Fear of Missing Out (On-FoMO) Inventory. The present study translated the On-FoMO Inventory into Turkish and its main aim was to test the validity and reliability of the scale. The secondary aim was to investigate the relationships between FoMO, social media addiction, smartphone addiction, and life satisfaction. Methods A total of 419 participants (289 females and 130 males, mean age = 25.43 years, SD = 6.37) completed a self-report questionnaire including the On-FoMO Inventory, Fear of Missing Out Scale, Bergen Social Media Addiction Scale, Smartphone Addiction Scale-Short Version, and Satisfaction with Life Scale. In the adaptation process of the On-FoMO Inventory, confirmatory factor analysis, concurrent validity, and reliability analyses were performed. Results The four-factor structure of the On-FoMO Inventory was confirmed and the Turkish version of the scale demonstrated good reliability. Online FoMO was positively related to social media addiction and smartphone addiction, and negatively related to life satisfaction. Conclusion The results showed that the Turkish version of the On-FoMO Inventory has strong psychometric properties.
... The most common reason given for heavy use of smartphones is to engage the device in hope of some sort of emotional gain [55]. The emotional gain typically takes the form of alleviating states with negative valence such as fear of missing out or FoMO [56][57][58], boredom [59], or loneliness [56]. One study found escapism to be a main motivation for problematic use [60]. ...
Article
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This article makes the case that our digital devices create illusions of agency. There are times when users feel as if they are in control when in fact they are merely responding to stimuli on the screen in predictable ways. After the introduction, the second section of the article offers examples of illusions of agency that do not involve human–computer interaction in order to show that such illusions are possible and not terribly uncommon. The third and fourth sections of the article cover relevant work from empirical psychology, including the cues that are known to generate the sense of agency. The fifth section of the article shows that our devices are designed to deliver precisely those cues. In the sixth section, the argument is completed with evidence that users frequently use their smartphones without the sort of intentional supervision involved in genuine agency. This sixth section includes the introduction of Digital Environmental Dependency Syndrome (DEDS) as a possible way of characterizing extended use of the smartphone without genuine agency. In the final section of the article, there is a discussion of questions raised by the main claim, including suggestions for reducing occurrences of illusions of agency through software design.
... Researchers and practitioners are examining the changes that occur in individuals and trying to help individuals overcome their problems with technology in their lives (Shek, Tang, & Lo, 2009;Young, 2007). Some of the problems that arise in HTI are internet addiction (Beard & Wolf, 2001;Young, 1998), problematic internet use (Caplan, 2006;Davis, Flett, & Besser, 2002), computer game addiction (Kuss & Griffiths, 2012;Lemmens, Valkenburg, & Peter, 2009), smartphone addiction (Bian & Leung, 2015;Kwon et al., 2013), social media addiction (Al-Menayes, 2015;Hawi & Samaha, 2017), fear of missing out (FOMO) (Alt, 2015;Elhai, Levine, Dvorak & Hall, 2016), "nomophobia" (Bragazzi & Del Puente, 2014;King et al., 2013;Yildirim & Correia, 2015), "ringxiety" (Alam et al., 2014;Kruger & Djerf, 2016), technology addiction (Hamissi, Babaie, Hosseini, & Babaie, 2013;Wang, Sigerson, & Cheng, 2019), online compulsive buying disorder (Duroy, Gorse, & Lejoyeux, 2014), cyber pornography disorder (Grubbs, Sessoms, Wheeler, & Volk, 2010;Grubbs, Stauner, Exline, Pargament, & Lindberg, 2015), and online gambling disorder (Chóliz, 2016;Gainsbury, 2015). ...
Article
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Digital technologies have seen significant use in the lives of individuals, but despite the many contributions, digital technologies also cause some problems. Self-report scales are widely used in psychology to determine problems and have an important position for researchers and mental health practitioners. 167 Turkish cyberpsychology scales were compiled, and its properties were examined in the present study. The research was designed using qualitative methods. A sample group of mostly adolescents and university students was existed in Turkish cyberpsychology scales. According to the findings, half of the scales had adaptation, three-quarters of scales had adequate or good levels of variance explanatory power, and a cutoff point was determined for nearly one-quarter of the scales. Previous scales and the problem areas that do not yet have measurement instruments have been examined, and some suggestions are made regarding the scales and sample groups that can be developed for Turkish culture.
... A smartphone is a versatile device, it can be used for a variety of work or leisure activities (Leung & Zhang, 2016). Based on typical daily media and technology usage, researchers have enlisted various types of smartphone activities (Cheever et al., 2014;, however, the one proposed by Elhai et al. (2016) is quite comprehensive and includes a total of 11 activities, which include voice/video calls, email, texting/instant messaging, internet/websites, social networking sites, games, music/podcasts/radio, watching video/tv/movies, taking pictures or videos, maps/navigation and reading books/magazines. ...
Article
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Despite the worldwide surge in smartphone use, there are no classification metrics based on its use. In this article, a comprehensive concept called ‘Cellulographics’ is introduced for characterization of smartphone users, which includes behavioral classification based on user characteristics like smartphone experience (SE), smartphone use skill (SUS), smartphone internet experience (SIE), smartphone use periods (SUP), smartphone screen time (SST), smartphone use frequency (SUF), smartphone use activities (SUA), and smartphone use location (SUL). This concept can be applied to any field of study without limitations, where smartphone use is involved.
