Niutitang Formation is one of the most potential strata for exploration in the upper Yangtze platform, therefore, we select Nangao section as an example in Danzhai county of Guizhou Province. Through various analytical methods such as field survey, thin section identification, geochemical analysis, X-ray diffraction mineral analysis, porosity measurement, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observation and isothermal adsorption methods, studies on Niutitang Formation shale gas characteristics including geology, geochemistry, reservoir and adsorbed gas content were performed. Furthermore, the correlation between organic matter and mineral association was discussed, as well as the controlling factors of gas adsorption. For the section in the lower part, it is composed by mudstone deposited in deep-water environment while in the upper part it is silty shale and/or calcareous siltstone deposited in shallow-water shelf environment. Characteristic trace element ratio shows that black shale was formed in the depositional environment of oxygen reduction with obvious characteristics of hot water sedimentation. The black shale is characterized by the occurrence of type-I kerogen. The TOC values range from 0.38% to 15.31%, with an average of 5.2%. RO values range from 1.60% to 4.15%, with an average of 2.8%. The mineral composition of black shale is predominantly clay minerals (e. g. illite and chlorite), quartz, feldspar, barite, and gypsum. Quartz content is relatively high with an average of 53%, and decreases upwards in the section. Quartz content is too high or too low, which are not conducive to the enrichment of organic matter, and only when the quartz content of between 36.4% and 71.9% it has positive correlation with TOC values. Clay content is relatively low and increases upwards with an average of 34%, but it is negatively correlated with TOC values, which is opposed to the quartz's. There are a few carbonate minerals near the top of the section. The porosity of black shale and siliceous rocks in the lower section ranges from 0.99% to 4.66% with an average of 2.39%, and the density ranges from 1.99 g/cm3 to 2.62 g/cm3 with an average of 2.47 g/cm3. Four types of pores are present in the shale, such as interparticle pores, intraparticle pores, fracture pores and organic-matter pores. The first two are more common in gas shale. The adsorption isotherm experiments suggest that adsorbed gas in black shale is from 1.71m3/t to 2.62m3/t with an average of 2.33m3/t, which indicate a strong adsorption capacity. The adsorption ability of Nangao shale and TOC shows positive correlation, however, shale and Tmax show negative correlation. TOC content is also positively correlated with nanopore distribution frequency. This study shows that, TOC content, quartz content, and nanopore distribution play leading roles in influencing the adsorption capacity of gas in the Nangao shale.