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Application of Eye Tracking to Support Children’s Vision Enhancing Exercises

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Abstract

The paper presents the results of an initial experiment aimed to check if it is possible to enhance a low vision stimulation intervention with interactive games. There were 35 children with normal vision and various vision deficits examined using three different interactive games. The interactivity was achieved with the usage of an eye tracker—a device that is able to register eye movements and recalculate it to a gaze point—a place on a screen where a child is looking at. The obtained results are encouraging as most of the children were able to fulfill all games’ achievements and expressed their engagement.

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... A subject's task was to enter a text by pointing subsequent letters by means of eyes. Kasprowski et al. (2016). Initial screens for four types of the game are visible differing with a difficulty level. ...
... Making the vision stimulation intervention more attractive and more effective was the motivating factor to undertake studies described in Kasprowski et al. (2016). The main idea presented there was to combine vision exercises with fun, by letting children play games. ...
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... Vision training by eye tracking (example)[18]. ...
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... The output of the Eye Tribe was a set of raw data, the sampling gaze points, which could be for further eye-movement analyses. Some studies had validated the accuracy of the output data (Ooms, Dupont, Lapon, & Popelka, 2015;Titz, Scholz, & Sedlmeier, 2017) and applied the Eye Tribe in game playing studies (Kasprowski, Dzierzega, Kruk, Harezlak, & Filipek, 2016). Regarding the eye-movement data analyses, this study used a program module developed by Hsu, Chiou, and Tsai (2016) to define areas of interest (AOI) before the simulation was launched and to analyze the output data immediately and automatically when the simulation was stopped. ...
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... Due to the variety of methods available (including the proposed method for implicit calibration), this issue was discussed in detail to aid those developing their own eye trackers or in need of more complex calibration scenarios than those provided by eye tracker vendors. Experiments involving children are a good example of such a necessity [34]. ...
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Full-text available
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Preprint
In the last decade, the development of technologies and tools for eye tracking has been a constantly growing area. Detecting the center of the pupil, using image processing techniques, has been an essential step in this process. A large number of techniques have been proposed for pupil center detection using both traditional image processing and machine learning-based methods. Despite the large number of methods proposed, no comparative work on their performance was found, using the same images and performance metrics. In this work, we aim at comparing four of the most frequently cited traditional methods for pupil center detection in terms of accuracy, robustness, and computational cost. These methods are based on the circular Hough transform, ellipse fitting, Daugman's integro-differential operator and radial symmetry transform. The comparative analysis was performed with 800 infrared images from the CASIA-IrisV3 and CASIA-IrisV4 databases containing various types of disturbances. The best performance was obtained by the method based on the radial symmetry transform with an accuracy and average robustness higher than 94%. The shortest processing time, obtained with the ellipse fitting method, was 0.06 s.
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Aim: Amblyopia is a common reason for outpatient treatment in childhood. This review aims to providean overview of recent research on amblyopia treatment. Methods: A literature-based review was carried out of evidence available on amblyopia management with additional personal comments on some issues. Results: Recent research evidence has shown that: refractive adaptation is a significant component of the therapeutic response, compliance with patching is problematic, most of the response to patching occurs within 6–8 weeks, and recurrence after cessation of treatment is less frequent if patching is weaned. However, this evidence from clinical trials has yet to be fully incorporated into practice: we are overtreating children. Conclusions: Utilising information gleaned from recent research will enable clinicians to reduce the amount of patching which children being treated for amblyopia receive, with benefits to compliance with treatment and use of health service resources.
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Full-text available
Holmqvist, K., Nyström, N., Andersson, R., Dewhurst, R., Jarodzka, H., & Van de Weijer, J. (Eds.) (2011). Eye tracking: a comprehensive guide to methods and measures, Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
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