... Sosyal medya şüphesiz kullanıcılara birçok avantaj sağlarken, araştırmacılar artık Facebook gibi platformların sorunlu kullanımını daha yakından incelemektedir. Bireysel düzeyde yorgunluk (7,8), depresyon (9,10), stres (11) ve akademik düşük performans (12) sosyal medya kullanımıyla ilgili sorunlardan bazılarıdır. İnternet kullanımlarını yoğun kullanımları ve sınırlı dış kontrolleri, geniş boş zamanları ve esnek programları nedeniyle, üniversite öğrencileri problemli sosyal medya kullanımı geliştirmeye diğerlerinden daha fazla isteklidir (5). ...
Article
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Introduction and aim: Today, increasing use of social media and the fear of missing out on developments in social media, students’ academic achievements and self-efficacy are also changing. In this study, it is aimed to examine the relationship between the use of social media and academic achievement and academic self-efficacy in nursing students. Materials and Methods: This cross - sectional study was conducted on the first, second, third and fourth grade n = 493 students studying in the Nursing Department of Trakya University Faculty of Health Sciences between January and June 2020. The research data were collected by the “Questionnaire Form” which was prepared by the researchers by examining the literature, “Fear of Missing Developments in Social Environments Scale (FoMo)” and “Academic Self-Efficacy Scale (ASES)”. Descriptive statistics, chi-square, Pearson’s correlation were used in the evaluation of the data. Results: The mean age of the students was 20.63 ± 4.81, 80.7% were female, and 43.3% were AGNO between 3.01-3.50. It was determined that 97.2% of the students had a mobile phone, 42.2% used their mobile phone for social media, and 93.1% used social media. It has been determined that between the ASES score averages and gender; there is a relationship between the mean FoMo score averages and gender, social media usage status, the number of social media accounts subscribed to, the interval of time spent on social media during the day, the frequency of checking social media, and the status of checking social media accounts during the lesson. While there was a significant negative correlation between AGNO and ASES mean score, no significant correlation was found between the mean FoMo score. Conclusions: As a result of our study, it was found that while the academic achievement of the students increased, their academic self-efficacy decreased, although there was no change in the fear of missing the developments in the social environment.
... Students with FoMO will spend most of their day updating themselves with what others say and do to promote their emotional support and social engagement (5). This may lead to poor mental health outcomes like depression, anxiety, and the need for touch (6). It also leads to insufficient physical activity (7), poor academic performance (8) and poor sleep (9). ...
Article
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Objective: The aim was to explore the relationship between Night Eating Syndrome (NES) and experiencing Fear of Missing Out (FoMO) among college students in Oman. Method: A descriptive, correlational and cross-sectional design was performed on 266 university students studying at Sultan Qaboos University in Oman. The data were collected using a demographic questionnaire, Night Eating Syndrome and Fear of Missing Out questionnaires. Data analysis was performed through Pearson correlation, One-way ANOVA and independent t-test using SPSS 24 software Results: The participants' ages ranged between 18 and 30 years (M = 21.15; SD = 1.97). The majority of the participants were female (204, 76.7%), single (266, 97.7%), and 152 (57.1%) lived on campus Overall, a weak positive and nonsignificant correlation between FoMO and NES and a significant difference between males and females in the mean score of FoMO (P = 0.005) was noticed. The mean score of NES among students who live on campus was higher than for those living off campus (P < 0.05). Conclusion: This study explored a limited aspect of the relationship between fear of missing out and night eating behaviors among university students in Oman. There was no significant direct relationship between both variables. The study needs to be repeated using a larger sample size and more rigorous methods to calculate the number of snacks/day, and the number of meals/day
... Students with FoMO will spend most of their day updating themselves with what others say and do to promote their emotional support and social engagement (5). This may lead to poor mental health outcomes like depression, anxiety, and the need for touch (6). It also leads to insufficient physical activity (7), poor academic performance (8) and poor sleep (9). ...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: The aim was to explore the relationship between Night Eating Syndrome (NES) and experiencing Fear of Missing Out (FoMO) among college students in Oman. Method: A descriptive, correlational and cross-sectional design was performed on 266 university students studying at Sultan Qaboos University in Oman. The data were collected using a demographic questionnaire, Night Eating Syndrome and Fear of Missing Out questionnaires. Data analysis was performed through Pearson correlation, One-way ANOVA and independent t-test using SPSS 24 software Results: The participants’ ages ranged between 18 and 30 years (M = 21.15; SD = 1.97). The majority of the participants were female (204, 76.7%), single (266, 97.7%), and 152 (57.1%) lived on campus Overall, a weak positive and nonsignificant correlation between FoMO and NES and a significant difference between males and females in the mean score of FoMO (P = 0.005) was noticed. The mean score of NES among students who live on campus was higher than for those living off campus (P < 0.05). Conclusion: This study explored a limited aspect of the relationship between fear of missing out and night eating behaviors among university students in Oman. There was no significant direct relationship between both variables. The study needs to be repeated using a larger sample size and more rigorous methods to calculate the number of snacks/day, and the number of meals/day
... Beberapa hal terkait technostress yaitu techno-anxiety (kecemasan teknologi), technoaddiction (kecanduan teknologi), dan technostrain (Brivio et al., 2018;Elhai, Levine, Dvorak, & Hall, 2016;Salanova, Gumbau, & Cifre, 2012). Kecemasan teknologi menjelaskan pada aspek ketakutan dalam mengoperasikan perangkat teknologi seperti komputer. ...
... Research suggests, for example, that impulsivity (Billieux et al., 2008), trait anxiety (Elhai et al., 2016) or the fear of missing out (Blackwell et al., 2017) are positively related to higher smartphone or social media use or even problematic social media use. Trait self-esteem is likewise related to certain types of social media use (e.g., frequency of reacting to profiles) and ...
Chapter
Investigating social media use effects on children’s and adolescents’ well-being is one of the most contested research fields today. With a fast-growing literature, yet increasingly inconsistent and heterogeneous findings, it becomes difficult to draw reasonable conclusions. This chapter first introduces and summarizes the discussion around social media effects on well-being. We then propose a holistic model of social media use effects that identifies contextual, situational, and person-related factors that may account for either beneficial or detrimental effects. To exemplify the benefits of such a comprehensive approach, we discuss research on social media and body image. Based on this interpretation of the literature, we outline a future agenda towards a more nuanced understanding of these effects.
... Furthermore, prior research has identified impulsivity and the urgency to immediately check incoming notifications as two risk factors for PSU [77,78]. In addition, fear of missing out, i.e., the "pervasive apprehension that others might be having rewarding experiences from which one is absent" [79, p. 1841] has been related to PSU [80][81][82]. ...
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Problematic smartphone use (PSU) during adolescence has been associated with negative short- and long-term consequences for personal well-being and development. Valid and reliable predictors and indicators of PSU are urgently needed, and digital trace data can add valuable information beyond self-report data. The present study aimed to investigate whether trace data (duration and frequency of smartphone use), recorded via an app installed on participants’ smartphone, are correlated with self-report data on smartphone use. Additionally, the present study aimed to explore which usage indicators, i.e., duration, frequency, and time distortion of smartphone use, better predict PSU levels cross-sectionally and longitudinally, one year later. Results from a sample of 84 adolescents showed that adolescents tend to rely on the frequency of smartphone use when reporting on the time they spent with the smartphone. Traced duration of smartphone use as well as time distortion, i.e., over-estimation, are significant predictors of PSU. Methodological issues and theoretical implications related to predictors and indicators of PSU are discussed.
... Nevertheless, age is not an intellective criterion and, therefore, it does not predispose one toward disconnecting, although younger users tend to have more advanced mobile devices, the immediate effect of which is that disconnection is less likely [36]. What is more, while younger people are more predisposed toward overusing technology because of a fear of "missing out" [59], nomophobia behaviors [60], and additions to a smartphone [61], older people tend to feel saturated with information [62]. ...
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This paper aims to analyze the external and objective barriers of the digital difference between being at home and being on holiday, and the intrinsic and subjective inhibitors to remaining online once at a destination. In this study, the literature is thoroughly reviewed, going beyond the traditional economic and technological explanations, along with those related to skill, to consider those rooted in well-being and psychology. Hence, a more integrative and exhaustive framework deals with how tourists approach their perceived hazardous and oversaturating digital environment. Finally, the role played by sociodemographics is studied by profiling those who are predisposed toward disconnecting in order to preserve their wellness. In total, 346 tourists were surveyed at random, with proportional stratification, on the island of Gran Canaria. The measuring instrument comprised a questionnaire whose scales gathered information about more than eighteen devices, twenty-eight social media platforms, and sixteen device and social media barriers. The obtained evidence demonstrates how crucial “detox” motivations are when trying to elucidate the differences in digital behavior between their home and holiday destination. Similarly, the evidence highlights that while gender, age, nationality, and income are associated with these differences, education is not. This study pioneers an analysis of the detox barrier regarding staying connected while on holiday and provides insight into how this intrinsic and subjective inhibitor interacts with other external hindrances to people’s health, both where they live and where they travel.
... As defined by Przybylski and his colleagues, fear of missing out is one's feeling of apprehension which suggests that he/she misses out on information, events, experiences, or life decisions that could make one's life better. Accordingly, people are motivated to spend more time on social media to feel socially connected and prevent the feeling of fear of missing out [ [67] , [68] ]. According to previous research, people can manage their sleep habits in order to connect with social media at night [69] and avoid the fear of missing out [70] , which can lead to sleep disturbance and problems [71] . ...
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Recently, the use of social media has penetrated many aspects of our daily lives. Therefore, it has stimulated much debate and polarisation regarding its impact on mental well-being. The present study investigated the association between problematic use of social media, subjective well-being, and insomnia’s potential mediator. A proportionate random sample was collected from a Univerity in Algeria between March and April 2020.The participants (n=288; mean [SD] age = 20.83 [2.13]) involved 101 (35.1%) males. Nearly three-fourths of the participants (n=214; 74.3%) used up more-than three hours daily surfing on social media. Their mean (SD) score was 15.64 (4.80) on the Bergan Social Media Addiction Scale, 16.19 (9.15) on the Arabic Scale of Insomnia, and 28.13 (7.90) on the overall subjective well-being. Structural equation modeling (SEM) revealed an indirect correlation between problematic use of social media and the overall subjective well-being of users. Similarly, the indirect but not direct effects were found for the overall subjective well-being subdomains. Moreover, all SEM models have a satisfactory fit with the data. Based on the results, it can be concluded that insomnia appears to play an important role in mediating the association between subjective well-being and problematic social media use. This suggests the importance of tackling the issues of insomnia and problematic use of social media for university students. It also has important implications in dealing with the misuse of social media, especially during the covid-19 pandemic.
... Third, despite important efforts to provide further conceptual depth to research on social media use exists, in most studies, general social media use or single aspects of social media use (e.g., Facebook use) have been examined. Empirical findings showed that different activities, such as browsing content (also referred to as broadcast communication), are more common than social or interactive activities when using the smartphone (Elhai et al., 2016) or SNS (J. L. . ...
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Employing a mobile experience sampling design, we investigated in the present study how different types of mobile social media use relate to young individuals’ momentary affective well-being and momentary loneliness. We differentiated between three types of social media use: Messaging, posting, and browsing. Moreover, we studied fear of missing out (FoMO) as a moderating variable. We collected data from 79 middle and late adolescents ( M age = 17.55 years, SD = 1.29; 59% girls) yielding 956 momentary assessments. The results showed that messaging and posting were positively related to affective well-being, while browsing was associated with higher levels of loneliness. Furthermore, some of the relations between social media use, affective well-being, and loneliness were also moderated by FoMO. Our results highlight the need to differentiate between different types of social media use, to include individual predispositions, and to apply methods that account for daily fluctuations in psychological well-being when studying the complex relationship between youth’s mobile social media use and well-being.
... Self-determination theory holds that relatedness is one of three innate psychological needs that determine an individual's psychological well-being (Deci & Ryan, 1985;Ryan & Deci, 2000). FOMO is pervasive in individuals and leads to irrational behavioral changes (Elhai, Levine, Dvorak, & Hall, 2016) as has been shown for areas such as smartphones, the internet, or social media (Abel, Buff, & Burr, 2016;Alt & Boniel--Nissim, 2018;Beyens, Frison, & Eggermont, 2016;Elhai et al., 2018;Przybylski et al., 2013), human resource management (Budnick, Rogers, & Barber, 2020;Cristea & Leonardi, 2019), finance (Clor-Proell, Guggenmos, & Rennekamp, 2020;Carreyrou, 2018), and marketing (Good & Hyman, 2020;Celik, Eru, & Cop, 2019;Saleh, 2012¸ Kang et al., 2019. Nevertheless, research into the role of FOMO in individuals' decision-making on the adoption of new technology is a recent departure (Koens et al., 2021;Wolniewicz, Tiamiyu, Weeks, & Elhai, 2018). ...
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Corporate decision-makers form their intention to adopt new technology for their venture based on their perception of its usefulness and ease of use. However, the formation of this intention might be influenced by the fear of missing out (FOMO), making decision-makers fear losing their relatedness with fellow managers and leading to decisions based on irrational considerations. We draw on and extend the technology acceptance model to explain the potential bias caused by FOMO and expect that this bias is contingent on the level of decision makers' prior experience with the new technology in other contexts. Moderated OLS regressions on 514 observations collected from a representative sample of decision-makers of Austrian SMEs show that FOMO is positively related to the intention to adopt new technology. Moreover, we find that the relationship is mitigated by the decision maker's prior experience with that new technology. We highlight the relevance of the FOMO bias in technology acceptance, adding to the growing research stream on the role of emotions in adopting novel technologies. We further show how experience can effectively counter the FOMO bias for many decision-makers and extend the scope of technology acceptance models by illustrating their applicability to novel manufacturing technologies.
... The need for attachment leads to a fear of social exclusion, which is linked to actual felt pain (Lai et al., 2016). FoMO is also linked to stress, problematic phone use, depression, negativity, and anxiety (Elhai et al., 2016;Tugtekin et al., 2020;Wortham, 2011). Moreover, Blachnio and Przepiorka (2018) argued higher FoMO is a positive indicator of social media intrusion, primarily addictive behaviors, and impacts overall life satisfaction. ...
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Research has suggested that social media usage increases during times of social isolation. However, rather than making users feel more connected to others, social media may cause negative mental health and relational outcomes, including a fear of missing out (FoMO). Against the backdrop of the global coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) pandemic, this health communication study sought to understand the impact of physical and emotional isolation (i.e., prescribed social isolation) on people as we turned to social media more frequently. As the pandemic wore on, many remained online, watching people they knew “returning to normal,” potentially creating high levels of FoMO despite disagreeing with others’ decisions. This study examines whether social media use (frequency and purpose) influences individuals’ perception of the acceptability of others’ behavior, and whether those perceptions impact individuals’ own behavioral decisions. Participants (N = 459) from the United States were recruited from late 2021 to early 2022 to complete an anonymous online survey regarding the “acceptableness” of behavior shown in posts by friends and family. Results indicated that increased social media frequency was correlated with an increased sense of FoMO, which was significantly and positively associated with favorable perceptions of others’ behaviors, such as gathering indoors with others, even when public health officials discouraged it. However, FoMO was not significantly related to users’ personal intentions to follow public health recommendations. A post hoc analysis determined that fear of COVID-19 moderated the relationship between FoMO and the perception of others’ behavior, as well as the relationship between FoMO and behavioral intentions.
... Previous studies have reported problematic psychological effects of smartphone use. This mainly includes a 'dependence' of sorts on the daily life chores of the user, a feeling of personal satisfaction/comfort attributed to having access to a smartphone, and discomfort attributed to having no access to a smartphone for a time being (Chóliz, 2012;Chóliz et al ., 2016;Elhai et al ., 2016;Fransson et al ., 2018;Kwon et al ., 2013b) . ...
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This study aimed to develop and validate a scale to measure problematic smartphone use. Respondents were 708 adults (female = 54 .1%, mean age = 25 .1 years, SD = 8 .5 years) who were randomly recruited for a cross-sectional survey. In addition, we purposively selected 24 adults (equal male and female representation; age groups = 18–30, 31–50, and 51–65 years; income groups = low, middle, and high income), who participated in the initial item development fiend testing. Exploratory factor analysis resulted in a 30-item, four-factor effects measure of Problematic Smartphone use. The factors included psychological, functional, relationship, and withdrawal effects . This four-factor model explained 47 .84% of the common variance between the indicators, with 14% non-redundant residuals with absolute values greater than 0 .05 . Cronbach’s alpha for the four subscales (0 .90, 0 .73, 0 .82, and 0 .70, respectively) indicated satisfactory to excellent internal consistency reliabilities . Further studies should focus on determining clinically significant effect size, test-retest reliability, and criterion validity of this scale.
... The recent literature provides ample evidence supporting these factors (Ayyagari et al., 2011;Maier et al., 2014;Luqman et al., 2017;Cao and Sun, 2018). Further, virtual networks support free interaction, information flow, and gaming, encouraging web interaction and associated service consumption (Elhai et al., 2016). As this study is focused on dissatisfaction and post-consumption anxiety, our analysis considers these three perspectives of socialization, information, and hedonic as proposed from the previous literature (Ali-hassan et al., 2015). ...
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The study’s prime objective is to investigate the user discontinuance intention in the shed of the negative disconfirmation of user expectation. The study has derived the theoretical structure from the expectancy disconfirmation theory (EDT) enacted through the stimuli organism response (SOR) framework to study the actual cause and effect relationship of human behavioral response. To investigate the user discontinuance intention behavioral response, a total of 434 correct and complete answers were shortlisted for analysis. To examine the data set, the study has used the modern partial least square method technique or simply SmartPLS service package to run the structural equation modeling (SEM). Moreover, the study has implied the 80/20 rule run the mediating analysis of the SOR framework. The statistical results show that all three stimuli make significant positive disconfirmation of the user beliefs in terms of dissatisfaction and the anxiety that ultimately leads to the discontinuance intention in virtual network users. Further, these results are validated through the six mediating relationships, which partially mediate the relationship between the stimuli and response. Besides all these findings, this study has made some practical and realistic theoretical and practical implications for both researchers and service-providing managers.
... As defined by Przybylski and his colleagues, fear of missing out is one's feeling of apprehension which suggests that he/she misses out on information, events, experiences, or life decisions that could make one's life better. Accordingly, people are motivated to spend more time on social media to feel socially connected and prevent the feeling of fear of missing out (Browne et al., 2018;Elhai et al., 2016). According to previous research, people can manage their sleep habits in order to connect with social media at night (Adams & Kisler, 2013) and avoid the fear of missing out (Rosen et al., 2016), which can lead to sleep disturbance and problems (Scott & Woods, 2018). ...
Article
Recently, the use of social media has penetrated many aspects of our daily lives. Therefore, it has stimulated much debate and polarisation regarding its impact on mental well-being. The present study investigated the association between problematic use of social media, subjective well-being, and insomnia's potential mediator. A proportionate random sample was collected from a Univerity in Algeria between March and April 2020.The participants (n=288; mean [SD] age = 20.83 [2.13]) involved 101 (35.1%) males. Nearly three-fourths of the participants (n=214; 74.3%) used up more-than three hours daily surfing on social media. Their mean (SD) score was 15.64 (4.80) on the Bergan Social Media Addiction Scale, 16.19 (9.15) on the Arabic Scale of Insomnia, and 28.13 (7.90) on the overall subjective well-being. Structural equation modeling (SEM) revealed an indirect correlation between problematic use of social media and the overall subjective well-being of users. Similarly, the indirect but not direct effects were found for the overall subjective well-being subdomains. Moreover, all SEM models have a satisfactory fit with the data. Based on the results, it can be concluded that insomnia appears to play an important role in mediating the association between subjective well-being and problematic social media use. This suggests the importance of tackling the issues of insomnia and problematic use of social media for university students. It also has important implications in dealing with the misuse of social media, especially during the covid-19 pandemic.
... Some of them suggest that FoMO play an important role in developing PSU because adolescents with high FoMO feel compelled to check their smartphone to keep up to date on their friends' activities. [8][9][10] In contrast, some other studies suggested that PSU results in an increased tendency of FoMO due to extensive social media use (the continuous notifications from social media sites/applications on smartphones heighten the need to check on what friends are doing more often). [11][12][13] In addition, a recent study that examined the longitudinal, bi-directional relationships between FoMO and PSU among adolescents suggested that adolescents who report higher FoMO and/or PSU at a given time point are more likely to report higher levels of FoMO and/or PSU from 1 year to the next. ...
... This finding was similar to those of literature that found the positive association between addictive smartphone use and high level of anxiety [19,30,31]. As SNS is considered as a way of fulfilling relational needs to stay up to date, to connect with others, and not to miss out [10,59], those who actively use SNS have a strong desire to participate in what others are doing and experience a pervasive apprehension of not being able to engage in social interactions [59,60]. Such anxious thoughts drive individuals to fulfill their needs of social belongingness, thereby leading them to stay connected to social networks [57]. ...
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Given that Social Networking Service (SNS) has emerged as the most influential platform, which can lead users to addictive smartphone use, it is necessary to investigate which psychological variables lead smartphone-based SNS users to addictive smartphone use. Still, studies on the relationship between psychological variables and addictive smartphone use among smartphone-based SNS users remain to be explored. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the role of psychological factors on smartphone addiction proneness (SAP). A total of 433 smartphone-based SNS users were collected from 5003 adults in Korea. Data were analyzed with descriptive statistics, Pearson’s correlation coefficients, and path analysis using SPSS 21.0 and AMOS 23.0. The results of a parallel-mediation path analysis demonstrated that Behavioral Inhibition (BIS), Behavioral activation (BAS) drive, anxiety, and low self-control directly influenced SAP, separately. BIS and BAS _drive also had significant indirect effects on SAP through the effect of anxiety. BIS and BAS_fun had significant indirect effects on SAP through the effect of low self-control. The study variables accounted for 38.4 of the total variances of SAP. Thus, when establishing interventions to reduce the users’ addictive smartphone use, these interactive relationships of the variables should be considered.
... FoMO refers to feelings of fear, worry, and anxiety when absent from rewarding experiences or conversations that are taking place across one's social circles (Przybylski et al., 2013). Given that individuals with higher levels of FoMO are anxious about missing pleasurable experiences and have a constant need for social connection, they are prone to overuse their smartphones to satisfy this need (Elhai et al., 2016(Elhai et al., , 2018(Elhai et al., , 2018Elhai, Tiamiyu, et al., 2018). Supporting this notion, numerous studies have shown that the extent to which young adults experience FoMO predicts the severity of addictive smartphone use (Elhai et al., 2020a, d, 2018a, Wolniewicz et al., 2019. ...
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Given that crucial psychological attributes of smartphone addiction have been studied in isolation from each other, we examined latent profiles of emotional distress (depression, stress, loneliness, and fear of missing out; i.e., FoMO); protective traits (self-control, mindfulness, grit); the behavioral inhibition system (BIS) and approach system (BAS; drive, reward responsiveness, and fun seeking) in relation to addictive smartphone use. We identified three distinctive profiles, using five fit statistics: AIC, BIC, adjusted BIC, an entropy, and LRT. The self-controlled, gritty, and mindful profile (22.7%) was characterized by heightened levels of self-control, grit, and mindfulness but lower levels of emotional distress, BIS, and BAS. The emotionally distressed profile (29.8%) was distinguished by elevated levels of depression, stress, loneliness, FoMO, and BIS, but relatively lower protective traits and BAS. Lastly, the approach sensitive profile (47.5%) corresponded to the normative group characterized by relatively higher BAS but mostly average levels of emotional distress and protective traits. When both global and pairwise comparisons between profiles were performed using Wald tests, we found that the self-controlled, gritty, and mindful profile was associated with significantly lower smartphone addiction tendencies than emotionally distressed or approach sensitive profiles, while the latter two did not differ from each other. These results still held when multiple covariates (age, sex, and income) were controlled for. Using a sophisticated person-centered approach, our findings underscore multidimensional psychological profiles that have different associations with smartphone addiction.
... One of those problems is FoMO, or "fear of missing out" which is a social media addiction. It is a newly coined phenomenon which refers to the desire to continually follow others on social networks to know what they are doing while engaging something else (Elhai, Levine, Dvorak, & Hall, 2016;Reagle, 2015;. Individuals with high levels of FoMO are likely to develop apprehension and may become stressful in that they feel as if they were missing others' activities when they are not online. ...
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The purpose of this study was to assess in-service preschool teachers’ and preschool teacher candidates’ levels of Nomophobia (NO MObile PHone phOBIA) and FoMO (Fear of Missing Out). This study is a quantitative one in its nature, and rests on the correlational survey design from descriptive research models. We recruited a total of 310 participants in the study group. We collected data through the Nomophobia Questionnaire and the FOMO Scale. We found that both the in-service preschool teachers and the preschool teacher candidates had severe levels of nomophobia and moderate levels of FoMO. The in-service preschool teachers’ nomophobia scores did not differ significantly by age groups, but there was a statistically significant difference in their FoMO scores among age groups. Moreover, there were statistically significant differences between the in-service preschool teachers and the preschool teacher candidates’ nomophobia and FoMO scores. Accordingly, the preschool teacher candidates had higher mean scores in their nomophobia and FoMO levels when compared with the in-service ones. Based on these findings, new inquiries about/into teachers’ nomophobia and FoMO levels should be done to be able to make comparisons. Further, it could give fruitful results to recruit teachers from different branches. Another suggestion is to test teachers’ nomophobia and FoMO levels in terms of demographics, particularly respecting gender and marital status as well as culture so that the justifications could be made about the results.
... Studies have shown, for example, that the use of social media has a significant influence on well-being. Individuals who spend more time using social media suffer from more negative emotions and feelings (Baker & Algorta, 2016); have less satisfaction with life (Elhai et al., 2016); experience more emotional tensions (James et al., 2017;Lai et al., 2016); and suffer deterioration of physical and mental well-being (Alt, 2018). Drawing on a dataset of U.S. residents in mid-to-late March 2020, Stainback et al. (2020) found that greater Covid-19 media consumption was associated with greater psychological distress. ...
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This article pairs journalism studies and social psychology to investigate, with a quantitative method, audience perceptions of news media in the initial stages of the Covid-19 pandemic in Brazil by verifying the relations among media credibility, subjective well-being (SWB), and fear of missing out (FoMO). All told, 306 Brazilians took part in this study, answering a questionnaire to elicit demographic data, perceptions of media credibility, and behavioral characteristics. The findings revealed high averages of measures of news media credibility, with over 70% of respondents evaluating the work of the press as excellent or good. People with higher averages of negative affects tended to perceive the news media as more reliable. Furthermore, individuals who reported fear of missing out on the news during Covid-19 experienced more negative affect, and attributed greater credibility to news media. These findings show that in a time of fear and uncertainty, citizens seem to trust solid institutions more, accepting their reports less critically. We also found that unknown risks can attract attention more than regular events, tending to keep vigilance on specific news. Future studies can add additional measures of FoMO and use more diverse samples in different contexts.
Chapter
Push-notifications are a communication tool leveraged by many apps to disseminate information, engage with their user base and provide a means of encouraging users to take particular actions. The nuanced intent behind a push is not always distinguishable to the end-user at moments of delivery. This work explores the text content of notifications pushed by a number of prominent apps in the marketplace over the period of 463 days. We present a new ontology that defines notification Call-to-action (CTA) labels in use today. This facilitates greater understanding behind a push and is a step towards standardisation for marketing teams. Subsequently, we then present results of a notification dataset annotated with our CTA labels and propose and evaluate a CTA text classification task, which could facilitate improved solutions for both users subscribed to, and marketers creating, push-notifications.
Conference Paper
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Amaç (Introduction): FoMO, insanların çevrelerinde birçok gelişmenin aynı anda farkında olma arzuları ve ilginç bir olayı kaçırmama, haberdar olamama, dışında kalmama kaygısı veya korkusu olarak tanımlanmaktadır. İnsan yaşamının doğal işleyiş düzenine aykırı olan her alışkanlık veya her müdahale onun fiziksel, zihinsel veya psikolojik sağlığı açısından önemli sorunlara neden olabilmektedir. Son zamanlarda iletişim teknolojilerinin sunduğu imkânlar nedeniyle içeriği boşaltılmış bir görsellikler toplumu ortaya çıkmaktadır. Bu toplumlarda internet ve sosyal medya kullanımı gündelik yaşamlarının önemli bir bölümünü oluştururken, diğer taraftan da öncesine tanık olmadığımız çevrimiçi bağımlılıklara neden olmaktadır. İnternetin ve sosyal medyanın özellikle genç kuşakların yaşamlarında önemli etkisi nedeniyle bugün adına Gündemi Kaçırma Korkusu (FoMO-Fear of Missing Out) dediğimiz yeni tür bir sorun toplumun geleceğini tehdit etmektedir. Psikolojik açıdan bir çeşit kaygı bozukluğu olarak adlandırılabilecek FoMO diğer insanların ne yaptığı, nelere sahip olduklarını, kendilerinin neleri kaçırdıklarıyla ilgili temel kaygılarını ifade etmekte ve bu durum asıl işleriyle ve yapmaları gerekenlerle uğraşmalarını engellemektedir. Öncelikle genç kuşaklarda olmakla birlikte, her yaşta ve statüde bireylerde gözlenen FoMO’nun toplumsal, ekonomik, kültürel ve toplumsal sağlık açısından önemli bir sorun alanı olduğuna dikkat çekmek, bu araştırmanın temel amacını oluşturmaktadır. Yöntem (Methods). Araştırmanın örneklemini sosyal medya kullanıcısı farklı demografik özelliklerde gönüllü katılımcılar oluşturmaktadır. Araştırma nicel araştırma olarak tasarlanmıştır ve araştırmada nicel yöntemin seçilme nedeni, evrene ilişkin genellemeler yapabilmektir (Morgan ve Morgan, 2008:51) Araştırmada hedef evrenin parametrelerini en iyi şekilde temsil eden öğelerin seçilmesi (Neuman ve Robson, 2014:36) amacıyla örnekleme işlemine geçilmiş ve nicel araştırmalarda sıklıkla kullanılan seçkisiz (amaçsız) örnekleme yöntemi kullanılmıştır. Toplamda 406 katılımcıdan elde edilen veriler, fark ve ilişki testleriyle analiz edilmiştir. Verilerin toplanmasında Üsküdar Üniversitesi FoMO ölçeği kullanılmıştır. Sonuç (Results). Araştırma bulgularına göre FoMO düzeyinin yüksek olduğu, örneklemin demografik göstergeleri ile FoMO düzeyleri arasında anlamlı ölçüde farklılıkların olsa da FoMO’nun yediden yetmişe tüm toplumu kapsayan yeni bir bağımlılık biçimi olduğu anlaşılmaktadır.
Purpose With the rapid improvement in digital infrastructure, the popularity of digital devices and smartphones in every pocket, the yearning to stay connected with others has increased manifold, especially in youngsters. This has raised multiple concerns primarily related to the problematic usage of the internet (PUI). The current research study aims to scrutinize the association between PUI, psychological and mental health (PMH), social media fatigue (SMF), fear of missing out (FOMO), desire to disconnect (DD) and its relation with a novel phenomenon of joy of missing out (JOMO). Design/methodology/approach The present research study embraces the empirical research method through quantitative analysis. The proposed theoretical model was empirically tested using primary data, collected through a self-designed structured questionnaire. The study sample included individuals between 16 and 39 years of age as these are the most active demographics on social media. The model is empirically tested with the help of structural equation modeling applied using software IBM AMOS 20.0 and SPSS 22.0. Initially, first-order confirmatory factor analysis was conducted, to measure and test the fit indices of the proposed model. Secondly, path analysis using structural equation modeling was carried out for the model. Findings Empirical synthesis of this research shows that PUI significantly and positively impacts mental and psychological health, FOMO and SMF. Also, SMF significantly and positively affects the DD which significantly and positively affects the JOMO. However, as depicted by the results of this study, FOMO have no considerable impact on SMF. Originality/value A study that connects the PUI with PMH, SMF and FOMO is rare to find. Second, this study uses data collected from social media users of India in the age group of 16–39 years. This slice of the population is most active in internet, and internet-enabled platform and are scantly studied, especially in the Indian context. This makes the study more exciting and crucial.
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Background College students frequently identify social media sites (SMSs) as in-class distractions, although students continue to use these sites during class. In a technology-driven world, students’ fear of missing out (FOMO) may drive SMS behaviors, whereby classes and study time serve as obstacles to fulfilling one’s social desires. Objective The current study investigated whether students’ use of SMSs during class and study time was predicted by demographic characteristics and students’ FOMO. Method Participants ( N = 198) completed an online survey assessing their media use during class and study time, FOMO, and their perceived advantages/disadvantages of media use. Results In-class Twitter and Instagram use were predicted by students’ FOMO, whereas Snapchat and Facebook use were only predicted by age. Age also predicted Snapchat use during study time. Most participants indicated that media was a distraction, while also reporting a range of benefits from media multitasking. Conclusion Given that students recognize both benefits and drawbacks of media multitasking, they may trade-off between their desire to engage with learning materials and their desire to stay socially connected with others. Teaching Implications Educators can begin to address the socio-emotional needs of students through modifications made to course design and student-centered learning materials.
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FoMO (The fear of missing out) was noticed by marketers and started to be used on consumers. FoMO is an anxiety disorder that is defined as not being aware of exciting things when not being looked at, or missing out on the experiences of others. Although the FoMO effect has a negative meaning, businesses manage to use this concern to their advantage. Limited production, shortage of products in stock, short-term discounts, showing the number of people interested in the same product, promotions offered as opportunities not to be missed are among the efforts of businesses to persuade consumers through FoMO. It is seen that the literature on FoMO in the field of marketing is limited. This study aimed to examine the relationship between FoMO and consumption and to evaluate the relevant literature. For this purpose, the findings, results, and evaluations obtained by examining the experimental and conceptual studies in the relevant literature were synthesized.
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The mobile phone is a breakthrough advance for human communication. But with the plethora of choices available via smartphone, individuals who are deficient in self-regulation or with a propensity for addiction may face challenges in managing these choices strategically. To examine this potential dysfunctional aspect, we examined the effect of multitasking when studying or doing homework and found that both frequency and attention to texting and social media were positively related to mobile phone interference in life (MPIL). However, frequency of music use during study was not associated with MPIL, although allocated attention to music while studying was positively associated with MPIL. Ownership of a smartphone and the number of Facebook friends were positively associated with MPIL and women reported more MPIL than men.
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Background and aims: Likening mobile phone use dependency to the classification of excessive behaviors may be necessarily equivalent in seriousness to previously established addictions such as problematic computing or excessive gambling. The aim of the study explores into the behavior of excessive use of mobile phones as a pathological behavior. Methods: Two studies investigated criteria for problematic mobile phone usage by examining student (Study 1, N = 301) and nonstudent (Study 2, N = 362) responses to a set of adapted mobile phone addiction inventories. Study 1 investigated cell phone addiction inventories as constructs designed to measure problematic cell phone use. Additionally, Study 2 sought to predict age, depression, extraversion, emotional stability, impulse control, and self-esteem as independent variables that augment respondents' perceptions of problematic use. Results: The results from Study 1 and Study 2 indicate that 10 to 25% of the participants tested exhibited problematic cell phone usage. Additionally, age, depression, extraversion, and low impulse control are the most suitable predictors for problematic use. Conclusions: The results of the two studies indicate that problematic mobile phone use does occur and ought to be taken seriously by the psychological community. Presently, there is limited data providing conclusive evidence for a comprehensible categorization of cell phone addiction, as well as a unified explanatory model specific to problematic mobile phone use. Studies such as this one may contribute substantial findings, adding scientific significance, and offering a valuable submission for the ongoing progress of creating intervention frameworks relative to "virtual addictions".
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Here is the reference for this chapter. MacKinnon, D. P., Cheong, J., Pirlott, A. G. (2012) In Cooper, H., Camic, P. M., Long, D. L., Panter, A. T., Rindskopf, D., Sher, K. J. (Eds.) (2012). APA handbook of research methods in psychology, Vol 2: Research designs: Quantitative, qualitative, neuropsychological, and biological., (pp. 313-331). Washington, DC, US: American Psychological Association.
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